WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymmetry

  1. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  2. Asymmetries at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius U.

    2014-10-28

    In this report, we summarize the latest results of the top-quark pair production asymmetry and present the new result of bottom-quark pair production asymmetry. By looking at the results obtained by the CDF experiment, one can see a discrepancy in both $t\\bar{t}$ inclusive and lepton-based measurements. The D0 results of the $t\\bar{t}$ production asymmetry are compatible with the standard-model predictions as well as with the CDF results. The CDF measurement of $b\\bar{b}$ production asymmetry presents consistency with both zero and with the standard-model predictions.

  3. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry - A Hopeless Conflict in Chemical Literature. Chandan Saha Suchandra Chakraborty. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 768-778 ...

  4. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and im...

  5. Asymmetries in rent seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Langlais, E.; Lovat, B.; Parisi, F.; Congleton, R.D.; Hillman, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    In rent-seeking contests, players are seldom identical to one another. In this chapter, we examine the rent-seeking literature that explores the effects of specific forms of asymmetry between contestants. We consider Tullock’s rent-seeking contests involving two players who differ in strength

  6. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  7. Lowering of Asymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 1. Lowering of ... In the present study we examine the character and nature of asymmetry at various time scales by optimizing the data set, in units of Carrington Rotations (CRs), for Sunspot Area (SA) and soft X-ray flare index (FISXR). We find from ...

  8. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  9. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  10. Developmental breast asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, WoanYi; Mathur, Bhagwat; Slade-Sharman, Diana; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    Developmental breast asymmetry (DBA) can affect psychosocial well-being in the young female. Correction of breast asymmetry may present a reconstructive challenge, especially in tuberous breasts. Fifty-two cases of DBA treated between January 2002 and January 2006 were reviewed. Preoperative clinical assessment of the specific anatomical deformity, subsequent surgical treatment modalities, esthetic outcome, and patient's satisfaction were evaluated. Surgical modalities used in our series include augmentation mammaplasty with or without tissue expansion, parenchymal scoring, nipple areola complex reduction, glanduloplasty techniques, mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty. The mean age of DBA presentation was 21 years; 69% (36/52) patients had tuberous breasts, of which 67% (24/36) were unilateral and 33% (12/36) were bilateral deformities. Patients with tuberous breast deformity presented consistently under the age of 25 years. Esthetic outcome was rated "good" in 75% (39/52), and symmetry rated as "good" in 58% (30/52) by professional evaluation. Surgical treatment is tailored to the affected esthetic units of the individual breast. In our experience, symmetry is the hardest parameter to achieve, particularly in tuberous breasts. Operative treatment is of great value to the psychosocial well-being of the patient. A conceptual approach in the assessment and treatment of DBA is emphasized by this series. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  12. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  13. Asymmetry In Biphase Data Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents analysis of some effects of asymmetry in Manchester (biphase) binary data signal transmitted by phase modulation of sinusoidal carrier signal. Report extends analysis described in article, "Effects of Asymmetry of NRZ Data Signals on Performance" (NPO-18261), to include case where data biphase-modulated directly on residual carrier.

  14. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  15. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi

    2004-01-01

    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  16. Lip asymmetry and smile aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwa, Waeil; McDonald, Fraser; Cash, Alex

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To determine if lip asymmetry can affect lip aesthetics. Setting and Participants : A group of dentists (n = 40) and cleft patients (n = 40) were recruited from the dental hospital and cleft service. Interventions : Still photographic digital images of lips and teeth were manipulated to produce a computerized gradient of smile appearance with different degrees of upper-lip vertical asymmetry. These five photographs (with 0 mm representing "symmetry," and 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 mm, asymmetries) were assessed by participants using a 5-point Likert scale. Statistics : Descriptive statistics in addition to chi-square test were used to analyze the data. In order to satisfy the requirement of the chi-square test, the five smile ratings were reduced to three. Results : Lip asymmetry did affect relative smile aesthetics, as determined by dentists and cleft patients. Both the dentists and cleft patients rated the 0-mm photograph more attractive than the 2.5-mm and 3-mm smiles (P aesthetics. However, cleft patients and dentists were tolerant of minor asymmetries. This suggests that small degrees of lip asymmetry do not affect relative smile aesthetics as much as large degrees of lip asymmetry (2.5 mm or more).

  17. [Some aspects of sensorial asymmetries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    1999-09-30

    The present review shows the variability assessing sensoric asymmetries. There are preference and performance tests. Sensoric asymmetries are strongest and most manifest for eyedness (eye preference and performance), descending through earedness and other less known asymmetries. A vast range of testing techniques have been used to assess eyedness. Sighting dominance and self-report are two of the most popular techniques. Other preference measures include observation of how people use tools and questionnaires. Performance test assess speed and accuracy in tasks stressing sensoric dexterity. Although questionnaires are generally thought to be reliable and valid instruments, there is a disagreement as to the nature, the number and weighting of the items to be included.

  18. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage.......  Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all three...

  19. Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.

  20. Looking for charming asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    New results presented by the LHCb collaboration on the decay of particles containing a “charm” quark delve deeper into the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry.   A view of the LHCb experimental cavern. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN’s LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. At the VIII International Workshop on Charm Physics, which took place in Bologna earlier this month, the LHCb Collaboration presented the most precise measurement to date of a phenomenon called Charge-Parity (CP) violation among particles that contain a charm quark. CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the “C” part) and if its spatia...

  1. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level.

  2. Evolution of sexual asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekstra Rolf F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clear dominance of two-gender sex in recent species is a notorious puzzle of evolutionary theory. It has at least two layers: besides the most fundamental and challenging question why sex exists at all, the other part of the problem is equally perplexing but much less studied. Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system? Even if sex confers an evolutionary advantage (through whatever genetic mechanism, why does it manifest that advantage in two, and exactly two, genders (or mating types? Why not just one, and why not more than two? Results Assuming that sex carries an inherent fitness advantage over pure clonal multiplication, we attempt to give a feasible solution to the problem of the evolution of dimorphic sexual asymmetry as opposed to monomorphic symmetry by using a spatial (cellular automaton model and its non-spatial (mean-field approximation. Based on a comparison of the spatial model to the mean-field approximation we suggest that spatial population structure must have played a significant role in the evolution of mating types, due to the largely clonal (self-aggregated spatial distribution of gamete types, which is plausible in aquatic habitats for physical reasons, and appears to facilitate the evolution of a binary mating system. Conclusions Under broad ecological and genetic conditions the cellular automaton predicts selective removal from the population of supposedly primitive gametes that are able to mate with their own type, whereas the non-spatial model admits coexistence of the primitive type and the mating types. Thus we offer a basically ecological solution to a theoretical problem that earlier models based on random gamete encounters had failed to resolve.

  3. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  4. Measuring the Proton Detection Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Abeele, Jeriek

    2015-01-01

    Violation of charge-parity (CP) symmetry gives rise to a fundamental matter-antimatter asymmetry. However, this underlying distinction appears obscured in experiments, in part due to differences in the hadronisation process of quarks and antiquarks from proton-proton collisions leading to a production asymmetry, and due to the detection asymmetry resulting from differences in the nuclear interactions with detector material. Quantifying these effects is necessary to disentangle them from the fundamental CP asymmetry, and accordingly correct the measured raw asymmetry. Another strategy involves cancelling out the detection and production effects by taking the difference of the raw asymmetries of two decay modes [3, 6].

  5. Asymmetries in the top sector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220796; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    An experimental overview of top-pair event asymmetries is reported, focusing on the forward-backward asymmetry, $A_{FB}$, at the Tevatron and the charge asymmetry, $A_{c}$, at the LHC. Comparisons between $A_{FB}$ and $A_{c}$ at different ranges of $m_{t\\bar{t}}$ are sensitive to various Beyond the Stand Model (BSM) models. An overview of the first CP violation measurements using top-pair events is reported from both CMS and ATLAS via two different techniques that have a bright future. In this $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV review, all results are compatible with the Standard Model and no BSM models are ruled out. The majority of LHC results are limited in precision by their statistical uncertainty, which hints at exciting opportunities for $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV future results.

  6. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  7. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  8. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...

  9. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon

    2004-01-01

    All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure of asymm......All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure...... in order to make the object symmetrical; or identically, how much work has been carried out in order to make the ideal symmetrical object into the current (slightly) asymmetrical object. The quantization of asymmetry is validated on a set of normal (assumed near symmetrical) mandibles, and a set...

  10. Radiographic study of mandibular asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform the radiographic measurements and temporomandibular joint evaluation in mandibular asymmetry. For this study, thirty-two patients who have mandibular asymmetry were selected and submentovertex, panoramic and lateral corrected tomographic radiographs were taken. Horizontal and vertical analysis using various landmarks on these radiographs were performed. Also radiographic and clinical evaluation of temporomandibular joint were obtained. The results were as follows: 1. On the submentovertex radiograph, the mean distance of Pogonion to midline was 5.0 {+-} 3.8 mm. 2. The mean distance of Pogonion to Gonion between the deviated and the contra-lateral side (p<0.001). 3. The distance difference of Pogonion to Gonion between the deviated and the contra-lateral side was significantly related to the degree of asymmetry (p<0.001). 4. On panoramic radiograph,the condylar height of the contral-lateral side was significantly longer than the one of the deviated side (p<0.001). 5. On lateral corrected tomogram, bony of temporomandibular joint was observed in 11 condyles of the deviated side and 9 condyles of the contra-lateral side. Erosion and ostephyte were the most common changes in both the deviated and the contra-lateral sides.

