WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymmetry

  1. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  2. Perspectives on Periocular Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Tower, Robert N.; Soparkar, Charles N.S.; Patrinely, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Eyelid, orbit, and eye position asymmetry may adversely affect overall facial aesthetics. Armed with the knowledge of important periocular measures and landmarks, asymmetries can be easily identified and consideration may be given to correction or camouflage.

  3. Assessment of Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Christozov, D.; Mateev, P.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P20, 91B42 In the process of trading, the seller and buyer participate with different initial knowledge about the technical capabilities and about the expected use of the good. This two-side asymmetry affects the success of the negotiation in e -trading. This paper discusses one practical approach to assess information asymmetry and the role of warranty in seller-buyer communication relationship. The presented approach is illustrated with a survey...

  4. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  5. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  6. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  7. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  8. White matter microstructure asymmetry: effects of volume asymmetry on fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, H; Hayashi, N; Ohtomo, K

    2013-02-12

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides information regarding white matter microstructure; however, macroscopic fiber architectures can affect DTI measures. A larger brain (fiber tract) has a 'relatively' smaller voxel size, and the voxels are less likely to contain more than one fiber orientation and more likely to have higher fractional anisotropy (FA). Previous DTI studies report left-to-right differences in the white matter; however, these may reflect true microscopic differences or be caused purely by volume differences. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated left-to-right differences in white matter microstructure across the whole brain. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a large number of white matter volume asymmetries, including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus and cingulum. In many white matter regions, FA asymmetry was positively correlated with volume asymmetry. Voxel-wise analysis with adjustment for volume asymmetry revealed many white matter FA asymmetries, including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus and cingulum. The voxel-wise analysis showed a reduced number of regions with significant FA asymmetry compared with analysis performed without adjustment for volume asymmetry; however, the overall trend of the results was unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that these FA asymmetries are not caused by volume differences and reflect microscopic differences in the white matter.

  9. LHCb Semileptonic Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, M

    2013-01-01

    A recent LHCb measurement of the CP violating flavour specific asymmetry in $B_s^0$ decays, $a^s_{ls}$, is presented. This measurement is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ $=$ 7 TeV, collected during the 2011 run of the LHC. The result is $a^s_{ls} = (-0.24 \\pm 0.54_{\\rm stat} \\pm 0.33_{\\rm syst})\\times 10^{-2}$, which is the most precise measurement of this quantity to date and agrees with the Standard Model prediction.

  10. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  11. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  12. Lip asymmetry and smile aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwa, Waeil; McDonald, Fraser; Cash, Alex

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To determine if lip asymmetry can affect lip aesthetics. Setting and Participants : A group of dentists (n = 40) and cleft patients (n = 40) were recruited from the dental hospital and cleft service. Interventions : Still photographic digital images of lips and teeth were manipulated to produce a computerized gradient of smile appearance with different degrees of upper-lip vertical asymmetry. These five photographs (with 0 mm representing "symmetry," and 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 mm, asymmetries) were assessed by participants using a 5-point Likert scale. Statistics : Descriptive statistics in addition to chi-square test were used to analyze the data. In order to satisfy the requirement of the chi-square test, the five smile ratings were reduced to three. Results : Lip asymmetry did affect relative smile aesthetics, as determined by dentists and cleft patients. Both the dentists and cleft patients rated the 0-mm photograph more attractive than the 2.5-mm and 3-mm smiles (P aesthetics. However, cleft patients and dentists were tolerant of minor asymmetries. This suggests that small degrees of lip asymmetry do not affect relative smile aesthetics as much as large degrees of lip asymmetry (2.5 mm or more).

  13. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  14. Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.

  15. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level.

  16. Looking for charming asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    New results presented by the LHCb collaboration on the decay of particles containing a “charm” quark delve deeper into the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry.   A view of the LHCb experimental cavern. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN’s LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. At the VIII International Workshop on Charm Physics, which took place in Bologna earlier this month, the LHCb Collaboration presented the most precise measurement to date of a phenomenon called Charge-Parity (CP) violation among particles that contain a charm quark. CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the “C” part) and if its spatia...

  17. Asymmetries during molluscan embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, J A

    1991-01-01

    In some molluscan species the unfertilized egg is symmetrical around its centre. The maturation divisions provide the egg with an axial symmetry with an animal-vegetal asymmetry. During the first two cleavages the egg loses its axial symmetry by the formation of unequal quadrants. The size differences may be very pronounced in species where the first two cleavages are accompanied by the formation of a polar lobe or where the first two cleavages are very unequal. There are some molluscan species in which at first glance the four quadrants appear equal. Exact measurements of the relative volumes have shown that the spiral character of the cleavages gives rise to minor differences between the quadrants. During further division this difference is limited to the vegetal macromeres; other corresponding blastomeres in the four quadrants are mutually equal. Therefore the absolute difference between the macromeres increases after each division. The size difference between the macromeres predisposes the biggest macromere to attain a central position and to become induced to develop the stem cell of the mesoderm. The bilateral symmetry is later lost by the counterclockwise rotation through 180 degrees of the visceral mass in relation to the head and foot. PMID:1802639

  18. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128

  19. Lepton asymmetries from neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Volkas, R R

    2000-01-01

    Reasonably large relic neutrino asymmetries can be generated by active-sterile neutrino oscillations. After briefly discussing possible applications, I describe the Quantum Kinetic Equation formalism used to compute the asymmetry growth curves. I then show how the basic features of these curves can be understood on the basis of the adiabatic limit approximation in the collision dominated epoch, and the pure MSW effect at lower temperatures.

  20. Fluctuating asymmetry and psychometric intelligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Furlow, F B; Armijo-Prewitt, T; Gangestad, S W; Thornhill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic nature of human psychometric intelligence (IQ), but it is widely assumed that IQ's heritability is at loci for intelligence per se. We present evidence consistent with a hypothesis that interindividual IQ differences are partly due to heritable vulnerabilities to environmental sources of developmental stress, an indirect genetic mechanism for the heritability of IQ. Using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the body (the asymmetry resulting from errors in the devel...

  1. Information asymmetries and securitization design

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Herrmann, Markus; Weber, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The strong growth in collateralized debt obligation transactions raises the question how these transactions are designed. The originator designs the transaction so as to maximize her benefit subject to requirements imposed by investors and rating agencies. An important issue in these transactions is the information asymmetry between the originator and the investors. First Loss Positions are the most important instrument to mitigate conflicts due to information asymmetry. We analyse the optima...

  2. CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment wit...

  3. Measuring the Proton Detection Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Abeele, Jeriek

    2015-01-01

    Violation of charge-parity (CP) symmetry gives rise to a fundamental matter-antimatter asymmetry. However, this underlying distinction appears obscured in experiments, in part due to differences in the hadronisation process of quarks and antiquarks from proton-proton collisions leading to a production asymmetry, and due to the detection asymmetry resulting from differences in the nuclear interactions with detector material. Quantifying these effects is necessary to disentangle them from the fundamental CP asymmetry, and accordingly correct the measured raw asymmetry. Another strategy involves cancelling out the detection and production effects by taking the difference of the raw asymmetries of two decay modes [3, 6].

  4. Autophoretic locomotion from geometric asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among the few methods which have been proposed to create small-scale swimmers, those relying on self-phoretic mechanisms present an interesting design challenge in that chemical gradients are required to generate net propulsion. Building on recent work, we propose that asymmetries in geometry are sufficient to induce chemical gradients and swimming. We illustrate this idea using two different calculations. We first calculate exactly the self-propulsion speed of a system composed of two spheres of unequal sizes but identically chemically homogeneous. We then consider arbitrary, small-amplitude, shape deformations of a chemically-homogeneous sphere, and calculate asymptotically the self-propulsion velocity induced by the shape asymmetries. Our results demonstrate how geometric asymmetries can be tuned to induce large locomotion speeds without the need of chemical patterning.

  5. Sivers Asymmetry with QCD Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the Sivers asymmetry in both Drell-Yan (DY) production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), while considering properly defined transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution. After finding a universal non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor that can describe reasonably well the world's data of SIDIS, DY lepton pair and $W/Z$ production in unpolarized scatterings, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. Then we make predictions for the asymmetry in DY lepton pair and $W$ boson production, which could be compared to the future experimental data in order to test the sign change of the Sivers function.

  6. Sivers Asymmetry with QCD Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the Sivers asymmetry in both Drell-Yan (DY) production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), while considering properly defined transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution. After finding a universal non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor that can describe reasonably well the world's data of SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production in unpolarized scatterings, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. Then we make predictions for the asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W boson production, which could be compared to the future experimental data in order to test the sign change of the Sivers function.

  7. Magnetic asymmetries of unmagnetized planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter discusses the results produced by 3-D hybrid particle code simulations of the solar wind interaction with unmagnetized planets such as Venus and Mars. The solar wind velocity is perpendicular to the IMF in the cases studied. It is found that there are asymmetries in both the magnetic structure and shock location for spherical obstacles ranging in radius from 1,000 km to 6,000 km. The asymmetries found are due to differences in the electron and ion currents paths (diamagnetic behavior). Mass loading of 0+ was not included in these simulations

  8. Lepton asymmetry and the cosmic QCD transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the influence of lepton asymmetries on the evolution of the early Universe. The lepton asymmetry l is poorly constrained by observations and might be orders of magnitudes larger than the observed baryon asymmetry b ≅ 10−10, |l|/b ≤ 2 × 108. We find that lepton asymmetries that are large compared to the tiny baryon asymmetry, can influence the dynamics of the QCD phase transition significantly. The cosmic trajectory in the μB−T phase diagram of strongly interacting matter becomes a function of lepton (flavour) asymmetry. For tiny or vanishing baryon and lepton asymmetries lattice QCD simulations show that the cosmic QCD transition is a rapid crossover. However, for large lepton asymmetry, the order of the cosmic transition remains unknown

  9. Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal

    2015-01-01

    Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodonticall...

  10. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment. PMID:26502455

  11. Lambda production and its asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross section and asymmetry for Λ0, Λ-bar0 production have been measured in e+e- annihilation at 58 GeV in the scaled momentum Xp range from 0.0 to 0.25. Using 241 pb-1 of data collected after VENUS detector upgrade in 1991. (author)

  12. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment.

  13. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...

  14. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon;

    2004-01-01

    All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure...

  15. Diffractive Contribution to A(perpendicular) Asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider double spin asymmetries for longitudinally polarized leptons and transversely polarized protons in diffractive Q (dash)Q production which is connected with A(perpendicular) asymmetry. The predicted asymmetry is large and can be used to obtain the information on the polarized skewed gluon distributions in the proton. (author)

  16. The asymmetry of rainfall process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU RuCong; YUAN WeiHua; LI Jian

    2013-01-01

    Using hourly station rain gauge data in the warm season (May-October) during 1961-2006,the climatological features of the evolution of the rainfall process are analyzed by compositing rainfall events centered on the maximum hourly rainfall amount of each event.The results reveal that the rainfall process is asymmetric,which means rainfall events usually reach the maximum in a short period and then experience a relatively longer retreat to the end of the event.The effects of rainfall intensity,duration and peak time,as well as topography,are also considered.It is found that the asymmetry is more obvious in rainfall events with strong intensity and over areas with complex terrain,such as the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau,the Hengduan Mountains,and the Yungui Plateau.The asymmetry in short-duration rainfall is more obvious than that in long-duration rainfall,but the regional differences are weaker.The rainfall events that reach the maximum during 14:00-02:00 LST exhibit the strongest asymmetry and those during 08:00-14:00 LST show the weakest asymmetry.The rainfall intensity at the peak time stands out,which means that the rainfall intensity increases and decreases quickly both before and after the peak.These results can improve understanding of the rainfall process and provide metrics for the evaluation of climate models.Moreover,the strong asymmetry of the rainfall process should be highly noted when taking measures to defending against geological hazards,such as collapses,landslides and debris flows throughout southwestern China.

  17. Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...

  18. Knowledge asymmetries about product "goodness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Asymmetries in knowledge about product "goodness" make it difficult for ethically inspired consumers to make informed decisions about the products they purchase.  These knowledge asymmetries emerge from differing perspectives on guidelines for consumer safety set by government bodies, CSR initiatives......Product "goodness" is an emerging issue for consumers, as the effects of purchasing decisions are shifting to a more global perspective in the media.  In the 1980s, concern about the conditions of people producing goods was a question brought up by activists-and when mainstream media joined...... in Europe and the U.S.  This consumer consciousness has been growing in tandem with corporate awareness and focus on Corporate Social Responsibility-calling for a general trend of examining the global context of products.  From this trend, process focused product labels have not only emerged, but have...

  19. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  20. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (u anti-u, d anti-d and s anti-s) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of q anti-q pairs leads automatically to an excess of anti-d over anti-u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data.

  1. Breast motion asymmetry during running

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Risius, Debbie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast asymmetry is common in females, despite a similar driving force; dynamic activity may result in asymmetrical breast motion. This preliminary study investigated how breast categorisation (left/right or dominant/non-dominant) may affect breast support recommendations and its relationship with breast pain. Ten females ran on a treadmill at 10 kph in three breast supports (no bra, everyday bra, sports bra). Five reflective markers on the thorax and nipples were tracked using infrared camer...

  2. Corporate governance and information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Salehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of some corporate governance mechanisms on information asymmetry. From among different mechanisms of corporate governance, the number of board members who were not responsible, ownership concentration and the percentage of institutional ownership are considered. Time scale of the study includes the years from 2005 to 2011. Sampling was performed among all the companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange using systematic removal method. This sample includes 504 companies-years. This is a post-event study. Experimentally, this study lies in accounting proving research areas and it is based on financial statements of the firms, and regarding purpose is application. Descriptive method has been used in this study. The findings show that there was a positive and significant relationship between the number of board members who are not responsible and the percentage of institutional ownership from the one side, and information asymmetry from the other. In addition, the findings show a negative significant relationship between ownership concentration and information asymmetry.

  3. Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

  4. Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal

    2015-07-01

    Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodontically, whereas significant structural facial asymmetries require a comprehensive orthodontic and orthognathic management. With less severe dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations the advisability of treatment should be carefully considered. The following article also contains a case report highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis in treatment plan for management of dentofacial asymmetry. PMID:26229387

  5. Measuring Asymmetry in Time-Stamped Phylogenies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dearlove, Bethany L.; Simon D W Frost

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that asymmetry in viral phylogenies may be indicative of heterogeneity in transmission, for example due to acute HIV infection or the presence of ‘core groups’ with higher contact rates. Hence, evidence of asymmetry may provide clues to underlying population structure, even when direct information on, for example, stage of infection or contact rates, are missing. However, current tests of phylogenetic asymmetry (a) suffer from false positives when the tips of the phylo...

  6. Quantum speed limits, coherence and asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturall...

  7. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...

  8. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Da Rold, Leandro; Delaunay, Cédric; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations ar...

  9. Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.

  10. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    planes of space. A systematic approach to the identification of the cause of the asymmetry head precede the decision whether to correct or to camouflage. The definition of a specific treatment goal should be done only following an analysis of the likelihood that the force system necessary to perform...... the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage....

  11. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  12. Lean mass asymmetry influences force and power asymmetry during jumping in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Binkley, Neil; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to (a) examine how asymmetry in lower extremity lean mass influenced force and power asymmetry during jumping, (b) determine how power and force asymmetry affected jump height, and (c) report normative values in collegiate athletes. Force and power were assessed from each limb using bilateral force plates during a countermovement jump in 167 division 1 athletes (mass = 85.7 ± 20.3 kg, age = 20.0 ± 1.2 years; 103 men and 64 women). Lean mass of the pelvis, thigh, and shank was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Percent asymmetry was calculated for lean mass at each region (pelvis, thigh, and shank) as well as force and power. Forward stepwise regressions were performed to determine the influence of lean mass asymmetry on force and power asymmetry. Thigh and shank lean mass asymmetry explained 20% of the variance in force asymmetry (R = 0.20, p lean mass asymmetry of the pelvis, thigh, and shank explained 25% of the variance in power asymmetry (R = 0.25, p 0.05) and greater than 10% asymmetry in power tended to decrease the performance (effect size >1.0). Ninety-five percent of this population (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) displayed force asymmetry between -11.8 and 16.8% and a power asymmetry between -9.9 and 11.5%. A small percentage (lean mass asymmetry in the lower extremity is at least partially responsible for asymmetries in force and power. However, a large percentage remains unexplained by lean mass asymmetry.

  13. Evaluating asymmetry in prosthetic gait with step-length asymmetry alone is flawed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Roeles, S.; der Pas, van S.C.H.; Bosboom, O.; Beek, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic gait is often asymmetric in step length, but the direction of this asymmetry varies inconsistently across amputees. This situation is akin to that seen in stroke patients, where step-length asymmetry has been shown to be the additive result of asymmetries in trunk progression and asymmetr

  14. Whistled Turkish alters language asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Onur; Güntürkün, Monika; Hahn, Constanze

    2015-08-17

    Whistled languages represent an experiment of nature to test the widely accepted view that language comprehension is to some extent governed by the left hemisphere in a rather input-invariant manner. Indeed, left-hemisphere superiority has been reported for atonal and tonal languages, click consonants, writing and sign languages. The right hemisphere is specialized to encode acoustic properties like spectral cues, pitch, and melodic lines and plays a role for prosodic communicative cues. Would left hemisphere language superiority change when subjects had to encode a language that is constituted by acoustic properties for which the right hemisphere is specialized? Whistled Turkish uses the full lexical and syntactic information of vocal Turkish, and transforms this into whistles to transport complex conversations with constrained whistled articulations over long distances. We tested the comprehension of vocally vs. whistled identical lexical information in native whistle-speaking people of mountainous Northeast Turkey. We discovered that whistled language comprehension relies on symmetric hemispheric contributions, associated with a decrease of left and a relative increase of right hemispheric encoding mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that a language that places high demands on right-hemisphere typical acoustical encoding creates a radical change in language asymmetries. Thus, language asymmetry patterns are in an important way shaped by the physical properties of the lexical input. PMID:26294179

  15. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries for b...

  16. Target asymmetry in inclusive photoproduction of pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the target asymmetry in inclusive pion photoproduction in the photon fragmentation region using a helicity dependent Mueller-Regge model, in which the Regge cut contributions are also included. We obtained predictions for the t-dependence and the magnitude of the target asymmetry. (orig.)

  17. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  18. Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2009-01-01

    The holographic principle indicates the finite number of bits of information available on the particle horizon describes all physics within the horizon. Linking information on the horizon with Standard Model particles requires a holographic model describing constituents (preons) of Standard Model particles in terms of bits of information on the horizon. Standard Model particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge e, so bits in a preon model must be identified with fractional charge. Energy must be transferred to change the state of a bit, and labeling the low energy state of a bit e/3n and the high energy state -e/3n amounts to defining electric charge. Any such charged preon model will produce more protons than anti-protons at the time of baryogenesis and require baryon asymmetry. It will also produce more positrons than electrons, as suggested by astrophysical measurements.

  19. Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dufour, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.

  20. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  1. Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.

  2. Management of Asymmetry After Breast Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Onelio

    2016-04-01

    Breast reduction surgery has achieved one of the highest patient satisfaction rates among plastic surgery procedures. Most of the complications encountered are usually minor and related to wound healing. Revision surgery to address these problems is common and usually consists of scar revisions. Postoperative breast asymmetry of a mild degree is also common; however, postoperative asymmetry severe enough to warrant surgical revision is a rare event, occurring in less than 1% of cases. Postmammaplasty revision surgery needs to be individualized. The asymmetry could be the result of nipple malposition or it could consist of a volume or shape discrepancy between the breast mounds.

  3. SUSY CP phases and asymmetries at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, physical phases of complex parameters lead to CP violation. We show how triple products of particle momenta or spins can be used to construct asymmetries, that allow us to probe these CP phases. To give specific examples, we discuss the production of neutralinos at the International Linear Collider. For the Large Hadron Collider, we discuss CP asymmetries in squark decays, and in the tri-lepton signal. We find that the CP asymmetries can be as large as 60%.

  4. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  5. Amplification and Asymmetry in Crashes and Frenzies

    OpenAIRE

    Han N. Ozsoylev

    2005-01-01

    We often observe disproportionate reactions to tangible information in large stock price movements. Moreover these movements feature an asymmetry: the number of crashes is more than that of frenzies in the S&P 500 index. This paper offers an explanation for these two characteristics of large movements in which hedging (portfolio insurance) causes amplified price reactions to news and liquidity shocks as well as an asymmetry biased towards crashes. Risk aversion of traders is shown to be essen...

  6. Selective Hedging, Information Asymmetry, and Futures Prices

    OpenAIRE

    April Knill; Kristina Minnick; Ali Nejadmalayeri

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from hedging practices suggests that firms will hedge only if they expect that unfavorable events will arise. In markets with a significant degree of information asymmetry in which hedgers are oligopolists with superior knowledge concerning supply and demand, such as oil and gas futures, we contend that these companies will selectively hedge price movements, causing sharp price adjustments upon resolution of information asymmetry. Using aggregate analysts' surprise as a proxy for the...

  7. Do Board Characteristics Affect Information Asymmetry?

    OpenAIRE

    Sougné, Danielle; Laouti, Mhamed; Ajina, Aymen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry involved 160 companies over the years 2008-2010. Mechanisms of corporate governance include the characteristics of the board of directors. Our results seem to indicate a significant relationship between certain mechani...

  8. Transverse Single Spin Asymmetries and Charmonium Production

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Mukherjee, Asmita; Rawoot, Vaibhav S

    2013-01-01

    We estimate transverse spin single spin asymmetry(TSSA) in the process $e+p^\\uparrow \\to J/\\psi +X$ using color evaporation model of charmonium production. We take into account transverse momentum dependent(TMD) evolution of Sivers function and parton distribution function and show that the there is a reduction in the asymmetry as compared to our earlier estimates wherein the $Q^2$ - evolution was implemented only through DGLAP evolution of unpolarized gluon densities.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetries in thermospheric structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rees,David/Fuller-Rowell,Timothy J.

    1987-01-01

    Hemispheric differences in the structure and dynamics of the polar regions of the thermosphere and ionosphere are caused by seasonal/latitudinal asymmetries of solar insolation acting in addition to the effects of the distinctive asymmetries of the main geomagnetic field. Viewing the earth from a satellite, the longitudinal and universal time variations of the thermosphere and ionosphere are far more spectacular in the southern polar thermosphere and ionosphere than in the northern polar regi...

  10. Particle dynamics in asymmetry-induced transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particle dynamics of asymmetry-induced transport are studied using a single-particle computer simulation. For the case of a helical asymmetry with axial and azimuthal wavenumbers (k,l) and with periodic boundary conditions, behaviors consistent with analytical theory are observed. For the typical experimental case of a standing wave asymmetry, the code reveals dynamical behaviors not included in the analytical theory of this transport. The resonances associated with the two constituent helical waves typically overlap and produce a region of stochastic motion. In addition, particles near the radius where the asymmetry frequency ω matches l times the ExB rotation frequency ωR can be trapped in the potential of the applied asymmetry and confined to one end of the device. Both behaviors are associated with large radial excursions and mainly affect particles with low velocities, i.e., vzT/k, where ωT is the trapping frequency. For the case of a helical asymmetry with specularly reflecting boundaries, large radial excursions are observed for all velocities near the radius, where ω=lωR. Minor modifications to these results are observed when the code is run with realistic end potentials

  11. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rold, Leandro; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations are not elementary fields but rather composite objects. We show that this class of models is consistent with current data on flavor and CP violating physics, electroweak precision observables, dijet and top pair resonance searches at hadron colliders. These models have several predictions which will be tested in forthcoming experiments. The CP asymmetry in D decays is induced through an effective operator of the form (\\bar u c)_{V+A}(\\bar s s)_{V+A} at the charm scale, which implies a larger CP asymmetry in the D^0\\to K^+K^...

  12. Measurement of Z0 lepton coupling asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarized Z0's from e+e- collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters Ae, Aμ and Aτ from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of Aμ. The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give Aμ = 0.102 ±0.034 and the tau-pairs give Aτ = 0.195 ±0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e+e- final state measure Ae to be Ae = 0.152±0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter Ae-μ-τ = 0.151±0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin2θWeff=0.2310±0.0014 at the Z0 pole

  13. Frontal EEG asymmetry and regulation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Jeong; Bell, Martha Ann

    2006-12-01

    Previous research suggests an association between frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetries and both positive and negative emotion reactivity. Specifically, right frontal EEG activation is associated with emotions of negative valence in both infants and adults, whereas left frontal EEG activation is associated with emotions of more positive valence. Relatively few studies have examined such associations in children. Moreover, research on mechanisms through which emotion reactivity is related to frontal EEG asymmetries is sparse. As one possible mechanism, we hypothesize that regulatory skills and behaviors developing rapidly during childhood play a critical role in linking frontal EEG asymmetries to emotion reactivity in children. To test the research hypothesis, 25 children were followed from early-to-middle childhood at two different points in time with a 4-year interview interval. Results show that individual variations in a number of regulatory behaviors among children are significantly associated with frontal EEG asymmetries. Our results provide support for the possibility of frontal EEG asymmetry informing the study of the development of regulation in children. The discussion of the findings is centered on potential risk for and resilience to children's emotional reactivity and regulation. PMID:17347367

  14. Oil demand asymmetry in the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil demand asymmetry exists, is significant, and can be captured with a simple demand equation using a Pmax term. The unstable parameters of the original symmetric equations suggest misspecification. Addition of a Pmax term to represent asymmetry yields stable parameters from 1982 through 1989 and so suggests proper specification. Asymmetry is significant because the short-run (and long-run) price elasticity is less than half as large when oil price falls as when price rises beyond the past peak. The lower elasticity applies both to price decreases and also to price increases for which price remains below the past peak. As long as the real oil price remains well below the 1981 peak, asymmetry implies that OECD oil demand should be less sensitive to oil price variations than in 1981. More specifically, the results shown suggest that today's oil demand elasticity should be less than half as large as the elasticity for a price increase in 1981. Forecasts from the asymmetric equations are significantly higher than the DOE base-case forecast. DOE's lower forecast is due to greater price asymmetry through 1995 and to higher long-run price elasticity beyond 1995. One reason for the higher long-run price elasticity might be greater assumed improvements in energy-efficiency than implied by the historical data

  15. Amplitude scaling of asymmetry-induced transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our initial experiments on asymmetry-induced transport in non-neutral plasmas found the radial particle flux at small radii to be proportional to φa2, where φa is the applied asymmetry amplitude. Other researchers, however, using the global expansion rate as a measure of the transport, have observed a φa1 scaling when the rigidity (the ratio of the axial bounce frequency to the azimuthal rotation frequency) is in the range one to ten. In an effort to resolve this discrepancy, we have extended our measurements to different radii and asymmetry frequencies. Although the results to date are generally in agreement with those previously reported (φa2 scaling at low asymmetry amplitudes falling off to a weaker scaling at higher amplitudes), we have observed some cases where the low amplitude scaling is closer to φa1. Both the φa2 and φa1 cases, however, have rigidities less than ten. Instead, we find that the φa1 cases are characterized by an induced flux that is comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to the background flux. This suggests that the mixing of applied and background asymmetries plays an important role in determining the amplitude scaling of this transport

  16. Asymmetry of Information within Family Networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerdt, Joachim; Genicot, Garance; Mesnard, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies asymmetry of information and transfers within a unique data set of 712 extended family networks from Tanzania. Using cross-reports on asset holdings, we construct measures of misperception of income among all pairs of households belonging to the same network. We show that there is significant asymmetry of information and no evidence of major systematic over-evaluation or under-evaluation of income in our data, although there is a slight over-evaluation on the part of migran...

  17. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. Here we instead examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2 2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1 2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  18. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2σ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W' boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.

  19. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung Kingman [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Keung, W.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Yuan, T.-C., E-mail: tcyuan@phys.sinica.edu.t [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-07

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2sigma deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W{sup '} boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.

  20. Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2009-01-01

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than $2\\sigma$ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a $W'$ boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented erstwhile in the literature that can produce such effects are also discussed.

  1. Decay Rate Asymmetry of Top Squark

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, M; Aoki, Mayumi; Oshimo, Noriyuki

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a decay rate asymmetry of the top squark, which is induced by a new source of CP violation intrinsic in the supersymmetric standard model. Although new sources of CP violation in this model are severely constrained from the electric dipole moment of the neutron, an unsuppressed CP-violating phase can still coexist with a top squark whose mass is accessible by near-future colliders. Then the dominant decay mode of the top squark has a width different from its CP conjugate process. The magnitude of this $CP$ asymmetry becomes of order $10^{-3}$.

  2. Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte

    and asymmetries. Workplaces are settings where different kinds of (a)symmetries are constructed through interaction ((Svennevig, 2012b, Asmuß, 2008). In comparison to interactions between professionals and laypeople, identities in workplace interactions where colleagues interact with each other may be more...... participants have access to a variety of artefactual resources (such as paper documents, power point presentations, computers, professional tools but also less directly work related resources like water, coffee cups, cakes and so on) and where embodied orientation (e.g. pointing, bodily orientation, nodding...

  3. Dynamics, Thermodynamics, and Time-Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnino, Mario A.; Gunzig, Edgerd

    2000-01-01

    064There are two schools, or lines of thought, that try to unify the apparently divergent laws of dynamics and thermodynamics and to explain the observed time-asymmetry of the universe, and most of its sub-systems, in spite of the fact that these systems are driven by time-symmetric evolution equations. They will be called the coarse-graining and the fine-graining schools (even if these names describe only a part of their philosophy). Coarse-graining school obtains time-asymmetry via a projec...

  4. Top Quark Asymmetry Results at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, an integrated luminosity of more than 5 fb−1 at 7 TeV has been delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurements of the top-antitop quark charge asymmetry in top quark pair production have been performed at the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The measured charge asymmetry values from both experiments are within the uncertainties in agreement with the SM theory predictions. An overview of the latest results of these measurements by the time of TOP2012 conference will be presented

  5. Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered as a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming, and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific rele...

  6. When Does Information Asymmetry Affect the Cost of Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Christopher S.; Core, John E.; Taylor, Daniel J.; Robert E Verrecchia

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines when information asymmetry among investors affects the cost of capital in excess of standard risk factors. When equity markets are perfectly competitive, information asymmetry has no separate effect on the cost of capital. When markets are imperfect, information asymmetry can have a separate effect on firms’ cost of capital. Consistent with our prediction, we find that information asymmetry has a positive relation with firms’ cost of capital in excess of standard risk fact...

  7. Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Hering-Hanit, R; Achiron, R.; Lipitz, S; Achiron, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Slight morphological asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres has been observed in fetal and newborn brains. In adults, sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry have also been reported.
OBJECTIVE—To establish whether cerebral hemisphere asymmetry correlates with sex in fetuses.
METHODS—Left-right cerebral hemisphere asymmetry, and the correlation with sex, were studied in 51 male and 51 female fetuses of 20-22 weeks gestation, using diagnostic ultrasound scanning....

  8. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.

  9. Analytical formulation of lunar cratering asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the lunar cratering distribution and verify the cratering asymmetries generated by the main-belt asteroids (MBAs) as well as the near-Earth objects (NEOs). Based on a planar model that excludes the terrestrial and lunar gravitations on the impactors and assuming the impactor encounter speed with Earth $v_{\\rm{enc}}$ is higher than the lunar orbital speed $v_{\\rm{M}}$, we rigorously integrated the lunar cratering distribution, and derived its approximation to the first order of $v_{\\rm{M}}/v_{\\rm{enc}}$. Numerical simulations of lunar bombardment by the MBAs during the late heavy bombardment were performed with an Earth-Moon distance $a_{\\rm{M}}$ = 20--60 Earth radii in five cases. The analytical model directly proves the existence of a leading/trailing asymmetry and the absence of near/far asymmetry. The approximate form of the leading/trailing asymmetry is $(1 + A_1 \\cos\\beta)$, which decreases as the apex distance $\\beta$ increases. The numerical simulations show evidence of a pole/equator asym...

  10. The devil is in Asymmetries (Rough Version)

    CERN Document Server

    Gnang, Edinah K

    2012-01-01

    We formally investigate some computational obstacles to tractability of computing the variety determined by K complex polynomials in N boolean variables. We show that using algebraic methods for solving combinatorial problems, the obstacles to tractability lies in the order of magnitude of asymmetries admitted by the given system of equations.

  11. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  12. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  13. Asymmetry in price transmission in agricultural markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the asymmetries in price transmission from international to local markets. We expect the presence of large intermediaries in agricultural markets to lead to a stronger price transmission when international prices decline than when they rise. The empirical evidence confirms the presence of asymmetric price transmission consistent with the presence of large intermediaries with monopsony power.

  14. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL...

  15. Asymmetry parameter of peaked Fano line shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierott, S.; Hotz, T.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.

    2016-10-01

    The spectroscopic line shape of electronic and vibrational excitations is ubiquitously described by a Fano profile. In the case of nearly symmetric and peaked Fano line shapes, the fit of the conventional Fano function to experimental data leads to difficulties in unambiguously extracting the asymmetry parameter, which may vary over orders of magnitude without degrading the quality of the fit. Moreover, the extracted asymmetry parameter depends on initially guessed values. Using the spectroscopic signature of the single-Co Kondo effect on Au(110) the ambiguity of the extracted asymmetry parameter is traced to the highly symmetric resonance profile combined with the inevitable scattering of experimental data. An improved parameterization of the conventional Fano function is suggested that enables the nonlinear optimization in a reduced parameter space. In addition, the presence of a global minimum in the sum of squared residuals and thus the independence of start parameters may conveniently be identified in a two-dimensional plot. An angular representation of the asymmetry parameter is suggested in order to reliably determine uncertainty margins via linear error propagation.

  16. TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic

  17. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  18. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N G Deshpande

    2003-02-01

    We briefly discuss measurements of angles and of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using (3) relationships in the standard model (SM). Some methods to measure angle using (3) are then discussed. We note that rate for → can be used to set limits on extra dimensions in which standard model particles propagate.

  19. Asymmetry of parametric X rays from polarized electrons (quantum approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry ratio of parametric X rays from polarized electrons is considered using the quantum approach. The asymmetry ratio was investigated for photons emitted both along Bragg direction and for angles around γ-1 relative to the Bragg direction. Calculation of asymmetry for longitudinal and transverse electron polarization has been carried out

  20. Mandibular asymmetry in patients with the crouzon or apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, P; Reitsma, J H; Buschang, P H; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe directional and fluctuating mandibular asymmetry over time in children with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. Mandibular asymmetry of children between 7.5 and 14 years of age with Crouzon syndrome (n = 35) and Apert syndrome (n = 24) were compared with controls (n = 327). From panoramic radiographs, mandibular directional and fluctuating asymmetry was determined for the three groups. Multilevel statistical techniques were used to describe mandibular asymmetry changes over time. Patients with Crouzon and Apert syndromes showed statistically significant more fluctuating asymmetry for mandibular measures than did controls. Between the Crouzon and Apert syndromes groups, no statistical differences were found in directional and fluctuating asymmetry. The control group showed statistically significantly more directional asymmetry than did patients with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. The controls showed no change over time for the directional asymmetry of condylar-ramal height; however, the directional asymmetry of the gonial angle increased. Patients with Crouzon syndrome showed side dominance for only condylar-ramal height; whereas, patients with Apert syndrome did not show dominance for any of the measurements. Apert and Crouzon syndromes showed developmental instability, in contrast to the controls. No statistically significant longitudinal differences were found for either the directional or the fluctuating asymmetry between Crouzon and Apert syndromes. Findings for fluctuating and directional asymmetry for both syndromes may indicate an inability to cope with genetic and environmental stress during development and treatment, compared with untreated nonsyndromic individuals. PMID:24878346

  1. Observing the Top Energy Asymmetry at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The top-antitop energy asymmetry is a promising observable of the charge asymmetry in jet-associated top-quark pair production at the LHC. We present new predictions of the energy asymmetry in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV, including QCD corrections at the next-to-leading perturbative order and from the parton shower. The effect of QCD corrections on the observable is moderate. Scale uncertainties and parton-shower effects partially cancel in the normalized asymmetry. With suitable phase-space cuts, the asymmetry can be enhanced at the cost of reducing the cross section. For instance, for a cross section of $1\\,\\text{pb}$ after cuts, we predict an energy asymmetry of $-6.5^{\\,+0.1}_{\\,-0.2}\\%$ at the next-to-leading order in QCD. Our results provide a sound basis for a measurement of the energy asymmetry at the LHC during run II.

  2. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  3. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelena Prok

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A{sub 1} (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g{sub 1} (x, Q{sup 2}), and the first moment, {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p}, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 {ge} Q{sup 2} {ge} 4.5 GeV{sup 2}. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q{sup 2} regions. The results are important in the study of Q{sup 2} evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  4. Charge Asymmetries in Semileptonic B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    I present measurements made by the D0 collaboration of the time-integrated flavor-specific semileptonic charge asymmetry in the decays of the Bs and Bd mesons that have undergone flavor mixing, asls and asld, using 10.4 fb^-1 of proton-antiproton collisions collected by the D0 detector during Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The results are asls = [-1.12 \\pm 0.74 (stat) \\pm 0.17 (syst) ]% and asld = [0.68 \\pm 0.45 (stat.) \\pm 0.14 (syst.)]% which are the two most precise published results and are in agreement with standard model predictions. These results are combined with the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry, aslb, and recent preliminary results from the LHCb and BaBar experiments to obtain new world averages.

  5. QCD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    We study the QCD evolution of the Sivers effect in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan production (DY). We pay close attention to the nonperturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor in the evolution formalism and find a universal form which can describe reasonably well the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions in SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production. With this Sudakov factor at hand, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. We then make predictions for the Sivers asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W production that can be compared to the future experimental measurements to test the sign change of the Sivers functions between SIDIS and DY processes and constrain the sea quark Sivers functions.

  6. Dark Matter Assimilation into the Baryon Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called "assimilation", which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter.

  7. QCD Evolution of the Sivers Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We study the QCD evolution of the Sivers effect in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan production (DY). We pay close attention to the non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor in the evolution formalism and find a universal form which can describe reasonably well the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions in SIDIS, DY lepton pair and $W/Z$ production. With this Sudakov factor at hand, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. We then make predictions for the Sivers asymmetry in DY lepton pair and $W$ production that can be compared to the future experimental measurements to test the sign change of the Sivers functions between SIDIS and DY processes and constrain the sea quark Sivers functions.

  8. CLAS: Double-Pion Beam Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen Strauch

    2005-10-01

    Beam-helicity asymmetries for the gamma+p -> pi+ + pi- + p reaction have been measured for center-of-mass energies between 1.35 GeV and 2.30 GeV at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer using circularly polarized tagged photons. The beam-helicity asymmetries vary with kinematics and exhibit strong sensitivity to the dynamics of the reaction, as demonstrated in the comparison of the data with results of various phenomenological model calculations. These models currently do not provide an adequate description of the data over the entire kinematic range covered in this experiment. Additional polarization observables are accessible in an upcoming experiment at Jefferson Lab with polarized beam and target.

  9. GENDER ASYMMETRY IN A MODERN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakytgul Khamenova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work (article, the author investigates gender asymmetry in modern Kazakhstan society which has social and psychological, is watered - economic scientific measurement. The scientific data base used in this research is wide and authentic enough and can be divided in three groups: first, the social stereotypes and gender aspects, second, the gender and sex theories, imageology, psychology, international politics, third, the scientific sources, devoted to the gender aspects of global and political processes.

  10. The bank capital requirement and information asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Sangkyun Park

    1994-01-01

    This paper recognizes two main factors that cause the capital requirement to affect the weighted average cost of capital and hence the investment behavior of banks: underpriced debt resulting from the deposit insurance and information asymmetry between managers and the stock market. For a bank enjoying a low cost of debt (deposits), an increased proportion of equity financing raises the weighted average cost ofcapital. When the stock market underestimates the value of a bank due to informatio...

  11. Power asymmetry and escalation in bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Vollstädt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Bargaining is prevalent in economic interactions. Under complete information, game theory predicts efficient bargaining outcomes (immediate acceptance of first offer) (see Rubinstein, 1982). However, continuous rejections of offers leading to inefficient delays (escalation) have regularly been found in previous bargaining experiments even under complete information (see Roth, 1995). I test experimentally (1) whether power asymmetry leads to more escalation in bargaining and (2) whether perspe...

  12. ASYMMETRY OF HUMAN INFORMATION SPACE AND DYSLEXIA

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Levashov

    2009-01-01

    There is an increase of dyslexics in many countries up to 15-20% in recent years. In this report I discuss possible reasons for the situation. There are: 1. A bias of contemporary “information space” in visual component vs verbal and sign component. 2. Visual sensory overload in early sensitive period (up to 7-8) which results to specific functional brain asymmetry. 3. Low physical activity of children, especially a deficit of ball games.

  13. Asymmetries of quark sea in nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiya Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of “quark sea” in determining the flavor structure of the octet baryons have been investigated in the chiral constituent quark model. The chiral constituent quark model is able to qualitatively generate the requisite amount of quark sea and is also known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime. The phenomenological implications of the quark sea asymmetries in the nucleon have been investigated to understand the impo...

  14. Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, John C.; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and ...

  15. Institutional Investors, Stock Repurchases and Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ricky W. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine if institutional investors influence stock repurchases. Specifically, this study tests whether institutional investors encourage stock repurchases in firms with high information asymmetry. Firm and year fixed effect regressions examining the effect of changes in institutional investor levels to subsequent changes in stock repurchase levels are used. For robustness, regressions are run using difference-GMM regressions and regressions for different time periods on ...

  16. ASYMMETRY OF HUMAN INFORMATION SPACE AND DYSLEXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Levashov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase of dyslexics in many countries up to 15-20% in recent years. In this report I discuss possible reasons for the situation. There are: 1. A bias of contemporary “information space” in visual component vs verbal and sign component. 2. Visual sensory overload in early sensitive period (up to 7-8 which results to specific functional brain asymmetry. 3. Low physical activity of children, especially a deficit of ball games.

  17. Structural connectivity asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-07-15

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-world characteristics were exhibited, but did not differ between the two hemispheres, suggesting that neighboring brain regions connect tightly with each other, and that one region is only a few paths away from any other region within each hemisphere. Moreover, the neonatal brain showed greater structural efficiency in the left hemisphere than that in the right. In neonates, brain regions involved in motor, language, and memory functions play crucial roles in efficient communication in the left hemisphere, while brain regions involved in emotional processes play crucial roles in efficient communication in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that even at birth, the topology of each cerebral hemisphere is organized in an efficient and compact manner that maps onto asymmetric functional specializations seen in adults, implying lateralized brain functions in infancy. PMID:23501049

  18. Gait asymmetry: composite scores for mechanical analyses of sprint running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exell, T A; Gittoes, M J R; Irwin, G; Kerwin, D G

    2012-04-01

    Gait asymmetry analyses are beneficial from clinical, coaching and technology perspectives. Quantifying overall athlete asymmetry would be useful in allowing comparisons between participants, or between asymmetry and other factors, such as sprint running performance. The aim of this study was to develop composite kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores to quantify athlete asymmetry during maximal speed sprint running. Eight male sprint trained athletes (age 22±5 years, mass 74.0±8.7 kg and stature 1.79±0.07 m) participated in this study. Synchronised sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected via a CODA motion analysis system, synchronised to two Kistler force plates. Bilateral, lower limb data were collected during the maximal velocity phase of sprint running (velocity=9.05±0.37 ms(-1)). Kinematic and kinetic composite asymmetry scores were developed using the previously established symmetry angle for discrete variables associated with successful sprint performance and comparisons of continuous joint power data. Unlike previous studies quantifying gait asymmetry, the scores incorporated intra-limb variability by excluding variables from the composite scores that did not display significantly larger (pcomposite scores and the magnitude of asymmetry observed for each measure varied on an individual participant basis. The new composite scores indicated the inter-participant differences that exist in asymmetry during sprint running and may serve to allow comparisons between overall athlete asymmetry with other important factors such as performance.

  19. Evidence for joint moment asymmetry in healthy populations during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop-Lambach, Rebecca L; Asay, Jessica L; Jamison, Steve T; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C; Blazek, Katerina; Siston, Robert A; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of asymmetry in lower extremity joint moments within and across healthy populations during overground walking. Bilateral gait data from several studies performed at two institutions were pooled from 182 healthy, pain-free subjects. Four distinct populations were identified based on age, activity level and body mass index. Mean peak external joint moments were calculated from three to six trials of level overground walking at self-selected speed for each subject. Right and left limb moments were reclassified as "greater" or "lesser" moment for each subject to prevent obscuring absolute asymmetry due to averaging over positive and negative asymmetries across subjects. A clinically relevant asymmetry measure was calculated from the peak joint moments with an initial chosen cutoff value of 10%. Confidence intervals for the proportion of subjects with greater than 10% asymmetry between limbs were estimated based on the binomial distribution. We found a high amount of asymmetry between the limbs in healthy populations. More than half of our overall population exceeded 10% asymmetry in peak hip and knee flexion and adduction moments. Group medians exceeded 10% asymmetry for all variables in all populations. This may have important implications on gait evaluations, particularly clinical evaluations or research studies where asymmetry is used as an outcome. Additional research is necessary to determine acceptable levels of joint moment asymmetry during gait and to determine whether asymmetrical joint moments influence the development of symptomatic pathology or success of lower extremity rehabilitation. PMID:25035185

  20. Asymmetry Assessment Using Surface Topography in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess geometric asymmetry in the torsos of individuals is important for detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS. A markerless technique using Surface Topography (ST has been introduced as a non-invasive alternative to standard diagnostic radiographs. The technique has been used to identify asymmetry patterns associated with AIS. However, the presence and nature of asymmetries in the healthy population has not been properly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify asymmetries and potential relationships to development factors such as age, gender, hand dominance and unilateral physical activity in healthy adolescents. Full torso scans of 83 participants were analyzed. Using Geomagic, deviation contour maps (DCMs were created by reflecting the torso along the best plane of sagittal symmetry with each spectrum normalized. Two classes of asymmetry were observed: twist and thickness each with subgroupings. Averaged interobserver and intraobserver Kappas for twist subgroupings were 0.84 and 0.84, respectively, and for thickness subgroupings were 0.53 and 0.63 respectively. Further significant relationships were observed between specific types of asymmetry and gender such as females displaying predominately twist asymmetry, and males with thickness asymmetry. However, no relationships were found between type of asymmetry and age, hand dominance or unilateral physical activity. Understanding asymmetries in healthy subjects will continue to enhance assessment ability of the markerless ST technique.

  1. C, P, and CP asymmetry observables based on triple product asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    The discrete symmetries C, P and CP are known to be violated by the weak interaction. It is possible to probe the breaking of these symmetries using asymmetries constructed from triple products based on the decay of some particle M to a four body final state. These proceedings discuss the full set of possible asymmetries that can be probed and applications to various measurement scenarios, focusing mostly on charm mesons and baryons. The ramifications of what can be learned from such measurements are also discussed.

  2. Dividend Policy and Information Asymmetry from the Signaling Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Zare; Javad Moradi (Ph.D); Hashem Valipour

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the relevance of dividend policy and information asymmetry From the Signaling Perspective and Compare the relative information content of them. Based on sampling, 88 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) were selected and examined during 2003 to 2010. The findings show that the profit division policy(Divisible profit proportion) has positive and significant relation with market data asymmetry namely when the profit division policy increases the data asymmetry i...

  3. Relationship between information asymmetry and cost of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Rahmani; Hosein Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Shareholders expected return is normally impacted by informational risk and informational asymmetry, on the other hand, creates informational risk. Thus, investors demand greater risk premium in the case of informational asymmetry and in turn corporate expenditures increase. In this study, we determine the relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. The study uses information of 109 companies listed in Tehran Securities Exchange over the period of 2005-2010 and the results ...

  4. Directional and fluctuating asymmetries in domestic sheep skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Bravi, R.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological symmetry and asymmetry of three different sheep geographical populations (n=39), managed under semi-extensive conditions, were decomposed using geometric morphometric methods, on dorsal aspect of skulls. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was used as an indicator of environmental stress, and directional asymmetry (DA) as biomechanical constraints. The two-dimensional coordinates of 21 landmarks were digitized and analyzed using geometric morphometrics. Multivariate analyses show ed the ...

  5. Directional and fluctuating asymmetries in domestic pig skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Esteve-Puig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological symmetry and asymmetry of skulls of domestic pig (n=29) were studied using geometric morphometric (GM) methods on the ventral aspect. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was used as an indicator of environmental stress, and directional asymmetry as a biomechanical constraint. The two-dimensional coordinates of 27 landmarks were digitized and analysed using GM. Multivariate analyses showed the presence of subtle but significant FA in the entire sample, and distinctive differences were det...

  6. Relationship between facial asymmetry and masseter reflex activity

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takata, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Yoshiaki; 山田, 一尋

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of the masseter muscles in patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects and Methods: The experiment was performed on 10 volunteers without facial asymmetry and 12 orthognathic patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects were seated in a chair, and held a stimulator composed of an electric motor and an acrylic bite block between the upper and lower dentitions at facial midline, in order to elicit TVR. EMG activity was recorded using a pai...

  7. Proactive Communicating Process with Asymmetry in Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jiafang Wang; Zhiyong Feng; Chao Xu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a formalized communicating process for dealing with information asymmetry between agents. A proactive process can improve the efficiency of dealing with asymmetry by allowing agents to take the initiative of communication in a goal-oriented way. In the process, by reasoning on belief and intention about the world and figuring out the information needed, the agent proactively requests information from another agent when asymmetry exists between them. Considering that agents...

  8. Hemispheric Asymmetries of the Subauroral Ion Drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W.; Chen, B.

    2015-12-01

    A large database of subauroral ion drifts (SAID) events from DMSP observations from 1987 to 2012 is used to systematically investigate the features of SAID. SAID occurs mostly at ~ 62° / -60° magnetic latitude (MLAT) and ~ 2215 / 2245 magnetic local time (MLT) for geomagnetically quiet conditions and at ~ 58°/ -56° MLAT and ~ 2215 / 2245 MLT for geomagnetically disturbed conditions in the North Hemisphere (NH) / South Hemisphere (SH), respectively. Significant north-south asymmetries in SAID occurrence, shape, and geomagnetic activity variations are found in this statistical study. The latitudinal width of a SAID is larger in the NH than in the SH. An interesting finding of this work is that the SAID occurrence probability peaks have a ~ 180° difference in longitude between the two hemispheres in the geographic coordinates for both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. The SAID width peaks in almost the same geomagnetic meridian zone with a geomagnetic longitude of ~ 80°-120° in both hemispheres. Significant hemispheric asymmetries and spike signatures with sharpe dips are found in all the latitudinal profiles of the horizontal velocities of SAIDs.The SAID is highly correlated to geomagnetic activity, indicating that the location and evolution of the SAID might be influenced by global geomagnetic activity, auroral dynamics, and the dynamics of ring currents. The hemispheric asymmetries of SAID may possibly be related with the differences of the hemispheric power, the cross-polar cap potential, and the density of region-2 field-aligned currents in the two hemispheres. Detailed investigations will be presented in future.

  9. Pros and cons of phospholipid asymmetry in erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Sathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids of erythrocyte are found as bilayer with choline containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl choline and sphingomylein in the outer layer and amine containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine in the inner layer. This arrangement is known as phospholipid asymmetry. Lipid asymmetry is maintained throughout the entire life span of red blood cell and is disturbed when cells enter into the stage of apoptosis. We here discuss some of the conditions in which phospholipid asymmetry of erythrocyte is maintained and disturbed and the various detection methods to check the distortion phospholipid asymmetry of it.

  10. Small non-Gaussianity and dipole asymmetry in the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingfei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a prescription for obtaining a small non-Gaussianity and the observed dipole asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observations inevitably lead to multi-field inflationary dynamics, where each field can create positive or negative large non-Gaussianity, resulting a fine cancellation but with an observable imprint on the hemispherical asymmetry. We discuss this possibility within a simple slow-roll scenario and find that it is hard to explain the observed dipole asymmetry. We briefly discuss some speculative scenarios where one can explain dipole asymmetry.

  11. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  12. Entanglement asymmetry for boosted black branes

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of asymmetry in entanglement thermodynamics of the CFT subsystems. It is found that `boosted' $p$-branes backgrounds give rise to the first law of the entanglement thermodynamics where the CFT pressure plays decisive role in the entanglement. Two different strip like subsystems, one parallel to the boost and the other perpendicular, are studied in the perturbative regime, where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$. We also discuss the AdS-wave backgrounds where some universal bounds can be obtained.

  13. The CMB Derivatives of Planck's Beam Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Rathaus, Ben

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (~20 \\sigma) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak lensing signature of cosmic defects.

  14. General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.

  15. Measures of Asymmetry Dual to Mean Minkowski Measures of Asymmetry for Convex Bo dies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Dan; Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a family of measures (functions) of asymmetry for convex bodies and discuss their properties. It turns out that this family of measures shares many nice properties with the mean Minkowski measures. As the mean Minkowski measures describe the symmetry of lower dimensional sections of a convex body, these new measures describe the symmetry of lower dimensional orthogonal projections.

  16. Neighboring Galaxies' Influence on Rotation Curve Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J C; Castelaz, Michael W.; Hodge, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation velocity asymmetry v observed in spiral galaxy HI rotation curves linearly correlates with the effective potential force from the 10 closest neighboring galaxies normalized for the test particle mass and the gravitational constant. The magnitude of the potential force from a close galaxy is proportional to the luminosity of the close galaxy and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the close galaxy to the target galaxy. The correlation coefficient is 0.99 and F test is 0.99. Also, the slope of the rotation curve in the disk region of a galaxy from rising to flat to declining is qualitatively correlated with increasing asymmetry and, hence, to the net force from other galaxies. The result is based on a sample of nine spiral galaxies with published Cepheid distances and rotation curves and with a wide range of characteristics. These relationships are interesting not only for their predictive power but also because (1) they suggest a galaxy's dynamics and the shape of its rotatio...

  17. Amygdala kindling modifies interhemispheric dopaminergic asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, M; Tomer, R; Houpt, S; Herberg, L J

    1987-04-01

    Brain dopamine is known to retard the development of kindled seizures, but it is uncertain whether kindling affects dopamine function. In the present study, rats were screened for cerebral dominance by recording their preferred direction of rotation when injected with d-amphetamine. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were then implanted in the amygdaloid complex of either the dominant or nondominant hemisphere (i.e., respectively, contra- and ipsilateral to the preferred direction of rotation; the dominant hemisphere identified in this way has been shown to contain higher concentrations of dopamine than the nondominant hemisphere). Kindling stimulation (or sham-kindling, in control rats) was applied through the electrodes two or three times daily for 21 days, and the rats were reassessed for amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotation, during and after the course of treatment. Kindling of the originally dominant hemisphere caused a diminution of rotational asymmetry as measured in tests 2 to 3 h after stimulation sessions, and in some rats led to a reversal in the preferred direction of amphetamine-induced rotation. Kindling of the nondominant hemisphere tended to accentuate the original amphetamine-induced asymmetry. The direction of rotation induced by a direct postsynaptic DA-receptor agonist (apomorphine) was not significantly affected by kindling of either hemisphere. It appears that kindling stimulation brings about a relatively inferior level of DA function on the stimulated vs. the nonstimulated side of the brain, and that this process depends mainly on changes occurring at a presynaptic level.

  18. Dynamics, Thermodynamics, and Time-Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Castagnino, M A; Castagnino, Mario A.; Gunzig, Edgerd

    2000-01-01

    064There are two schools, or lines of thought, that try to unify the apparently divergent laws of dynamics and thermodynamics and to explain the observed time-asymmetry of the universe, and most of its sub-systems, in spite of the fact that these systems are driven by time-symmetric evolution equations. They will be called the coarse-graining and the fine-graining schools (even if these names describe only a part of their philosophy). Coarse-graining school obtains time-asymmetry via a projection of the state space on a space of ''relevant'' states. The corresponding projection of the primitive reversible evolution laws yields effective irreversible evolution laws for the relevant states. Fine-graining always use the same primitive reversible evolution laws. But these laws (in adequate extensions of the usual spaces where these laws are formulated) have a set of solutions $S$ that can be decompose in two subsets $S_{+\\text{}}$ and $S_{-}$ of time asymmetric solutions. Choosing one of these two sets, as the ar...

  19. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  20. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  1. A Search for Hemispheric Asymmetry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, C. M.; Storrs, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    We will present reconstructed images of Neptune's largest satellite Triton as part of an investigation of hemispheric asymmetry. The images we observed from the Hubble Space Telescope in July of 1997, using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera. The images were taken in several filters: F439W, F555W, and F791W. Image restoration was performed using the MISTRAL program (Mugnier, Fusco, and Conan 2003). We present the ratio between the filters to determine if there is any hemispheric color asymmetry at this time. The photometry of Triton appears normal in this data although Hicks and Buratti (2004) observe Triton to be anomalously red in August of 1997. References: Hicks, M.D., and Buratti, B.J. (2004): "The Spectral Variability of Triton from 1997-2000", Icarus 171 pp. 210-218 Mugnier, L.M., T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, 2003. "MISTRAL: a Myopic Edge-Preserving Image Restoration Method. Applicaton to Astronomical Adaptive Optics Corrected Long-Exposure Images." JOSA A (submitted)

  2. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  3. Fluctuating Asymmetry and General Intelligence: No Genetic or Phenotypic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Segal, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the non-pathological left-right asymmetry of body traits that are usually left-right symmetrical, such as eye breadths and elbow to wrist lengths in humans, but which can be affected by developmental stressors. It is generally considered throughout biology to be an indicator of developmental instability and thus of…

  4. Information Asymmetry and Financing Decisions: Evidence from Iran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Elhaei Sahar; Seyed Ali Vaez

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relations of information asymmetry and financing decisions in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during 2009 to 2011. Our statistical simple consist 170 firms and stepwise regression method has been used. We found that the relationship between information asymmetry and stock issuing is negative. Other results refer to positive relation between financing deficit and stock issuing.

  5. Charge asymmetry in the photonic production of charmed mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhnoy, A V

    2006-01-01

    Charge asymmetries for the charm meson production ($D^{*+}$--$D^{*-}$, $D^{*0}$--$\\bar D^{*0}$ and $D^+_s$--$\\bar D^-_s$) have been estimated for the COMPASS kinematic conditions in the framework of perturbative recombination model. Mass corrections have been taken into account in the calculations. The large asymmetry for $D^+_s$--$\\bar D^-_s$ production has been predicted.

  6. Mandibular asymmetry in patients with the Crouzon or Apert Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Elmi; J.H. Reitsma; P.H. Buschang; E.B. Wolvius; E.M. Ongkosuwito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe directional and fluctuating mandibular asymmetry over time in children with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. Mandibular asymmetry of children between 7.5 and 14 years of age with Crouzon syndrome (n = 35) and Apert syndrome (n = 24) were compared with controls (n = 32

  7. On reducing information asymmetry in U.S. health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Oswald A J; Kesavan, Ram; Bernacchi, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetry is a significant issue facing the U.S. health care system. In this article, we investigate some methods of reducing this asymmetry. We trace the information asymmetry using the "wicked problem" of the health care distribution system. An information asymmetry reduction method requiring joint responsibilities among health care stakeholders is developed. It is argued that information asymmetry is a contributor to enormous health care inflation. Hence, any reduction in such asymmetry will reduce health care costs. Concepts from both signaling and corrective justice theories are integrated in this article to help reduce the information asymmetry that exists in the U.S. health care system. Getting health care costs in line with other "advanced" nations, is the long-term solution to the wicked problem that currently exists in the U.S. health care system. There is an immediate need for a centralized health care database with adequate provisions for individual privacy. Both processes as well as an outcome-based control system are essential for reducing information asymmetries in the U.S. health care system. PMID:24308415

  8. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Verhoeven; J.W. Nolte; T.J.J. Maal; S.J. Bergé; A.G. Becking

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH) have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using

  9. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, T.J.; Nolte, J.W.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH) have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using

  10. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  11. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  12. On reducing information asymmetry in U.S. health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Oswald A J; Kesavan, Ram; Bernacchi, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetry is a significant issue facing the U.S. health care system. In this article, we investigate some methods of reducing this asymmetry. We trace the information asymmetry using the "wicked problem" of the health care distribution system. An information asymmetry reduction method requiring joint responsibilities among health care stakeholders is developed. It is argued that information asymmetry is a contributor to enormous health care inflation. Hence, any reduction in such asymmetry will reduce health care costs. Concepts from both signaling and corrective justice theories are integrated in this article to help reduce the information asymmetry that exists in the U.S. health care system. Getting health care costs in line with other "advanced" nations, is the long-term solution to the wicked problem that currently exists in the U.S. health care system. There is an immediate need for a centralized health care database with adequate provisions for individual privacy. Both processes as well as an outcome-based control system are essential for reducing information asymmetries in the U.S. health care system.

  13. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Maxim; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending...

  14. Orthodontic and orthognathic management of a complex mandibular asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ashwin Matthew; Ganesan, Jayakumar; Devi, Shobbana; Varghese, Biju Tom; Krishnaswamy, Nathamuni Rengarajan

    2013-01-01

    The application of a combined surgical-orthodontic procedure for the treatment of major facial deformities (eg, asymmetries) and associated malocclusions has become an increasingly prevalent treatment modality over the past few decades. Development of sound conjoint treatment principles made possible the correction of skeletal and dental dysplasias that were unyielding to either surgical or orthodontic treatment alone. The presence and severity of dentofacial asymmetries has been the subject of many commentaries and investigations. Treatment of facial asymmetry has always been a challenge with respect to the cause and the rationale behind the corrective procedures adopted. This case report describes a 23-year-old male patient whose chief complaint was attributed solely to the clinically discernible facial asymmetry. A combined orthodontic and surgical approach was done to correct both the dental and skeletal asymmetry. The reasons for selecting this treatment protocol and the 5-year postretention stability of the final results obtained are highlighted in this report. PMID:23646323

  15. MUON DECAY ASYMMETRIES FROM KOL YIELDS POM+M-DECAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIWAN, M.V.; MA, H.; TRUEMAN, T.L.

    2001-06-12

    We have examined the decay K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} in which the branching ratio, the muon energy asymmetry and the muon decay asymmetry could be measured. In particular, we find that within the Standard Model the longitudinal polarization (PL) of the muon is proportional to the direct CP violating amplitude. On the other hand the energy asymmetry and the out-of-plane polarization (P{sub N}) depend on both indirect and direct CP violating amplitudes. Although the branching ratio is small and difficult to measure because of background, the asymmetries could be large {Omicron}(1) in the Standard Model. A combined analysis of the energy asymmetry, P{sub L} and P{sub N} could be used to separate indirect, CPV, direct CPV, and CP conserving contributions to the decay.

  16. Proactive Communicating Process with Asymmetry in Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formalized communicating process for dealing with information asymmetry between agents. A proactive process can improve the efficiency of dealing with asymmetry by allowing agents to take the initiative of communication in a goal-oriented way. In the process, by reasoning on belief and intention about the world and figuring out the information needed, the agent proactively requests information from another agent when asymmetry exists between them. Considering that agents may take advantage of information asymmetry by hiding information, the process also includes a model based on game theory to restrict the hiding behaviour. The work presented here not only introduces a definition of information asymmetry from cognitive perspective but also proposes a way to deal with it by communication in MAS. In addition, this paper presents some basic ideas on designing proactive mechanisms in cooperation between agents.

  17. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orbaker, D.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; et. al.