  11. Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

  12. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  13. Constant fluctuating asymmetry but not directional asymmetry along the geographic distribution of Drosophila antonietae (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The population dynamics of a species tends to change from the core to the periphery of its distribution. Therefore, one could expect peripheral populations to be subject to a higher level of stress than more central populations (the center–periphery hypothesis and consequently should present a higher level of fluctuating asymmetry. To test these predictions we study asymmetry in wing shape of five populations of Drosophila antonietae collected throughout the distribution of the species using fluctuating asymmetry as a proxy for developmental instability. More specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1 what types of asymmetry occur in populations of D. antonietae? (2 Does the level of fluctuating asymmetry vary among populations? (3 Does peripheral populations have a higher fluctuating asymmetry level than central populations? We used 12 anatomical landmarks to quantify patterns of asymmetry in wing shape in five populations of D. antonietae within the framework of geometric morphometrics. Net asymmetry – a composite measure of directional asymmetry + fluctuating asymmetry – varied significantly among populations. However, once net asymmetry of each population is decomposed into directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, most of the variation in asymmetry was explained by directional asymmetry alone, suggesting that populations of D. antonietae have the same magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry throughout the geographical distribution of the species. We hypothesize that larval development in rotting cladodes might play an important role in explaining our results. In addition, our study underscores the importance of understanding the interplay between the biology of a species and its geographical patterns of asymmetry.

  14. TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic effects is important for the fall-off of the Sivers asymmetry with energy in the measurable regime. The TMD factorization based approach indicates that the peak of the Sivers asymmetry falls off wi...

  15. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  16. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  17. Dimensional and discrete dental trait asymmetry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, J T; Saunders, S R

    1986-03-01

    Inuit (Eskimos) from the Foxe Basin region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, were studied to ascertain the amount of dimensional and morphological asymmetry in their dentitions. The results indicate that dimensional asymmetry does not appear to be greater on either the maxillary or mandibular teeth. Both types of asymmetry show partial conformity to the model of tooth fields with an increasing amount of asymmetry as one goes distally in each tooth group. The morphological asymmetry exception, the mandibular incisors, follows Dahlberg's "Field Concept." Rank-order correlations between the amount of dimensional asymmetry and morphological asymmetry reveal no detectable patterns. There appear to be no associations between the presence or absence of morphological asymmetry and the size of the tooth. This lack of association might be explained by differences in developmental timing of tooth dimensions and morphological traits; however, such a hypothesis requires experimental testing. In this population and those for which published results are available, it is practically impossible to overcome the "noise" level and test recent hypotheses regarding random dental asymmetry.

  18. Measuring Asymmetry in Time-Stamped Phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Dearlove

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that asymmetry in viral phylogenies may be indicative of heterogeneity in transmission, for example due to acute HIV infection or the presence of 'core groups' with higher contact rates. Hence, evidence of asymmetry may provide clues to underlying population structure, even when direct information on, for example, stage of infection or contact rates, are missing. However, current tests of phylogenetic asymmetry (a suffer from false positives when the tips of the phylogeny are sampled at different times and (b only test for global asymmetry, and hence suffer from false negatives when asymmetry is localised to part of a phylogeny. We present a simple permutation-based approach for testing for asymmetry in a phylogeny, where we compare the observed phylogeny with random phylogenies with the same sampling and coalescence times, to reduce the false positive rate. We also demonstrate how profiles of measures of asymmetry calculated over a range of evolutionary times in the phylogeny can be used to identify local asymmetry. In combination with different metrics of asymmetry, this combined approach offers detailed insights of how phylogenies reconstructed from real viral datasets may deviate from the simplistic assumptions of commonly used coalescent and birth-death process models.

  19. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven

    2004-05-01

    All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure of asymmetry, the statistics on asymmetry for normal and pathological anatomical structures can be compared. Symmetry is a well-known mathematical group theoretical concept. In this paper, we will mathematically define the concept of weak symmetry, including topological symmetry, which serves as a basis for quantizing asymmetry. The methodology is based on non-rigid registration in the sense that the "size" of a diffeomorphism describes the amount of asymmetry. We will define this size in terms of the minimum biological work needed. That is, we evaluate how much work the biological system must carry out in order to make the object symmetrical; or identically, how much work has been carried out in order to make the ideal symmetrical object into the current (slightly) asymmetrical object. The quantization of asymmetry is validated on a set of normal (assumed near symmetrical) mandibles, and a set of pathological assumed non-symmetric mandibles exhibiting a statistically significant increase of asymmetry.

  20. Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.

  1. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  2. UV Observations of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetry in the auroral patterns can be an important diagnostic for understanding the dynamics of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system (e.g., Newel and Meng, 1998; Fillingrim et al., 2005). Molecular nitrogen emission in the UV Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands can be used to determine energy flux and electron mean energy (Sotirelis, et al, 2013) and thereby Hall and Pederson integrated conductances (Gjerloev, et al., 2014). UV imagery provided by the 4 SSUSI instruments on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16-F19 spacecraft provide two dimensional maps of this emission at different local times. Often there are near simultaneous observations of both poles by some combination of the satellites. (see figure 1) The SSUSI auroral data products are well suited to this study, as they have the following features.: - dayglow has been subtracted on dayside aurora - electron energy flux and mean energy are pre-calculated - individual arcs have been identified through image processing. In order to intercompare data from multiple satellites, we must first ensure that the instrument calibrations are consistent. In this work we show that the instruments are consistently calibrated, and that results generated from the SSUSI data products can be trusted. Several examples of storm time asymmetries captured by the SSUSI instruments will be discussed. Fillingim, M. O., G. K. Parks, H. U. Frey, T. J. Immel, and S. B. Mende (2005), Hemispheric asymmetry of the afternoon electron aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03113, doi:10.1029/2004GL021635. Gjerloev, J., Schaefer, R., Paxton, L, and Zhang, Y. (2014), A comprehensive empirical model of the ionospheric conductivity derived from SSUSI/GUVI, SuperMAG and SuperDARN data, SM51G-4339, Fall 2014 AGU meeting, San Francisco. Newell, P. T., and C.-I. Meng (1988), Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices, J. Geophys. Res., 93(A4), 2643-2648, doi:10.1029/JA093iA04p02643

  3. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  4. Production/comprehension asymmetries in language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte

    The theme of this Special Issue is asymmetries in language acquisition, and the contributions present evidence for either the presence or absence of a production/comprehension asymmetry in child language. The authors focus on various areas of linguistics, ranging from phonology and syntax to

  5. Fluctuating Asymmetry: Methods, Theory, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population’s average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of fluctuating asymmetry upon deviations from bilateral, radial, rotational, dihedral, translational, helical, and fractal symmetries. Here, we review old and new methods of measuring fluctuating asymmetry, including measures of dispersion, landmark methods for shape asymmetry, and continuous symmetry measures. We also review the theory, developmental origins, and applications of fluctuating asymmetry, and attempt to explain conflicting results. In the process, we present examples from the literature, and from our own research at “Evolution Canyon” and elsewhere.

  6. Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dufour, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.

  7. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  8. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  9. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-03-10

    A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  10. Bilateral Asymmetry in the Human Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Helen K

    2017-04-01

    Asymmetry of the human axial skeleton has received much less attention that of the limb skeleton. Pelvic morphology is subject to multiple selective factors, including bipedal locomotion and obstetrics, among others, as well as environmental factors such as biomechanical loading. How these various factors influence or restrict asymmetry of the pelvis is unknown and few studies have investigated levels and patterns of pelvic asymmetry. This study examines percentage directional (%DA) and absolute (%AA) asymmetry in 14 bilaterally paired dimensions of the pelvic canal, non-canal pelvis, and femur in female (n = 111) and male (n = 126) skeletons from nine geographically dispersed skeletal samples. Directional asymmetries were uniformly low for all measures and lacked any consistent patterning across the variables, while %AA was highest in the pelvic canal, particularly the posterior aspects. Few sex differences and no population differences were found for %DA and %AA; however the latter was correlated with coefficients of variation across the 14 variables in both sexes. While sample mean %DA were low, standard deviations of the canal variables were high and the majority of individuals in both sexes displayed %DA values >±0.5, suggesting asymmetry is common, if not directionally consistent. Biomechanical loading of the pelvic girdle may influence asymmetry of both the canal and non-canal aspects of the pelvis; however it is unlikely that these asymmetries negatively affect obstetric function, given the prevalence for %DA found in this study. Anat Rec, 300:653-665, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël

    2013-09-01

    The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic effects is important for the fall-off of the Sivers asymmetry with energy in the measurable regime. The TMD factorization based approach indicates that the peak of the Sivers asymmetry falls off with energy scale Q to good approximation as 1/Q0.7, somewhat faster than found previously based on the first TMD factorization expressions by Collins and Soper in 1981. It is found that the peak of the asymmetry moves rather slowly towards higher transverse momentum values as Q increases, which may be due to the absence of perturbative tails of the TMDs in the presented treatments. We conclude that the behavior of the peak of the asymmetry as a function of energy and transverse momentum allows for valuable tests of the TMD formalism and the considered approximations. To confront the TMD approach with experiment, high energy experimental data from an Electron-Ion Collider is required. Note that in B01/B09 the Gaussian width of the Sivers TMD appears in the asymmetry expressions, because of the derivative in f1T⊥ ' a(x;Q0).