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 {+-} 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 {+-} 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 {+-} 4.0)%. The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.

  18. Dark Atoms: Asymmetry and Direct Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Krnjaic, Gordan Z. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rehermann, Keith R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wells, Christopher M. [Houghton College, NY (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple UV completion of Atomic Dark Matter (aDM) in which heavy right-handed neutrinos decay to induce both dark and lepton number densities. This model addresses several outstanding cosmological problems: the matter/anti-matter asymmetry, the dark matter abundance, the number of light degrees of freedom in the early universe, and the smoothing of small-scale structure. Additionally, this realization of aDM may reconcile the CoGeNT excess with recently published null results and predicts a signal in the CRESST Oxygen band. We also find that, due to unscreened long-range interactions, the residual un recombined dark ions settle into a diffuse isothermal halo.

  19. Single Spin Asymmetry in Charmonium Production

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Misra, Anuradha; Rawoot, Vaibhav S

    2014-01-01

    We present estimates of Single Spin Asymmetry (SSA) in the electroproduction of $J/\\psi$ taking into account the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution of the gluon Sivers function and using Color Evaporation Model of charmonium production. We estimate SSA for JLab, HERMES, COMPASS and eRHIC energies using recent parameters for the quark Sivers functions which are fitted using an evolution kernel in which the perturbative part is resummed up to next-to-leading logarithms (NLL) accuracy. We find that these SSAs are much smaller as compared to our first estimates obtained using DGLAP evolution but are comparable to our estimates obtained using TMD evolution where we had used approximate analytical solution of the TMD evolution equation for the purpose.

  20. Baryon asymmetry from primordial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scenario of the baryogenesis from primordial black holes (PBH). Assuming presence of a microscopic baryon (or lepton) number violation and a CP violating operator such as $\\partial_\\alpha F(\\mathcal{R_{....}} ) J^\\alpha$ where $F(\\mathcal{R_{....}})$ is a scalar function of the Riemann tensor, time evolution of an evaporating black hole generates baryonic (leptonic) chemical potential at the horizon; consequently PBH enumerates asymmetric Hawking radiation between baryons (leptons) and anti-baryons (leptons). Though the operator is higher dimensional and largely suppressed by a high mass scale $M_*$, we show that sufficient amount of asymmetry can be generated for wide range of parameters of the PBH mass $M_{\\rm PBH}$, its abundance $\\Omega_{\\rm PBH}$, and the scale $M_*$.

  1. Asymmetry of atmospheric microstructure over synoptic scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available Distortions are often seen in the angular distribution of echo-power from VHF wind-profiling radars, suggesting that thin stable layers, within the air flow, are distorted and tilted from horizontal. In vertical shear of the horizontal wind, the distribution of the layer tilt angles becomes skewed. A case study using six days of VHF radar data and synoptic charts above western Europe indicates that this asymmetry of atmospheric microstructure can exist throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere, above and below the jet wind maximum, over horizontal scales of thousands of kilometres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; synoptic-scale meteorology; turbulence.

  2. Time-reversal asymmetry in financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. F.; Chen, T. T.; Zheng, B.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the large-fluctuation dynamics in financial markets, based on the minute-to-minute and daily data of the Chinese Indices and the German DAX. The dynamic relaxation both before and after the large fluctuations is characterized by a power law, and the exponents p± usually vary with the strength of the large fluctuations. The large-fluctuation dynamics is time-reversal symmetric at the time scale in minutes, while asymmetric at the daily time scale. Careful analysis reveals that the time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by external forces. It is also the external forces which drive the financial system to a non-stationary state. Different characteristics of the Chinese and German stock markets are uncovered.

  3. Lepton asymmetry and neutrino oscillations interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, Daniela, E-mail: dani@astro.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Astronomy and NAO (Bulgaria)

    2013-03-15

    We discuss the interplay between lepton asymmetry L and {nu} oscillations in the early Universe. Neutrino oscillations may suppress or enhance previously existing L. On the other hand L is capable to suppress or enhance neutrino oscillations. The mechanism of L enhancement in MSW resonant {nu} oscillations in the early Universe is numerically analyzed. L cosmological effects through {nu} oscillations are discussed. We discuss how L may change the cosmological BBN constraints on neutrino and show that BBN model with {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub s} oscillations is extremely sensitive to L - it allows to obtain the most stringent constraints on L value. We discuss also the cosmological role of active-sterile {nu} mixing and L in connection with the indications about additional relativistic density in the early Universe, pointed out by BBN, CMB and LSS data and the analysis of global {nu} data.

  4. Z Boson Asymmetry Measurements at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, B. [Mississippi U.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_fb) in dilepton pair decays of Z bosons produced in ppbar collisions using the full Tevatron dataset. The CDF experiment extracts a value for the effective weak mixing angle parameter sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} of 0.2315 +/- 0.0010 from the A_fb distribution of dimuon events in 9.2 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity. From dielectron events in 9.7 fb^{-1} of data, the D0 experiment finds sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} = 0.23106 +/- 0.00053, the world's most precise measurement of sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} from hadron colliders and with light quark couplings.

  5. MOTOR ASYMMETRY IN MARSUPIAL MAMMALS OF MACROPODIDAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Giljov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in forelimb use is known for many species of vertebrates. Marsupial mammals are one of few groups of vertebrates, which is almost unstudied in terms of motor asymmetry. Variety of postural and locomotor characteristics in marsupials makes them a suitable object for studying the evolution of motor asymmetry in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore motor asymmetry, in particular preferences in the use of the left/right forelimb in different types of actions, in two species of marsupials of Macropodidae family. We showed that adult subjects of both species display significant forelimb preferences in food manipulation and body support – two most common types of actions performed by one forelimb. The direction of asymmetry depended on the task and posture. Subject’s sex did not influence the expression of motor asymmetry. The preference for using the left limb in manipulative tasks was showed for both adult and juvenile subjects. The comparison of marsupial species studied to date allow to suggest that in this group the expression of motor asymmetry is more typical for bipedal species, than for the quadrupeds.

  6. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. PMID:24643652

  7. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  8. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  9. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left–right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as the Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A new analysis of the data allows quantitative relationships to be established among them, providing for the first time strong experimental indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven by a common physical process.

  10. Poloidal asymmetries of heavy impurities in the ASDEX upgrade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For heavy and highly charged impurities multiple mechanisms exist that produce non-constant impurities densities on the flux surfaces. As for neoclassical and turbulent transport models such an asymmetry is highly importance an effort is launched to experimentally characterize the asymmetries comparing them with theoretical expectations. In the ASDEX upgrade tokamak (AUG) is routinely observed increase of outboard tungsten density in fast rotating plasma. This asymmetry is caused by the centrifugal force pushing tungsten ions outward due to its high mass. Furthermore, the high charge makes heavy impurities sensitive to poloidal variations of the plasma potential. The variation can be generated by magnetic trapped ions heated by RF heating. In such a case, the presence of an inboard asymmetry or at least the absence of an outboard asymmetry due to the centrifugal force can be observed. Finally, ion-impurity friction enhanced by the large charge of the impurity ions may cause a relatively weak up-down asymmetry of the impurity density. The aim of this poster is to show first evidence of these asymmetries in the AUG plasmas, the description of the used methodology, and to compare with theoretical models based on the parallel force balance.

  11. Breast asymmetry pattern in women with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Norma I; Korchin, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Breast asymmetry is frequent in women with idiopathic scoliosis. To understand the pattern of breast asymmetry in these women a clinical study was performed in which 54 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. The information recorded for each patient included: age, weight, height, scoliosis type, Cobb angle, breast measurements, and presence of rib cage asymmetry. Breast volume was calculated using anatomic measurements (anthropomorphic method). The mean age of the group was 25 +/- 7 years. A right convex thoracic curve occurred in 85%, with a mean Cobb angle of 32 +/- 15 degrees. Our study indicated that women with idiopathic scoliosis consistently presented breast asymmetry that followed a predictable pattern. The breast on the side of the convex thoracic scoliosis curve is always smaller in volume (mean difference 59 +/- 39 mi). The affected side also presents a smaller areola, a higher position of the nipple (mean difference 2.2 +/- 1.3 cm) and a higher position of the inframammary fold (mean difference 2.1 +/- 1.4 cm) when compared to the opposite breast. Though the asymmetry is predictable, the degree to which the patient presents these changes does not correlate with the severity of the scoliosis (Cobb angle). We believe that the severity of the asymmetry is a result of the difference between the hypoplastic breast and the normal breasts. In women with very large opposite breasts the asymmetry appears to be worse.

  12. Extent of structural asymmetry in homodimeric proteins: prevalence and relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna

    Full Text Available Most homodimeric proteins have symmetric structure. Although symmetry is known to confer structural and functional advantage, asymmetric organization is also observed. Using a non-redundant dataset of 223 high-resolution crystal structures of biologically relevant homodimers, we address questions on the prevalence and significance of asymmetry. We used two measures to quantify global and interface asymmetry, and assess the correlation of several molecular and structural parameters with asymmetry. We have identified rare cases (11/223 of biologically relevant homodimers with pronounced global asymmetry. Asymmetry serves as a means to bring about 2:1 binding between the homodimer and another molecule; it also enables cellular signalling arising from asymmetric macromolecular ligands such as DNA. Analysis of these cases reveals two possible mechanisms by which possible infinite array formation is prevented. In case of homodimers associating via non-topologically equivalent surfaces in their tertiary structures, ligand-dependent mechanisms are used. For stable dimers binding via large surfaces, ligand-dependent structural change regulates polymerisation/depolymerisation; for unstable dimers binding via smaller surfaces that are not evolutionarily well conserved, dimerisation occurs only in the presence of the ligand. In case of homodimers associating via interaction surfaces with parts of the surfaces topologically equivalent in the tertiary structures, steric hindrance serves as the preventive mechanism of infinite array. We also find that homodimers exhibiting grossly symmetric organization rarely exhibit either perfect local symmetry or high local asymmetry. Binding of small ligands at the interface does not cause any significant variation in interface asymmetry. However, identification of biologically relevant interface asymmetry in grossly symmetric homodimers is confounded by the presence of similar small magnitude changes caused due to

  13. Age and Practice Effects on Inter-manual Performance Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual dexterity declines with increasing age however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right handed participants, 5 males and 5 females in each of three age groups, young (Y20, young-old (O70, and old-old (O80, practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the asymmetry index (AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the five days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6 and this did not change with practice.

  14. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements from QWeak

    CERN Document Server

    Waidyawansa, Buddhini P

    2016-01-01

    The Q weak experiment has made several interesting beam normal single spin asymmetry measurements. Preliminary result from a 3.2% measurement of the beam normal single spin asymmetry in elastic e+p scattering at E = 1.155 GeV and {\\theta} lab = 7.8(deg) is presented. We have also made measurements of this asymmetry in elastic and inelastic scattering in the Delta resonance region from Hydrogen, Aluminum and Carbon targets and e+e scattering from Hydrogen target. Some initial results from these measurements are also presented.

  15. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures. PMID:24160589

  16. Baryon asymmetry generation in the electroweak theory. A lattice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the baryon asymmetry generation within the framework of the standard electroweak theory. The assumed first order finite temperature phase transition to the spontaneously broken phase is simulated on the lattice. The Monte Carlo data suggest that the high temperature plasma is populated with gauge-Higgs fluctuations, which produce a change Q in the Chern-Simons number during the transition, thereby creating fermions due to the electroweak anomaly. We provide evidence and arguments in favour of a uniform distribution of Q. This being the case, the baryon asymmetry produced during the phase transition is large enough to explain the asymmetry observed today. (orig.)

  17. On the cos 2 phi asymmetry in unpolarized leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, V; Ma, B Q; Barone, Vincenzo; Lu, Zhun; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in unpolarized semiinclusive DIS. The contributions to this asymmetry arising from the intrinsic transverse motion of quarks are explicitly evaluated, and predictions for the HERMES and COMPASS kinematic regimes are presented. We show that the effect of the leading-twist Boer-Mulders function h_1^perp(x, k_T^2), which describes a correlation between the transverse momentum and the transverse spin of quarks, is quite significant and may also account for a part of the cos 2 phi asymmetry measured by ZEUS in the perturbative domain.

  18. Measurement of Charge Asymmetries in Charmless Hadronic B Meson Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Menon, N; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Kwon, Y; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Kopp, S E; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Eigen, G; Lipeles, E; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Gronberg, J B; Hill, T S; Lange, D J; Morrison, R J; Nelson, H N; Briere, R A; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J; Brandenburg, G; Ershov, A; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kravchenko, I V; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Urheim, J; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Mahmood, A H; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lorenc, J; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A

    2000-01-01

    We search for CP-violating asymmetries (Acp) in the B meson decays to K+- pi-+, K+- pi0, Ks pi+-, K+- eta', and omega pi+-. Using 9.66 million Upsilon(4S) decays collected with the CLEO detector, the statistical precision on Acp is in the range of \\pm 0.12 to \\pm 0.25 depending on decay mode. While CP-violating asymmetries of up to \\pm 0.5 are possible within the Standard Model, the measured asymmetries are consistent with zero in all five decay modes studied.

  19. Rates and Asymmetries of B --> pi l+ l- Decays

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Xu, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment observed B+ --> pi+ mu+ mu- decay with 1.0 fb^-1 data, which is the first measurement of a flavor changing neutral current b --> d l+ l- decay (l = e, mu). Based on QCD factorization, we give Standard Model predictions for the branching ratios, direct CP asymmetries, and isospin asymmetry for B --> pi l+ l- decays, in the kinematic region where the dilepton invariant mass is small. We find that the contribution from weak annihilation enhances the direct CP asymmetry for lo...

  20. Asymmetry in children with cerebral palsy and oral structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfellner, H; Richter, M

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-six children with cerebral palsy were examined with respect to structural asymmetry of the mouth. In 19 children there were clear cut correlations between symmetry/asymmetry of voluntary function and the oral findings. Patients with symmetrical patterns of movements had symmetrical dentition, while in those with asymmetrical function the favoured side corresponded to the side with structural changes. Apparent exceptions to this rule in 7 children could be resolved in 6 by analysis of their complex case histories. Fifty normal controls showed oral asymmetries of nearly identical frequency and magnitude. In this respect there is no difference between the normal and handicapped group.

  1. Disentangling the Effects of Attentional and Amplitude Asymmetries on Relative Phase Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Poel, Harjo J.; Peper, C. E.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Attentional asymmetry in rhythmic interlimb coordination induces an asymmetry in relative phase dynamics, allegedly reflecting an asymmetry in coupling strength. However, relative phase asymmetries may also be engendered by an attention-induced difference between the amplitudes (and hence the preferred frequencies) of the limb movements. The…

  2. Resurrection of large lepton number asymmetries from neutrino flavor oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il

    2016-01-01

    We numerically solve the evolution equations of neutrino three-flavor density matrices, and show that, even if neutrino oscillations mix neutrino flavors, large lepton number asymmetries are still allowed in certain limits by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN).

  3. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels

    2016-01-01

    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  4. Cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry as a quantum fluctuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kobakhidze, Archil

    2015-01-01

    We entertain a new paradigm according to which the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry is generated as a large-scale quantum fluctuation over the baryon-symmetric state that occurred during the cosmic inflation.

  5. Supernova deleptonization asymmetry: Impact on self-induced flavor conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    During the accretion phase of a core-collapse supernova (SN), the deleptonization flux has recently been found to develop a global dipole pattern (LESA---Lepton Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry). The $\

  6. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il

    2016-01-01

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries ($L_\\alpha$) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones ($L_i$) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than conventional expectation, but not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. Cosmological constraint on $L_i$ for a specific case is presented as an illustration.

  7. Condylar hyperplasia and facial asymmetry: report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Divya; Dhasmana, Satish; Kamboj, Mala; Gambhir, Gautam

    2011-03-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of mandible is overdevelopment of condyle, unilaterally or bilaterally, leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and articular dysfunction. This is a series of five such patients managed at our centre. PMID:22379321

  8. Condylar Hyperplasia and Facial Asymmetry: Report of Five Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, Divya; Dhasmana, Satish; Kamboj, Mala; Gambhir, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of mandible is overdevelopment of condyle, unilaterally or bilaterally, leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and articular dysfunction. This is a series of five such patients managed at our centre.

  9. Resonance catalyzed CP asymmetries in D --> P l+ l-

    CERN Document Server

    Fajfer, Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    Recently observed increase of direct CP asymmetry in charm meson nonleptonic decays is difficult to explain within the SM. If this effect is induced by new physics, this might be investigated in other charm processes. We propose to investigate new CP violating effects in rare decays $D \\to P \\ell^+ \\ell^-$, which arise due to the interference of resonant part of the long distance contribution and the new physics affected short distance contribution. Performing a model independent analysis, we identify as appropriate observables the differential direct CP asymmetry and partial decay width CP asymmetry. We find that in the most promising decays $D^+ \\to \\pi^+ \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ and $D_s^+ \\to K^+ \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ the "peak-symmetric" and "peak-antisymmetric" CP asymmetries are strong phase dependent and can be of the order 1 % and 10 %, respectively.

  10. Spectral asymmetries in nucleon sum rules at finite density

    OpenAIRE

    Furnstahl, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Apparent inconsistencies between different formulations of nucleon sum rules at finite density are resolved through a proper accounting of asymmetries in the spectral functions between positive- and negative-energy states.

  11. Dark world and baryon asymmetry from a common source

    CERN Document Server

    Suematsu, D

    2006-01-01

    We study generation of baryon number asymmetry and both abundance of dark matter and dark energy on the basis of global symmetry and its associating flat directions in a supersymmetric model. We assume the existence of a model independent axion which is generally expected in the effective theory of superstring. If we consider a combined field of the model independent axion and a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson coming from spontaneous breaking of the global symmetry, its potential can be sufficiently flat and then it may present a candidate of the dark energy as a quintessential axion. Both the baryon asymmetry and the dark matter are supposed to be produced nonthermally as the asymmetry of another global charge through the Affleck-Dine mechanism along the relevant flat direction. Its decay to the observable and hidden sectors explains the baryon number asymmetry and the dark matter abundance, respectively.

  12. Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical comparison of the peak flux in electron and ion polar cusp precipitation in the summer and winter hemispheres as observed by the low-altitude DMSP F7 satellite is performed. Data studied encompass four consecutive solstices from December 1983 to June 1985, comprising 77 days of data with a total of 292 individual cusp passes. On each day, observations were restricted to those few hours UT in which the interhemispherical MLT variation of DMSP F7 was smallest. After the remaining local time effect was averaged out, the summer hemisphere ion (electron) precipitating energy flux was larger, on the average, by 61 +- 11% (51 +- 5%) than that in the winter hemisphere. However, the average particle energy was always lower for both species in the summer hemisphere. These effects generally hold true for northward as well as southward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF). It is argued that the observed asymmetry is very hard to explain if the most intense part of the cusp lies on closed field lines, but it is shown that the standard open field line model of the cusp virtually requires the observed differences to occur. The present results thus suggest that the most intense portion of the cusp lies on open field lines even for northward IMF. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  13. Etik og ansvar, symmetri eller asymmetri ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta

    2014-01-01

    professionelle i det borgerrettede arbejde i Danmark vil inddrage filosoffer som den danske K.E.Løgstrup eller den tyske Martin Buber, når de vil gøre rede for de etiske overvejelser, som spiller ind i deres håndtering af det professionelle møde. Løgstrup, fordi vi er bekendt med hans begreb om den etiske......Når professionelle relationer, hvor fysioterapeuter, pædagoger, lærere, sygeplejersker optræder, omtales, dukker begrebet symmetri og asymmetri op. Oftest omtales den professionelle relation som asymmetrisk, hvor det næsten implicit og uden for diskussion forstås, at det er den professionelle, der...... fordring, som ikke er noget vi kan undslå os eller bestemme os for, men som er noget der overgår os, og dermed vil den andens liv til dels ligge i vores hænder. Buber omtales ofte som mødets filosof, og for ham er det centrale, at vi i mødet ikke gør den anden til et ”det”, og hans mest kendte værk hedder...

  14. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of Pedersen conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric conductance is very important to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the high latitude region, since it connects the polar cap potential with the currents. Meanwhile, the altitudinal distribution of Pederson conductance gives us a rough idea about the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating at high latitudes. Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations of electron density profiles from 2009-2014, Pedersen conductivity has been calculated. A climatologic study of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities in both E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions and their ratio in different seasons, solar and geomagnetic conditions have been conducted. A significant inter-hemispheric asymmetry is identified in the seasonal variation. Meanwhile, the conductance in both regions and the conductance ratio show a strong dependence on F10.7 and Ap indices. This result will strongly help our understanding of the inter-hemispheric difference in the high-latitude electrodynamics.

  15. INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Mikheev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of the left and right hemispheres in realization of behavior for SHR, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 males mice in open field was studied. All three lines of mice differed each from other in elements of individual behavior. Comparison of effects of unilateral inactivation in SHR mice revealed domination of the right hemisphere in regulation of total duration of rearings and grooming, the most specialization of hemispheres being registered in regulation of temporary parameters of behavioral reactions. In DBA/2 mice, the left hemisphere dominated in control of rearings, and the right one did on seating. In C57BL/6 mice, the right hemisphere dominated only on locomotion. Therefore, the cortex of the brain (after inactivation did not participate in regulation of individual behavior in the majority of the experiments (11 from 18. In two cases, the symmetric participation of hemispheres in regulation of behavioral reactions was obtained, and in 5 cases, the unilateral domination of hemispheres in control of behavioral elements was registered. Thus, in three lines of mice, the pattern of interhemispheric asymmetry of individual behavior is principally different.

  16. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  17. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry and charge asymmetry in left-right twin Higgs model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jin Min

    2011-01-01

    In order to explain the Tevatron anomaly of the top quark forward-backward asymmetry $A_{FB}^t$ in the left-right twin Higgs model, we choose to give up the lightest neutral particle of $\\hat{h}$ field as a stable dark matter candidate. Then a new Yukawa interaction for $\\hat{h}$ is allowed, which can be free from the constraint of same-sign top pair production and contribute sizably to $A_{FB}^t$. Considering the constraints from the production rates of the top pair ($t\\bar t$), the top deca...

  18. Parametrically excited helicopter ground resonance dynamics with high blade asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Leonardo; Michon, Guilhem; Berlioz, Alain; Alazard, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The present work is aimed at verifying the influence of high asymmetries in the variation of in-plane lead-lag stiffness of one blade on the ground resonance phenomenon in helicopters. The periodical equations of motions are analyzed by using Floquet's Theory (FM) and the boundaries of instabilities predicted. The stability chart obtained as a function of asymmetry parameters and rotor speed reveals a complex evolution of critical zones and the existence of bifurcation points at low rotor spe...

  19. The influence of information asymmetry upon syndicated loan

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Cj

    2014-01-01

    This study employed 14,372 syndicated loans in the US from 1997to 2006 to analyze the information asymmetry’ influence on lead arrangers and the participants. I use the moral hazard problem and information-selling hypothesis as theoretical framework and confirmed these frameworks with evidences. The indicator to measure the degree of the information asymmetry is the syndicated loan structure. And I find the evidence to prove how the information asymmetry can influence the loan structure and I...

  20. Kumaraswamy Normal and Azzalini's skew Normal modeling asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle A Correa; Denismar Alves Nogueira; Eric Batista Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of two probability distributions with specific parameters for modelling asymmetry. Kum-normal and Azzalini's skew normal distributions were chosen because they turn, in special case, into the normal distribution. The quality of the fit, flexibility and amount of asymmetry parameters were factors used for comparison. Researches state that the Azzalini's skew normal distribution has limitations regarding the flexibility of the tail, presenting certain resistan...

  1. Investor Competition Over Information and the Pricing of Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akins, Brian Keith; Ng, Jeffrey; Verdi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Whether the information environment affects the cost of capital is a fundamental question in accounting and finance research. Relying on theories about competition between informed investors as well as the pricing of information asymmetry, we hypothesize a cross-sectional variation in the pricing of information asymmetry that is conditional on competition. We develop and validate empirical proxies for competition using the number and concentration of institutional investor owne...

  2. Modified method of analysis for surgical correction of facial asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Terpsithea; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter D.; Kheir, Nadia Abou; Mouritsen, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this article was to present a new method of analysis using a three dimensional (3D) model of an actual patient with facial asymmetry, for the assessment of her facial changes and the quantification of the deformity. This patient underwent orthodontic and surgical treatment to correct a severe facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: The surgical procedure was complex and the case was challenging. The treatment procedure required an orthodontic approach followed by Le ...

  3. The origin of electron-hole asymmetry in graphite

    OpenAIRE

    Plochocka, P.; Solane, P. Y.; Nicholas, R. J.; Schneider, J. M.; Piot, B. A.; Maude, D. K.; Portugall, O.; Rikken, G.L.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The electron hole asymmetry has been measured in natural graphite using magneto-optical absorption measurements. A splitting is observed for the transitions at both the $K$-point and the $H$-point of the Brillouin zone of graphite where the effect of trigonal warping vanishes. This result is fully consistent with the SWM Hamiltonian providing the free electron kinetic energy terms are taken into account. An identical electron-hole asymmetry should be present in graphene.

  4. The small scale power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background

    OpenAIRE

    Flender, Samuel; Hotchkiss, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background on small angular scales. We find an anomalously high asymmetry in the multipole range l=601-2048, with a naive statistical significance of 6.5 sigma. However, we show that this extreme anomaly is simply a coincidence of three other effects, relativistic power modulation, edge effects from the mask applied, and inter-scale correlations. After correcting for all of these effects, the significance level drops to ...

  5. Origins of barchan dune asymmetry: insights from numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Parteli, Eric J. R.; Durán, Orencio; Bourke, Mary C.; Tsoar, Haim; Poeschel, Thorsten; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Barchan dunes --- crescent-shaped dunes that form in areas of unidirectional winds and low sand availability --- commonly display an asymmetric shape, with one limb extended downwind. Several factors have been identified as potential causes for barchan dune asymmetry on Earth and Mars: asymmetric bimodal wind regime, topography, influx asymmetry and dune collision. However, the dynamics and potential range of barchan morphologies emerging under each specific scenario that leads to dune asymme...

  6. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  7. Analyzing fluctuating asymmetry with geometric morphometrics: concepts, methods, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Peter Klingenberg

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two decades after the first pioneering analyses, the study of shape asymmetry with the methods of geometric morphometrics has matured and is a burgeoning field. New technology for data collection and new methods and software for analysis are widely available and have led to numerous applications in plants and animals, including humans. This review summarizes the concepts and morphometric methods for studying asymmetry of shape and size. After a summary of mathematical and biolog...

  8. Charm production asymmetries from heavy-quark recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Mehen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Charm asymmetries in fixed-target hadroproduction experiments are sensitive to power corrections to the QCD factorization theorem for heavy quark production. A power correction called heavy-quark recombination has recently been proposed to explain these asymmetries. In heavy-quark recombination, a light quark or antiquark participates in a hard scattering which produces a charm-anticharm quark pair. The light quark or antiquark emerges from the scattering with small momentum in the rest frame...

  9. Asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons has been studied in dp interactions, and it has been found that the sign of the asymmetry depends on the reaction channel. It is shown that in the momentum interval 0-200 MeV/c of spectators basic features of the angular distributions can be reproduced in the framework of the spectator model taking into account the energy dependence of the NN cross section and the flux-factor

  10. Beam asymmetry in near threshold omega photoproduction off the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Frank; Bacelar, J C S; Bantes, B; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beck, R; Beloglasov, Yu A; Castelijns, R; Credé, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Essig, K; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Funke, C; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Hoffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Kammer, S; Kleber, V; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kotulla, M; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Mertens, T; Messchendorp, J G; Metag, V; Morales, C; Nanova, M; Nikonov, V A; Novinski, D; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; Van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Radkov, A; Roy, A; Sarantsev, A V; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, C; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S V; Sokhoyan, V; Sule, A; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Thoma, U; Trnka, D; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, C; Wendel, C

    2008-01-01

    The photoproduction of omega mesons off protons has been studied at the Bonn ELSA accelerator from threshold to E_gamma = 1700 MeV. Linearly polarized beams were produced via coherent bremsstrahlung. Large photon asymmtries in excess of 50% were obtained, whereas the pion asymmetries from omega \\to pi^0 gamma are close to zero. The asymmetries do characteristically depend on Theta_{cm} rather than |t| and indicate s-channel resonance formation on top of t-channel exchange processes.

  11. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Curtze, MSc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral and three matched nondisabled controls. We analyzed the walking patterns in terms of roll-over characteristics and spatial and temporal factors. We determined the level of asymmetry by roll-over shape comparison (root-mean-square distance as well as differences in radius of curvature. In addition, we calculated ratios to determine spatial and temporal asymmetries and described different aspects of asymmetry of roll-over shapes. All participants showed some level of asymmetry in roll-over shape, even the nondisabled controls. Furthermore, we found good intralimb reproducibility for the group as a whole. With respect to spatial and temporal factors, the participants with transtibial amputation had a quite symmetrical gait pattern, while the gait in the participants with transfemoral amputation was more asymmetrical. The individual ankle-foot roll-over shapes provide additional insight into the marked individual adjustments occurring during the stance phase of the nondisabled limb. The two methods we present are suitable for determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes; both methods should be used complementarily.

  12. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  13. The Chimpanzee Brain Shows Human-Like Perisylvian Asymmetries in White Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Cantalupo, Claudio; Oliver, JoAnne; Smith, Jarrod; Nir, Talia; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Hopkins, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Modern neuroimaging technologies allow scientists to uncover inter-species differences and similarities in hemispheric asymmetries that may shed light onto the origin of brain asymmetry and its functional correlates. We analyzed asymmetries in white to grey matter ratios of the lateral aspect of the lobes of the brains of chimpanzees. We found marked leftward asymmetries for all lobar regions. This asymmetry was particularly pronounced in the frontal region and was found to be related to hand...

  14. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry and charge asymmetry in left-right twin Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Jin Min

    2012-01-01

    In order to explain the Tevatron anomaly of the top quark forward-backward asymmetry $A_{FB}^t$ in the left-right twin Higgs model, we choose to give up the lightest neutral particle of $\\hat{h}$ as a stable dark matter candidate. Then a new Yukawa interaction for $\\hat{h}$ is allowed, which contributes sizably to $A_{FB}^t$. Considering the constraints from the production rates of the top pair ($t\\bar t$) and the same-sign top pair as well as the top FCNC decay rates, we find that this model with such new Yukawa interaction can explain $A_{FB}^t$ measured at the Tevatron while satisfying the charge asymmetry $A_{C}^t$ measured at the LHC. Moreover, this model predicts a strongly correlation between $A_{C}^t$ at the LHC and $A_{FB}^t$ at the Tevatron, i.e., $A_{C}^t$ increases as $A_{FB}^t$ increases.

  15. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  16. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity. PMID:26277658

  17. Asymmetry of information and its features in the tourist market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ivanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to determine the nature of asymmetry of information and the features of its existence in the tourist market. The processes of interaction and relationships are emerged and realized through the formation, transfer and interchange of information. The results of the article. Market demand and supply are the information of market actors about their intentions and capabilities. Content of information flows, that connect them, plays a significant role in the functioning of the market. According to the above-mentioned nature of the market and considering the role of information for it, market can be represented as the plurality-theoretic model. The asymmetry of information, more specifically the asymmetry of information exchange is the result of uneven information provision of the entities of market relations. It is advisably to distinguish the nature of asymmetry of information as a fact and nature of the process and the consequences of its use by market entities. Asymmetry of information is an objective phenomenon at the time of its occurrence. The objective causes of the asymmetry of information, in particular, is the variability of the environment, such as market situation that does not allow having complete information for all market participants (time of changes in demand when buyer knows more about their preferences for every moment or a period of time, objective “obsolescence” of information and the unreliability of its sources, inability to have all existing information through large quantities and respectively to process it for further use. Therefore, the existence of information is not negative and not positive. It simply exists as other natural phenomena. Somebody always knows more, but the way of taking this information advantage depends on the intentions of a person, the subjective approach to the situation and the chosen ways of problem solving. Information advantage is ownership

  18. Inversion of the asymmetry factor for desert areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Deserts,which have high surface albedo and wide area,are important components of the earth system.It is very important for the research of surface radiation and energy balance to understand the anisotropic scattering of desert areas.The emergence and development of multi-angle remote sensing made possible the inversion of the anisotropic scattering of desert areas at the regional or global scale.Firstly,this paper explored the accuracy of the inversion of asymmetry factor using the Hapke model and the simulated single-and multi-phase MISR data.Based on the results,the asymmetry factor of representative surface of desert areas in northwestern China was retrieved.The values of the asymmetry factor retrieved from MISR data were compared with the values retrieved from the laboratory data.The results showed that the single-phase MISR data could be used for the inversion of asymmetry parameter of desert areas.The sign of the asymmetry parameter for the laboratory measurements was positive,which suggests that the surface of laboratory samples is forward scattering.The sign of the asymmetry parameter for MISR data was negative;that is,it is backscattering.The values of the asymmetry parameters retrieved from MISR data were related to the character of the land surface.At Loulan,where the surface was smoother than other sites,retrieved values exhibited the largest negative values of asymmetry factor,suggesting the strongest backscattering.The sand dune area of the Kumtag Desert,which has the greatest roughness,had only slightly negative asymmetry factor values.These findings indicated that at the sensor scale,a rough surface(e.g.,dunes) does not necessarily mean more backscattering than a smooth surface.This finding has significant implications for empirical methods(e.g.,using the normalized index of backward-scattered radiance minus forward-scattered radiance as an indicator of surface roughness),which should be used carefully for analyzing surface roughness from the remote

  19. Baryomorphosis: Relating the Baryon Asymmetry to the "WIMP Miracle"

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a generic framework, "baryomorphosis", which modifies the baryon asymmetry to be naturally of the order of a typical thermal relic WIMP density. We consider a simple scalar-based model to show how this is possible. This model introduces a sector in which a large initial baryon asymmetry is injected into particles ("annihilons"), phi_{B}, phi_{B, hat}, of mass ~ 100 GeV - 1 TeV. phi_{B}-phi_{B, hat} annihilations convert the initial phi_{B}, phi_{B, hat} asymmetry to a final asymmetry with a thermal relic WIMP-like density. This subsequently decays to a conventional baryon asymmetry whose magnitude is naturally related to the density of thermal relic WIMP dark matter. In this way the two coincidences of baryons and dark matter i.e. why their densities are similar to each other and why they are both similar to a WIMP thermal relic density (the "WIMP miracle"), may be understood. The model can be tested by the production of annihilons at colliders.

  20. EEG Asymmetry and ERN: Behavioral Outcomes in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnoche, J. Patrick; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Vess, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Research has documented reciprocal influences between approach-related and inhibition-related neural activity in adults. However, associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have not been tested in children. It is thus unclear whether these links are present early in life and whether associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have long-term behavioral consequences. To address these gaps in the literature, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine associations between approach-related neural activity (i.e., hemispheric asymmetry) and inhibition-related neural activity (i.e., error-related negativity [ERN]) in preschool-aged children. Furthermore, we explored whether interactions between asymmetry and ERN predicted social inhibition, a precursor to anxiety problems, or symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) six months later. Similar to research on adults, greater left asymmetry (i.e., greater approach-related neural activity) was correlated with reduced ERN amplitude (i.e., weaker inhibition-related neural activity). The interactive effect of asymmetry and ERN amplitude did not predict ADHD symptoms, but did predict social inhibition. When ERN was greater, less left asymmetry was associated with higher levels of social inhibition. Results were most prominent at parietal EEG sites. Implications for understanding the development of the overlap in neural systems of approach and inhibition are discussed. PMID:27223612

  1. Measurement of Z{sup 0} lepton coupling asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smy, M.B.

    1997-07-01

    Polarized Z{sup 0}`s from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters A{sub e}, A{sub {mu}} and A{sub {tau}} from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of A{sub {mu}}. The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give A{sub {mu}} = 0.102 {+-}0.034 and the tau-pairs give A{sub {tau}} = 0.195 {+-}0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} final state measure A{sub e} to be A{sub e} = 0.152{+-}0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter A{sub e-{mu}-{tau}} = 0.151{+-}0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff}=0.2310{+-}0.0014 at the Z{sup 0} pole.

  2. EEG Asymmetry and ERN: Behavioral Outcomes in Preschoolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Patrick Begnoche

    Full Text Available Research has documented reciprocal influences between approach-related and inhibition-related neural activity in adults. However, associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have not been tested in children. It is thus unclear whether these links are present early in life and whether associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have long-term behavioral consequences. To address these gaps in the literature, we used electroencephalography (EEG to examine associations between approach-related neural activity (i.e., hemispheric asymmetry and inhibition-related neural activity (i.e., error-related negativity [ERN] in preschool-aged children. Furthermore, we explored whether interactions between asymmetry and ERN predicted social inhibition, a precursor to anxiety problems, or symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD six months later. Similar to research on adults, greater left asymmetry (i.e., greater approach-related neural activity was correlated with reduced ERN amplitude (i.e., weaker inhibition-related neural activity. The interactive effect of asymmetry and ERN amplitude did not predict ADHD symptoms, but did predict social inhibition. When ERN was greater, less left asymmetry was associated with higher levels of social inhibition. Results were most prominent at parietal EEG sites. Implications for understanding the development of the overlap in neural systems of approach and inhibition are discussed.

  3. EEG Asymmetry and ERN: Behavioral Outcomes in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnoche, J Patrick; Brooker, Rebecca J; Vess, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Research has documented reciprocal influences between approach-related and inhibition-related neural activity in adults. However, associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have not been tested in children. It is thus unclear whether these links are present early in life and whether associations between neural systems of approach and inhibition have long-term behavioral consequences. To address these gaps in the literature, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine associations between approach-related neural activity (i.e., hemispheric asymmetry) and inhibition-related neural activity (i.e., error-related negativity [ERN]) in preschool-aged children. Furthermore, we explored whether interactions between asymmetry and ERN predicted social inhibition, a precursor to anxiety problems, or symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) six months later. Similar to research on adults, greater left asymmetry (i.e., greater approach-related neural activity) was correlated with reduced ERN amplitude (i.e., weaker inhibition-related neural activity). The interactive effect of asymmetry and ERN amplitude did not predict ADHD symptoms, but did predict social inhibition. When ERN was greater, less left asymmetry was associated with higher levels of social inhibition. Results were most prominent at parietal EEG sites. Implications for understanding the development of the overlap in neural systems of approach and inhibition are discussed. PMID:27223612

  4. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  5. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  6. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-08-25

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  7. Suppressed $B \\to PV $ CP asymmetry: CPT constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Nogueira, J H Alvarenga; Frederico, T; Magalhães, P C; Rodriguez, J Molina

    2016-01-01

    Charge Parity asymmetry in charmless B meson decays is a key issue to be understood. Many theoretical calculations have been performed using short distance factorization approaches which, in general, do not take into account the CPT invariance constraint. For each channel with CP violation there is an equal amount of CP asymmetry in another channel or other channels, with an opposite sign. This happens if these channels are coupled through final state interactions (FSI). In the specific process $B\\to PV$, involving one pseudo-scalar and one vector particle in the final state, we argue that the CP asymmetry, inherent from a short distance mechanism, could be suppressed due to the CPT constraint. In this case, we propose a sensitive and practical experimental method to identify even a small CP asymmetry, which provides the values for $A_{CP}$ without the need for an amplitude analysis. This method, if applied directly to data, will enable to extract the CP asymmetry information in a model independent way and ch...

  8. Ambiguities and Asymmetries in Consent and Refusal: Reply to Manson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Rob

    2016-06-01

    John Harris claims that is it 'palpable nonsense' to suggest that 'a child (or anyone) might competently consent to a treatment but not be competent to refuse it.' In 'Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal' Neil Manson aims to explain away the apparent oddness of this asymmetry of consent and refusal, by appealing to the idea of shared normative powers, presenting joint bank accounts as an example. In this article, I will argue that Manson's account fails to explain away the oddness. Rather, I will argue that there are ambiguities to which Manson has not paid sufficient attention. In fact, as odd as it may sound, I argue that Manson actually agrees with Harris (at least in relation to the asymmetry of competence). He fails to recognize that he agrees with Harris because he is not careful enough to distinguish between different asymmetries, which I have labelled the asymmetries of choice, permissibility and competence.

  9. Bionic asymmetry: from amiiform fish to undulating robotic fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU TianJiang; SHEN LinCheng; LOW K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to bionic non-smooth which has been successfully applied in anti-resistance and anti-adhesion, bionic asymmetry is also an inherent property of biological systems and is worth exploring for con-ceivable pragmatic applications. Therefore, bionic asymmetry for undulations is of main interest in this paper. We initially investigate bionic asymmetry with a case study of the undulating robotic fin, RoboGnilos, which evolved from the long dorsal fin of Gymnarchus niloticus in the amiiforrn mode. Since the performance of the pre-existing undulating fins is hardly satisfactory, we obtain bionic in-spirations of undulatory asymmetry through observations and measurements on the specimen of G. niloticus, to improve upon the performance. Consequently, the newly acquired innovation for bionic asymmetry is incorporated into the previously derived kinematics model, and also applied to the ex-perimental prototype. Both computational and experimental results verify that bionic asymmetric un-dulation generates better propulsion performance (in terms of linear velocity and efficiency) than the traditional symmetric modes with the same undulatory parameters.

  10. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunhao; Dai; Dongmin; Kong; Li; Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that(1) reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior;(2)relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and(3) by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  11. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  12. Time-dependent CP asymmetries in D and B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in charm decays can provide a unique insight into the flavor changing structure of the Standard Model. We examine a number of different CP eigenstate decays of D mesons and describe a method that can be used to measure time-dependent CP asymmetries at existing and future experiments, with a preliminary assessment, based on statistical considerations, of their various capabilities. Any asymmetry observed in time-dependent analysis of neutral D mesons could signify new physics. We discuss the measurements required to perform direct and indirect tests of the charm unitarity triangle and the relationship between this and the B_d unitarity triangle. We also highlight that current experimental bounds on DeltaGamma(B_d) translate into a significant systematic uncertainty on the measurement of beta from b to c c-bar s decays.

  13. Measurement of the Charge Asymmetry in Top Quark Pair Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böser Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a measurement of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production using an integrated luminosity of 1.09 fb−1 collected with the CMS detector. Top quark pairs with a signature of one electron or muon and four or more jets, at least one of them b tagged, are selected. At the LHC a small charge asymmetry in the rapidity distributions of top and antitop quarks is predicted. Therein slightly broader rapidity distributions for top quarks are expected, while antitop quarks are produced more centrally and possess narrower rapidity distributions. We determine the charge asymmetry based on two different sensitive variables and the results are compared with the most precise standard model theory predictions using a dedicated unfolding technique.

  14. Time Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the arrow of time in quantum mechanics in the context of quantum cosmology. The ``Copenhagen'' quantum mechanics of measured subsystems incorporates a fundamental arrow of time. Extending discussions of Aharonov, Bergmann and Lebovitz, Griffiths, and others we investigate a generalized quantum mechanics for cosmology that utilizes both an initial and a final density matrix to give a time-neutral formulation without a fundamental arrow of time. Time asymmetries can arise for particular universes from differences between their initial and final conditions. Theories for both would be a goal of quantum cosmology. A special initial condition and a final condition of indifference would be sufficient to explain the observed time asymmetries of the universe. In this essay we ask under what circumstances a completely time symmetric universe, with T-symmetric initial and final condition, could be consistent with the time asymmetries of the limited domain of our experience. We discuss the ap...

  15. Gravitational Waves from Stellar Collapse: Correlations to Explosion Asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Fryer, C L; Hughes, S A; Fryer, Chris L.; Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of massive stars not only produces observable outbursts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum but, for Galactic (or near-Galactic) supernovae, detectable signals for ground-based neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational waves and neutrinos provide the only means to study the actual engine behind the optical outbursts: the collapsed stellar core. While the neutrinos are most sensitive to details of the equation of state, gravitational waves provide a means to study the mass asymmetries in this central core. We present gravitational wave signals from a series of 3-dimensional core-collapse simulations with asymmetries derived from initial perturbations caused by pre-collapse convection, core rotation, and low-mode convection in the explosion engine itself. A Galactic supernovae will allow us to differentiate these different sources of asymmetry. Combining this signal with other observations of the supernova, from neutrinos to gamma-rays to the compact remnant, dramatically incr...

  16. Relationship between facial asymmetry and judging trustworthiness in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W; Bava, S; Reis, V A

    2003-07-01

    Nonverbal facial signals provide valuable information for successful social interactions. Previous findings showed left-right facial asymmetry in attractiveness, smiling, and health in faces, and here we investigated the asymmetrical status of trustworthiness. Pairs of left-left and right-right faces from 38 photographs were viewed by participants who judged which member of the pair looked the most trustworthy. The results were compared to attractiveness and smiling judgements (Zaidel, Chen, & German, 1995). We found that trustworthiness was more related to attractiveness than to smiling in the women's faces, but no significant asymmetry for trustworthiness was found; in the men's faces, trustworthiness was neither related to attractiveness nor to smiling, nor was there a significant asymmetry. Taken together, trustworthiness as a facial display is complex; even when it appears to confirm the "halo effect", its expression is not strongly left-right asymmetrical in contrast to attractiveness or smiling. PMID:15513223

  17. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside an event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer Anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Besides, unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a ``sudden death" and the steering from Anti-Bob to Bob appears a ``sudden birth" with the increasing of Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry can \\emph{ exceed} $\\ln 2$ in curved spacetime, which is quite different from the flat spacetime case [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060403 (2015)] where the steering asymmetry can \\emph{neve...

  18. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  19. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  20. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. PMID:26347639

  1. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  2. CP asymmetries in the supersymmetric trilepton signal at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bornhauser, S; Dreiner, H; Eboli, O J P; Kim, J S; Kittel, O

    2011-01-01

    In the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, we study the production of a neutralino-chargino pair at the LHC. For their decays into three leptons, we analyze CP asymmetries which are sensitive to the CP phases of the neutralino and chargino sector. We present analytical formulas for the entire production and decay process, and identify the CP-violating contributions in the spin correlation terms. This allows us to define the optimal CP asymmetries. We present a detailed numerical analysis of the cross sections, branching ratios, and the CP observables. For light neutralinos, charginos, and squarks, the asymmetries can reach several 10%. We estimate the discovery potential for the LHC to observe CP violation in the trilepton channel.

  3. Rates and Asymmetries of B --> pi l+ l- Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Xu, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment observed B+ --> pi+ mu+ mu- decay with 1.0 fb^-1 data, which is the first measurement of a flavor changing neutral current b --> d l+ l- decay (l = e, mu). Based on QCD factorization, we give Standard Model predictions for the branching ratios, direct CP asymmetries, and isospin asymmetry for B --> pi l+ l- decays, in the kinematic region where the dilepton invariant mass is small. We find that the contribution from weak annihilation enhances the direct CP asymmetry for low l+ l- pair mass. Anticipating improved measurements, we assess the utility of B+ --> pi+ l+ l- observables, when combined with B0 --> pi- l+ nu and B+ --> K+ l+ l-, for determining CKM parameters in the future.

  4. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmïden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering 160 GeV/$c$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured as a function of $Q^2$, $x_{Bj}$, or $p_{T}^{2}$. The $\\sin \\phi_S$ asymmetry is found to be $-0.019 \\pm 0.008(stat.) \\pm 0.003(syst.)$. All other asymmetries are also found to be of small magnitude and consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Very recent calculations using a GPD-based model agree well with the present results. The data is interpreted as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalized parton distributions.

  5. Informational Asymmetries and the International Transmission of Business Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Mujica

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Informational Asymmetries and the International Transmission of Business Cycles Several recent papers have analyzed the international transmission of economic disturbances in a context in which all goods are traded. Additionaly, those papers assume alternatively full contemporaneous infomation on financial variables is not available at all. A key feature of the model is that agent in each country observe all those variables directly linked with the markets in wich they usuallyy trade but they do not have access to the infomation provided by the market for nontraded goods in the foreign countrv. Therefore. the introduction of nontreded goods provides a natural settings for assuming an asymmetry in the information set available to agents across countries. It is shown that this asymmetry is crucial for the existence of real effects associated with monetary shocks and also for the nature of the international transmission  of business cycles across countries.

  6. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  7. The relationship between skull asymmetry and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain damage and skull asymmetry or supine head position preference, we classified CT findings of 330 cases with cerebral palsy or risk of motor disturbance into 6 groups according to skull shape. Those were severe (I, n = 37) and mild (II, n = 114) grades in the right occipital flatness, severe (III, n = 34) and mild (IV, n = 58) grades in the left occipital flatness, long skull with temporal flatness (V, n = 33) and symmetric round skull (control, n = 54). It was considered that the asymmetry of cortical atrophy in appearance was formed physicaly by skull asymmetry but that the asymmetric dilatation in appearance of lateral ventricle was related to the asymmetry of brain damage. The severity and the asymmetry of brain damage were tend to increase the grade of skull asymmetry. The incidence of cases with the right occipital flatness was 1.6 times more frequently than the left sided. The incidence of cases whose left (lateral) ventricle was larger than the right was 4.1 times more than the cases whose right ventricle was larger than the left. The cases with occipital flatness in the contralateral side of the larger lateral ventricle were found more than the cases with occipital flatness in the ipsilateral side of the larger ventricle, that is to say, the direction of supine head position preference during early infant was suspected to be the more severely disturbed side of body. These results suggest that the supine head position preference to the right in newborn babies and infants with scoliosis or cerebral palsy might be the result of transient or permanent asymmetric (left > right) brain dysfunction. (author)

  8. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  9. Neutrinos and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, R Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations provides a solid evidence for nonzero neutrino masses and leptonic mixing. The fact that neutrino masses are so tiny constitutes a puzzling problem in particle physics. From the theoretical viewpoint, the smallness of neutrino masses can be elegantly explained through the seesaw mechanism. Another challenging issue for particle physics and cosmology is the explanation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in Nature. Among the viable mechanisms, leptogenesis is a simple and well-motivated framework. In this talk we briefly review these aspects, making emphasis on the possibility of linking neutrino physics to the cosmological baryon asymmetry originated from leptogenesis.

  10. Hypermagnetic Fields and Baryon Asymmetry from Pseudoscalar Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Anber, Mohamed M

    2015-01-01

    We show that maximally helical hypermagnetic fields produced during pseudoscalar inflation can generate the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe via the B+L anomaly in the Standard Model. We find that most of the parameter space of pseudoscalar inflation that explains the cosmological data leads to baryon overproduction, hence the models of natural inflation are severely constrained. We also point out a connection between the baryon number and topology of the relic magnetic fields. Both the magnitude and sign of magnetic helicity can be detected in future diffuse gamma ray data. This will be a smoking gun evidence for a link between inflation and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  11. Semiclassical Interpretation of the Mass Asymmetry in Nuclear Fission

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, M; Sieber, M

    1997-01-01

    We give a semiclassical interpretation of the mass asymmetry in the fission of heavy nuclei. Using only a few classical periodic orbits and a cavity model for the nuclear mean field, we reproduce the onset of left-right asymmetric shapes at the fission isomer minimum and the correct topology of the deformation energy surface in the region of the outer fission barrier. We point at the correspondence of the single-particle quantum states responsible for the asymmetry with the leading classical orbits, both lying in similar equatorial planes perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the system.

  12. Asymmetry and basic pathways in sleep-stage transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical aspects of sleep micro-architecture. We find that sleep dynamics exhibits a high degree of asymmetry, and that the entire class of sleep-stage transition pathways underlying the complexity of sleep dynamics throughout the night can be characterized by two independent asymmetric transition paths. These basic pathways remain stable under sleep disorders, even though the degree of asymmetry is significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate an intriguing temporal organization in sleep micro-architecture at short time scales that is typical for physical systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC), and indicates nonequilibrium critical dynamics in brain activity during sleep.

  13. Beam-Charge Asymmetry associated with DVCS at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinghaus, F

    2002-01-01

    We report the first observation of an azimuthal asymmetry in the hard electroproduction of real photons with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam. The asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply-virtual Compton scattering process, which gives access to the latter at the amplitude level. This process appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access generalized parton distributions. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target.

  14. Secular cycle of the north-south solar asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, K.; B. Kirov

    2005-01-01

    The North-South asymmetry of solar activity has been recognized for different solar phenomena. Following Waldmeier, it is now assumed that solar activity dominates in the Northern solar hemisphere during the ascending part of the secular solar cycle, in the Southern one during the descending part, and in epochs of secular minima and maxima the asymmetry is small. The episodes when this rule does not hold (the Maunder minimum in the end of the 17th century, and 19th and 20th solar cycles in th...

  15. CMB Power Asymmetry from Primordial Sound Speed Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background may be explained by the modulation of some primordial cosmological parameter, such as the sound speed of the inflaton. This modulation can be achieved by the perturbation of a light field during inflation. We numerically examine this mechanism and show it can be consistent with current observations. Further, this model predicts that the power asymmetry also exists in the temperature-polarization correlation and polarization autocorrelation with the same shape, and in primordial non-gaussianity of equilateral type with a particular shape. Therefore, our mechanism is observationally detectable in forthcoming experiments.

  16. Asymmetry in elite rowers: effect of ergometer design and stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohanno, Vincent; Nordez, Antoine; Smith, Richard; Colloud, Floren

    2015-09-01

    Between limb movement asymmetries and foot force production asymmetries are thought to be detrimental for both rower's performance and risk of injury, particularly when rowing frequently on ergometers. Several ergometers with different designs can be used by rowers as part of their indoor training. Hence, this study aimed to compare asymmetries in lower limb joint kinematics and foot force production with respect to ergometer design and rowing intensity. A new symmetry index was proposed to assess these asymmetries in elite rowers during a test on three ergometers. Additionally, the asymmetry in lower limb length was assessed to investigate its relationship with kinematic and kinetic asymmetries. Parameters describing medium (5-10%) or high (>10%) asymmetries were compared between rowing ergometers and intensities. Results indicated medium asymmetries for the ankle joint angle and hip-knee joint accelerations and high asymmetries for the resultant force and the ankle joint acceleration associated with a low inter-stroke variability. Kinetic asymmetry was neither correlated to kinematic asymmetry nor with lower limb length asymmetry. The use of a mobile ergometer led to higher joint acceleration asymmetries. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relation between these findings and muscular adaptations that may increase the risk of lower-back injury. PMID:26266336

  17. Spin-dependent asymmetry functions in the elastic and inelastic electron-cesium scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the measurements of the relative differential cross section, the exchange asymmetry, the spin-orbit asymmetry, and the interference asymmetry for the electron scattering on cesium atoms from 4 to 18 eV is described. (HSI)

  18. Asymmetry of photodetachment of F- by few-cycle infrared laser fields: laser-intensity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetry of the photodetachment of F- by few-cycle circularly polarized infrared laser fields is studied by using a nonperturbative quantum scattering theory. The asymmetry of photoelectrons emitted to a pair of two opposite directions for low laser peak intensities is found and the dependence of the asymmetry on the laser peak intensity is investigated. It is found that the asymmetry degree varies with the carrier-envelope (CE) phase as a sine-like pattern. The asymmetry degree, the value of the maximal asymmetry degree and the value of the CE phase corresponding to the maximal asymmetry degree vary with the laser peak intensity dramatically. At higher laser intensities, the asymmetry is still distinctive for relatively-long few-cycle pulses. It provides a possible means to measure the CE phase of laser pulses at lower intensities. (authors)

  19. Flavor asymmetry in polarized proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding polarized antiquark flavor asymmetry in Drell-Yan processes. We find that the difference between polarized proton-proton and proton-deuteron Drell-Yan cross sections should provide valuable information on the polarized flavor asymmetry. Numerical results indicate that the asymmetry effects are conspicuous especially in the large-x_F region. Our analysis is important for the transversity distributions because the flavor asymmetry cannot be found by inclusi...

  20. Information Asymmetry and the Market Response to Open Market Share Repurchases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong Soo; Mauck, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure of firm information asymmetry. The information asymmetry measure is based on causality tests relating repurchase information to firm returns. Our results indicate that firms with greater information asymmetry show larger abnormal returns surrounding the announcement of an open market share repurchase. This new information asymmetry proxy remains a significant explanatory factor for announcement abnormal returns after controlling for other conventional informa...

  1. Study on effect of RCS flow asymmetry on locked rotor transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of WH plants experienced RCS flow asymmetry. Westinghouse calculated maximum RCS flow asymmetry for 2,3,4 loop plants. Based on this information, effect of RCS flow asymmetry on pressure transient for Locked Rotor was studied using RETRAN code. Cases for symmetric and asymmetric RCS flow were analyzed. Results were also compared to LOFTRAN results. Results show that assumption of RCS flow asymmetry does result in slightly higher peak pressure, but the effect is not significant

  2. Methodology to compensate β-asymmetries in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The β-asymmetries produced due to installation of high field insertion devices in a storage ring are compensated using quadrupole magnets of insertion straights. In a real machine, it can be achieved by using the measured orbit response matrices. This method has been tested for Indus-2 with several high field devices and details are presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely. PMID:26825249

  4. Cilia, calcium and the basis of left-right asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Dominic P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The clockwise rotation of cilia in the developing mammalian embryo drives a leftward flow of liquid; this genetically regulated biophysical force specifies left-right asymmetry of the mammalian body. How leftward flow is interpreted and information propagated to other tissues is the subject of debate. Four recent papers have shed fresh light on the possible mechanisms.

  5. Pricing CAC 40 Index Options under Asymmetry of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Aboura, Sofiane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses, for the first time, the financial impact on the French market of September 11th, 2001. Was there any information asymmetry around this date? How deep was the reaction of the French investors? This study measures the magnitude of the shock in the stock price process.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  7. Study about the Asymmetry Competing Channel Structure under Bargaining Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; AI Xing-zheng

    2005-01-01

    On the problem of competing channel structure, we present asymmetry competing channel structure models under bargaining power, analyze the evolving process of channel structure under different bargaining power and product nature, find different bargaining power and product nature important role for channel structure, and also present equilibrium result. Furthermore, the academic proof for channel structure choice is presented.

  8. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Otten, B.; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    2011-01-01

    How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral) and three m

  9. Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…

  10. Reduction of asymmetry by rank-one matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Gower has shown how to partition the sum of squares of an asymmetric matrix into independent parts associated with the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of the matrix; and has pointed out that asymmetry can be removed by subtracting certain unit-rank matrices, which improve the symmetry in equa

  11. Optical asymmetry of helical media with a gradient of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic gyrotropic media and helical media in the presence of gradients of optical parameters is considered. It is shown that in helical media effects of asymmetry analogous to effects of irreversibility of waves can be observed

  12. Optical asymmetry of helical media with a gradient of parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Eritsyan, H S

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic gyrotropic media and helical media in the presence of gradients of optical parameters is considered. It is shown that in helical media effects of asymmetry analogous to effects of irreversibility of waves can be observed.

  13. Testing for asymmetry in economic time series using bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lupi; Patrizia Ordine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we show that phase-scrambling bootstrap offers a natural framework for asymmetry testing in economic time series. A comparison with other bootstrap schemes is also sketched. A Monte Carlo analysis is carried out to evaluate the size and power properties of the phase-scrambling bootstrap-based test.

  14. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dyn

  15. Beam asymmetry $\\Sigma$ measurements on the $\\pi^-$ photoproduction off neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Bellini, V; Bocquet, J P; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Ignatov, A; Lapik, A; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Moricciani, D; Mushkarenkov, A N; Nedorezov, V; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N V; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V; Briscoe, W J; Strakovsky, I I

    2010-01-01

    The $\\Sigma$ beam asymmetry in the photoproduction of negative pions from quasi-free neutrons in a deuterium target was measured at Graal in the energy interval 700 - 1500 MeV and a wide angular range, using polarized and tagged photons. The results are compared with recent partial wave analyses.

  16. Universal Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and Cosmological Baryon Number Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2004-01-01

    We conjecture that three light Majorana neutrinos and their right-handed counterparts may have a universal geometric mass hierarchy. Incorporating this phenomenological conjecture with the Fritzsch texture of lepton mass matrices in a simple seesaw mechanism, we show that it is possible to simultaneously account for current neutrino oscillation data and the cosmological baryon number asymmetry via leptogenesis.

  17. Memory Asymmetry of Forward and Backward Associations in Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Zijian; Mecklinger, Axel; Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    There is an intensive debate on whether memory for serial order is symmetric. The objective of this study was to explore whether associative asymmetry is modulated by memory task (recognition vs. cued recall). Participants were asked to memorize word triples (Experiments 1-2) or pairs (Experiments 3-6) during the study phase. They then recalled…

  18. Structural hemispheric asymmetries in the human precentral gyrus hand representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S; Rowland, T; Pannek, K; Baumann, F; Coulthard, A; McCombe, P; Henderson, R

    2012-05-17

    The superior region of the precentral gyrus (preCG) is known to be actively involved with hand function and has been proposed as a possible neural correlate of handedness. To test this hypothesis, we used a combined voxel-based morphometric (VBM) asymmetry analysis of structural MRI, along with diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography to investigate laterality indices of corticomotor white matter (WM) pathways, based on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA). The relationship between measures of motor performance and FA laterality indices was also investigated. In a cohort of 14 right-handed healthy participants, the VBM asymmetry analysis revealed an area within the preCG associated with hand representation. The tractography analysis revealed that this region possessed a number of major WM intrahemispheric connections to the brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum, postcentral, caudal middle and superior frontal, and superior and inferior parietal corticomotor regions. Within the corticospinal tracts, we found FA was significantly higher in the left hemisphere compared with the right. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between FA asymmetry measures projecting from this region, namely corticospinal tracts and those connecting the postcentral gyri, with grip strength and finger-tapping performance, respectively. A number of the motor pathways projecting from this region also exhibited leftward asymmetry of FA distributions. The findings from this study highlight the role of the left motor cortex in skilled motor performance and provide a framework for the study of the relationship between handedness and preCG hand representation in larger normative populations. PMID:22433295

  19. Hints of Greater Matter - Antimatter Asymmetry Challenge Theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    "The universe is chock-full of matter and devoid of antimatter, and physicists can't say why. They think that matter piled up after the big bang thanks to a slight asymmetry, called charge-parity (CP) violation, in the way matter and antimatter behave, but the effects seen so far are too small to do the job" (1 page)

  20. Fluctuations, conformational asymmetry and block copolymer phase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, F.S.; Schulz, M.F.; Khandpur, A.K.;

    1994-01-01

    parameter and degree of polymerization, respectively. epsilon accounts for differences in the conformational and volume-filling characteristics of each block. Conformational asymmetry, epsilon not equal 1, produces an asymmetric phase diagram around f = 1/2. The importance of fluctuation effects...

  1. Parkinson’s disease patients compensate for balance control asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Vugt, van J.P.P.; Bloem, B.R.; Kooij, van der H.

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) subtle balance abnormalities can already be detected in early-stage patients. One feature of impaired balance control in PD is asymmetry: one leg produces more corrective joint torque than the other. We hypothesize that in mild to moderately affected PD patients, the leas

  2. Parkinson's disease patients compensate for balance control asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Vugt, J.P.P. van; Bloem, B.R.; Kooij, H. van der

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) subtle balance abnormalities can already be detected in early-stage patients. One feature of impaired balance control in PD is asymmetry: one leg produces more corrective joint torque than the other. We hypothesize that in mild to moderately affected PD patients, the leas

  3. Double transverse spin asymmetries in vector boson production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D

    2000-01-01

    We investigate a helicity non-flip double transverse spin asymmetry in vector boson production in hadron-hadron scattering, which was first considered by Ralston and Soper at the tree level. It does not involve transversity functions and in principle also arises in W-boson production for which we pr

  4. Handling power-asymmetry in interactions with infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon...

  5. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism.