  12. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Cerebellar asymmetry and its relation to cerebral asymmetry estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the human cerebellum was investigated using intrinsic functional connectivity. Regions of functional asymmetry within the cerebellum were identified during resting-state functional MRI (n = 500 subjects) and replicated in an independent cohort (n = 500 subjects). The most strongly right lateralized cerebellar regions fell within the posterior lobe, including crus I and crus II, in regions estimated to link to the cerebral association cortex. The most strongly left lateralized cerebellar regions were located in lobules VI and VIII in regions linked to distinct cerebral association networks. Comparison of cerebellar asymmetry with independently estimated cerebral asymmetry revealed that the lateralized regions of the cerebellum belong to the same networks that are strongly lateralized in the cerebrum. The degree of functional asymmetry of the cerebellum across individuals was significantly correlated with cerebral asymmetry and varied with handedness. In addition, cerebellar asymmetry estimated at rest predicted cerebral lateralization during an active language task. These results demonstrate that functional lateralization is likely a unitary feature of large-scale cerebrocerebellar networks, consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebellum possesses a roughly homotopic map of the cerebral cortex including the prominent asymmetries of the association cortex. PMID:23076113

  14. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, T; Parkes, R S; Burden, E R; Bell, N; Fairhurst, H; Witte, T H

    2016-07-01

    The high, repetitive demands imposed on polo horses in training and competition may predispose them to musculoskeletal injuries and lameness. To quantify movement symmetry and lameness in a population of polo horses, and to investigate the existence of a relationship with age. Convenience sampled cross-sectional study. Sixty polo horses were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the poll, and between the tubera sacrale. Six movement symmetry measures were calculated for vertical head and pelvic displacement during in-hand trot and compared with values for perfect symmetry, compared between left and right limb lame horses, and compared with published thresholds for lameness. Regression lines were calculated as a function of age of horse. Based on 2 different sets of published asymmetry thresholds 52-53% of the horses were quantified with head movement asymmetry and 27-50% with pelvic movement asymmetry resulting in 60-67% of horses being classified with movement asymmetry outside published guideline values for either the forelimbs, hindlimbs or both. Neither forelimb nor hindlimb asymmetries were preferentially left or right sided, with directional asymmetry values across all horses not different from perfect symmetry and absolute values not different between left and right lame horses (P values >0.6 for all forelimb symmetry measures and >0.2 for all hindlimb symmetry measures). None of the symmetry parameters increased or decreased significantly with age. A large proportion of polo horses show gait asymmetries consistent with previously defined thresholds for lameness. These do not appear to be lateralised or associated with age. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  15. TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Daniël, E-mail: d.boer@rug.nl

    2013-09-01

    The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic effects is important for the fall-off of the Sivers asymmetry with energy in the measurable regime. The TMD factorization based approach indicates that the peak of the Sivers asymmetry falls off with energy scale Q to good approximation as 1/Q{sup 0.7}, somewhat faster than found previously based on the first TMD factorization expressions by Collins and Soper in 1981. It is found that the peak of the asymmetry moves rather slowly towards higher transverse momentum values as Q increases, which may be due to the absence of perturbative tails of the TMDs in the presented treatments. We conclude that the behavior of the peak of the asymmetry as a function of energy and transverse momentum allows for valuable tests of the TMD formalism and the considered approximations. To confront the TMD approach with experiment, high energy experimental data from an Electron–Ion Collider is required.

  16. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rold, Leandro; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations are not elementary fields but rather composite objects. We show that this class of models is consistent with current data on flavor and CP violating physics, electroweak precision observables, dijet and top pair resonance searches at hadron colliders. These models have several predictions which will be tested in forthcoming experiments. The CP asymmetry in D decays is induced through an effective operator of the form (\\bar u c)_{V+A}(\\bar s s)_{V+A} at the charm scale, which implies a larger CP asymmetry in the D^0\\to K^+K^...

  17. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  18. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Potashnikova, I K; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry $A_N(t)$, for inclusive neutron production in $pp$ collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of $A_N$ observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish ...

  19. Discovering Matter-Antimatter Asymmetries with GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The search for matter-antimatter asymmetries requires highest precision analyses and thus very large datasets and intensive computing. This contribution discusses two complemen- tary approaches where GPU systems have been successfully exploited in this area. Both approaches make use of the CUDA Thrust library which can be used on supported GPUs. The first approach is a generic search for local asymmetries in phase-space distributions of matter and antimatter particle decays. This powerful analysis method has never been used to date due to its high demand in CPU time. The second approach uses the GooFit framework, which is a generic fitting framework that exploits massive parallelisation on GPUs

  20. Quark Model Contributions to Parton Flavor Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, C. J.; Olivares, V.; Londergan, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Simple Quark model calculations of the nucleon sea yield an excess of baru over bard anti-quarks, exactly opposite to what is observed. By calculating the effects of flavor-dependent corrections to the energies of the lowest lying four 4Q-barQ states in the sea, we investigate the extent to which the sign of the flavor asymmetry can be reversed in these models without the explicit introduction of mesonic degrees of freedom. Sea quark polarizations and charge asymmetries are also calculated.

  1. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-10-31

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. We, instead, examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2→2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1→2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  2. TMD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The energy scale dependence of the Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is studied numerically within the framework of TMD factorization that was put forward in 2011. The comparison to previous results in the literature shows that the treatment of next-to-leading logarithmic

  3. Dominant limb asymmetry associated with prospective injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify associations between dominant lower limb asymmetry in unanticipated agility performance and prospective injury occurrence. Female netball players (N=24) performed unanticipated 180° turn agility sprints on both the dominant and non-dominant legs interspersed with an additional ...

  4. Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte

    and gaze) serves as a resource to accomplish specific interactional goals (Schegloff, 1998; Goodwin, 2003; Stivers 2008). By linking to the growing body of research on multimodal aspects of interaction (Llewellyn 2011, Stivers and Sidnell, 2005; Mondada, 2007), the panel will thus contribute to our...... understanding of workplace symmetries and asymmetries as multimodal accomplishments....

  5. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  6. The quantificational asymmetry: A comparative look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koert, M.; Koeneman, O.; Weerman, F.; Hulk, A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional account of the Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) predicts that all languages that show a DPBE will also reveal a Quantificational Asymmetry (QA). Children's performance on object-pronouns must therefore improve when a QP-subject replaces the NP-subject. These QA results have been

  7. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  8. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  9. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  10. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia P. T.; de Almeida, Adriana M.; Corso, Gilberto

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.

  11. On zonal asymmetry and climate sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1980-01-01

    The role of zonal asymmetry in climate sensitivity is studied with an annual energy-balance climate model of the Northern Hemisphere. Energy balances are formulated for oceanic and continental regions separately, and coupled through zonal energy transports. Dependent variables are O and T,

  12. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  13. Correlations between mandibular asymmetries and temporomandibular disorders (TMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Simona; Ursini, Roberto; Giuliante, Luca; Deli, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mandibular asymmetries are the fulcrum of many debates among modern orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons. The interest is even greater when facial asymmetries are correlated to the development of TMJ symptoms and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study is to investigate how mandibular asymmetries constitute etiological or predisposing factors for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We considered patients with mandibular asymmetries associated with TMD. Using orthodontic or surgical-orthodontic treatment, patients experienced correction of their TMJ symptoms. Thus, mandibular asymmetries represent a major risk factor for the development of TMD. We studied a sample of 16 subjects aged between 14 and 36-years-old (11 females and 5 males) with mandibular asymmetries (81% structural asymmetry, 19% functional asymmetry). These subjects presented skeletal and dental malocclusions combined with several temporomandibular disorders, mostly due to muscle tension. In 100% of cases, patients received orthodontic treatment. We compared pre- and post-treatment postero-anterior (PA) cephalometric analyses in order to evaluate asymmetry resolution. Comparison of measurements from pre- and post-therapy PA cephalograms showed resolution of mandibular asymmetries after treatment. The treatment resolved mandibular asymmetries and completely eliminated temporomandibular symptoms. Orthodontic treatment of patients presenting mandibular asymmetry enables correction of all TMJ symptoms and TMD. Mandibular symmetries can therefore be considered to constitute etiological or predisposing factors for the development of TMD. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of asymmetry using thumbprint minutiae among Hausa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demonstrated in the present study. The leftward asymmetry was observed in both sexes in different types minutiae. Females were observed to exhibit directional type of asymmetry more than the males in this population. Keywords: Asymmetry, Environmental stress, Hausa population, Ridge minutiae, Sexual dimorphism ...