  6. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, Ernest; /York U., Canada; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2010-05-01

    We measure the charge asymmetry A of like-sign dimuon events in 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the DO detector at a center of mass energy sqrt s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  7. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  8. Network Asymmetries and Access Pricing in Cellular Telecommunications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kocsis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractNetwork shares and retail prices are not symmetric in the telecommunications market with multiple bottlenecks which give rise to new questions of access fee regulation. In this paper we consider a model with two types of asymmetry arising from different entry timing, i.e. a larger reputa

  9. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  10. Parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in (rvec e) p scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from protons. Significant contributions to this asymmetry could arise from the contributions of strange form factors in the nucleon. The measured asymmetry is A = -15.05 ± 0.98(stat) ± 0.56(syst) ppm at the kinematic point lab> = 12.3o and 2> = 0.477 (GeV/c)2. Based on these data as well as data on electromagnetic form factors, we extract the linear combination of strange form factors GEs + 0.392GMs = 0.014 ± 0.020 ± 0.010 where the first error arises from this experiment and the second arises from the electromagnetic form factor data. This paper provides a full description of the special experimental techniques employed for precisely measuring the small asymmetry, including the first use of a strained GaAs crystal and a laser-Compton polarimeter in a fixed target parity-violation experiment

  11. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  12. A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to quantify asymmetry in each point of a surface. The measure is based on analysing displacement vectors resulting from nonrigid image registration. A symmetric atlas, generated from control subjects is registered to a given subject image. A comparison of th...

  13. Single-hadron transverse target spin asymmetries at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark content of the nucleon at twist-two level in the collinear case can be fully described by three independent distribution functions for each quark flavour: the unpolarized distribution function f1(x), the helicity distribution function g1(x) and the transverse spin distribution function h1(x), also called transversity. The measurement of single spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) on a transversely polarized target are an important part of the COMPASS physics program. By extracting azimuthal asymmetries in hadron production one can access both the Collins fragmentation function and the Sivers distribution function. The COMPASS collaboration has measured these asymmetries in the scattering of a 160 GeV/c polarized μ+ beam off a transversely polarized 6LiD (deuteron) target in the years 2002-2004 and off a transversely polarized NH3 (proton) target in 2007 and 2010. In this contribution we especially present results from the 2010 data for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for identified pions and kaons.

  14. Parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in {rvec e} p scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad Aniol; David Armstrong; Todd Averett; Maud Baylac; Etienne Burtin; John Calarco; Gordon Cates; Christian Cavata; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Evaristo Cisbani; Marius Coman; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Martin Epstein; Stephanie Escoffier; Lars Ewell; Nicolas Falletto; John Finn; Kevin Fissum; A.Fleck; Bernard Frois; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; G.Gerstner; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-Ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Maurik Holtrop; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis de Jager; David Jardillier; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; J.Jorda; Christophe Jutier; Kahl; James Kelly; Donghee Kim; Min Kim; Minsuk Kim; Ioannis Kominis; Edgar Kooijman; Kevin Kramer; Krishna Kumar; Michael Kuss; John LeRose; Raffaele De Leo; M.Leuschner; David Lhuillier; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; R.Lourie; Richard Madey; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Frederic Marie; Pete Markowitz; Jacques Martino; Peter Mastromarino; Kathy McCormick; Justin McIntyre; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Brian Milbrath; Gerald Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Ludyvine Morand; Damien Neyret; Charles Perdrisat; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; John Price; David Prout; Vina Punjabi; Thierry Pussieux; Gilles Quemener; Ronald Ransome; David Relyea; Yves Roblin; Julie Roche; Gary Rutledge; Paul Rutt; Marat Rvachev; Franck Sabatie; Arunava Saha; Paul Souder; Marcus Spradlin; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Jeffrey Templon; Tatsuo Terasawa; J.Thompson; Raphael Tieulent; Luminita Todor; Baris Tonguc; Paul Ulmer; Guido Urciuoli; Branislav Vlahovic; Krishni Wijesooriya; R.Wilson; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Rhett Woo; Wang Xu; Imran Younus; C. Zhang

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from protons. Significant contributions to this asymmetry could arise from the contributions of strange form factors in the nucleon. The measured asymmetry is A = -15.05 {+-} 0.98(stat) {+-} 0.56(syst) ppm at the kinematic point <{theta}{sub lab}> = 12.3{sup o} and = 0.477 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Based on these data as well as data on electromagnetic form factors, we extract the linear combination of strange form factors G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.392G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.014 {+-} 0.020 {+-} 0.010 where the first error arises from this experiment and the second arises from the electromagnetic form factor data. This paper provides a full description of the special experimental techniques employed for precisely measuring the small asymmetry, including the first use of a strained GaAs crystal and a laser-Compton polarimeter in a fixed target parity-violation experiment.

  15. Far Wing Asymmetry of Rotational Raman Lines in Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Gustafsson

    2010-01-01

    interference and Fano line shapes. Here we analyze the 0(0 line for pure hydrogen at 36 K in detail. The added asymmetry stems partly from a shape resonance which adds significant intensity to the higher frequency side of the line profile. The influence of the threshold energy for the rotational transition accounts for the remainder.

  16. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  17. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  18. Asymmetry in pulse-coupled oscillators with delay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitler, M.; Daffertshofer, A.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of synchronization in asymmetrically coupled neural oscillators with time delay. Stability analysis revealed that symmetric excitatory coupling results in synchrony at multiple phase relations. Asymmetry yields two saddle-node bifurcations of the stable states when coupling i

  19. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M. Abazov; . et al.; S.J. de Jong; M. Demarteau; P. Houben; P.J. van den Berg

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3 fb(-1) of data collected at root s =1.96 GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron (p) over bar Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculation

  20. The CP-violating asymmetry in K_L -> pi+ pi- e+ e-

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, G; Pichl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We update the theoretical analysis of the CP-violating asymmetry in the decay K_L -> pi+ pi- e+ e-, relying on chiral perturbation theory and on the most recent phenomenological information. With the experimentally determined magnetic amplitude and branching ratio as input, the asymmetry can be calculated with good accuracy. The theoretical interpretation of the sign of the asymmetry is discussed.

  1. INTERACTION AND INTERDETERMINATION OF COMPETITION PROCESSES AND INFORMATION ASYMMETRY ON THE REGIONAL TRADE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Persky, Y.; Dmitriev, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present article is to define the "information asymmetry" term depending on the information type; to prove incapability of the existing signs of smoothing of information asymmetry effects; and to substantiate an urgent need for generation of an information and economic mechanism aimed at formation of competitive environment on the trade market on the basis of information asymmetry level management.

  2. The Bayesian Effects in Measurement of the Asymmetry of Poisson Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bityukov, S. I.; Krasnikov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Smirnova, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    As it follows from the interrelation of Gamma and Poisson distributions the observed value of asymmetry for Poisson flows of events has the bias. The Monte Carlo experiment confirms the presence of this bias between the observed and initial asymmetries. The obtained results allow to correct the estimation of the asymmetry of flow rates.

  3. Single spin asymmetry in large pt inclusive π+ and π- production from p↑p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented for the left-right asymmetry in inclusively produced π+ and π- with a transverse polarized proton beam on an unpolarized LH2 target. Above pt of 1 GeV/c, and large asymmetry is seen for the π+ and little asymmetry is seen for the π-

  4. Hemispheric asymmetries of functional connectivity and grey matter volume in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Victor M; Barrios, Fernando A; Martínez-Gudiño, María L; Alcauter, Sarael

    2012-06-01

    Resting state networks such as the default mode network have been widely reported. Although a plethora of information on its functional relevance has been generated, little is known about lateralization or hemisphere asymmetry within the DMN. We used high-resolution resting state fMRI and T1 3D data to investigate such asymmetries in two groups of healthy subjects, one right-handed and one left-handed. Independent component analysis and the dual regression approach were carried out to identify functional asymmetries, while voxel-based morphometry was used to identify structural asymmetries in grey matter volume within the DMN. Greater leftward functional connectivity was observed in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) for both groups. Leftward functional asymmetry was observed in the thalamus and rightward functional asymmetries were observed in the middle frontal and middle/superior temporal gyrus in the right-handed group. Rightward asymmetries in grey matter volume were observed in the posterior portion of the PCG for both groups. The right-handed group exhibited leftward structural asymmetries in the anterior portion of the PCG and in the middle frontal and posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus, while rightward asymmetries were observed in the posterior portion of the PCG and anterior portions of temporal regions. These results suggest that functional connectivity and grey matter volume are not equally distributed between hemispheres within the DMN, and that functional asymmetries are not always reflected or determined by structural asymmetries.

  5. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Borissov, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dueren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Golembiovskaya, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, N; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikas, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Ruiz, A Lopez; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X -G; Lu, X -R; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfre, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Movsisyan, A; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Mueller, D; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schaefer, A; Schnell, G; Schueler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2010-01-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle $\\phi$ around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously ...

  6. Measurement of Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Electron-Deuteron Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Subedi, R; Ahmed, Z; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Armstrong, D S; Arrington, J; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Deng, X; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Erler, J; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, A; Golge, S; Grimm, K; Hafidi, K; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Holt, R J; Huang, J; Hyde, C E; Jen, C M; Jones, D; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P M; Kowalski, S; Kumar, K S; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Long, E; McNulty, D; Margaziotis, D J; Meddi, F; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Mesick, K E; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman, A; Oh, Y; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Rider, K; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rubin, J; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Širca, S; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Waidyawansa, B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, L; Zhao, B; Zheng, X

    2014-01-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.

  7. Mapping the stability of human brain asymmetry across five sex-chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L; Lalonde, Francois; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin

    2015-01-01

    The human brain displays stereotyped and early emerging patterns of cortical asymmetry in health. It is unclear if these asymmetries are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation or fundamental features of the brain that can survive severe developmental perturbations. To address this question, we mapped cortical thickness (CT) asymmetry in a group of genetically defined disorders known to impact CT development. Participants included 137 youth with one of five sex-chromosome aneuploidies [SCAs; XXX (n = 28), XXY (n = 58), XYY (n = 26), XXYY (n = 20), and XXXXY (n = 5)], and 169 age-matched typically developing controls (80 female). In controls, we replicated previously reported rightward inferior frontal and leftward lateral parietal CT asymmetry. These opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetries were broadly preserved in all five SCA groups. However, we also detected foci of shifting CT asymmetry with aneuploidy, which fell almost exclusively within regions of significant CT asymmetry in controls. Specifically, X-chromosome aneuploidy accentuated normative rightward inferior frontal asymmetries, while Y-chromosome aneuploidy reversed normative rightward medial prefrontal and lateral temporal asymmetries. These findings indicate that (1) the stereotyped normative pattern of opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetry arises from developmental mechanisms that can withstand gross chromosomal aneuploidy and (2) X and Y chromosomes can exert focal, nonoverlapping and directionally opposed influences on CT asymmetry within cortical regions of significant asymmetry in health. Our study attests to the resilience of developmental mechanisms that support the global patterning of CT asymmetry in humans, and motivates future research into the molecular bases and functional consequences of sex chromosome dosage effects on CT asymmetry.

  8. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexey Prokudin,Zhong-Bo Kang

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain ``sign mismatch'' between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the ``sign mismatch''. Possible explanations are then discussed.

  9. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain "sign mismatch" between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the "sign mismatch". Possible explanations are then discussed.

  10. Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.

  11. Beam spin asymmetry in deep and exclusive pi0 electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    De Masi, R; Zhao, B; Amaryan, M J; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertin, P; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Crabb, D; Credé, V; Dashyan, N; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Fradi, A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gonenc, A; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacCormick, M; Markov, N; Mattione, P; Mazouz, M; McKinnon, B; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Michel, B; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati, F; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, e V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shvedunov, N V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W

    2007-01-01

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction ep->ep pi0 was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). The xB, Q2, t and phi dependences of the pi0 BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sin(phi) function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04 - 0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a non-zero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed.

  12. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  13. Dark matter, shared asymmetries, and galactic gamma ray signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Nayara; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a novel dark matter scenario where the visible sector and the dark sector share a common asymmetry. The two sectors are connected through an unstable mediator with baryon number one, allowing the standard model baryon asymmetry to be shared with dark matter via semi-annihilation. The present-day abundance of dark matter is then set by thermal freeze-out of this semi-annihilation process, yielding an asymmetric version of the WIMP miracle as well as promising signals for indirect detection experiments. As a proof of concept, we find a viable region of parameter space consistent with the observed Fermi excess of GeV gamma rays from the galactic center.

  14. Dark Matter, Shared Asymmetries, and Galactic Gamma Ray Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, Nayara; Thaler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel dark matter scenario where the visible sector and the dark sector share a common asymmetry. The two sectors are connected through an unstable mediator with baryon number one, allowing the standard model baryon asymmetry to be shared with dark matter via semi-annihilation. The present-day abundance of dark matter is then set by thermal freeze-out of this semi-annihilation process, yielding an asymmetric version of the WIMP miracle as well as promising signals for indirect detection experiments. As a proof of concept, we find a viable region of parameter space consistent with the observed Fermi excess of GeV gamma rays from the galactic center.

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry and parasitism in six New Zealand insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren F.; Thomas, Frédéric; Poulin, Robert

    1998-10-01

    Positive associations between parasitic infections and developmental instability are often reported in the literature. In some cases, developmentally unstable individuals are of lower genetic quality and more prone to infection, whereas in other cases, parasites appear to directly cause developmental instability. We determined whether parasitism correlated with fluctuating asymmetry in femur length, a measure of developmental instability, in two species of cockroaches harbouring benign nematodes, and four species of grasshoppers infected with harmful gregarine protozoans. We found no evidence that the more asymmetrical individuals were more heavily parasitized, in either of the six insect species. These results provide several exceptions to the pattern generally reported in the recent literature, and suggest that, at least among insects, fluctuating asymmetry and parasitism are not always associated.

  16. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Seder, E; Pisano, S; Niccolai, S

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for $ep\\to e'p'\\gamma$ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in $Q^2$, $x_B$, $t$ and $\\phi$, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the $t$ dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  17. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins but that in the limit of a small longitudinal momentum fraction x , only one origin remains. We find that in this limit, only the dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small x , they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small x is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons.

  18. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt

    2012-09-27

    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.

  19. Peculiar seasonal effects in the neutrino day-night asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kharlanov, Oleg G

    2015-01-01

    We analyze peculiar effects in the day-night asymmetry of solar neutrinos taking place due to their continuous observation during the night and/or the year. Namely, we show that the day-night effect contains both a trivial, cumulative contribution from the whole observation term and a number of localized terms originating from around the midnights (during the nights) and the two solstices (during the year). We estimate the latter contributions using asymptotical methods and discuss the prospects of their isolation, i.e., magnification, by contraction of the neutrino observation term to small neighborhoods of the localization points. In order to complement our asymptotical predictions derived analytically, we also perform a full numerical analysis of a temporally-weighted observation of the day-night effect, including the energy spectrum of the day-night asymmetry and an estimation of the recoil energy distributions for the elastic-scattering detection channel. According to both analytical and numerical result...

  20. Hemispherical Power Asymmetry from Scale-Dependent Modulated Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field $\\sigma$. $\\sigma$ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of $\\sigma$ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to $\\sigma$ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component.

  1. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu A; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Arbuzov, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, J; Baum, G; Barth, J; Bedfer, Y; Bernet, C; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Brona, G; Burtin, E; Bussa, M P; Chapiro, A; Chiosso, M; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Crespo, M L; D'Hose, N; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Das-Gupta, S S; De Masi, R; Dedek, N; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Díaz, V; Dinkelbach, A M; Donskov, S V; Dorofeev, V A; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Fabro, M; Faessler, M; Falaleev, V; Ferrero, A; Ferrero, L; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; Franz, J; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S G; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Görtz, S; Gorin, A M; Grabmuller, S; Grajek, O A; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hannappel, J; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hedicke, S; Heinsius, F H; Hermann, R; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Von Hodenberg, M; Horikawa, N; Horikawa, S; Ilgner, C; Ioukaev, A I; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Janata, A; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Jouravlev, N I; Kabuss, E M; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Komissarov, E V; Kondo, K; Knigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korentchenko, A S; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Koutchinski, N A; Kuznetsov, O; Kravchuk, N P; Kral, A; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kühn, R; Kunne, Fabienne; Kurek, K; Ladygin, M E; Lamanna, M; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Ludwig, I; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Marroncle, J; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Massmann, F; Matsuda, T; Maksimov, A N; Meyer, W; Mielech, A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Mutter, A; Nahle, O; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J P; Neliba, S; Nerling, F; Neubert, a S; Neyret, D P; Nikolaenko, V I; Nikolaev, K; Olshevskii, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B; Peshekhonov, V D; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Procureur, S; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Rapatsky, V; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, H; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Schiavon, Paolo; Schill, C; Schmitt, L; Schonmeier, P; Schroder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Siebert, H W; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Sugonyaev, V P; Srnka, A; Stinzing, F; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Takabayashi, N; Tchalishev, V V; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Tkatchev, L G; Venugopal, G; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Vossen, A; Webb, R; Weise, E; Weitzel, Q; Windmolders, R; Wirth, S; Wilicki, W; Zaremba, s K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhao, J; Ziegler, R; Zvyagin, A

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal double spin asymmetry A_1^rho for exclusive leptoproduction of rho^0 mesons, mu + N -> mu + N + rho, is studied using the COMPASS 2002 and 2003 data. The measured reaction is incoherent exclusive rho^0 production on polarised deuterons. The Q^2 and x dependence of A_1^rho is presented in a wide kinematical range: 3x10^-3 < Q^2 < 7 (GeV/c)^2 and 5x10^-5 < x < 0.05. The presented results are the first measurements of A_1^rho at small Q2 (Q2 < 0.1 (GeV/c)^2) and small x (x < 3x10^-3). The asymmetry is in general compatible with zero in the whole kinematical range.

  2. Asymmetry influence on indirect-drive Iskra-5 implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkhitarian, L.S.; Bel' kov, S.A.; Bassarab, A.V.; Bondarenko, S.V.; Eremenko, Y.N.; Vinokurov, O.A.; Gaidash, V.A.; Zhidkov, N.V.; Isgorodin, V.M.; Kirillov, G.A.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Litvin, D.N.; Martinenko, S.P.; Murugov, V.M.; Petrov, S.I.; Pinegin, A.V.; Suslov, N.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    A high and stable symmetry of X-ray drive inside a spherical hohlraum (with the ratio of hohlraum and capsule diameters about 7) allowed us to investigate the influence of a controlled large scale asymmetry of a capsule with DT-fuel on target implosion performance. By varying the thickness of asymmetric coating of the target shell we could change the neutron yield, time separation between X-ray and neutron pulses and other parameters of implosion. By varying thickness of the symmetric part of shell we could change the regime of implosion: from the exploding pusher regime to the ablative one. In new types of experiments we changed the X-ray drive asymmetry by shifting the capsule with DT out from the hohlraum (box) center towards the additional seventh hole in the box wall. (authors)

  3. Single spin asymmetries from a single Wilson loop

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins, but that in the limit of small longitudinal momentum fraction $x$ only one origin remains. We find that in this limit only the $C$-odd or dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small $x$ they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small $x$ is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons.

  4. Hohlraum Drive and Asymmetry in High Foot Implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D.; Hurricane, O.; Casey, D.; Dewald, E.; Dittrich, T.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Jones, O.; Kritcher, A.; Lepape, S.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P.; Ralph, J.; Robey, H.; Ross, S.; Salmonson, J.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.

    2015-11-01

    The strategy in the high foot campaign on NIF has been to take reasonably small steps away from a working design, which means that we have a very rich database to understand both capsule and hohlraum performance. Over the course of the campaign, we have changed the laser power and energy, used both gold and depleted uranium hohlraums, and varied the thickness of the ablator. Each of these changes has an impact on the hohlraum drive and drive asymmetry, as measured by the implosion shape. In this talk, we will discuss what we have learned about hohlraum performance and residual kinetic energy resulting from drive asymmetry in the high foot database. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  5. Parton Charge Symmetry Violation: Electromagnetic Effects and W Production Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2006-04-14

    Recent phenomenological work has examined two different ways of including charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. First, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the magnitude of parton charge symmetry breaking. In a second approach, two groups have included the coupling of partons to photons in the QCD evolution equations. One possible experiment that could search for isospin violation in parton distributions is a measurement of the asymmetry in W production at a collider. In this work we include both of the postulated sources of parton charge symmetry violation. We show that, given charge symmetry violation of a magnitude consistent with existing high energy data, the expected W production asymmetries would be quite small, generally less than one percent.

  6. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of 234 U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author)

  7. Anthropometry of love: height and gender asymmetries in interethnic marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belot, Michèle; Fidrmuc, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Both in the UK and in the US, we observe puzzling gender asymmetries in the propensity to outmarry: Black men are more likely to have white spouses than Black women, but the opposite is true for Chinese: Chinese men are half less likely to be married to a White person than Chinese women. We argue that differences in height distributions, combined with a simple preference for the husband to be taller than the wife, can help explain these ethnic-specific gender asymmetries. Blacks are taller than Asians, and we argue that this significantly affects their marriage prospects with whites. We provide empirical support for this hypothesis using data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Specifically, we find that ethnic differences in propensity to intermarry with Whites shrink when we control for the proportion of suitable partners with respect to height.

  8. CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on $f_NL$ and $t_NL$ require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.

  9. CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei, E-mail: l.wang3@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.

  10. Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab

    2016-06-16

    In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.

  11. Direction dependence of cosmological parameters due to cosmic hemispherical asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Das, Santanu; Shaikh, Shabbir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent evidence for a cosmic hemispherical asymmetry in the temperature field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by both WMAP as well as Planck increases the possibility of its cosmological origin. Presence of this signal may lead to different values for the standard model cosmological parameters in different directions, and that can have significant implications for other studies where they are used. We investigate the effect of this cosmic hemispherical asymmetry on cosmological parameters using non-isotropic Gaussian random simulations injected with both scale dependent and scale independent modulation strengths. Our analysis shows that the parameters $A_s$ and $n_s$ are the most susceptible to variation in the sky for the kind of isotropy breaking phenomena under study. As expected, we find maximum variation arises for the case of scale independent modulation of CMB anisotropies. A deviation of $2.25\\sigma$ in $A_s$ is observed for scale dependent modulation case in comparison to its est...

  12. The HERMES measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenthaler, Markus [DESY (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In 2005 the HERMES collaboration published first evidence for azimuthal single-spin asymmetries in the semi-inclusive production of charged pions on a transversely polarised hydrogen target. Significant signals for both the Collins and Sivers mechanisms were observed in data recorded during the 2002-2003 running period of the HERMES experiment. In the conference contribution a preliminary analysis of the full data set with transverse target polarisation is presented for {pi}-mesons and charged K-mesons. These results contribute substantially to the global analysis of the transversity distribution and provide clear evidence for the naive time reversal odd Sivers distribution function. The published results on single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive dihadron production provide an independent experimental constraint on the transversity distribution. Thereby first evidence is found for a non-zero naive time reversal odd chiral-odd dihadron fragmentation function H{sub 1,q} {sup angle}.

  13. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Echevarria, Miguel G; Mulders, Piet J; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins but that in the limit of a small longitudinal momentum fraction x, only one origin remains. We find that in this limit, only the dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small x, they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small x is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons. PMID:27058070

  14. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  15. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  16. Implications of the CMB power asymmetry for the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Seery, David; Tarrant, Ewan R M

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the microwave background fluctuations suggest a scale-dependent amplitude asymmetry of roughly 2.5 sigma significance. Inflationary explanations for this 'anomaly' require non-Gaussian fluctuations which couple observable modes to those on much larger scales. In this Letter we describe an analysis of such scenarios which significantly extends previous treatments. We identify the non-Gaussian 'response function' which characterizes the asymmetry, and show that it is non-trivial to construct a model which yields a sufficient amplitude: many independent fine tunings are required, often making such models appear less likely than the anomaly they seek to explain. We present an explicit model satisfying observational constraints and determine for the first time how large its bispectrum would appear to a Planck-like experiment. Although this model is merely illustrative, we expect it is a good proxy for the bispectrum in a sizeable class of models which generate a scale-dependent response using a lar...

  17. Study of RF-asymmetry in photo-injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Tang, Chuanxiang; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; He, Xiaozhong; Xu, Peng; Li, Renkai

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the RF-asymmetry existing in the full cell of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell type photo-injector has been investigated. The fields of the multi-pole modes have been analyzed respectively, and lastly, a simple and reliable technique is presented to eliminate the dipole mode with the RF-asymmetry induced by dipole mode. In the process of simulation, the time domain module of CST Microwave Studio is mainly used as the tool to calculate the electro-magnetic fields. The FFT technique is employed to conduct frequency domain analysis for the fields. The results of FFT are utilized to estimate emittance growth induced by higher multi-pole modes, according to the framework of Panofsky-Wenzal theorem. Based on the above analysis, efforts have been made to eliminate dipole fields by modifying the length of vacuum port on the opposite side of RF-coupling port.

  18. [Mental disorders and cerebral sensomotor asymmetry in patients with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlianaia, A A; Kalinin, V V; Koviazina, M S; Krylov, O E

    2010-01-01

    A neurological, psychiatric and instrumental (electroencephalography, computer tomography, etc.) study of 84 patients was aimed at assessing an effect of sensomotor asymmetry profile and side of the epileptic focus on semiotics of seizures and psychopathological presentations in partial epilepsy. A data analysis included 111 variables, i.e., psychometric and neuropsychological ones. Groups of patients with left and right profiles of functional interhemispheric asymmetry (LHA and RHA) were singled out. No between-group differences were found in severity of mental disturbances. However, cognitive functions were mostly affected in RHA and psychopathological phenomenon emerged mostly in LPA. The formation of multiple epileptic foci with the involvement of frontal and temporary lobes was the best predictor of mental disorders manifestation compared to age at disease onset, illness duration, frequency and severity of seizures.

  19. Quantification of Cranial Asymmetry in Infants by Facial Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Chang; Wei-Cheng Li; Chung-Lin Huang; Pei-Yeh Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facial feature extracting method is proposed to transform three-dimension (3D) head images of infants with deformational plagiocephaly for assessment of asymmetry. The features of 3D point clouds of an infant’s cranium can be identified by local feature analysis and a two-phase k-means classification algorithm. The 3D images of infants with asymmetric cranium can then be aligned to the same pose. The mirrored head model obtained from the symmetry plane is compared with the original model for the measurement of asymmetry. Numerical data of the cranial volume can be reviewed by a pediatrician to adjust the treatment plan. The system can also be used to demonstrate the treatment progress.

  20. Proprioceptive target matching asymmetries in left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Noble, Brittany C; Brown, Susan H

    2009-08-01

    In right-handers, the ability to reproduce proprioceptive targets has been shown to be asymmetric, favoring the non-preferred left arm. The present study sought to determine whether a similar arm/hemisphere asymmetry exists for left-handers. Ten strong left-handed adults used the left or right arm to perform proprioceptive target matching tasks that varied in processing demands (i.e., need for memory, interhemispheric transfer) and target amplitude (20, 40 degrees). Similar to right-handers, left-handed individuals had smaller total errors when matching with the non-preferred arm. This asymmetry was greatest in conditions with increased processing demands and larger amplitude targets. These results provide the first evidence to date of right arm/left hemisphere dominance for proprioceptive target matching in left-handers that is the "mirror image" of right-handers.

  1. Transport contract optimization under information asymmetry: an example

    OpenAIRE

    Brusset, Xavier; Temme, Nico M.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper shows why information asymmetry and bivariate stochastic demand and spot price induce different behaviours and economic inefficiency in a carrier – shipper relationship. An example is offered of a single period, single echelon, shipper-carrier transport model where demand addressed to the shipper and the spot transport price, two exogenous stochastic variables, follow a bivariate exponential probability distribution function. We evaluate the objective functions of the carrie...

  2. Asymmetry of information and its features in the tourist market

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to determine the nature of asymmetry of information and the features of its existence in the tourist market. The processes of interaction and relationships are emerged and realized through the formation, transfer and interchange of information. The results of the article. Market demand and supply are the information of market actors about their intentions and capabilities. Content of information flows, that connect them, plays a signifi...

  3. Financial market breakdown due to strategy constraints and information asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jie

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the relevance of strategy constraints on market makers to the possibility of financial market breakdown when there is information asymmetry between market makers and investors; both the case of competitive market makers and the case of a monopolistic market marker are included. Specifically, the paper discusses three types of strategy constraints on the market makers and their implications for the equilibria. The results call attention to the need for more precise spec...

  4. Risk Aversion and Incentive Compatibility with Ex Post Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hellwig, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The paper extends Diamond’s (1984) analysis of financial contracting with information asymmetry ex post and endogenous ”bankruptcy penalties” to allow for risk aversion of the borrower. The optimality of debt contracts, which Diamond obtained for the case of risk neutrality, is shown to be nonrobust to the introduction of risk aversion. This contrasts with the costly state verification literature, in which debt contracts are optimal for risk averse as well as risk neutral borrowers.

  5. Information Asymmetry and Financial Development Dynamics in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta; Tchamyou, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    We examine policy thresholds of information sharing for financial development in 53 African countries for the period 2004-2011. Public credit registries (PCR) and private credit bureaus (PCB) are used as proxies for reducing information asymmetry whereas financial development includes all financial dimensions identified by the Financial Development and Structure Database (FDSD) of the World Bank, namely: depth, efficiency, activity and size. The empirical evidence is based on interactive Gene...

  6. Measurement of Azimuthal Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Piccioni, D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Burgard, C; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Johnson, K F; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Monteiro, T; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Tassi, E; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Riveline, M; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of the azimuthal angle for the charged hadrons has been studied in the hadronic centre-of-mass system for neutral current deep inelastic positron-proton scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Measurements of the dependence of the moments of this distribution on the transverse momenta of the charged hadrons are presented. Asymmetries that can be unambiguously attributed to perturbative QCD processes have been observed for the first time.

  7. Phase Separation in Soft Matter: Concept of Dynamic Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Phase separation is a fundamental phenomenon that produces spatially heterogeneous patterns in soft matter. In this Lecture Note we show that phase separation in these materials generally belongs to what we call "viscoelastic phase separation", where the morphology is determined by the mechanical balance of not only the thermodynamic force (interface tension) but also the viscoelastic force. The origin of the viscoelastic force is dynamic asymmetry between the components of a mixture, which c...

  8. Reliability of CBCT in the diagnosis of dental asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas; Leonardo Koerich; Carolina Baratieri; Claudia Trindade Mattos; Matheus Alves Junior; Daniel Brunetto; Lindsey Eidson

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to validate a method used to assess dental asymmetry, in relation to the skeletal midline, by means of CBCT. Methods: Ten patients who had CBCT scans taken were randomly selected for this study. Five different observers repeated 10 landmarks (x, y and z variables for each) and 12 linear measurements within 10 days. Measurements were taken in both arches to evaluate symmetry of first molars, canines and dental midline in relation to the skeletal midlin...

  9. Phenomenological constraints on the flavour asymmetry of the nucleon sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Roberts, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    We study the possible flavour asymmetry, u-bar {ne} d-bar, of the light quark sea distributions of the proton. We discuss the information that is at present available from data on deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and from Drell-Yan production on various nuclear targets. We show that the ratio of dilepton yields on hydrogen and deuterium targets is very sensitive to u-bar - d-bar. (author).

  10. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in modulating incentive motivation, expressed behaviorally as approach behavior. EEG studies report association between approach behavior and asymmetric pattern of activation in anterior cortical regions (as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power). Therefore, individual differences in incentive motivation may reflect asymmetries in dopaminergic systems. We examined this hypothesis by studying the relationship between self-reported degree of incentive motiv...