  15. Mass predicts web asymmetry in Nephila spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Gregorič, Matjaž; Li, Daiqin

    2010-12-01

    The architecture of vertical aerial orb webs may be affected by spider size and gravity or by the available web space, in addition to phylogenetic and/or developmental factors. Vertical orb web asymmetry measured by hub displacement has been shown to increase in bigger and heavier spiders; however, previous studies have mostly focused on adult and subadult spiders or on several size classes with measured size parameters but no mass. Both estimations are suboptimal because (1) adult orb web spiders may not invest heavily in optimal web construction, whereas juveniles do; (2) size class/developmental stage is difficult to estimate in the field and is thus subjective, and (3) mass scales differently to size and is therefore more important in predicting aerial foraging success due to gravity. We studied vertical web asymmetry in a giant orb web spider, Nephila pilipes, across a wide range of size classes/developmental stages and tested the hypothesis that vertical web asymmetry (measured as hub displacement) is affected by gravity. On a sample of 100 webs, we found that hubs were more displaced in heavier and larger juveniles and that spider mass explained vertical web asymmetry better than other measures of spider size (carapace and leg lengths, developmental stage). Quantifying web shape via the ladder index suggested that, unlike in other nephilid taxa, growing Nephila orbs do not become vertically elongated. We conclude that the ontogenetic pattern of progressive vertical web asymmetry in Nephila can be explained by optimal foraging due to gravity, to which the opposing selective force may be high web-building costs in the lower orb. Recent literature finds little support for alternative explanations of ontogenetic orb web allometry such as the size limitation hypothesis and the biogenetic law.

  16. Determining the threshold for asymmetry detection in facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Marc H.; Kim, Sang W.; Heller, Elizabeth S.; Frigerio, Alice; Heaton, James T.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the threshold for human perception of asymmetry for eyebrow elevation, eye closure and smile, and to ascertain whether asymmetry detection thresholds and perceived severity of asymmetry differ in distinct facial zones. Study Design Online survey. Methods Photographs of a female volunteer performing eyebrow elevation, eye closure, and smile were digitally manipulated to introduce left-to-right asymmetry in 1mm increments from 0-6mm. One-hundred forty-five participants viewed these photographs using an online survey, measuring accuracy of asymmetry detection and perceived expression unnaturalness (on a scale of 1-5). Results Photographs of facial asymmetries were correctly judged as asymmetric over 90% of the time for 2mm or more of asymmetry in eyelid closure, and 3mm or more of asymmetry during smiling. Identification of eyebrow elevation asymmetry gradually rose from 23% correct to 97% correct across the range of 1-6mm of asymmetry. Greater degrees of asymmetry were ranked as significantly more unnatural across all expressions (3 tests; X2 (6, N = 145) = 405.52 to 656.27, all Pfacial weakness and may provide more objective goals for facial reanimation procedures. PMID:23900726

  17. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  18. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL......-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs...... as a part of a multifaceted approach for improving outcome following ACL-R in elite ski racers....

  19. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized 15NH3 target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A1 (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g1 (x, Q2), and the first moment, γ1p, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 ≥ Q2 ≥ 4.5 GeV2. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q2 regions. The results are important in the study of Q2 evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  20. Asymmetry of parietal interhemispheric connections in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Giacomo; Cercignani, Mara; Bonnì, Sonia; Giacobbe, Viola; Bucchi, Giulia; Versace, Viviana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2011-06-15

    Visuospatial abilities are preferentially mediated by the right hemisphere. Although this asymmetry of function is thought to be due to an unbalanced interaction between cerebral hemispheres, the underlying neurophysiological substrate is still largely unknown. Here, using a method of trifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation, we show that the right, but not left, human posterior parietal cortex exerts a strong inhibitory activity over the contralateral homologous area by a short-latency connection. We also clarify, using diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging, that such an interaction is mediated by direct transcallosal projections located in the posterior corpus callosum. We argue that this anatomo-functional network may represent a possible neurophysiological basis for the ongoing functional asymmetry between parietal cortices, and that its damage could contribute to the clinical manifestations of neglect.

  1. Collins and Sivers asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In the years 2002-2004 the COMPASS experiment has collected data with a polarized $^{6}$LiD target and a 160 GeV muon beam. About 20% of the running time has been devoted to measure transverse spin eects in semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering, one of the main objectives of the COMPASS spin program. The results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries, both for unidentied and identied hadrons, are presented here. The measured asymmetries on the $^{6}$LiD target are small and compatible with zero within the few percent statistical errors, an important result which can be interpreted as cancellation between u and d quark contribution in the deuteron and which allows to better constrain the parton distribution functions.

  2. Measurement of semileptonic asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CP violation in neutral B meson mixing is an excellent place to search for the effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. I report on the first measurements of the CP violating semileptonic asymmetries in the B_s0 and B_d0 systems from LHCb. Both are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and are the most precise single measurements of these parameters to date.

  3. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  4. Validity and sensitivity of the longitudinal asymmetry index to detect gait asymmetry using Microsoft Kinect data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, E; Multon, F; Manning, V; Meunier, J; Cobb, J P

    2017-01-01

    Gait asymmetry information is a key point in disease screening and follow-up. Constant Relative Phase (CRP) has been used to quantify within-stride asymmetry index, which requires noise-free and accurate motion capture, which is difficult to obtain in clinical settings. This study explores a new index, the Longitudinal Asymmetry Index (ILong) which is derived using data from a low-cost depth camera (Kinect). ILong is based on depth images averaged over several gait cycles, rather than derived joint positions or angles. This study aims to evaluate (1) the validity of CRP computed with Kinect, (2) the validity and sensitivity of ILong for measuring gait asymmetry based solely on data provided by a depth camera, (3) the clinical applicability of a posteriorly mounted camera system to avoid occlusion caused by the standard front-fitted treadmill consoles and (4) the number of strides needed to reliably calculate ILong. The gait of 15 subjects was recorded concurrently with a marker-based system (MBS) and Kinect, and asymmetry was artificially reproduced by introducing a 5cm sole attached to one foot. CRP computed with Kinect was not reliable. ILong detected this disturbed gait reliably and could be computed from a posteriorly placed Kinect without loss of validity. A minimum of five strides was needed to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.9 between standard MBS and low-cost depth camera based ILong. ILong provides a clinically pragmatic method for measuring gait asymmetry, with application for improved patient care through enhanced disease, screening, diagnosis and monitoring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. C, P, and CP asymmetry observables based on triple product asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    The discrete symmetries C, P and CP are known to be violated by the weak interaction. It is possible to probe the breaking of these symmetries using asymmetries constructed from triple products based on the decay of some particle M to a four body final state. These proceedings discuss the full set of possible asymmetries that can be probed and applications to various measurement scenarios, focusing mostly on charm mesons and baryons. The ramifications of what can be learned from such measurements are also discussed.

  6. Entanglement asymmetry for boosted black branes and the bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2017-06-01

    We study the effects of asymmetry in the entanglement thermodynamics of CFT subsystems. It is found that “boosted” Dp-brane backgrounds give rise to the first law of the entanglement thermodynamics where the CFT pressure asymmetry plays a decisive role in the entanglement. Two different strip like subsystems, one parallel to the boost and the other perpendicular, are studied in the perturbative regime Tthermal ≪ TE. We mainly seek to quantify this entanglement asymmetry as a ratio of the first-order entanglement entropies of the excitations. We discuss the AdS-wave backgrounds at zero temperature having maximum asymmetry from where a bound on entanglement asymmetry is obtained. The entanglement asymmetry reduces as we switch on finite temperature in the CFT while it is maximum at zero temperature.

  7. Is there an association between skeletal asymmetry and tooth absence?

    OpenAIRE

    Thiesen,Guilherme; Gribel,Bruno Frazão; Pereira,Keila Cristina Rausch; Freitas,Maria Perpetua Mota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Facial skeletal asymmetry is commonly found in humans and its main characteristic is menton deviation. The literature suggests that occlusal and masticatory problems arising from tooth absence could be related to the development of such asymmetries. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of mandibular skeletal asymmetries and to investigate its association with posterior tooth absences. Methods: Tomographic images of 952 ind...

  8. Anomalies and asymmetries in quark-gluon matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teryaev, O. V., E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The manifestations of axial anomaly and related effects in heavy-ion collisions are considered. Special role is played by various asymmetries. The azimuthal correlational asymmetries of neutron pairs at NICA/FAIR energy range may probe the global rotation of strongly interacting matter. The conductivity is related to the angular asymmetries of dilepton pairs. The strong magnetic field generated in heavy-ion collisions leads to the excess of soft dileptons flying predominantly in the scattering plane.

  9. [Facial asymmetries and their skeletal component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, J-M; Perrin, J-P; Longis, J; Arzul, L; Corre, P

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of facial asymmetries is one of the most difficult challenges in orthognathic surgery. In some cases, the involvement of soft tissue defects or, in other cases, an associated basi-cranial asymmetry can complicate the management. The influence of various components of the cephalic end in the development of the face requires a thorough clinical and radiographic examination including the overall posture of the patient. The causes are multiple: congenital, constitutional, acquired with an important esthetic, functional, and psychological and social impact. The classification of these asymmetries can only be incomplete and purely didactic because of the multiplicity of clinical forms. Two elements are mandatory for the diagnosis and surgical treatment: first, the anterior clinical and radiological "craniofacial cross" established from the midline or midplane of the face; second, the clinical and radiological orientation of the maxillary and mandibular occlusal transverse and sagittal planes. The surgical techniques are the same as in conventional orthognathic surgery except for those used for the correction of the vertical posterior dimension of the face: condylectomy, lengthening osteotomy of the mandibular ramus, costochondral graft, and free flap. The contribution of 3D vision of the facial skeleton and its possibilities of measurement have improved the assessment of skeletal structure displacement during surgery. However, traditional radiographic examinations are still useful for pre and postoperative comparison and also to assess results. Computer simulation and computer-assisted surgery should allow achieving better and more stable results because of their reliability and easy access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Broiler walking ability and toe asymmetry under harsh rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological asymmetry has been described as a potential broiler welfare indicator, for interpreting the birds' ability to cope with the challenges that may affect its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of morphological asymmetry data to estimate broiler walking ability and welfare.dBroilers werefed diets supplemented or not with vitamin D. Toes were measured when birds were 42 and 49 days old using digital caliper.the left and right sides of the following four bilateral traits (tarsometatarsus length, outer toe length, mid toe length, and back toe length were measured twice on intact alive birds by two different researcherh. Data from right and left sides were compared in the two treatments using the Student t-test, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the total asymmetry found as a result of the total sum of the differences in the measurements. Asymmetry data were comparedwith the total numberof leg lesions. Mid toe and tarsometatarsus asymmetry resultswere considered as actual fluctuating asymmetry, and presented normal distribution (Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p >0.05. However, back toe and outer toe measurements were not normally distributed, as determined by the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05, indicating anti-asymmetry; when comparing right with left limb,results were significantly different fron zero (t-Student, p <0.05 indicating directional fluctuating asymmetry.The welfare of broilers withwalking difficulty due to the presence of severe asymmetry in limbs is poor.

  11. Visual search asymmetries in heavy clutter: implications for display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2011-06-01

    An experiment aimed to test whether design of symbology to produce visual search asymmetries might facilitate target detection in cluttered displays. A visual search asymmetry exists between two stimuli when a target of one type is found efficiently among distractors of the second type but a target of the second type is found with difficulty among distractors of the first type. Asymmetries have generally been studied within relatively sparse displays. In the present study, the authors tested whether an asymmetry driven by stimulus familiarity persists within heavily cluttered imagery. In this study, 10 participants performed a visual search task using stimuli (canonical vs. reversed Ns) known to produce a search asymmetry. Search stimuli were embedded within geospatial images containing either low or high levels of clutter. A decision theoretic index of sensitivity served as the dependent measure. The search asymmetry was robust against the presence of heavy display clutter. Specifically, sensitivity was greater when the target was a reversed N rather than an N, and this pattern remained within cluttered displays. Time-accuracy analysis revealed that the search asymmetry increased the rate of information accumulation roughly equally within low- and high- clutter images. Search asymmetries are robust against heavy, spatially continuous visual clutter. Design of display symbology to produce visual search asymmetries can offset the costs of visual clutter, maximizing detectability of task-critical information in complex displays.

  12. Inflation in the universe and time asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.C.W. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-12-06

    The author previously argued that the origin of time asymmetry is to be sought in the processes that characterized the very early cosmological epochs, and that the recent inflationary scenario provides a crucial element in our understanding of this origin. Here this theses is developed in the light of recent criticisms. The author argues in particular that any of the ''initial states'' appear to be permitted by quantum gravity, if succeeded by a period of inflation, would have wound up the universe to the state from which, as indicated by increasing entropy, it is now winding down.

  13. Skill asymmetries, increasing wage inequality and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Skott, Peter; Auerbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Using a simple model with two levels of skill, we assume that high-skill workers who fail to get high-skill jobs may accept low-skill positions; low-skill workers do not have the analogous option of filling high-skill positions. This asymmetry implies that a slowdown in Hicks-neutral technical change (or other adverse, skill-neutral shocks) may cause an increase in wage inequality, both between and within skill categories, as well as an increase in unemployment, especially among low-skill wor...

  14. Pulse sharpness and asymmetry in millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kaiyou; Shaham, Jacob

    1989-04-01

    The light curves of radiation from antipodal caps of rapidly rotating neutron stars are calcuated with and without gravity. The light curves depend strongly on the rotation speed and on the emission spectrum and could become quite sharp. Gravity generally flattens the light curves, but it does so less for rapidly rotating neutron stars and the newly discovered PSR 1957+20, and can never flatten them enough to explain the absence of pulsation from low-mass X-ray binaries. Rotation also causes an asymmetry in the pulses similar to that caused by interstellar medium absorption or scattering. 17 refs.

  15. Pulse sharpness and asymmetry in millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaiyou; Shaham, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    The light curves of radiation from antipodal caps of rapidly rotating neutron stars are calcuated with and without gravity. The light curves depend strongly on the rotation speed and on the emission spectrum and could become quite sharp. Gravity generally flattens the light curves, but it does so less for rapidly rotating neutron stars and the newly discovered PSR 1957+20, and can never flatten them enough to explain the absence of pulsation from low-mass X-ray binaries. Rotation also causes an asymmetry in the pulses similar to that caused by interstellar medium absorption or scattering.

  16. How useful is fluctuating asymmetry in conservation biology: asymmetry in rare and abundant Coenonympha butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Rintamaki, P.T.; Cassel, A.; Nylin, S.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that minor, fluctuating differences in size of bilateral traits could validly indicate individual differences in development stability. One plausible reason for instability to occur could be lowered population size, which has been suggested to increase fluctuating asymmetry due

  17. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Soffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry AN(t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of AN observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a1-Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a1p cross section. We replace the Regge a1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1+S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of AN are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  18. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  19. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-03-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61327901, 61490711, 61225025, 11474268, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. WK2470000018

  20. Anterior EEG asymmetries and opponent process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John P; Blackhart, Ginette C; Williams, William C

    2007-03-01

    The opponent process theory of emotion [Solomon, R.L., and Corbit, J.D. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychological Review, 81, 119-143.] predicts a temporary reversal of emotional valence during the recovery from emotional stimulation. We hypothesized that this affective contrast would be apparent in asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes, and would be more apparent for left frontally active individuals. The present study tested this prediction by examining EEG asymmetries during and after blocked presentations of aversive pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). 12 neutral images, 12 aversive images, and 24 neutral images were presented in blocks. Participants who were right frontally active at baseline did not show changes in EEG asymmetry while viewing aversive slides or after cessation. Participants left frontally active at baseline, however, exhibited greater relative left frontal activity after aversive stimulation than before stimulation. Asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes may relate to affect regulatory processes, including contrasting opponent after-reactions to aversive stimuli.

  1. LOWER LIMB ASYMMETRIES IN RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutuoso, Anderson Simas; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Freitas, Cintia de la Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Different limb training demands and limb preference may determine anthropometric and muscle force inter-limb asymmetries in Rhythmic Gymnastics (RG) athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of lateral preference of the lower extremity on anthropometric, range of motion, and isokinetic torque measurements of RG athletes. Cross sectional study. Lower limb anthropometric measurements (girth, estimated anatomical cross-sectional area), hip, knee and ankle range of motion, flexor and extensor isokinetic torques (angular velocities = 60, 180, e 240 °·s(-1)) and bilateral asymmetry index were evaluated in 11 international level Rhythmic Gymnastics athletes (17.9 ± 4.0 years of age; 9.1 ± 5,1 years of experience; 26.8 ± 6.0 weekly training hours). The preferred limb showed larger thigh girth and anatomical cross-sectional area, higher ankle dorsiflexor range of motion, higher hip flexor torque at 60 °·s(-1) and higher plantarflexor torque at 180 °·s(-1) compared to the non-preferred limb. The observed differences seem to be strictly related to lateral preference and rhythmic gymnastics training. 3.

  2. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  3. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  4. Etik og ansvar, symmetri eller asymmetri ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Når professionelle relationer, hvor fysioterapeuter, pædagoger, lærere, sygeplejersker optræder, omtales, dukker begrebet symmetri og asymmetri op. Oftest omtales den professionelle relation som asymmetrisk, hvor det næsten implicit og uden for diskussion forstås, at det er den professionelle, der...... har den mest magtfulde position. Med filosoffen Emmanuel Lévinas udfordres denne selvfølgelighed, og jeg vil med artiklen gerne bidrage til at udfordre den selvfølgelighed, hvormed overvejelser om symmetri og asymmetri ofte udtales i relation til det borgerrettede professionelle arbejde. Mange...... fordring, som ikke er noget vi kan undslå os eller bestemme os for, men som er noget der overgår os, og dermed vil den andens liv til dels ligge i vores hænder. Buber omtales ofte som mødets filosof, og for ham er det centrale, at vi i mødet ikke gør den anden til et ”det”, og hans mest kendte værk hedder...

  5. Configurational asymmetry in vernier offset detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, A K M Rezaul; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2010-10-06

    Two psychophysical experiments were conducted at the horizontal and vertical orientations respectively, demonstrating substantial main effect of configuration, but no effect of offset direction on vernier acuity. In Experiment 1, a pair of horizontal bars were arranged side by side with a large gap between them. The observers were, on average, significantly better at discriminating a vertical offset if the right-hand bar was below the left-hand bar than vice versa, regardless of which bar they experienced as displaced and which as constant. A similar asymmetry was evident in Experiment 2 where observers judged horizontal offset for a pair of vertically oriented bars, where one was placed above the other. In this case average performance was better if the upper bar was on the right of the lower bar rather than on its left. There were large individual variations in the asymmetrical trend, but the effect could not be explained by subjective response bias. Furthermore, vernier acuity improved significantly and the asymmetry decreased more or less as a function of training. The average asymmetrical trend was consistent across training days and across two orientations, which indicates that the processing of line vernier stimuli is possibly configuration-specific in the cardinal orientation.