  11. Fluctuating asymmetry and testing isolation of Montana grizzly bear populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Palmisciano, D.A.; Nelson, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry of adult skulls was used to test he genetic isolation of the Yellowstone grizzly bear population from its nearest neighbor. An overall summary statistic was used in addition to 16 other parameters. Tests found the males of the Yellowstone populaion to be more vaiable than those of the North Conitinental Divide Exosystem. Evidence for precipitaiton effects is also included. This test tends to support the existing management haypothesis that the Yellowstone population is isolatied.

  12. Multiple expressions of hemispheric asymmetry in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which non-human primate behaviour is lateralized, at individual or population levels, remains controversial and over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively researched and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference or head turning in great apes. This thesis examines three different expressions of hemispheric asymmetry in lateralized behaviours: hand preference for bipedal tool use, eye preference, and auditory la...

  13. Evaluation of asymmetry collimator for a new generation telecobalt machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model of the telecobalt unit, theratron equinox-100, (MDS Nordion, Canada) equipped with a single 60 degree motorized wedge (MW) and upper (X) and lower (Y) asymmetric jaws have been evaluated. Symmetrical jaws were commissioned in pinnacle3 (Philips), the 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The profiles and central axis depth dose (CADD) were measured with wellhofer blue water phantom for various field sizes using 0.13 cc thimble ionization chamber (Scanditronix wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden) and the data were commissioned in pinnacle3. These profiles and CADD for symmetry jaws were compared with asymmetry jaws for various field sizes. Also beam profiles for 5*5, 10*10 and 20*20 cm2 for symmetry and asymmetry field sizes at 5 and 10 cm depths measured with 2D-array (two dimensional detector array with 729 vented ionization chambers with a size of 5*5 mm2, PTW, Germany), are compared. A homogeneous phantom generated in pinnacle3. The dose calculated in this phantom at 10 cm depth for various field sizes of symmetry and asymmetry jaws using collapse cone convolution (cc convolution) model with a grid size of 4 mm, and compared with measured dose in a water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.6 cc thimble ion chamber FC-65-G and DOSEI electrometer for field sizes of 5*5, 10*10 and 20*20 cm2 using IAEA dosimetry protocol TRS-398. The variation of measured and calculated doses at 10 cm depth were within 1%. The asymmetry jaws were successfully commissioned in pinnacle3.(Author)

  14. Neurophysiological origin of human brain asymmetry for speech and language

    OpenAIRE

    Morillon, Benjamin; Lehongre, Katia; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.; Ducorps, Antoine; Kleinschmidt, Andréas Karl; Poeppel, David; Giraud Mamessier, Anne-Lise

    2010-01-01

    The physiological basis of human cerebral asymmetry for language remains mysterious. We have used simultaneous physiological and anatomical measurements to investigate the issue. Concentrating on neural oscillatory activity in speech-specific frequency bands and exploring interactions between gestural (motor) and auditory-evoked activity, we find, in the absence of language-related processing, that left auditory, somatosensory, articulatory motor, and inferior parietal cortices show specific,...

  15. Charge asymmetry of heavy quarks at hadron colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Johann H.; Rodrigo García, Germán Vicente

    1998-01-01

    A sizeable difference in the differential production cross section of top and antitop quarks, respectively, is predicted for hadronically produced heavy quarks. It is of order $\\alpha_s$ and arises from the interference between charge odd and even amplitudes respectively. For the TEVATRON it amounts up to 15\\% for the differential distribution in suitable chosen kinematical regions. The resulting integrated forward-backward asymmetry of 4--5\\% could be measured in the next round of experiment...

  16. Flavor Asymmetry of the Sea Quarks in the Baryon Octet

    OpenAIRE

    Koretune, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    We show that the chiral $SU(n)\\otimes SU(n)$ flavor symmetry on the null-plane severely restricts the sea quarks in the baryon octet. It predicts large asymmetry for the light sea quarks $(u,d,s)$, and universality and abundance for the heavy sea quarks. Further it is shown that existence of the heavy sea quarks constrained by the same symmetry reduces the theoretical value of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule substantially.

  17. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different. PMID:15850125

  18. Acquired unilateral condylar hyperplasia and facial asymmetry: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, L K; Campbell, R L

    1985-01-01

    A clinical report is presented of a 12-year-old female with right mandibular hyperplasia, facial asymmetry, bitemporal headaches and left temporomandibular joint pain. Past medical history was noncontributory with the exception of a bicycle accident at age eight, which resulted in minor facial trauma. The management and treatment of this case illustrates the importance of long-term follow-up by the pedodontist and the necessity of a team approach involving pedodontics, orthodontics and oral surgery. PMID:3857241

  19. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommunication theory.

  20. Resonance catalyzed CP asymmetries in D -> P l+ l-

    OpenAIRE

    Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kosnik, Nejc

    2012-01-01

    Recently observed increase of direct CP asymmetry in charm meson nonleptonic decays is difficult to explain within the SM. If this effect is induced by new physics, this might be investigated in other charm processes. We propose to investigate new CP violating effects in rare decays $D \\to P \\ell^+ \\ell^-$, which arise due to the interference of resonant part of the long distance contribution and the new physics affected short distance contribution. Performing a model independent analysis, we...

  1. Mechanisms and functions of brain and behavioural asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasi, Luca

    2008-01-01

    For almost a century the field of brain and behavioural asymmetries has been dominated by studies on humans, resting on the evidence that the anatomical structures underlying language functions are asymmetrical, and that human handedness is lateralized at the population level. Today, there is not only evidence of population-level lateralization of brain and behaviour across a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, but also a growing consensus that the comparative analysis of the envi...

  2. Gasoline Pricing, Taxation and Asymmetry: The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Özgür; İsmihan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of tax policy in gasoline prices in Turkey by utilizing time series techniques. It provides and compares empirical results by using daily gasoline prices between January 2005 and July 2012, with and without the effect of taxation. Our results, based on the standard asymmetric error-correction model, indicate no evidence of asymmetry in retail gasoline prices, which implies that the government does not benefit from the adjustment of gasoline prices through taxation...

  3. Light antiquark flavor asymmetry in the nucleon sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab E866 has performed a precise measurement of the ratio of Drell-Yan yields in 800 GeV/c pp and pd collisions, leading to determinations of d-bar/u-bar and d-bar - u-bar in the proton as functions of x. The results provide valuable information regarding the origins of the d-bar/u-bar asymmetry and the antiquark sea in the nucleon

  4. Recent progress in the understanding of single spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past years a lot of progress has been made in the understanding of single spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes. We briefly review this subject, covering the non-vanishing of time-reversal odd parton distributions, universality of fragmentation functions, and the discovery of previously unknown time-reversal odd parton distributions at subleading twist. Interestingly enough, all these developments were initiated by simple model calculations. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Asymmetry and Discrimination in Internet Peering Evidence from the LINX

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio D'Ignazio; Emanuele Giovannetti

    2008-01-01

    Is the quality of interconnection between Internet operators affected by their asymmetry? While recent game theoretic literature provides contrasting answers to this question, there is a lack of empirical research. We introduce a novel dataset based on Internet routing policies, and study the interconnection decisions amongst the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) members of the London Internet Exchange Point (LINX). Our results show that interconnection quality degradation can be significantl...

  6. Time asymmetry in ion diffusion under magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    A. Eftekhari

    2003-01-01

    The general equation for the flux of an electrolyte in solution in the presence of an external magnetic field was derived mathematically in accordance with the Onsager formalism of irreversible thermodynamics. The time reversal symmetry was examined theoretically for the equation. Time reversal symmetry breaking was demonstrated for the case under investigation. Indeed, it was demonstrated theoretically that diffusion of an electrolyte is solution under an applied magnetic field has asymmetry...

  7. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM) and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC) outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) inside), and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm") vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  8. Nuclear isospin asymmetry in α decay of heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunkyoung; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho; Oh, Yongseok

    2016-08-01

    The effects of nuclear isospin asymmetry on α -decay lifetimes of heavy nuclei are investigated within various phenomenological models of the nuclear potential for the α particle. We consider the widely used simple square-well potential and Woods-Saxon potential and modify them by including an isospin asymmetry term. We then suggest a model for the potential of the α particle motivated by a microscopic phenomenological approach of the Skyrme force model, which naturally introduces the isospin-dependent form of the nuclear potential for the α particle. The empirical α -decay lifetime formula of Viola and Seaborg [J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28, 741 (1966), 10.1016/0022-1902(66)80412-8] is also modified to include isospin asymmetry effects. The obtained α -decay half-lives are in good agreement with the experimental data, and we find that including the nuclear isospin effects somehow improves the theoretical results for α -decay half-lives. The implications of these results are discussed, and the predictions on the α -decay lifetimes of superheavy elements are also presented.

  9. Fluctuating asymmetry in dermatoglyphics of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More has been written about the epidemiology of breast cancer than any other form of cancer affecting mankind. The specific breast cancer predisposing genes are BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53. BRCA2, the second breast cancer susceptibility gene, was mapped to chromosome 13q12-q13.The human p53 gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 17, is known to be a tumor suppressor gene that can be inactivated by point mutations. AIMS: To determine the fluctuating asymmetry and to predict the occurrence of carcinoma of breast in females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rolled finger and palmar prints of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls. Fluctuating asymmetry measures derived from quantitative parameters (finger ridge counts, a-b ridge counts and palmar angles were analyzed. RESULTS: Fluctuation asymmetry measures were significantly higher in female patients of carcinoma of breast for the thumb (FA = 2.01, subtotal ridge count (FA = 2.10 and for palmar atd angle (FA = 2.01. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that digital dermatoglyphics may have a future role in identifying women at increased risk for breast cancer.

  10. THE UNIFICATION OF ASYMMETRY SIGNATURES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a compilation of the geometry measures acquired using optical and IR spectroscopy and optical spectropolarimetry to probe the explosion geometry of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Polarization measurements are sensitive to asymmetries in the plane of the sky, whereas line profiles in nebular phase spectra are expected to trace asymmetries perpendicular to the plane of the sky. The combination of these two measures can overcome their respective projection effects, completely probing the structures of these events. For nine normal SNe Ia, we find that the polarization of Si II λ6355 at 5 days before maximum (pSiII) is well correlated with its velocity evolution (v-dotSiii), implying that v-dotSiii is predominantly due to the asymmetry of the SNe. We find only a weak correlation between the polarization of Si II and the reported velocities (vneb) for peak emission of optical Fe II and Ni II lines in nebular spectra. Our sample is biased, with polarization measurements being only available for normal SNe that subsequently exhibited positive (i.e., redshifted) vneb. In unison these indicators are consistent with an explosion in which the outer layers are dominated by a spherical oxygen layer, mixed with an asymmetric distribution of intermediate-mass elements. The combination of spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric indicators suggests a single geometric configuration for normal SNe Ia, with some of the diversity of observed properties arising from orientation effects.

  11. Using CSR to mitigate information asymmetry in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenescu Andreea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the power of corporate social responsibility to reduce information asymmetry and to act as a marketing instrument in the banking sector. Trust is the most important asset of a bank. Therefore, banks are motivated to use the most effective instruments to diminish information asymmetry with their stakeholders. The fact that cash disbursements in CSR actions are not directed towards shareholders makes them more valuable signals to other stakeholders regarding the financial soundness of the bank. The empirical study conducted based on limited dependent variable models supports the effectiveness of the CSR as marketing instrument in banking. It reveals the circumstances associated to a higher probability of an active CSR policy conducted by a banking institution. The results support the hypothesis that in the banking sector CSR is perceived as an instrument which helps stakeholders reduce information asymmetry. As marketing instrument, CSR contributes to increasing the tangibility of the banking products, decreasing their perceived variability and thus making them more attractive for the clients and allowing for differentiation between competitors.

  12. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in the northward IMF plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Newell, P. T.; Meng, C.

    2005-05-01

    During periods of northward IMF, as a result of large influx of the magnetosheath ions, the plasma sheet becomes cold and dense. During these periods, a large number of the plasma sheet ions have two components: hot (magnetospheric origin) and cold (magnetosheath origin). Based on their spectral distributions: one-component Maxwellian, two-component Maxwellian, and kappa (k), the characteristics of the plasma sheet ions were studied with DMSP satellites and a method of inferring plasma sheet ion properties from the ionospheric observations. The cold-component constituent of the two-component ions is hotter in the dawn than the dusk sector, consistent with the in situ studies that suggest that the magnetosheath ion is heated upon its entry along the plasma sheet dawn flank. This temperature asymmetry leads to a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the ion spectral distribution. The cold and hot components are closer together in temperature space, which increases the proportion of ions having (apparent) one-component distribution in the dawn flank while, in the dusk flank, the influx of the magnetosheath ions increase the density of the two-component ions. The dawn-dusk asymmetry in the cold magnetosheath ion profile should help determine the roles of various proposed magnetosheath entry mechanisms.

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic CPT asymmetries in neutrino oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Ohlsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We reconsider the extrinsic and possible intrinsic CPT violation in neutrino oscillations, and point out an identity, i.e., AαβCP=AβαCPT+AαβT, among the CP, T, and CPT asymmetries in oscillations. For three-flavor oscillations in matter of constant density, the extrinsic CPT asymmetries AeeCPT, AeμCPT, AμeCPT, and AμμCPT caused by Earth matter effects have been calculated in the plane of different neutrino energies and baseline lengths. It is found that two analytical conditions can be implemented to describe the main structure of the contours of vanishing extrinsic CPT asymmetries. Finally, without assuming intrinsic CPT symmetry in the neutrino sector, we investigate the possibility to constrain the difference of the neutrino CP-violating phase δ and the antineutrino one δ¯ using a low-energy neutrino factory and the super-beam experiment ESSνSB. We find that |δ−δ¯|≲0.35π in the former case and |δ−δ¯|≲0.7π in the latter case can be achieved at the 3σ confidence level if δ=δ¯=π/2 is assumed.

  14. Biased Brownian motion in narrow channels with asymmetry and anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zheng; To, Kiwing

    2016-08-01

    We study Brownian motion of a single millimeter size bead confined in a quasi-two-dimensional horizontal channel with built-in anisotropy and asymmetry. Channel asymmetry is implemented by ratchet walls while anisotropy is introduced using a channel base that is grooved along the channel axis so that a bead can acquire a horizontal impulse perpendicular to the longitudinal direction when it collides with the base. When energy is injected to the channel by vertical vibration, the combination of asymmetric walls and anisotropic base induces an effective force which drives the bead into biased diffusive motion along the channel axis with diffusivity and drift velocity increase with vibration strength. The magnitude of this driving force, which can be measured in experiments on a tilted channel, is found to be consistent with those obtained from dynamic mobility and position probability distribution measurements. These results are explained by a simple collision model that suggests the random kinetic energy transfer between different translational degrees of freedom may be turned into useful work in the presence of asymmetry and anisotropy.

  15. Belousov-Zhabotinsky autonomic hydrogel composites: Regulating waves via asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Vaia, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) autonomic hydrogel composites contain active nodes of immobilized catalyst (Ru) encased within a nonactive matrix. Designing functional hierarchies of chemical and mechanical communication between these nodes enables applications ranging from encryption, sensors, and mechanochemical actuators to artificial skin. However, robust design rules and verification of computational models are challenged by insufficient understanding of the relative importance of local (molecular) heterogeneities, active node shape, and embedment geometry on transient and steady-state behavior. We demonstrate the predominance of asymmetric embedment and node shape in low-strain, BZ-gelatin composites and correlate behavior with gradients in BZ reactants. Asymmetric embedment of square and rectangular nodes results in directional steady-state waves that initiate at the embedded edge and propagate toward the free edge. In contrast, symmetric embedment does not produce preferential wave propagation because of a lack of diffusion gradient across the catalyzed region. The initiation at the embedded edge is correlated with bromide absorption by the inactive matrix, which locally elevates the bromate concentration required for catalyst oxidation. The competition between embedment asymmetry and node geometry was used to demonstrate a repeatable switch in wave direction that functions as a signal delay. Furthermore, signal propagation in or out of the composite was demonstrated via embedment asymmetry and relative dimensions of a T-shaped active network node. Overall, structural asymmetry provides a robust approach to controlling initiation and orientation of chemical-mechanical communication within composite BZ gels. PMID:27679818

  16. New tuning method of the low-mode asymmetry for ignition capsule implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jianfa, E-mail: gu-jianfa@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zhensheng; Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In the deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility, the hot spot and the surrounding main fuel layer show obvious P2 asymmetries. This may be caused by the large positive P2 radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse resulting form the poor propagation of the inner laser beam in the gas-filled hohlraum. The symmetry evolution of ignition capsule implosions is investigated by applying P2 radiation flux asymmetries during different time intervals. A series of two-dimensional simulation results show that a positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak pulse results in a positive P2 shell ρR asymmetry; while an early time positive P2 flux asymmetry causes a negative P2 in the fuel ρR shape. The opposite evolution behavior of shell ρR asymmetry is used to develop a new tuning method to correct the radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse by adding a compensating same-phased P2 drive asymmetry during the early time. The significant improvements of the shell ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and neutron yield indicate that the tuning method is quite effective. The similar tuning method can also be used to control the early time drive asymmetries.

  17. Principles of surgical treatment of congenital, developmental and acquired female breast asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Marijan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a natural asymmetry in normal female brests. When the difference in the shape, size or position of the breast and nipple-areola complex is visible, surgical correction is the only treatment option and presents one of the greatest challenges for a plastic surgeon. Based on the Nahai classification presented in details, the aim of the study was to present the possibilities of plastic surgery to correct primary (congenital, secondary (developmental and tertiary (acquired brest asymmetries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of female breast asymmetry surgeries performed in the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Military Medical Academy (MMA, Belgrade over the last seven years (January 2002 - January 2009. Results. During the above mentioned period, 82 female patients, 18 - 65 years of age, underwent surgery for breast asymmetry. The most frequent asymmetries were developmental, 'pubertal' (n = 43; acquired asymmetries as a consequence of tumor surgery were found in the other 22 patients, while 7 patients were diagnosed with primary asymmetries such as congenital chest-wall asymmetry (Sy. Poland, accessory and tuberous breasts. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination, while hormone status was determined in those with developmental, 'pubertal' asymmetries. The selection of surgical procedure for correction of breast asymmetry depended upon clinical examination findings and patient's wish relating to the shape and size of the breasts. The most of breast asymmetries were corrected by a combination of surgical procedures including primary and secondary reconstruction, reduction, suspension or augmentation mammoplasty. Having combined different surgical procedures, we managed to achieve satisfactory results. The hypertrophic scar formation after reduction mamoplasty was seen in some cases, however, they caused no significant patient's discomfort. Conclusion. Application of plastic, reconstructive

  18. The impact of subsistence changes on humeral bilateral asymmetry in Terminal Pleistocene and Holocene Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sládek, Vladimír; Ruff, Christopher B; Berner, Margit; Holt, Brigitte; Niskanen, Markku; Schuplerová, Eliška; Hora, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Analyses of upper limb bone bilateral asymmetry can shed light on manipulative behavior, sexual division of labor, and the effects of economic transitions on skeletal morphology. We compared the maximum (absolute) and directional asymmetry in humeral length, articular breadth, and cross-sectional diaphyseal geometry (CSG) in a large (n > 1200) European sample distributed among 11 archaeological periods from the Early Upper Paleolithic through the 20(th) century. Asymmetry in length and articular breadth is right-biased, but relatively small and fairly constant between temporal periods. Females show more asymmetry in length than males. This suggests a low impact of behavioral changes on asymmetry in length and breadth, but strong genetic control with probable sex linkage of asymmetry in length. Asymmetry in CSG properties is much more marked than in length and articular breadth, with sex-specific variation. In males, a major decline in asymmetry occurs between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. There is no further decline in asymmetry between the Mesolithic and Neolithic in males and only limited variation during the Holocene. In females, a major decline occurs between the Mesolithic and Neolithic, with resulting average directional asymmetry close to zero. Asymmetry among females continues to be very low in the subsequent Copper and Bronze Ages, but increases again in the Iron Age. Changes in female asymmetry result in an increase of sexual dimorphism during the early agricultural periods, followed by a decrease in the Iron Age. Sexual dimorphism again slightly declines after the Late Medieval. Our results indicate that changes in manipulative behavior were sex-specific with a probable higher impact of changes in hunting behavior on male asymmetry (e.g., shift from unimanual throwing to use of the bow-and-arrow) and food grain processing in females, specifically, use of two-handed saddle querns in the early agricultural periods and one-handed rotary querns in

  19. Charm-anticharm baryon production asymmetries in photon-nucleon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Vázquez, F; Uribe, C; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Lopes-Pegna, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the charm-anticharm production asymmetries for $\\Lambda_c^+$, $\\Sigma_c^{++}$, $\\Sigma_c^0$, $\\Sigma_c^{++*}$, $\\Sigma_c^{0*}$, and $\\Lambda_c^+(2625)$ baryons from the Fermilab photoproduction experiment FOCUS (E831). These asymmetries are integrated over the region where the spectrometer has good acceptance. In addition, we have obtained results for the photoproduction asymmetries of the $\\Lambda_c$ baryons as functions of $p_L$, $p_T^2$, and $x_F$. The integrated asymmetry for $\\Lambda_c^+$ production, $(\\sigma_{\\Lambda_c^+} - \\sigma_{\\Lambda_c^-}) / (\\sigma_{\\Lambda_c^+} + \\sigma_{\\Lambda_c^-})$, is $0.111 \\pm 0.018 \\pm 0.012$, significantly different from zero. The asymmetries of the excited states are consistent with the $\\Lambda_c$ asymmetry.

  20. The nuMSM, leptonic asymmetries, and properties of singlet fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2008-01-01

    We study in detail the mechanism of baryon and lepton asymmetry generation in the framework of the nuMSM (an extension of the Standard Model by three singlet fermions with masses smaller than the electroweak scale). We clarify the question of quantum-mechanical coherence, essential for the lepton asymmetry generation in singlet fermion oscillations and compute the relevant damping rates. The range of masses and couplings of singlet leptons which can lead to successful baryogenesis is determined. The conditions which insure survival of primordial (existing above the electroweak temperatures) asymmetries in different leptonic numbers are analysed. We address the question whether CP-violating reactions with lepton number non-conservation can produce leptonic asymmetry {\\em below} the sphaleron freeze-out temperature. This asymmetry, if created, leads to resonant production of dark matter sterile neutrinos. We show that the requirement that a significant lepton asymmetry be produced puts stringent constraints on ...

  1. The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.

  2. $J/\\psi$ Production in $ep^{\\uparrow}$ Collision in Color Octet Model and Sivers Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the cross section for low virtuality electroproduction of $J/\\psi$ using the formalism based on transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) and non-relativistic QCD based color octet model. The Sivers asymmetry in this process directly probes the gluon Sivers function. We calculate the Sivers asymmetry using a recent parametrization of gluon Sivers function. We also investigate the effect of TMD evolution on the differential cross section and spin asymmetry and compare the results with color evaporation model.

  3. The Influence of information asymmetry on the return and volatility of value and growth stock portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Max Leandro Ferreira Tavares; Claudio Henrique da Silveira Barbedo; Gustavo Silva Araujo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether the information asymmetry component imbedded in the bid-ask spread helps explain the difference in returns between portfolios composed of value versus growth stocks in the Brazilian market. Additionally, we test whether the portfolios’ volatility has any relation with asymmetry. In this way, we incorporate an element from the market microstructure literature, the information asymmetry component, in the classic asset pricing theory. The results obtained for ...

  4. Challenges of the Information Economy: Asymmetry of Information in the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Resende da Silva, Paulo; Felix, Elisabete

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses information asymmetry in conceptual terms. It presents one characterization of the asymmetric information concept, described more by a socio-economic vision of it and its relationship with the digital economy. It also frames asymmetry of information as a public good versus private good versus common good, and checks how it creates externalities. Finally, it identifies the challenges and potential policies that will mitigate the negative effects of information asymmetry.

  5. Information Asymmetry and Information Dissemination in High-Frequency Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Pöppe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with information asymmetry and information dissemination in high-frequency capital markets. At the intersection of information dissemination and asymmetry with market microstructure, this dissertation pursues three major goals. We propose enhancements to market microstructure methodology to be able to empirically conduct research on information dissemination and asymmetry on recent, high-frequency trading data. Second, we empirically evaluate related microstruct...

  6. Directional asymmetry estimates developmental instability in plants: A case report in Plantago major L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković Miroslava V.; Jakovčev-Todorović Dunja

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, an additional approach was used to evaluate the potential effects of the industrial development on natural population of the common plantain (Plantago major L.), previously estimated using si2 as an index of fluctuation asymmetry (FA) together with the coefficient of variation (CV). In this study, directional asymmetry (DA), a form of asymmetry in bilaterally symmetric traits, was used in order to estimate its rule as a potential indicator of developmental instability in...

  7. Eyelid and brow asymmetry in patients evaluated for upper lid blepharoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Kristian I.; Mendez, Adrian I; Hart, Robert D; Taylor, S Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In evaluation for blepharoplasty, patients often desire improved cosmesis and/or correction of visual field deficits. However, patients are usually unaware of eyelid or brow asymmetry. Furthermore, the prevalence of eyelid and brow asymmetry is infrequently reported in the medical literature. Purpose To determine the prevalence of brow and eyelid asymmetry in patients evaluated for upper lid blepharoplasty. Methods One hundred consecutive patients evaluated for upper lid blepharo...

  8. Simultaneous Registration and Parcellation of Bilateral Hippocampal Surface Pairs for Local Asymmetry Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas A.; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba C.; Eisenschenk, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    In clinical applications where structural asymmetries between homologous shapes have been correlated with pathology, the questions of definition and quantification of “asymmetry” arise naturally. When not only the degree but the position of deformity is thought relevant, asymmetry localization must also be addressed. Asymmetries between paired shapes have already been formulated in terms of (nonrigid) diffeomorphisms between the shapes. For the infinity of such maps possible for a given pair,...

  9. Early asymmetry of gene transcription between embryonic human left and right cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Patoine, Christina; Abu-Khalil, Amir; Visvader, Jane; Sum, Eleanor; Cherry, Timothy J.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, suggesting that human cortical asymmetry is accompanied by early, striking transcriptional asymmetries. LMO4 is consistently more highly expressed...

  10. Facial asymmetry in young adults with condylar hyperplasia-unusual changes in the facial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gn, Suma; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Jk, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  11. A Better Estimate of the Internal Consistency Reliability of Frontal EEG Asymmetry Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, David N.; John J. B. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry is typically computed using alpha power averaged across many overlapping epochs. Previous reports have estimated the internal consistency reliability of asymmetry by dividing resting EEG sessions into segments of equal duration (e.g. 1 min) and treating asymmetry scores for each segment as “items” to estimate internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Cronbach's alpha partly depends on the number of items, such that this approach may underestimate reliabi...

  12. Asymmetry in inclusive π±, p production at 22 GeV, BNL E925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results from Experiment E925 on inclusive pion asymmetries from a 22 GeV/c polarized proton beam on a carbon target show significant asymmetries for π± production similar to those observed earlier at the ZGS and Fermilab with beams of 12 and 200 GeV respectively. This experiment demonstrates the viability of using the analyzing power in inclusive pion production for high energy beam polarimetry at RHIC. Inclusive proton asymmetries are consistent with zero

  13. Directional Asymmetries and Age Effects in Human Self-Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Roditi, Rachel E.; Crane, Benjamin T.

    2012-01-01

    Directional asymmetries in vestibular reflexes have aided the diagnosis of vestibular lesions; however, potential asymmetries in vestibular perception have not been well defined. This investigation sought to measure potential asymmetries in human vestibular perception. Vestibular perception thresholds were measured in 24 healthy human subjects between the ages of 21 and 68 years. Stimuli consisted of a single cycle of sinusoidal acceleration in a single direction lasting 1 or 2 s (1 or 0.5 Hz...

  14. Baryon Asymmetry and Dark Matter Through the Vector-Like Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Fileviez Perez, P.; Wise, M.

    2013-01-01

    A possible connection between the cosmological baryon asymmetry, dark matter and vector-like fermions is investigated. In this scenario an asymmetry generated through baryogenesis or leptogenesis (in the vector-like matter sector) connects the baryon asymmetry to the dark matter density. We present explicit renormalizable models where this connection occurs. These models have asymmetric dark matter and a significant invisible Higgs decay width to dark matter particles is possible. We refer to...

  15. Asymmetries in Mars' Exosphere: Implications for X-ray and ENA Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Observations and simulations show that Mars' atmosphere has large seasonal variations. Total atmospheric density can have an order of magnitude latitudinal variation at exobase heights. By numerical simulations we show that these latitude variations in exobase parameters induce asymmetries in the hydrogen exosphere that propagate to large distances from the planet. We show that these asymmetries in the exosphere produce asymmetries in the fluxes of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) and soft X-ra...

  16. Search asymmetry and eye movements in infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Scott A; Gallego, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    Search asymmetry is characterized by the detection of a feature-present target amidst feature-absent distractors being efficient and unaffected by the number of distractors, whereas detection of a feature-absent target amidst feature-present distractors is typically inefficient and affected by the number of distractors. Although studies have attempted to investigate this phenomenon with infants (e.g., Adler, Inslicht, Rovee-Collier, & Gerhardstein in Infant Behavioral Development, 21, 253-272, 1998; Colombo, Mitchell, Coldren, & Atwater in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19, 98-109, 1990), due to methodological limitations, their findings have been unable to definitively establish the development of visual search mechanisms in infants. The present study assessed eye movements as a means to examine an asymmetry in responding to feature-present versus feature-absent targets in 3-month-olds, relative to adults. Saccade latencies to localize a target (or a distractor, as in the homogeneous conditions) were measured as infants and adults randomly viewed feature-present (R among Ps), feature-absent (P among Rs), and homogeneous (either all Rs or all Ps) arrays at set sizes of 1, 3, 5, and 8. Results indicated that neither infants' nor adults' saccade latencies to localize the target in the feature-present arrays were affected by increasing set sizes, suggesting that localization of the target was efficient. In contrast, saccade latencies to localize the target in the feature-absent arrays increased with increasing set sizes for both infants and adults, suggesting an inefficient localization. These findings indicate that infants exhibit an asymmetry consistent with that found with adults, providing support for functional bottom-up selective attention mechanisms in early infancy. PMID:24858309

  17. Elements of functional genital asymmetry in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigal, B; Díez, C; Muñoz, M; Caamaño, J N; Goyache, F; Correia-Alvarez, E; Corrales, F J; Mora, M I; Carrocera, S; Martin, D; Gómez, E

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry in the cow affects ovarian function and pregnancy. In this work we studied ovarian and uterine asymmetry. Synchronised animals, in which in vitro-produced embryos (n=30-60) had been transferred on Day 5 to the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL), were flushed on Day 8. Ovulatory follicle diameter, oestrus response and total protein flushed did not differ between sides. However, a corpus luteum in the right ovary led to plasma progesterone concentrations that were higher than when it was present in the left ovary. Fewer embryos were recovered from the left than the right horn. Among 60 uterine proteins identified by difference gel electrophoresis, relative abundance of nine (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; twinfilin, actin-binding protein, homologue 1; enolase 1; pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (rabbit); complement factor B Bb fragment ; albumin; fibrinogen gamma-B chain; and ezrin differed (P<0.05) between horns. Glucose concentration was higher, and fructose concentration lower, in the left horn. In a subsequent field trial, pregnancy rates after embryo transfer did not differ between horns (51.0±3.6, right vs 53.2±4.7, left). However, Day 7 blood progesterone concentrations differed (P=0.018) between pregnant and open animals in the left (15.9±1.7 vs 8.3±1.2) but not in the right horn (12.4±1.3 vs 12.4±1.2). Progesterone effects were independent of CL quality (P=0.55). Bilateral genital tract asymmetry in the cow affects progesterone, proteins and hexoses without altering pregnancy rates. PMID:24709319

  18. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle in lumbar radicular nerve compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad, Mazda; Gerber, Christian; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A.; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Laufer-Molnar, Viviane; Min, Kan [Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    The multifidus muscle is the only paraspinal lumbar muscle that is innervated by a single nerve root. This study aimes to evaluate if the asymmetry of the multifidus muscle is related to the severity of compression of the nerve root or the duration of radiculopathy. MRI scans of 79 patients with symptomatic single level, unilateral, lumbar radiculopathy were reviewed for this retrospective case series with a nested case-control study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus muscle and the perpendicular distance of the multifidus to the lamina (MLD) were measured bilaterally by two radiologists and set into relation to the severity of nerve compression, duration of radiculopathy and probability of an indication for surgical decompression. In 67 recessal and 12 foraminal symptomatic nerve root compressions, neither the MLD ratio (severe 1.19 ± 0.55 vs less severe nerve compression: 1.12 ± 0.30, p = 0.664) nor the CSA ratio (severe 1 ± 0.16 vs less severe 0.98 ± 0.13, p = 0.577) nor the duration of symptoms significantly correlated with the degree of nerve compression. MR measurements of multifidus were not different in patients with (n = 20) and those without (n = 59) clinical muscle weakness in the extremity caused by nerve root compression. A MLD >1.5 was, however, associated with the probability of an indication for surgical decompression (OR 3, specificity 92 %, PPV 73 %). Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle correlates with neither the severity nor the duration of nerve root compression in the lumbar spine. Severe asymmetry with substantial multifidus atrophy seems associated with the probability of an indication of surgical decompression. (orig.)

  19. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle in lumbar radicular nerve compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multifidus muscle is the only paraspinal lumbar muscle that is innervated by a single nerve root. This study aimes to evaluate if the asymmetry of the multifidus muscle is related to the severity of compression of the nerve root or the duration of radiculopathy. MRI scans of 79 patients with symptomatic single level, unilateral, lumbar radiculopathy were reviewed for this retrospective case series with a nested case-control study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus muscle and the perpendicular distance of the multifidus to the lamina (MLD) were measured bilaterally by two radiologists and set into relation to the severity of nerve compression, duration of radiculopathy and probability of an indication for surgical decompression. In 67 recessal and 12 foraminal symptomatic nerve root compressions, neither the MLD ratio (severe 1.19 ± 0.55 vs less severe nerve compression: 1.12 ± 0.30, p = 0.664) nor the CSA ratio (severe 1 ± 0.16 vs less severe 0.98 ± 0.13, p = 0.577) nor the duration of symptoms significantly correlated with the degree of nerve compression. MR measurements of multifidus were not different in patients with (n = 20) and those without (n = 59) clinical muscle weakness in the extremity caused by nerve root compression. A MLD >1.5 was, however, associated with the probability of an indication for surgical decompression (OR 3, specificity 92 %, PPV 73 %). Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle correlates with neither the severity nor the duration of nerve root compression in the lumbar spine. Severe asymmetry with substantial multifidus atrophy seems associated with the probability of an indication of surgical decompression. (orig.)

  20. Flavour oscillations and CP asymmetry in semileptonic Bs0 decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, Steven Thomas; /York U., Canada

    2010-01-01

    The B{sub s}{sup 0} meson spontaneously transforms into its antiparticle ({bar B}{sub s}{sup 0}). These 'flavour oscillations' occur periodically with a frequency that may be measured. The oscillation frequency is related to the fundamental parameters of the electroweak interaction. Measuring the frequency provides a constraint on the electroweak quark coupling parameter V{sub ts} and improves the constraint on V{sub td}. Furthermore, the amplitude of the oscillation process may be slightly different in B{sub s}{sup 0} and {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons due to CP violating nature of the weak interaction. This 'asymmetry' is expected to be small (a{sub fs}{sup SM,s} = (2.06 {+-} 0.57) {center_dot} 10{sup -5}), but may be enhanced (a{sub fs}{sup s} {approx_equal} {Omicron}(1%)) by new sources of CP violation. This thesis describes a search for B{sub s}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and charge asymmetry in the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}X (D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} K*{sup 0}K{sup -}) decay mode using 5.0 fb{sup -1} of D0 data. A lower limit is placed on the oscillation frequency, {Delta}m{sub s} > 9.9 ps{sup -1} with an expected sensitivity to oscillations below 14.8 ps{sup -1}. The charge asymmetry is measured to be a{sub fs}{sup s} = 0.018 {+-} 0.025(stat) {+-} 0.002(syst). A combination of these measurements with other decay modes is also presented.

  1. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  2. Substrate Stiffness Regulates the Development of Left-Right Asymmetry in Cell Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuanye; Huang, Yaozhun; Lam, Miu Ling; Xu, Ting; Zhu, Ninghao; Guo, Zhaobin; Cui, Xin; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-07-20

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry of tissue/organ structure is a morphological feature essential for many tissue functions. The ability to incorporate the LR formation in constructing tissue/organ replacement is important for recapturing the inherent tissue structure and functions. However, how LR asymmetry is formed remains largely underdetermined, which creates significant hurdles to reproduce and regulate the formation of LR asymmetry in an engineering context. Here, we report substrate rigidity functioning as an effective switch that turns on the development of LR asymmetry. Using micropatterned cell-adherent stripes on rigid substrates, we found that cells collectively oriented at a LR-biased angle relative to the stripe boundary. This LR asymmetry was initiated by a LR-biased migration of cells at stripe boundary, which later generated a velocity gradient propagating from stripe boundary to the center. After a series of cell translocations and rotations, ultimately, an LR-biased cell orientation within the micropatterned stripe was formed. Importantly, this initiation and propagation of LR asymmetry was observed only on rigid but not on soft substrates, suggesting that the LR asymmetry was regulated by rigid substrate probably through the organization of actin cytoskeleton. Together, we demonstrated substrate rigidity as a determinant factor that mediates the self-organizing LR asymmetry being unfolded from single cells to multicellular organization. More broadly, we anticipate that our findings would pave the way for rebuilding artificial tissue constructs with inherent LR asymmetry in the future. PMID:27359036

  3. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  4. Asymmetries in Mars' Exosphere: Implications for X-ray and ENA Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Holmström, M

    2006-01-01

    Observations and simulations show that Mars' atmosphere has large seasonal variations. Total atmospheric density can have an order of magnitude latitudinal variation at exobase heights. By numerical simulations we show that these latitude variations in exobase parameters induce asymmetries in the hydrogen exosphere that propagate to large distances from the planet. We show that these asymmetries in the exosphere produce asymmetries in the fluxes of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) and soft X-rays produced by charge exchange between the solar wind and exospheric hydrogen. This could be an explanation for asymmetries that have been observed in ENA and X-ray fluxes at Mars.

  5. The generation model of particle physics and the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry problem

    CERN Document Server

    Robson, B A

    2016-01-01

    The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, corresponding to the virtual nonexistence of antimatter in the universe, is one of the greatest mysteries of cosmology. Within the framework of the Generation Model (GM) of particle physics, it is demonstrated that the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem may be understood in terms of the composite leptons and quarks of the GM. It is concluded that there is essentially no matter-antimatter asymmetry in the present universe and that the observed hydrogen-antihydrogen asymmetry may be understood in terms of statistical fluctuations associated with the complex many-body processes involved in the formation of either a hydrogen atom or an antihydrogen atom.

  6. $\\mu$-term as the origin of baryon and lepton number asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2002-01-01

    We study a possibility of combining an origin of the $\\mu$-term and the baryon and lepton number asymmetry. If we assume that the $\\mu$-term is generated through a flat direction of a singlet scalar field, the coherent oscillation of this condensate around its potential minimum can store the global U(1) charge asymmetry. The decay of this condensate can distribute this asymmetry into the lepton and baryon number asymmetry as far as its decay occurs at an appropriate temperature. We examine th...

  7. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry.

  8. Asymmetries of the parietal operculum in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in relation to handedness for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Emmanuel P; Hopkins, William D

    2013-02-01

    A left larger than right planum temporale (PT) is a neuroanatomical asymmetry common to both humans and chimpanzees. A similar asymmetry was observed in the human parietal operculum (PO), and the convergence of PT and PO asymmetries is strongly associated with right-handedness. Here, we assessed whether this combination also exists in common chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained in 83 captive subjects. PT was quantified following procedures previously employed and PO was defined as the maximal linear distance between the end point of the sylvian fissure and the central sulcus. Handedness was assessed using 2 tasks that were designed to simulate termite fishing of wild chimpanzees and to elicit bimanual coordination without tool use. Chimpanzees showed population-level leftward asymmetries for both PT and PO. As in humans, these leftward asymmetries were not correlated. Handedness for tool use but not for nontool use motor actions mediated the expression of asymmetries in PT and PO, with right-handed apes showing more pronounced leftward asymmetries. Consistent PT and PO asymmetry combinations were observed in chimpanzees. The proportions of individuals showing these combinations were comparable in humans and chimpanzees; however, interaction between handedness and patterns of combined PO and PT asymmetries differed between the 2 species. PMID:22368087

  9. Impact of CP-violation on neutrino lepton number asymmetries revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the effect of the (Dirac) CP-violating phase on neutrino lepton number asymmetries in both mass- and flavor-basis. We found that, even if there are sizable effects on muon- and tau-neutrino asymmetries, the effect on the asymmetry of electron-neutrinos is at most similar to the upper bound set by BBN for initial neutrino degeneracy parameters smaller than order unity. We also found that, for the asymmetries in mass-basis, the changes caused by CP-violation is of sub-\\% level which is unlikely to be accesible neither in the current nor in the forthcoming experiments.

  10. Role of the mass asymmetry of reaction on the geometry of vanishing flow

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We study the transverse flow throughout the mass asymmetry range as a function of the impact parameter, keeping the total mass of the system fixed.We find that the geometry of vanishing flow (GVF) i.e. the impact parameter at which flow vanishes and its mass dependence is quite sensitive to the mass asymmetry of the reaction. With increase in the mass asymmetry, the value of GVF decreases, while its mass dependence increases. Our results indicate the sizable role of mass asymmetry on GVF as o...

  11. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, S; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; SWang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3 fb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=1.96 GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.

  12. Theories relating baryon asymmetry and dark matter: a Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eMorisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are two of the deepest mysteries of modern particle physics. In the absence of hints regarding a possible solution to these mysteries, many approaches have been developed to tackle them simultaneously { leading to very diverse and rich models}. We give a short review where we describe the general features of some of these models and an overview on the general problem. We also propose a diagrammatic notation to label the different models.

  13. LHCb: Measurement of $D^{\\pm}$ Production Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quark production in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC need not be flavour symmetric. Here the production asymmetry, $A_p$ , between $D_s^+$ and $D_s^-$ mesons is measured using the $\\phi\\pi$ decay mode. The difference between $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ detection efficiencies is measured using the ratio of fully reconstructed to partially reconstructed $D^*$ decays. Using 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector, we find $A_p = (-0.39 \\pm 0.22 \\pm 0.08)$%.

  14. Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe in the NuMSM

    OpenAIRE

    Canetti, Laurent; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of baryon asymmetry generation in the NuMSM (an extension of the Standard Model by three singlet Majorana fermions with masses below the Fermi scale). Fixing a number of parameters of the NuMSM by the neutrino oscillation data, we determine the remaining domain of the parameter space from the requirement of successful baryogenesis. We derive, in particular, the constraints on the mass splitting of a pair of singlet fermions, and on the strength of their coupling...

  15. Reducing Language Knowledge Asymmetries in a Temporary Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim; Shaw, Philip

    , plurilingualism (Spolsky 2004) and, by implication, a program intended to strengthen the building at an individual level of the specialized knowledge that the learning of any second or foreign language requires. Recent research has shown, however, that the motivation of students whose disciplinary fields...... of these cases and, drawing on Hornberger's continua of biliteracy model, it relates them to factors arguably influencing the relative achievement of the aim of plurilingualism. In so doing, it seeks to contribute to our understanding of individuals' motives for reducing language knowledge asymmetries....

  16. W∓H± production and CP asymmetry at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thi Nhung; Hollik, Wolfgang; Le, Duc Ninh

    2011-04-01

    The dominant contributions to W∓H± production at the LHC are the tree-level bb¯ annihilation and the gg fusion. We perform for the case of the complex minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) a complete calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to the bb¯ annihilation channel and a consistent combination with other contributions including the standard and supersymmetric-QCD (SUSY-QCD) corrections and the gg fusion, with resummation of the leading radiative corrections to the bottom-Higgs couplings and the neutral Higgs boson propagators. We observe a large CP-violating asymmetry, arising mainly from the gg channel.

  17. Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward $pA$ Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shinsuke; Yuan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We compute the transverse single spin asymmetry in light hadron production $p^\\uparrow p\\to hX$ and $p^\\uparrow A\\to hX$ including the gluon saturation effect in the unpolarized nucleon/nucleus. In the forward (large-$x_F$) region, the dominant contribution comes from the so-called derivative term associated with the soft gluonic pole. This leads to the cancellation of nuclear effects in $A_N$ which can be tested at RHIC. We also show that the soft fermionic pole disappears in the saturation environment.

  18. Transverse Target Spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a dynamical picture of the nucleon. The exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons on a transversely polarised target is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip GPDs $E$ which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks and gluons. In 2007 and 2010 the COMPASS experiment at CERN collected data by scattering a 160 GeV/c muon beam off a transversely polarised NH$_3$ target. The final state particles were detected with the two-stage spectrometer with high resolution tracking. In this talk new results for the azimuthal asymmetries $A_{\\text{UT}}$ and $A_{\\text{LT}}$ are presented.

  19. Scale dependence of polarized deep inelastic scattering asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Garcia Canal, C.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina); Joffily, S. [Centro Brasilero de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22.290.180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sassot, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 1 (1428) Bs. (Argentina)

    1996-01-01

    We compare the {ital Q}{sup 2} dependence of the polarized deep inelastic scattering proton asymmetry, driven by the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations, to those arising from fixed order {alpha}{sub {ital s}} and {alpha}{sub {ital s}}{sup 2} approximations. It is shown that the evolution effects associated with gluons, which are not properly taken into account by the leading order approximation, cannot be neglected in the analysis of the most recent experimental data. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Asymmetry of Neoclassical Transport by Dipole Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中天; 王龙

    2004-01-01

    Effects of dipole electric fields on neoclassical transport are studied. Large asymmetry in transport is created. The dipole fields, which are in a negative R-direction, reduce the ion drift, increase electron drift, and change the steps of excursion due to collisions. It is found that different levels of dipole field intensities have different types of transport. For the lowest level of the dipole field, the transport returns to the neoclassical one. For the highest level of the dipole field, the transport is turned to be the turbulence transport similar to the pseudo-classical transport. Experimental data may be corresponded to a large level of the dipole field intensity.

  1. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U.

    2007-09-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.

  2. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: An attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering ℓp↑→ℓ'πX data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry AN in p↑p→πX in order to simultaneously extract information on the Sivers function and the twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. We explore different possibilities such as the node of the Sivers function in x or k⊥ in order to explain “sign mismatch” between these functions. We show that π± semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and π0 STAR data can be well described in a combined fit based on both the transverse momentum dependent and collinear twist-three factorization formalisms; however, π± BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves the question open of a solution to the “sign mismatch.” Possible explanations are then discussed.

  3. Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    The matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the greatest challenges in the modern physics. The universe including this paper and even the reader him(her)self seems to be built up of ordinary matter only. Theoretically, the well-known Sakharov's conditions remain the solid framework explaining the circumstances that matter became dominant against the antimatter while the universe cools down and/or expands. On the other hand, the standard model for elementary particles apparently prevents at least two conditions out of them. In this work, we introduce a systematic study of the antiparticle-to-particle ratios measured in various $NN$ and $AA$ collisions over the last three decades. It is obvious that the available experimental facilities turn to be able to perform nuclear collisions, in which the matter-antimatter asymmetry raises from $\\sim 0%$ at AGS to $\\sim 100%$ at LHC. Assuming that the final state of hadronization in the nuclear collisions takes place along the freezeout line, which is defined by a constant...

  4. A new “culprit” for matter-antimatter asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In our matter-dominated Universe, the observation of new processes showing matter-antimatter asymmetry allows scientists to test their theories and, possibly, to explore new territories. The LHCb collaboration has recently observed matter-antimatter asymmetries in the decays of the B0s meson, which thus becomes the fourth particle known to present such behaviour.   The VELO detector: a crucial element for particle identifiation in LHCb. Almost all physics processes known to scientists show perfect symmetry if a particle is interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then if left and right are swapped (P symmetry). So it becomes very hard to explain why the Universe itself does not conform to this symmetry and, instead, shows a huge preference for matter. Processes that violate this symmetry are rare and of great interest to scientists. Violation of the CP symmetry in neutral kaons was first observed by Nobel Prize Laureates James Cronin and Val Fitch in the 1960s. About 40 years la...

  5. Reliability of CBCT in the diagnosis of dental asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to validate a method used to assess dental asymmetry, in relation to the skeletal midline, by means of CBCT. Methods: Ten patients who had CBCT scans taken were randomly selected for this study. Five different observers repeated 10 landmarks (x, y and z variables for each and 12 linear measurements within 10 days. Measurements were taken in both arches to evaluate symmetry of first molars, canines and dental midline in relation to the skeletal midline. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was carried out to assess intra- and interobserver reliability for landmarks and distances. Average mean difference was also assessed to check measurement errors between observers. Results: ICC landmarks was ≥ 0.9 for 27 (90% and 25 (83% variables for intra- and interobserver, respectively. ICC for distances was ≥ 0.9 for 7 (58% and 5 (42%, respectively. All ICC landmarks for distances were >0.75 for both intra- and interobserver. The mean difference between observers was ≤ 0.6 mm for all the distances. Conclusion: The method used to assess dental asymmetry by means of CBCT is valid. Measurements of molars, canines and dental midline symmetry with the skeletal midline are reproducible and reliable when taken by means of CBCT and by different operators.

  6. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  7. Higgs doublet decay as the origin of the baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hambye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We consider a question which curiously had not been properly considered so far: in the standard seesaw model what is the minimum value the mass of a right-handed (RH) neutrino must have for allowing successful leptogenesis via CP-violating decays? To answer this question requires to take into account a number of thermal effects. We show that, for low RH neutrino masses and thanks to these effects, leptogenesis turns out to proceed efficiently from the decay of the Standard Model (SM) scalar doublet components into a RH neutrino and a lepton. Such decays produce the asymmetry at low temperatures, slightly before sphaleron decoupling. If the RH neutrino has thermalized prior from producing the asymmetry, this mechanism turns out to lead to the bound $m_N>2$ GeV. If, instead, the RH neutrinos have not thermalized, leptogenesis from these decays is enhanced further and can be easily successful, even at lower scales. This Higgs-decay leptogenesis new mechanism works without requiring an interplay of flavor effects...

  8. Primal seduction, matricial space and asymmetry in the psychoanalytic encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetrit-Vatine, Viviane

    2004-08-01

    Wishing to highlight the asymmetric dimension that characterizes ethics as 'responsibility toward the other' in Levinas's philosophy, the author presents as an introduction three related concepts of Levinas's thinking: the caress, the face, the saying. Following some poetic narrative reflections offered as 'interlude' moments, the author seeks to bring together her concept of 'matricial space' inspired by Levinas's conception of ethics and the Laplanchian concept of 'primal seduction', both based on asymmetry. She suggests adding to Laplanche's proposition of two kinds of transference (filled-in transference and hollowed-out transference) a third kind: the matricial-space transference. She argues that together with the hollowed-out transference, which is related to the primal seduction, the matricial-space transference, which relates to the matricial position in the parent/analyst, is provoked by the analyst. If the hollowed-out transference assures the moving-on of the analysis, the matricial-space transference, in combination with the hollowed-out transference, is prerequisite for transformation to occur and may be deciphered specifically in 'impasse' situations, at what she coined 'subjectal moments'. As a conclusion, while insisting on the need for asymmetry in the analytic encounter, she suggests the existence in the human neonate of a need for ethics, and she questions the origin of the human capacity to be responsible toward the other. She illustrates her argument using clinical material from her own work alongside that of other authors.

  9. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC) meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%-60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are. PMID:27089368

  10. Measurements of CP Asymmetries in the Decay B --> Phi K

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de

    2004-01-01

    We present a preliminary measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry for the neutral $B$-meson decay $B^0\\to\\phi K^0$. We use a sample of approximately 227 million $B$-meson pairs recorded at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the BaBar detector at the PeP-II $B$-meson Factory at SLAC. We reconstruct the $CP$ eigenstates $\\phi K^0_S$ and $\\phi K^0_L$ where $\\phi\\to K^+K^-$, $K^0_S\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$, and $K^0_L$ is observed via its hadronic interactions. The other $B$ meson in the event is tagged as either a $B^0$ or $\\bar{B}^0$ from its decay products. The values of the CP-violation parameters derived from the combined $\\phi K^0$ dataset are $S_{\\phi K} = +0.50\\pm 0.25 ({\\small stat})^{+0.07}_{-0.04} ({\\small syst})$ and $C_{\\phi K} = 0.00\\pm 0.23 ({\\small stat}) \\pm 0.05 ({\\small syst})$. In addition, we measure the CP -violating charge asymmetry $\\mathcal{A_{CP}} (B^+\\to \\phi K^+) = 0.054\\pm 0.056 ({\\small stat}) \\pm 0.012 ({\\small syst})$. All results are preliminary.

  11. A facial attractiveness account of gender asymmetries in interracial marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups. METHOD AND FINDINGS: This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facial attractiveness. This found that Black males are perceived as more attractive than White or East Asian males whereas among females, it is the East Asians that are perceived as most attractive on average. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating these attractiveness patterns into the model of marriage decisions produces asymmetries in interracial marriage similar to those in the observed data in terms of direction and relative size. This model does not require differences in status between races nor different strategies based on gender. Predictions are also generated regarding the relative attractiveness of those engaging in interracial marriage.

  12. Cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry mechanism and linear Ekman friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefranov, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Allowance for the linear Ekman friction has been found to ensure a threshold (in rotation frequency) realization of the linear dissipative-centrifugal instability and the related chiral symmetry breaking in the dynamics of Lagrangian particles, which leads to the cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry. An excess of the fluid rotation rate ω0 over some threshold value determined by the fluid eigenfrequency ω (i.e., ω0 > ω) is shown to be a condition for the realization of such an instability. A new generalization of the solution of the Karman problem to determine the steady-state velocity field in a viscous incompressible fluid above a rotating solid disk of large radius, in which the linear Ekman friction was additionally taken into account, has been obtained. A correspondence of this solution and the conditions for the realization of the dissipative-centrifugal instability of a chiral-symmetric vortex state and the corresponding cyclone-anticyclone vortex asymmetry has been shown. A generalization of the well-known spiral velocity distribution in an "Ekman layer" near a solid surface has been established for the case where the fluid rotation frequency far from the disk ω differs from the disk rotation frequency ω0.

  13. FIRST OBSERVATION OF THE PARITY VIOLAING ASYMMETRY IN MOLLER SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younus, Imran

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the E158 experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), which has made the first observation of the parity non-conserving asymmetry in Moller scattering. Longitudinally polarized 48 GeV electrons are scattered off unpolarized (atomic) electrons in a liquid hydrogen target with an average Q2 of 0.027 GeV2. The asymmetry in this process is proportional to ( 1 4 ₋ sin2 #18;W), where sin2 =W gives the weak mixing angle. The thesis describes the experiment in detail, with a particular focus on the design and construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This calorimeter was the primary detector in the experiment used to measure the flux of the scattered Moller electrons and eP electrons. It employed the quartz fiber calorimetry technique, and was built at Syracuse University. The preliminary results from the first experimental data taken in spring 2002 give APV = ₋151.9±29.0(stat)±32.5(syst) parts per billion. This in turn gives sin2 #18;W = 0.

  14. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  15. $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry in mirror nuclei: A = 9

    CERN Multimedia

    Axelsson, L E; Smedberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of light nuclei close to the drip lines have revealed new and intriguing features of the nuclear structure. The occurrence of halo structures in loosely bound systems has had a great impact on the nuclear physics research in the last years. As intriguing but not yet solved is the nature of transitions with very large $\\beta$ - strength. \\\\ \\\\We report here on the investigation of this latter feature by an accurate measurement of the $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry between the mirror nuclei in the A=9 mass chain.\\\\ \\\\The possible asymmetry for the decay to the states around 12 MeV is interesting not only due to the fact that the individual B$_{GT}$ values are large (with large overlap in wave-functions, an unambiguous interpretation is much easier made), but also due to the special role played by this transition for the $^{9}$Li decay. It seems to belong to a class of high-B$_{GT}$ transitions observed at the neutron drip line and has been suggested to be due either to a lowering of the giant Gamow-Te...

  16. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, O; Rolbiecki, K; Schade, P; Terwort, M

    2012-01-01

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e+e- -> ~chi^0_i ~chi^0_1 and subsequent leptonic two-body decays ~chi^0_i -> ~l_R l, ~l_R -> ~chi^0_1 l, for l=e, mu, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of sqrt{s}=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb^-1 collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scen...

  17. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pizzarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  18. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsamyan Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (independent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY reactions with π− off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized 6 LiD and NH3 targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c π− beam on polarized NH3. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for SIDIS transverse spin asymmetries from four “Drell-Yan” Q2-ranges.

  19. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, O. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE; Moortgat-Pick, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rolbiecki, K.; Terwort, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schade, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {chi}{sup 0}{sub i}{chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} and subsequent leptonic twobody decays {chi}{sup 0}{sub i} {yields} l{sub R}l, l{sub R} {yields} {chi}{sup 0}{sub 1}l for l=e,{mu} within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of {radical}(s)=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb{sup -1} collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scenario. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  1. Synchronization and Asymmetry in Stock Markets: The Consequences of Fear

    CERN Document Server

    Donangelo, R; Simonsen, I; Sneppen, K; Donangelo, Raul; Jensen, Mogens H.; Simonsen, Ingve; Sneppen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The value of stocks varies from day to day, both relative to each other but also due to collective movements of the overall market. These variations of the market presumably reflect the psychological state of the surrounding society as affected by current events. One illuminating way to monitor the consequences of stock market changes is to consider the typical waiting time needed for a price variation to reach a predetermined level. Through this procedure it has been found that there is an up-down asymmetry in the market index in the sense that the time span for a given gain level is about twice that of a loss of the same magnitude. Surprisingly, this feature is not observed for the case of individual stocks, which exhibit complete symmetry between gain and loss waiting times. The key problem thus is to understand how an index, like the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), can possess a gain-loss asymmetry, while the individual stocks from which it is composed, do not. To explain this, we introduce an asymme...

  2. Developing Asymmetries at Mammography: A Multimodality Approach to Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, Allyson L; Winkler, Nicole S; Birdwell, Robin L; Giess, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    A developing asymmetry is a focal asymmetry that is new or increased in conspicuity compared with the previous mammogram. It is challenging to evaluate, as it often looks similar to fibroglandular tissue at mammography. A developing asymmetry should be viewed with suspicion because it is an uncommon manifestation of breast cancer. Diagnostic mammography forms the foundation of diagnostic evaluation of a developing asymmetry and begins with additional spot compression, lateral, and/or rolled views to evaluate and localize it in three-dimensional space. Digital breast tomosynthesis can aid in evaluation by improving radiologists' sensitivity and specificity, as well as allowing localization of the lesion. Once the developing asymmetry has been fully characterized and localized with diagnostic mammography, targeted ultrasonography (US) should be performed to identify potentially benign causes of the developing asymmetry or identify a target for biopsy. However, lack of a US correlate should not preclude biopsy of a developing asymmetry. Diagnostic breast magnetic resonance imaging can be used in a minority of cases for problem solving or biopsy planning if no US correlate is identified and stereotactic biopsy is not feasible. The purpose of this article is to review the definition of developing asymmetry, describe the multimodality diagnostic tools available to the radiologist for evaluation of this challenging entity, and review the various causes, both benign and malignant. PMID:26963449

  3. Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exell, Timothy A; Robinson, Gemma; Irwin, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetry in gymnastics underpins successful performance and may also have implications as an injury mechanism; therefore, understanding of this concept could be useful for coaches and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine kinematic and external kinetic asymmetry of the arm segments during the contact phase of a fundamental skill, the forward handspring on floor. Using a repeated single subject design six female National elite gymnasts (age: 19 ± 1.5 years, mass: 58.64 ± 3.72 kg, height: 1.62 ± 0.41 m), each performed 15 forward handsprings, synchronised 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Asymmetry between the lead and non-lead side arms was quantified during each trial. Significant kinetic asymmetry was observed for all gymnasts (p asymmetry being related to the lead leg. All gymnasts displayed kinetic asymmetry for ground reaction force. Kinematic asymmetry was present for more gymnasts at the shoulder than the distal joints. These findings provide useful information for coaching gymnastics skills, which may subjectively appear to be symmetrical. The observed asymmetry has both performance and injury implications. PMID:26625144

  4. Phenomenology of Enhanced Light Quark Yukawa Couplings and the $W^\\pm h$ Charge Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Felix

    2016-01-01

    I propose the measurement of the $W^\\pm h$ charge asymmetry as a consistency test for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs, which is sensitive to enhanced Yukawa couplings of the first and second generation quarks. I present a collider analysis for the charge asymmetry in the same-sign lepton final state, $p p \\to W^\\pm h \\to (\\ell^\\pm \

  5. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physical Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Roma 1, Gruppo Sanita and Physics Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Roma (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero.

  7. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting. PMID:26406054

  8. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Left-Right Laryngeal Asymmetries Based on Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computational modeling was used to examine the consequences of 5 different laryngeal asymmetries on acoustic and perceptual measures of vocal function. Method: A kinematic vocal fold model was used to impose 5 laryngeal asymmetries: adduction, edge bulging, nodal point ratio, amplitude of vibration, and starting phase. Thirty /a/ and /?/…

  9. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  10. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (Ebal) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  11. Balance Asymmetry in Parkinson's Disease and Its Contribution to Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Vugt, van J.P.P.; Kooij, van der H.; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a) ha

  12. Balance asymmetry in Parkinson's disease and its contribution to freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Vugt, J.P.P. van; Kooij, H. van der; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a) ha

  13. Balance asymmetry in Parkinson's disease and its contribution to freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Van Vugt, J.P.P.; Van der Kooij, H.; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a) ha

  14. INTERRUPTION OF AMINO ACIDS MOLECULAR ASYMMETRY (D/L- ENANTIOMERS DURING NORMAL AGING AND NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Chervyakov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some facts about D-amino acids, their diffusion in human’s and animal’s organisms, metabolism, identification methods, involving in ageing and pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases are show in this review. Also there is discussing the role of amino acid molecular asymmetry (D and L enantiomers ratio as a fundamental asymmetry of living matter.

  15. Transverse target-spin asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschler, Jeroen

    2008-10-15

    This thesis reports the first measurements of the asymmetry in exclusive {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction from a transversely polarized proton. The asymmetry was extracted from data taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target and the 27.6 GeV electron (positron) beam of HERA. (orig.)

  16. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur;

    2007-01-01

    of each infant's head, and again employed to estimate the improvement of asym- metry after the helmet therapy. A statistical model of head asymmetry was developed (PCA). The main modes of variation were in good agreement with clinical observations, and the model provided an excellent and instructive...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....

  17. Time Asymmetry in Quantum Physics - I. Theoretical Conclusion from Resonance and Decay-Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Bohm, A.; Kaldass, H.; Komy, S.

    2007-01-01

    It is explained how the unification of resonance and decay phenomena into a consistent mathematical theory leads to quantum mechanical time-asymmetry. This provides the theoretical basis for a subsequent paper II in which the interpretation and experimental demonstration of this time-asymmetry is discussed.