  6. Mandibular asymmetry in patients with the Crouzon or Apert Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmi, P.; Reitsma, J.H.; Buschang, P.H.; Wolvius, E.B.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe directional and fluctuating mandibular asymmetry over time in children with Crouzon or Apert syndrome. Mandibular asymmetry of children between 7.5 and 14 years of age with Crouzon syndrome (n = 35) and Apert syndrome (n = 24) were compared with controls (n =

  7. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    and its relationship with stress. [Vishalakshi C and Singh B N 2009 Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in. Drosophila ananassae; J. Biosci. 34 275–285]. Keywords. Body size; directional selection; Drosophila ananassae; fluctuating asymmetry; hybridisation; ...

  8. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays ∑

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays. N G DESHPANDE. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203, USA. Email: desh@oregon.uoregon.edu. Abstract. We briefly discuss measurements of angles β and α of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using SU´3µ ...

  9. Knowledge Asymmetries - Beyond "To Have and Have Not"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this article I begin by presenting what may count as examples of intuitively accepted notions of knowledge asymmetries from a wide variety of research disciplines. I go on to state that knowledge asymmetries are prototypically seen as unwanted aspects of human interaction. Responding to that s...

  10. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  11. A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2007-01-01

    of the resulting displacement vectors on the left and right side of the symmetry plane, gives a point-wise measure of asymmetry. The asymmetry measure was applied to the study of Crouzon syndrome using Micro CT scans of genetically modified mice. Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial...

  12. Challenging Postural Tasks Increase Asymmetry in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Spiandor Beretta

    Full Text Available The unilateral predominance of Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms suggests that balance control could be asymmetrical during static tasks. Although studies have shown that balance control asymmetries exist in patients with PD, these analyses were performed using only simple bipedal standing tasks. Challenging postural tasks, such as unipedal or tandem standing, could exacerbate balance control asymmetries. To address this, we studied the impact of challenging standing tasks on postural control asymmetry in patients with PD. Twenty patients with PD and twenty neurologically healthy individuals (control group participated in this study. Participants performed three 30s trials for each postural task: bipedal, tandem adapted and unipedal standing. The center of pressure parameter was calculated for both limbs in each of these conditions, and the asymmetry between limbs was assessed using the symmetric index. A significant effect of condition was observed, with unipedal standing and tandem standing showing greater asymmetry than bipedal standing for the mediolateral root mean square (RMS and area of sway parameters, respectively. In addition, a group*condition interaction indicated that, only for patients with PD, the unipedal condition showed greater asymmetry in the mediolateral RMS and area of sway than the bipedal condition and the tandem condition showed greater asymmetry in the area of sway than the bipedal condition. Patients with PD exhibited greater asymmetry while performing tasks requiring postural control when compared to neurologically healthy individuals, especially for challenging tasks such as tandem and unipedal standing.

  13. Fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds in relation to mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes the bird species, sex, mercury concentration in breast feathers and whole blood, and the composite measure of fluctuating asymmetry. Statistical models were developed for each species to analyze the relationship between mercury exposure in either breast feathers or whole blood and the composite measure of fluctuating asymmetry, while accounting for the sex of each bird.

  14. Effects Of Asymmetry Of NRZ Data Signals On Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents theoretical analysis of effects of asymmetry in binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data signals upon performance of radiotelemetry system. Simple mathematical model predicting overall degradation of bit signal-to-noise ratio of telemetry system derived. Shows degradation increases with asymmetry.

  15. Asymmetry of the two-beam geometry in EMCD experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, J; Oppeneer, P M; Lidbaum, H; Rubino, S; Leifer, K

    2010-03-01

    We analyse theoretically the influence of the asymmetry of the two-beam geometry on quantitative measurements of the energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism. Our simulations indicate that this asymmetry is not very strong inside or close to the Thales circle, but in other regions of the diffraction plane it can hinder an accurate extraction of the orbital to spin moment ratio.

  16. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  17. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  18. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  19. Extrapolation Technique Pitfalls in Asymmetry Measurements at Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Colletti, Katrina; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is more than adequate for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining its value.

  20. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orbaker, D.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; et. al.

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 {+-} 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 {+-} 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 {+-} 4.0)%. The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.

  1. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Steroid Hormones: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Benderlioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.

  2. Asymmetry of atmospheric microstructure over synoptic scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available Distortions are often seen in the angular distribution of echo-power from VHF wind-profiling radars, suggesting that thin stable layers, within the air flow, are distorted and tilted from horizontal. In vertical shear of the horizontal wind, the distribution of the layer tilt angles becomes skewed. A case study using six days of VHF radar data and synoptic charts above western Europe indicates that this asymmetry of atmospheric microstructure can exist throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere, above and below the jet wind maximum, over horizontal scales of thousands of kilometres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; synoptic-scale meteorology; turbulence.

  3. Heritability of Directional Asymmetry in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. R. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional asymmetry (DA, the consistent difference between a pair of morphological structures in which the same side is always larger than the other, presents an evolutionary mystery. Although many paired traits show DA, genetic variation for DA has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Artificial selection is a powerful technique for uncovering selectable genetic variation; we review and critique the limited number of previous studies that have been performed to select on DA and present the results of a novel artificial selection experiment on the DA of posterior crossvein location in Drosophila wings. Fifteen generations of selection in two genetically distinct lines were performed and none of the lines showed a significant response to selection. Our results therefore support and reconfirm previous findings; despite apparent natural variation and evolution of DA in nature, DA remains a paradoxical trait that does not respond to artificial selection.

  4. Dark Atoms: Asymmetry and Direct Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Krnjaic, Gordan Z. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rehermann, Keith R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wells, Christopher M. [Houghton College, NY (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple UV completion of Atomic Dark Matter (aDM) in which heavy right-handed neutrinos decay to induce both dark and lepton number densities. This model addresses several outstanding cosmological problems: the matter/anti-matter asymmetry, the dark matter abundance, the number of light degrees of freedom in the early universe, and the smoothing of small-scale structure. Additionally, this realization of aDM may reconcile the CoGeNT excess with recently published null results and predicts a signal in the CRESST Oxygen band. We also find that, due to unscreened long-range interactions, the residual un recombined dark ions settle into a diffuse isothermal halo.

  5. Measurement of ttbar forward-backward asymmetry at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Early measurements of the forward-backward ttbar production asymmetry at CDF and D0 suggested significant asymmetries that have been interpreted as evidence for exotic gluon partners or new t-channel interactions. We present new measurements performed with 5 fb-1 of Tevatron ppbar collisions at Ecm = 1.96 TeV, recorded and analyzed at CDF. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in both the lepton+jets and the dilepton decay modes of the ttbar pair. In the dilepton mode, the asymmetry is observed in the reconstructed top rapidity, and in the lepton rapidity difference, which is independent of any top reconstruction. In the lepton plus jets sample, the full reconstruction of the top kinematics is used to measure the dependence of the asymmetry on the tt bar rapidity difference Delta(y) and the invariant mass M_(ttbar ) of the ttbar system. The asymmetry is found to be most significant at large Delta(y) and M_(ttbar) . For M_(ttbar) > 450 GeV/c2, the parton-level asymmetry in the t-tbar rest frame is...

  6. Hα LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Graham, D. [INAF-Ossevatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  7. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  8. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  9. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left–right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as the Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A new analysis of the data allows quantitative relationships to be established among them, providing for the first time strong experimental indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven by a common physical process.

  10. Age and Practice Effects on Inter-manual Performance Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual dexterity declines with increasing age however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right handed participants, 5 males and 5 females in each of three age groups, young (Y20, young-old (O70, and old-old (O80, practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the asymmetry index (AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the five days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6 and this did not change with practice.

  11. Extent of Structural Asymmetry in Homodimeric Proteins: Prevalence and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Srikeerthana, Kuchi; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Most homodimeric proteins have symmetric structure. Although symmetry is known to confer structural and functional advantage, asymmetric organization is also observed. Using a non-redundant dataset of 223 high-resolution crystal structures of biologically relevant homodimers, we address questions on the prevalence and significance of asymmetry. We used two measures to quantify global and interface asymmetry, and assess the correlation of several molecular and structural parameters with asymmetry. We have identified rare cases (11/223) of biologically relevant homodimers with pronounced global asymmetry. Asymmetry serves as a means to bring about 2∶1 binding between the homodimer and another molecule; it also enables cellular signalling arising from asymmetric macromolecular ligands such as DNA. Analysis of these cases reveals two possible mechanisms by which possible infinite array formation is prevented. In case of homodimers associating via non-topologically equivalent surfaces in their tertiary structures, ligand-dependent mechanisms are used. For stable dimers binding via large surfaces, ligand-dependent structural change regulates polymerisation/depolymerisation; for unstable dimers binding via smaller surfaces that are not evolutionarily well conserved, dimerisation occurs only in the presence of the ligand. In case of homodimers associating via interaction surfaces with parts of the surfaces topologically equivalent in the tertiary structures, steric hindrance serves as the preventive mechanism of infinite array. We also find that homodimers exhibiting grossly symmetric organization rarely exhibit either perfect local symmetry or high local asymmetry. Binding of small ligands at the interface does not cause any significant variation in interface asymmetry. However, identification of biologically relevant interface asymmetry in grossly symmetric homodimers is confounded by the presence of similar small magnitude changes caused due to artefacts of

  12. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures.

  13. On the asymmetry of the urban daily air temperature cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo; Wang, Yi; Yang, Xinyan

    2017-06-01

    The asymmetry phenomenon in daily temperature cycle refers to the smaller and decreasing diurnal temperature range, which resulted from much faster rise of the daily minimum temperature than that of the maximum temperature. The asymmetry is known to have occurred in greater magnitude in cities than rural sites. Spatially, the diurnal temperature range is much smaller in urban areas than in the surrounding rural areas. Temporally, the urban diurnal temperature range decreases much faster than that in the rural areas. Here, we demonstrate a new approach in understanding the spatial and temporal asymmetries in the urban daily air temperature cycle. Both asymmetries can be explained by a simple combination of a reduction in amplitudes with a rise in mean temperature, which are governed by difference factors. Our study provides new insights that increase our understanding of the mechanisms of urban warming.

  14. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Preferences for Sex-Typical Bodily Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William M. Brown; Michael E. Price; Jinsheng Kang; Nicholas Pound; Yue Zhao; Hui Yu

    2008-01-01

    ...., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny...

  15. Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina Anastasia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.

  16. North-south asymmetries in magnetospheric lobe density : Cluster observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, S.; Lybekk, B.; Maes, L.; Laundal, K.; Pedersen, A.

    2016-12-01

    We report recent observations of cold plasma (0 - 70 eV) density in the magnetotail lobes. The observations and results are based on 16 years of Cluster observation of spacecraft potential measurements converted into local plasma densities.The survey indicate a persistent asymmetry in lobe density, with consistently higher densities of cold plasma in the northern lobe. External influences, such as daily and seasonal variations in the Earth's tilt angle, can introduce temporary north-south asymmetries through asymmetric ionization of the two hemispheres. Likewise, external drivers, such as the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field can set up additional spatial asymmetries in outflow and lobe filling. The persistent asymmetry reported in this paper is also influenced by these external factors, but is mainly caused by differences in magnetic field configuration in the northern and nouthern hemisphere ionospheres.

  17. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  18. IFRS Mandatory Adoption Effect on Information Asymmetry: Immediate or Delayed?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HelaTurki; Sonda Wali; Younes Boujelbene

    2017-01-01

    .... More accurately, this study aims to determine if the effect of IFRS adoption on the level of information asymmetry, apprehended by the cost of capital and the financial analysts' forecasts, is immediate or delayed...

  19. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Waterbirds in Relation to Mercury Exposure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset includes the bird species, sex, mercury concentration in breast feathers and whole blood, and the composite measure of fluctuating asymmetry. Statistical...

  20. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Han; Zhu, Ping; Lin, Yi; Wan, Shuangquan; Shu, Xin; Xu, Yue; Zheng, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry...

  1. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Kinney, William H.; Park, Wan-Il

    2017-09-01

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L_α ) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L_i) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L_i for a specific case is presented as an illustration.

  2. Single Spin Asymmetries at COMPASS with transverse target polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at CERN investigating the spin structure of the nucleon and performing hadron spectroscopy. The transverse spin structure of the nucleon is studied in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c muons off a transversely polarized proton or deuteron target. In 2002-2005, a transversely polarized 6LiD, and in 2007 a transversely polarized NH3 target were used. To get access to the transversity distribution, different single-spin asymmetries have been measured: The Collins asymmetry, the hadron-pair asymmetry and the transverse lambda polarization have been analyzed. In addition, transverse momentum effects of quarks have been studied by the Sivers effect. New results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetry on the proton for identified pions and kaons will be presented.

  3. Cerebral asymmetries: complementary and independent processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjurgjica Badzakova-Trajkov

    Full Text Available Most people are right-handed and left-cerebrally dominant for speech, leading historically to the general notion of left-hemispheric dominance, and more recently to genetic models proposing a single lateralizing gene. This hypothetical gene can account for higher incidence of right-handers in those with left cerebral dominance for speech. It remains unclear how this dominance relates to the right-cerebral dominance for some nonverbal functions such as spatial or emotional processing. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sample of 155 subjects to measure asymmetrical activation induced by speech production in the frontal lobes, by face processing in the temporal lobes, and by spatial processing in the parietal lobes. Left-frontal, right-temporal, and right-parietal dominance were all intercorrelated, suggesting that right-cerebral biases may be at least in part complementary to the left-hemispheric dominance for language. However, handedness and parietal asymmetry for spatial processing were uncorrelated, implying independent lateralizing processes, one producing a leftward bias most closely associated with handedness, and the other a rightward bias most closely associated with spatial attention.

  4. Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James

    2007-04-01

    The Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) will employ a revolutionary increase in Figure of Merit to obtain precise g^p2 and A^p1 results at high x. Using the highest available JLab beam energy, a 194 msr electromagnetic calorimeter will view the UVa polarized NH3 target at 8.5 .10^34 proton luminosity. The large Bjorken x region provides an important view on proton structure where the sea quarks have been stripped away. Using measurements of these ``naked protons'' is crucial for the understanding of strong QCD and can provide a connection between experimentally measured moments of polarized structure functions and quark matrix elements calculated in lattice QCD. The experiment will take place in 2008, using JLab's 5.7 GeV polarized electron beam, and covering the Bjorken x range from 0.3 and 0.8 with an average Q^2 of 4.5 GeV^2. We will discuss the physics motivation for SANE as well as the proposed experimental arrangement, and expected results.

  5. The equatorial asymmetry of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, M. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    Solution of the inverse problem for Parker's one-dimensional mean-field dynamo model in a thin spherical layer is considered. The method allows the spatial distribution of energy sources, the α- and Ω-effects, to be found provided specified constraints occur on the solution. The highest ratio of the magnetic energies for the Northern and Southern hemispheres is discussed as such a constraint. The method is a modification of the Monte-Carlo technique; it is convenient for parallel computations and based on minimization of the cost function that characterizes the deviation of the model solution properties from the desired ones. The calculations show that the ratio of the energies in the hemispheres may exceed an order of magnitude for both poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic energy. The ratio depends on the distance of the effective zone of the generation of the magnetic field from the equator and the number of harmonics in the spectrum. The greater this distance is and the higher the number of harmonics is, the stronger the magnetic field asymmetry can be.

  6. Moral asymmetries and the semantics of many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Egré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of four experiments concerning the evaluations people make of sentences involving many, showing that two sentences of the form many As are Bs and many As are Cs need not be equivalent when evaluated relative to a background in which B and C have the same cardinality and proportion to A, but in which B and C are predicates with opposite semantic and affective values. The data provide evidence that subjects lower the standard relevant to ascribe many for the more negatively valued predicate, and that judgments involving many are sensitive to moral considerations in a broad sense, namely to expectations involving a representation of the desirability as opposed to the mere probability of an outcome. We relate the results to similar semantic asymmetries discussed in the psychological literature, in particular to the Knobe effect and to framing effects. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.13 Supplementary materials, BibTeX info

  7. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  8. Intraday market asymmetries — A Nordic example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund; Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    While the majority of electricity in the Nordic and Baltic countries is traded at the day-ahead market, producers and consumers can use the intraday market to adjust their production commitments according to updated forecasts closer to the time of delivery. This reduces the need for balancing, pa...... to strategic bidding. The intraday market is per definition symmetric, as prices for power sales always correspond to prices for power purchases, however, we find that this symmetry is not reflected in the price structure in regards to the total load adjustment needs.......While the majority of electricity in the Nordic and Baltic countries is traded at the day-ahead market, producers and consumers can use the intraday market to adjust their production commitments according to updated forecasts closer to the time of delivery. This reduces the need for balancing......, particularly important for VRE producers, but it also means that the price formation at intraday market can change optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market. Through econometric modelling of intraday price premiums, this paper investigates intraday price asymmetries, which potentially can lead...

  9. THE SPECIFICS OF FUNCTIONAL MOTOR ASYMMETRIES IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Berdichevskaia E.M; Zaytseva N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the level of development of motor functions, particulars of the functional motor asymmetries and their dynamics in the process of treatment of children with cerebral palsy. We examined 445 children 4 – 7 years of age, including 95 patients with the most prevalent forms of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia and hemiparesis) and 350 practically healthy children. In the study of functional asymmetries of motion global delay in the formation of the morpho-functional parameters of the cen...