  18. Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exell, Timothy A; Robinson, Gemma; Irwin, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetry in gymnastics underpins successful performance and may also have implications as an injury mechanism; therefore, understanding of this concept could be useful for coaches and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine kinematic and external kinetic asymmetry of the arm segments during the contact phase of a fundamental skill, the forward handspring on floor. Using a repeated single subject design six female National elite gymnasts (age: 19 ± 1.5 years, mass: 58.64 ± 3.72 kg, height: 1.62 ± 0.41 m), each performed 15 forward handsprings, synchronised 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Asymmetry between the lead and non-lead side arms was quantified during each trial. Significant kinetic asymmetry was observed for all gymnasts (p asymmetry being related to the lead leg. All gymnasts displayed kinetic asymmetry for ground reaction force. Kinematic asymmetry was present for more gymnasts at the shoulder than the distal joints. These findings provide useful information for coaching gymnastics skills, which may subjectively appear to be symmetrical. The observed asymmetry has both performance and injury implications.

  19. Symptomatic asymmetry in the first six months of life : differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuysink, Jacqueline; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetry in infancy is a clinical condition with a wide variation in appearances (shape, posture, and movement), etiology, localization, and severity. The prevalence of an asymmetric positional preference is 12% of all newborns during the first six months of life. The asymmetry is either idiopathic

  20. Symptomatic asymmetry in the first six months of life: differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuysink, Jacqueline; Haastert, I.C. van; Takken, T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetry in infancy is a clinical condition with a wide variation in appearances (shape, posture, and movement), etiology, localization, and severity. The prevalence of an asymmetric positional preference is 12% of all newborns during the first six months of life. The asymmetry is either idiopathic

  1. Asymmetries in Heavy Quark Pair and Dijet Production at an EIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production in electron-proton collisions allow studies of gluon TMDs in close analogy to studies of quark TMDs in semi-inclusive DIS. Here we present expressions for azimuthal asymmetries for both unpolarized and transversely polarized proton cases and consi

  2. ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION ASYMMETRY ON EVALUATION AND RISK OF CLUSTER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine and analyse the main approaches of evaluation of cluster or group performance under information asymmetry within cluster. It is assumed that one of the most relevant causes of information asymmetry inside the business clusters are the different interests of its stakeholders and their willingness to dominate. This paper contributes to the further analysis, development and generalisation of evaluation approach of cluster performance and of the impact of information asymmetry on the activities of business clusters. Purpose – is to investigate the impact of information asymmetry on the evaluation on performance of business clusters and the methods and approaches of evaluation of performance with regard to information asymmetry. Design/methodology/approach – general overview of research papers presenting concepts and methodologies of evaluation of performance with regard to information asymmetry. Findings – information asymmetry has a significant impact on the performance of business clusters, and can be the decisive factor in the viability of a cluster. The members of cluster can be seem as subjects willing to dominate in cluster and to gain a relatively more portion of profit of clusters, some conflicts of interests can appear. However, there is no universal approach for evaluation of the impact of information asymmetry on cluster or group efficiency. This paper aims to highlight the main types of information asymmetry and respective approaches of evaluation analysed by the researchers.Research limitations/implications – the complexity and nature of information that can be used in the process of creation of innovation. The strong assumptions on information asymmetry from one side and the lack of advanced investigation focussed on the evaluation of business clusters performance efficiency under information asymmetry from other side are the most relevant limitations of research. Therefore the conclusions are

  3. Space telemetry degradation due to Manchester data asymmetry induced carrier tracking phase error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-01-01

    The deleterious effects that the Manchester (or Bi-phi) data asymmetry has on the performance of phase-modulated residual carrier communication systems are analyzed. Expressions for the power spectral density of an asymmetric Manchester data stream, the interference-to-carrier signal power ratio (I/C), and the error probability performance are derived. Since data asymmetry can cause undesired spectral components at the carrier frequency, the I/C ratio is given as a function of both the data asymmetry and the telemetry modulation index. Also presented are the data asymmetry and asymmetry-induced carrier tracking loop and the system bit-error rate to various parameters of the models.

  4. Structural asymmetry of cortical visual areas is related to ocular dominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina H; Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M;

    2015-01-01

    asymmetries to asymmetries of visual function. We examined grey matter asymmetries of visual areas in a large population (n=56) of ophthalmologically and neurologically healthy individuals. We used state-of-the-art 3 T MRI and voxel-based morphometry to relate the visual parameters, (a) ocular dominance, (b......The grey matter of the human brain is asymmetrically distributed between the cerebral hemispheres. This asymmetry includes visual areas, but its relevance to visual function is not understood. Voxel-based morphometry is a well-established technique for localization and quantification of cerebral...... grey matter on the basis of MR images. This method has been used previously for interhemispheric comparison, but without examining the functional implications of the identified anatomical asymmetries of the visual system. The aim of the present study was to relate anatomical interhemispheric...

  5. Large-scale magnetic fields can explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Helical hypermagnetic fields in the primordial Universe can produce the observed amount of baryon asymmetry through the chiral anomaly without any ingredients beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. While they generate no $B-L$ asymmetry, the generated baryon asymmetry survives the spharelon washout effect, because the generating process remains active until the electroweak phase transition. Solving the Boltzmann equation numerically and finding an attractor solution, we show that the baryon asymmetry of our Universe can be explained, if the present large-scale magnetic fields indicated by the blazar observations have a negative helicity and existed in the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition. We also derive the upper bound on the strength of the helical magnetic field, which is tighter than the CMB constraint, to avoid the overproduction of baryon asymmetry.

  6. Transverse Target Single Spin Asymmetry in Elastic e-{\\p} Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Alhalholy, Tareq

    2016-01-01

    Using the Coulomb Eikonal Phase associated with a transversely polarized nucleon, we calculate the azimuthal single spin asymmetry of unpolarized electrons elastically scattered from a transversely polarized nucleon target. The azimuthal asymmetry in this case is attributed to the fact that in a transversely polarized nucleon, the transverse charge density is no longer axially symmetric and is distorted due to the transverse spin of the nucleon. This asymmetry in the nucleon charge density causes a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal distribution of the scattered electrons. In our approach, we utilize the relativistic Eikonal approximation to calculate the one and two photon exchange amplitudes from which a non zero azimuthal asymmetry appears due to the interference between the two amplitudes.

  7. Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Polo-Cavia

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1 the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2 the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed, and 3 whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species.

  8. The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: afferent or efferent filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Jetha, Michelle K; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    Resting EEG asymmetry evident early in life is thought to bias affective behaviors and contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear at what stage of information processing this bias occurs. Asymmetry may serve as an afferent filter, modulating emotional reactivity to incoming stimuli; or as an efferent filter, modulating behavioral response tendencies under emotional conditions. This study examines 209 kindergarten children (M = 6.03 years old) to test predictions put forth by the two models. Resting asymmetry was examined in conjunction with electrodermal and cardiac measures of physiological reactivity to four emotion-inducing film clips (fear, sad, happy, anger) and teacher ratings of psychopathology. Results confirm an association between increased right side cortical activation and internalizing symptom severity as well as left activation and externalizing symptom severity. Significant interactions between resting asymmetry and physiological reactivity to emotion indicate that physiological reactivity moderates the association between resting asymmetry and symptoms of psychopathology.

  9. Dividend Policy from the Signaling Perspective and its Effects on Information Asymmetry among Management and Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to examine the relevance of dividend policy from the signaling perspective and its effects on information asymmetry among management and investors and Compare the relative information content of them. Based on sampling, 88 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE were selected and examined during 2003 to 2010. The findings show that the dividend policy (Divisible profit proportion has positive and significant relation with market information asymmetry namely when the dividend policy increases the information asymmetry increases, too. On the other side, the test findings indicate the investors are sensitive to the EPS changes and when the EPS changes are positive their dividend increases, but when the divivend of the company decreases the information boggles their mind and information asymmetry increases. By virtue of the findings it may conclude when EPS and DPS changes are not in the same direction the internal and external information asymmetry of the company increases by changing profit division policy.

  10. Robust Quantification of Galaxy Cluster Morphology Using Asymmetry and Central Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Nurgaliev, D; Benson, B A; Stubbs, C W; Vikhlinin, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel quantitative scheme of cluster classification based on the morphological properties that are manifested in X-ray images. We use a conventional radial surface brightness concentration parameter (c_{SB}) as defined previously by others, and a new asymmetry parameter, which we define in this paper. Our asymmetry parameter, which we refer to as photon asymmetry ($A_{phot}), was developed as a robust substructure statistic for cluster observations with only a few thousand counts. To demonstrate that photon asymmetry exhibits better stability than currently popular power ratios and centroid shifts, we artificially degrade the X-ray image quality by: (a) adding extra background counts, (b) eliminating a fraction of the counts, (c) increasing the width of the smoothing kernel, and (d) simulating cluster observations at higher redshift. The asymmetry statistic presented here has a smaller statistical uncertainty than competing substructure parameters, allowing for low levels of substructure to be me...

  11. Eye contact reveals a relationship between Neuroticism and anterior EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Allik, Jüri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    Although anterior functional brain asymmetry has been linked to individual differences in affect and motivation, its relations with the Five Factor Model personality traits remain unclear. We investigated anterior EEG alpha-activity asymmetry in response to variable degrees of social contact induced by different gaze directions of a "live" model. Neuroticism was negatively related to the anterior EEG asymmetry scores in response to direct gaze, indicating that higher levels of Neuroticism were associated with avoidance-related, relative right-sided functional brain asymmetry. Neuroticism was also related to behavioral direct gaze avoidance and subjective averted gaze preference. These relationships arose primarily from the Withdrawal aspect factor, suggesting that two subdomains of Neuroticism may be differentially related to approach-avoidance tendencies. These findings demonstrate that experimental manipulations of social contact can reveal personality related differences in anterior EEG asymmetry responsiveness, offering a motivationally salient alternative to resting state measures. PMID:25980386

  12. Separation of Proton Polarizabilities with the Beam Asymmetry of Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupina, Nadiia; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2013-06-01

    We propose to determine the magnetic dipole polarizability of the proton from the beam asymmetry of low-energy Compton scattering based on the fact that the leading non-Born contribution to the asymmetry is given by the magnetic polarizability alone; the electric polarizability cancels out. The beam asymmetry thus provides a simple and clean separation of the magnetic polarizability from the electric one. Introducing polarizabilities in a Lorentz-invariant fashion, we compute the higher-order (recoil) effects of polarizabilities on beam asymmetry and show that these effects are suppressed in forward kinematics. With the prospects of precision Compton experiments at the Mainz Microtron and High Intensity Gamma Source facilities in mind, we argue why the beam asymmetry could be the best way to measure the elusive magnetic polarizability of the proton.

  13. Separation of proton polarizabilities with the beam asymmetry of Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Krupina, Nadiia

    2013-01-01

    We propose to determine the magnetic dipole polarizability of the proton directly from the beam asymmetry of low-energy Compton scattering based on the fact that the leading non-Born contribution to the asymmetry is due to the magnetic polarizability alone; the electric polarizability cancels out. The beam asymmetry thus provides the simplest observable with a clean separation of the magnetic polarizability from the electric one. Introducing polarizabilities in a Lorentz-invariant fashion we compute the higher-order (recoil) effects of polarizabilities on beam asymmetry and show that these effects are most suppressed in forward kinematics. With the prospects of precision Compton experiments at the MAMI and HIGS facilities in mind, we argue why the beam asymmetry could be the best way to measure the elusive magnetic polarizability of the proton.

  14. NEBULAR SPECTRA AND EXPLOSION ASYMMETRY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral signatures of asymmetry in Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) explosions are investigated, using a sample of late-time nebular spectra. First, a kinematical model is constructed for SN Ia 2003hv, which can account for the main features in its optical, Near-Infrared (NIR), and Mid-Infrared (Mid-IR) late-time spectra. It is found that an asymmetric off-center model can explain the observed characteristics of SN 2003hv. This model includes a relatively high-density, Fe-rich region which displays a large velocity off-set, and a relatively low density, extended 56Ni-rich region which is more spherically distributed. The high-density region consists of the inner stable Fe-Ni region and outer 56Ni-rich region. Such a distribution may be the result of a delayed-detonation explosion, in which the first deflagration produces the global asymmetry in the innermost ejecta, while the subsequent detonation can lead to the bulk spherical symmetry. This configuration, if viewed from the direction of the off-set, can consistently explain the blueshift in some of the emission lines and virtually no observed shift in other lines in SN 2003hv. For this model, we then explore the effects of different viewing angles and the implications for SNe Ia in general. The model predicts that a variation of the central wavelength, depending on the viewing angle, should be seen in some lines (e.g., [Ni II] λ7378), while the strongest lines (e.g., [Fe III] blend at ∼4700 A) will not show this effect. By examining optical nebular spectra of 12 SNe Ia, we have found that such a variation indeed exists. We suggest that the global asymmetry in the innermost ejecta, as likely imprint of the deflagration flame propagation, is a generic feature of SNe Ia. It is also shown that various forbidden lines in the NIR and Mid-IR regimes provide strong diagnostics to further constrain the explosion geometry and thus the explosion mechanism.

  15. Modelling the influence of temperature anisotropies on poloidal asymmetries of density in the core of rotating plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilato, R.; Maj, O.; Angioni, C.

    2014-07-01

    A consistent set of equations is derived to model poloidal density asymmetries induced by temperature anisotropies in tokamak rotating plasmas. The model can be applied to compute poloidal density asymmetry of highly charged impurities due to additional plasma heating.

  16. Growth and asymmetry of soil microfungal colonies from "Evolution Canyon," Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluctuating asymmetry is a contentious indicator of stress in populations of animals and plants. Nevertheless, it is a measure of developmental noise, typically obtained by measuring asymmetry across an individual organism's left-right axis of symmetry. These individual, signed asymmetries are symmetrically distributed around a mean of zero. Fluctuating asymmetry, however, has rarely been studied in microorganisms, and never in fungi. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We examined colony growth and random phenotypic variation of five soil microfungal species isolated from the opposing slopes of "Evolution Canyon," Mount Carmel, Israel. This canyon provides an opportunity to study diverse taxa inhabiting a single microsite, under different kinds and intensities of abiotic and biotic stress. The south-facing "African" slope of "Evolution Canyon" is xeric, warm, and tropical. It is only 200 m, on average, from the north-facing "European" slope, which is mesic, cool, and temperate. Five fungal species inhabiting both the south-facing "African" slope, and the north-facing "European" slope of the canyon were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, where we measured the fluctuating radial asymmetry and sizes of their colonies. RESULTS: Different species displayed different amounts of radial asymmetry (and colony size. Moreover, there were highly significant slope by species interactions for size, and marginally significant ones for fluctuating asymmetry. There were no universal differences (i.e., across all species in radial asymmetry and colony size between strains from "African" and "European" slopes, but colonies of Clonostachys rosea from the "African" slope were more asymmetric than those from the "European" slope. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that fluctuating radial asymmetry has potential as an indicator of random phenotypic variation and stress in soil microfungi. Interaction of slope and species for both growth rate

  17. Left–right asymmetry in integral spectra of γ-quanta in the interaction of nuclei with polarized thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of preliminarymeasurements of the left–right asymmetry in integral spectra of γ-quanta emitted in the interaction of polarized thermal neutrons with nuclei. These results indicate that for all cases of measured statistically significant P-odd asymmetry, the left–right asymmetry coefficient is much smaller than the P-odd asymmetry coefficient. This observation is not consistent with the predictions of theoretical calculations

  18. Electron-hole asymmetry in two-terminal graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, W.-R.; Jonson, M.; Titov, M.

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to describe asymmetric gate-voltage dependence of conductance and noise in two-terminal ballistic graphene devices. The model is analyzed independently within the self-consistent Hartree and Thomas-Fermi approximations. Our results justify the prominent role of metal contacts in recent experiments with suspended graphene flakes. The contact-induced electrostatic potentials in graphene demonstrate a power-law decay, with the exponent varying from -1 to -0.5. Within our model we explain electron-hole asymmetry and strong Fabri-Perot oscillations of the conductance and noise with positive doping, which were observed in many experiments with submicrometer samples. Limitations of the Thomas-Fermi approximation in a vicinity of the Dirac point are discussed.

  19. Measurement of the electroweak asymmetry of the b-quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prompt electron and muon yield was measured in hadronic events of e+e- annihilation at energies of √s ≅ 44 GeV using the CELLO detector at PETRA. A cut in the transverse momentum of the lepton was used to enrich the lepton signals from b-quarks from which the semileptonic branching ratio of the b decay and the electroweak induced charge asymmetry of the banti b production was measured. One finds: Br (b → e + anti νe + X) = 0.11 ± 0.05 ± 0.05, Br (b → μ + anti νμ + X) = 0.03 ± 0.04 ± 0.04, Ab(e) =- 0.70 ± 0.52 ± 0.11, Ab(μ) =- 0.55 ± 0.59 ± 0.17. The results are found to be well compatible with the expectation of the standard model. (orig.)

  20. Beam-spin Asymmetries from Semi-inclusive Pion Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gohn, W; Joo, K; Ungaro, M

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the moment $A_{LU}^{\\sin\\phi}$ corresponding to the polarized electron beam-spin asymmetry in SIDIS. $A_{LU}^{\\sin\\phi}$ is a twist-3 quantity providing information about quark-gluon correlations. Data were taken with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab using a 5.498 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. All three pion channels ($\\pi^+$, $\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^-$) were measured simultaneously over a large range of kinematics within the virtuality range $Q^2 \\approx$ 1.0-4.5 GeV$^2$. The observable was measured with good statistical precision over a large range of $z$, $P_T$, $x_B$, and $Q^{2}$, which permits comparison with several reaction models. The discussed measurements provide an upgrade in statistics over previous measurements, and serve as the first evidence for the negative sign of the $\\pi^{-}$ $\\sin\\phi$ moment.

  1. Axial asymmetry for improved sensitivity in MEMS piezoresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvra, Pranoy Deb; McNamara, Shamus; Lin, Ji-Tzuoh; Alphenaar, Bruce; Walsh, Kevin; Davidson, Jim

    2016-09-01

    The strain induced resistance change is compared for asymmetric, symmetric and diffused piezoresistive elements. Finite element analysis is used to simulate the performance of a T-shaped piezoresistive MEMS cantilever, including a lumped parameter model to show the effect of geometric asymmetry on the piezoresistor sensitivity. Asymmetric piezoresistors are found to be much more sensitive to applied load than the typical symmetric design producing about two orders of magnitude higher resistance change. This is shown to be due to the difference in the stress distribution in the symmetric and asymmetric geometries resulting in less resistance change cancellation in the asymmetric design. Although still less sensitive than diffused piezoresistors, asymmetric piezoresistors are sensitive enough for many applications, and are much easier to fabricate and integrate into MEMS devices.

  2. The evolutionary theory of asymmetry by V. Geodakyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geodakyan, Sergey V.

    2015-08-01

    For more than 150 years, all biological theories, including those of C. Darwin and Mendel, were based on the idea of synchronous evolution. They fit for unitary monomodal systems (asexual, symmetrical) but do not work for binary (dioecious, asymmetrical) ones. Examples of such binary conjugated differentiations are two sexes, DNA-proteins, autosomes-sex chromosomes, right and left brain hemispheres, and hands. For their understanding, "asynchronous" theories are needed. Such theories were proposed by Russian theoretical biologist Vigen A. Geodakyan for sexual, brain and body, and chromosomal differentiations. All theories are interconnected and are based on the principle of conjugated subsystems. This article covers the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of asymmetry and answers the following questions: What benefits does lateralization provide? What logic, what principle is it based on? Why do brain hemispheres control the opposite sides of the body? Why laterality is closely related to sex? What are the biological prerequisites of terrorism?

  3. Molecular Weight and Charge Density Asymmetry in Polyelectrolyte Complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audus, Debra; Fredrickson, Glenn; Duechs, Dominik

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of oppositely charged polymers in a good solvent using a field-theoretic model. Mean-field solutions fail to predict the experimentally observed macroscopic phase separation into a solvent-rich phase and a dense liquid aggregate of polymers - a ``complex coacervate.'' We therefore study the model within a one-loop approximation, which accounts for Gaussian fluctuations in electrostatic and chemical potentials. Our particular focus is the effect of molecular weight, ionic strength, and charge asymmetry on the phase envelope. A set of dimensionless parameters is identified that dictate the size and shape of the two-phase region. Our results should be helpful in guiding experimental studies of coacervation.

  4. Agonistic asymmetries and the foraging ecology of Bald Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both asymmetries and differing food levels on contest outcomes of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. Large eagles, regardless of age, were more successful in pirating than smaller eagles. Small pirating eagles were usually unsuccessful unless they were adults attempting to supplant other small eagles. Feeding eagles were more successful in defeating pirating eagles according to (1) whether their heads were up to prior to a pirating attempt, (2) how long their heads had been up, and (3) whether they displayed. During periods of food scarcity pirating eagles were less successful, a fact attributed in a proximate sense to the increase incidence of retaliation by feeding birds. When food was scarce and eagles had a choice between scavenging the pirating, they chose to scavenge more often. Body size appears to be an important factor in determining social dominance and influencing differences in foraging modes of wintering Bald Eagles.

  5. Observation of tilt asymmetries in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, part of the experimental effort on the FRX-C/LSM device has been devoted to understanding why good FRC confinement is observed only in a narrow window of the operating parameter space (fill pressures less than 5 mtorr and bias fields less than 0.8--0.9 kG). The transition from good to bad confinement has been shown for some time to correlate with strong axial shocks, suggesting a formation or stability problem. More recently, FRC magnetic asymmetries have been observed whenever the confinement was poor. To gain further understanding, a 64-coil probe array was built, and data from over 700 discharges were collected during the summer of 1989. We summarize in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of these data. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Diurnal trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry in endogenous depressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Melnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry was studied in patients with endogenous depressions in morning and evening hours. In the morning, the spectral power of alpha rhythm particularly in the occipital cortical regions, proved to be higher than that in the evening. In the morning, the interhemispheric differences in the power of occipital alpha rhythm were leveled off while in the evening there was normalization of interhemispheric balance with the higher power of alpha rhythm in the right occipital region. Analysis of the mean coherence (mean Coh of alpha rhythm in individual cortical regions revealed that the patients with endogenous depression had higher readings mainly in the parietal and central regions of both hemispheres and in the right temporal regions in the morning than in the evening. The occipital and posttemporal regions showed an inverse trend in the mean Coh - it was lower in the morning than in the evening

  7. Elastic and thermal expansion asymmetry in dense molecular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Joseph A.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-09-01

    The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are fundamental properties of elastically stiff molecular materials and are assumed to be the same (symmetric) under both tension and compression loading. We show that molecular materials can have a marked asymmetric elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion that are inherently related to terminal chemical groups that limit molecular network connectivity. In compression, terminal groups sterically interact to stiffen the network, whereas in tension they interact less and disconnect the network. The existence of asymmetric elastic and thermal expansion behaviour has fundamental implications for computational approaches to molecular materials modelling and practical implications on the thermomechanical strains and associated elastic stresses. We develop a design space to control the degree of elastic asymmetry in molecular materials, a vital step towards understanding their integration into device technologies.

  8. Dynamic constitutive model for soils considering asymmetry of skeleton curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Chen; Hua Pan; Hui Long; Xiaojun Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the asymmetric characteristic of skeleton curve obtained from dynamic tests on soils, a func-tion with double asymptotes is proposed for describing the dynamic constitutive relations of soils. The hysteresis loops observed during unloading and reloading show the same form as the skeleton curve and are constructed by taking the ultimate stress as the corresponding asymptote. The coefficient of initial unloading modulus is used to ensure that the constructed hysteresis loop fits well with the experimental data. Then, a new dynamic constitutive model considering the asymmetry of skeleton curve is elaborated. The verification tests on saturated Nanjing fine sand are performed using a hollow cylinder apparatus to verify the applicability of the UD model. It is found that the predicted curves by the UD model agree well with the test data.

  9. Enhanced techniques for asymmetry quantification in brain imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Imielinska, Celina; Rosiene, Joel; Connolly, E. S.; D'Ambrosio, Anthony L.

    2006-03-01

    We present an automated generic methodology for symmetry identification and asymmetry quantification, novel method of identifying and delineation of brain pathology by analyzing the opposing sides of the brain utilizing of inherent left-right symmetry in the brain. After symmetry axis has been detected, we apply non-parametric statistical tests operating on the pairs of samples to identify initial seeds points which is defined defined as the pixels where the most statistically significant difference appears. Local region growing is performed on the difference map, from where the seeds are aggregating until it captures all 8-way connected high signals from the difference map. We illustrate the capability of our method with examples ranging from tumors in patient MR data to animal stroke data. The validation results on Rat stroke data have shown that this approach has promise to achieve high precision and full automation in segmenting lesions in reflectional symmetrical objects.

  10. Hypermagnetic gyrotropy, inflation and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the production of the hypermagnetic gyrotropy when the electric and magnetic gauge couplings evolve at different rates, as it happens in the the relativistic theory of the Van der Waals forces. If a pseudo-scalar interaction breaks the duality symmetry of the corresponding equations, the gyrotropic configurations of the hypermagnetic fields can be amplified from the vacuum during an inflationary stage of expansion. After charting the parameter space of the model in terms of the rates of evolution of the magnetic and electric gauge couplings, we identify the regions where the gyrotropy is sufficiently intense to seed the baryon asymmetry of the Universe at the electroweak epoch while the backreaction constraints, the strong coupling bounds and the other astrophysical limits are concurrently satisfied.

  11. Final state interaction phases using data from CP asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E; Nam, Soonkeon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics might be revealed through CP violation. Experimental results from BaBar, Belle, and most recently from LHCb are very interesting in this respect. It is important to calculate various CP violation parameters within the SM. In this Letter, the final state interaction (FSI) phases with the CKM matrix are calculated using the recent experimental results from LHCb on CP violation in B0 and Bs0 meson decays. To obtain the allowed regions of the FSI phases, a simplified form of the Jarlskog determinant of the CKM matrix is used and the CP phase delta close to the maximal value of pi/2 is found. Then, the asymmetry data on B0 and Bs0 from LHCb is used to explore graphically the allowed regions of the FSI phases.

  12. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical. PMID:16040358

  13. Observations of azimuthal asymmetry for certain FRC operating regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FRX-C/LSM experiment has been operated with additional diagnostics for studies of FRC structure in the θ-pinch source. Data were taken over ranges of fill pressure and bias field that lead to the formation of FRCs with confinement properties that are consistently good (e.g., at 3 mtorr at 0.7 kG bias) and consistently poor (e.g., at 5 mtorr at any bias). The pertinent diagnostics were end-on soft x-ray imaging, arrays of external Bθ and Br probes, and five chords of interferometry. The data show that easily observed departures from azimuthal (θ) symmetry occur in some cases and that further research into the cause and nature of these asymmetries would benefit our studies of FRC stability and confinement. 4 refs

  14. Dynamic process of free space excitation of asymmetry resonant microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The underlying physics and detailed dynamical processes of the free space beam excitation to the asymmetry resonant microcavity are studied numerically. Taking the well-studied quadrupole deformed microcavity as an example, we use a Gaussian beam to excite the high-Q mode. The simulation provides a powerful platform to study the underlying physics. The transmission spectrum and intracavity energy can be obtained directly. Irregular transmission spectrum was observed, showing asymmetric Fano-type lineshapes which could be attributed to interference between the different light paths. Then excitation efficiencies about the aim distance of the incident Gaussian beam and the rotation angle of the cavity were studied, showing great consistence with the reversal of emission efficiencies. By projecting the position dependent excitation efficiency to the phase space, the correspondence between the excitation and emission was demonstrated. In addition, we compared the Husimi distributions of the excitation processes an...

  15. Overcoming information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2007-04-01

    Consumer-centric healthcare has been extolled as the centerpiece of a new model for managing both quality and price. However, information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) is a challenge that must be addressed. For CDHPs to work as intended and to gain acceptance, consumers need information regarding the quality and price of healthcare purchases. The federal government, particularly the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, could function as an official resource for information on performance and comparisons among facilities and providers. Because of workforce constraints among primary care physicians, a new group of healthcare professionals called "medical decision advisors" could be trained. Academic health centers would have to play a critical role in devising an appropriate curriculum, as well as designing a certification and credentialing process. However, with appropriate curricula and training, medical decision advisors could furnish information for consumers and aid in the complicated decisions they will face under CDHPs.

  16. An Experimental Report on Asymmetry in Visual Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈咏媛

    2006-01-01

    The search rate for a target among distractors may vary dramatically depending on which stimulus plays the role of target and which that of distractors. In this experiment, we found that the time required to find a closed circle was significantly shorter than that of a circle with a gap.The results are completely the same as Triesman's research in 1985, which predicts that searching for a circle should be parallel and fast. We infer that it may due to the small quantity of subjects and the subjects' poor performance caused by the lack of strictness in manipulation of experiment.Generally speaking, there absolutely exists an asymmetry in visual search, and the reaction time is significantly effected by the display size in the search of feature.

  17. Indirect Detection of Forming Protoplanets via Chemical Asymmetries in Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Harries, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    We examine changes in the molecular abundances resulting from increased heating due to a self-luminous planetary companion embedded within a narrow circumstellar disk gap. Using 3D models that include stellar and planetary irradiation, we find that luminous young planets locally heat up the parent circumstellar disk by many tens of Kelvin, resulting in efficient thermal desorption of molecular species that are otherwise locally frozen out. Furthermore, the heating is deposited over large regions of the disk, $\\pm5$ AU radially and spanning $\\lesssim60^\\circ$ azimuthally. From the 3D chemical models, we compute rotational line emission models and full ALMA simulations, and find that the chemical signatures of the young planet are detectable as chemical asymmetries in $\\sim10h$ observations. HCN and its isotopologues are particularly clear tracers of planetary heating for the models considered here, and emission from multiple transitions of the same species is detectable, which encodes temperature information i...

  18. Longitudinal Double Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Jet Production at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution reports on the first measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry ALL for the inclusive production of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions at √s = 200 GeV. The data were collected with STAR at RHIC in the years 2003 and 2004, and correspond to a sampled integrated luminosity of 0.3 pb-1 with beam polarizations up to 45%. The results on ALL cover jet transverse momenta 5 T < 17 GeV/c and agree with perturbative QCD evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the proton. The results disfavor large positive gluon polarization in the polarized proton

  19. Testing the Asymmetry of Shocks with Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the demand and supply shocks affecting 13 EU member states and to estimate their degree of correlation with the Euro area shocks. This research ensures identifying the asymmetry of shocks degree with the monetary union, depending on which it’s judging the desirability of adopting a single currency. The analysis is also useful for the economies outside the Euro area, because they are strongly commercial and financial integrated especially with the core economies from union. Applying the Blanchard and Quah methodology to estimate the shocks in the period from 1998:1- 2010:3, I have found a weak and negative correlation between demand shocks and a medium to high correlation of the supply shocks. The results obtained suggest the presence of a structural convergence process with the Euro area, in the context of domestic macroeconomic policies rather different, both inside and outside the monetary union.

  20. An asymmetry between pushing and pulling for crawling cells

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells possess motility mechanisms allowing them not only to self-propel but also to exert forces on obstacles (to push) and to carry cargoes (to pull). To study the inherent asymmetry between active pushing and pulling we model a crawling acto-myosin cell extract as a 1D layer of active gel subjected to external forces. We show that pushing is controlled by protrusion and that the macroscopic signature of the protrusion dominated motility mechanism is concavity of the force velocity relation. Instead, pulling is driven by protrusion only at small values of the pulling force and it is replaced by contraction when the pulling force is sufficiently large. This leads to more complex convex-concave structure of the force velocity relation, in particular, competition between protrusion and contraction can produce negative mobility in a biologically relevant range. The model illustrates active readjustment of the force generating machinery in response to changes in the dipole structure of external forces....