  10. The 'Goldilocks Zone': getting the measure of manual asymmetries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Raw

    Full Text Available Some studies have shown that manual asymmetries decrease in older age. These results have often been explained with reference to models of reduced hemispheric specialisation. An alternative explanation, however, is that hand differences are subtle, and capturing them requires tasks that yield optimal performance with both hands. Whereas the hemispheric specialisation account implies that reduced manual asymmetries should be reliably observed in older adults, the 'measurement difficulty' account suggests that manual asymmetries will be hard to detect unless a task has just the right level of difficulty--i.e. within the 'Goldilocks Zone', where it is not too easy or too hard, but just right. Experiment One tested this hypothesis and found that manual asymmetries were only detected when participants performed in this zone; specifically, performance on a tracing task was only superior in the preferred hand when task constraints were high (i.e. fast speed tracing. Experiment Two used three different tasks to examine age differences in manual asymmetries; one task produced no asymmetries, whilst two tasks revealed asymmetries in both younger and older groups (with poorer overall performance in the old group across all tasks. Experiment Three revealed task-dependent asymmetries in both age groups, but highlighted further detection difficulties linked with the metric of performance and compensatory strategies used by participants. Results are discussed with reference to structural learning theory, whereby we suggest that the processes of inter-manual transfer lead to relatively small performance differences between the hands (despite a strong phenomenological sense of performance disparities.

  11. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  12. Azimuthal asymmetry in HE1,X modes analyzed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astorino, Antonio; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Israelsen, Stine Møller

    2017-01-01

    An analytical study of higher-order modes in step-index fibers has been conducted with the aim of justifying the circular asymmetry experimentally observed in the intensity of higher-order Bessel-like modes.......An analytical study of higher-order modes in step-index fibers has been conducted with the aim of justifying the circular asymmetry experimentally observed in the intensity of higher-order Bessel-like modes....

  13. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  14. Single transverse-spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re Calegari, Gabriele [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria-sede di Como, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Como (Italy); Ratcliffe, Philip G. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria-sede di Como, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    The asymmetry in the angular distribution of Drell-Yan dilepton pairs in collisions where just one nucleon is transversely polarised has been examined in the literature with a variety of results, differing mainly by factors of 2. We re-evaluate the asymmetry via twist-3 contributions in collinear factorisation. In order to allow complete and in-depth comparison with existing calculations, we supply all calculational details. (orig.)

  15. Functional asymmetry in the cerebellum: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dewen; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Zongtan

    2008-01-01

    Recent discoveries on the way in which the cerebellum carries out higher non-motor functions, have stimulated a proliferation of researches into functional integration and neural mechanisms in the cerebellum. Cerebellar functional asymmetry is a special characteristic of cerebellar functional organization and the cerebro-cerebellar circuitry that underlies task performance. Multi-level neuroimaging studies demonstrate that cerebellar functional asymmetry has a rather complex pattern, and may be correlated with practice or certain disorders. In this review, we summarize some new and important advances in the understanding of functional laterality of the cerebellum in primary motor and higher cognitive functions, and highlight the differences in the patterns of cerebellar functional asymmetry in the various functional domains. We propose that cerebellar functional asymmetry may be associated with the pattern of connectivity between a large number of widely distributed brain areas and between special cerebellar functional regions. It is suggested that cerebro-cerebellar circuits in particular play an important role in cerebellar functional asymmetry. Finally, we propose that multi-scale connectivity analyses and careful studies of high-level cerebellar functional asymmetry would make an important contribution to the understanding of the human cerebellum and cerebral neural networks.

  16. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C. W. E. M.; Smulders, F. T. Y.; Meyer, T.; Peeters, F.; Merckelbach, H.; Smeets, T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. PMID:26163671

  17. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cosmological lepton asymmetry with a nonzero mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, Emanuele; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Mangano, Gianpiero; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pastor, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    While the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is nowadays well measured by cosmological observations, the bounds on the lepton asymmetry in the form of neutrinos are still significantly weaker. We place limits on the relic neutrino asymmetries using some of the latest cosmological data, taking into account the effect of flavor oscillations. We present our results for two different values of the neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13}, and show that for large \\theta_{13} the limits on the total neutrino asymmetry become more stringent, diluting even large initial flavor asymmetries. In particular, we find that the present bounds are still dominated by the limits coming from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, while the limits on the total neutrino mass from cosmological data are essentially independent of \\theta_{13}. Finally, we perform a forecast for COrE, taken as an example of a future CMB experiment, and find that it could improve the limits on the total lepton asymmetry approximately by up to a factor 5.

  19. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  20. Running gait impulse asymmetries in below-knee amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, F; Allard, P; Therrien, R G; McFadyen, B J

    1992-04-01

    In running, large gait asymmetry is expected due to the inability of the foot prosthesis to comply with the kinematic demands and produce a powerful plantarflexion moment. In this work, interlimb asymmetry in below-knee (BK) amputee running gait was assessed for one rigid and three flexible keel prostheses, using vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces and respective impulses. Nine BK amputees and 6 controls participated in this study. The running speed was monitored by two light sensitive detectors while the ground reaction forces were measured with a Kistler force plate. Between the prosthetic side and the sound limb the impulse indicator showed greater asymmetry than the force. Interlimb asymmetry was very much present in all types of prosthesis tested but is less pronounced in the flexible keel prostheses. In the latter, the asymmetry may be associated with the force-time history modulation rather than its magnitude alone. Generally, the impulses better describe interlimb asymmetry and the forces allow a greater discrimination between prosthetic foot types.

  1. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  2. [Diagnosis and therapy of adult patients with facial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kuroda, Shingo

    2009-09-01

    The goal of orthodontic treatment is to improve the patient's life by enhancing dental and jaw functions and dentofacial esthetics [Graber TM, et al., Orthodontics current principles and techniques. 4(e) ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2005.]. Harmonious occlusion is achieved following improvements of malocclusion via orthodontic treatment [Ehmer U and Broll P, Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg 1992;7:153-159. Throckmorton GS, et al., J Prosthet Dent 1984;51:252-261.]. Perfect facial symmetry is extremely rare, and normal faces have a degree of asymmetry. Patients with dentofacial deformity more frequently have asymmetry of the face and jaws. There was a relationship between the type of malocclusion and the prevalence of asymmetry; 28% of the Class III group, but 40% to 42% of the Class I, Class II and long face groups respectively, were asymmetric [Severt TR and Proffit WR, Int J Adult Orthod Orthogn Surg 1997;12:171-176.]; therefore, facial asymmetry is a common complaint among orthodontic patients. Treatment of severe facial asymmetry in adults consists mainly of surgically repositioning the maxilla or the mandible [Bardinet E, et al., Orthod Fr 2002;73:243-315. Guyuron B, Clin Plast Surg 1989;16:795-801. Proffit WR, et al., Contemporary treatment of dentofacial deformity. 2003. St Louis: Mosby, 2003:574-644.], however, new methods, i.e. orthodontic tooth movement with implant anchorage, have recently been introduced [Costa A, et al., Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg 1998;3:201-209. Creekmore TD and Eklund MK, J Clin Orthod 1983;17:266-269. Miyawaki S,et al., Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124:373-378. Park HS, et al., J Clin Orthod 2001;35:417-422. Roberts WE, et al., Angle Orthod 1989;59:247-256.], and various treatment options can be chosen in patients with facial asymmetry. In this article, we describe the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with facial asymmetry.

  3. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Testes asymmetry of Bufo gargarizans in relation to body condition and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lei Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes asymmetry theory predicts that males in good condition or mature age may be able to develop larger degrees of directional asymmetry than males in poor condition or younger age. In this study, we tested the testes asymmetry theory in the Bufo gargarizans. We found that B. gargarizans has a significant directional asymmetry in testes mass, with left testis being significantly larger than right testis. Male body condition was correlated with relative testes mass and absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes asymmetry. Therefore, we suggested that males in good body condition have the higher ability of sperm competition than males in poor body condition. Additionally, male age was correlated with absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes mass and testes asymmetry, thus not supporting the hypothesis that males with a higher degree of directional asymmetry survive better.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetry in stratospheric NO2 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Margarita; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Gonzalez-Bartolomé, David; Puentedura, Olga; Funke, Bernd; Iglesias, Javier; Rodríguez, Santiago; García, Omaira; Ochoa, Héctor; Deferrari, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Over 20 years of stratospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data from ground-based zenith DOAS spectrometers were used for trend analysis, specifically, via multiple linear regression. Spectrometers from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) cover the subtropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (Izaña, 28° N), the southern Subantarctic (Ushuaia, 55° S) and Antarctica (Marambio, 64° S, and Belgrano, 78° S). The results show that for the period 1993-2014, a mean positive decadal trend of +8.7 % was found in the subtropical Northern Hemisphere stations, and negative decadal trends of -8.7 and -13.8 % were found in the Southern Hemisphere at Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively; all trends are statistically significant at 95 %. Belgrano only shows a significant decadal trend of -11.3 % in the summer/autumn period. Most of the trends result from variations after 2005. The trend in the diurnal build-up per hour (DBU) was used to estimate the change in the rate of N2O5 conversion to NO2 during the day. With minor differences, the results reproduce those obtained for NO2. The trends computed for individual months show large month-to-month variability. At Izaña, the maximum occurs in December (+13.1 %), dropping abruptly to lower values in the first part of the year. In the Southern Hemisphere, the polar vortex dominates the monthly distributions of the trends. At Marambio, the maximum occurs in mid-winter (-21 %), whereas at the same time, the Ushuaia trend is close to its annual minimum (-7 %). The large difference in the trends at these two relatively close stations suggests a vortex shift towards the Atlantic/South American area over the past few years. Finally, the hemispheric asymmetry obtained in this work is discussed in the framework of the results obtained by previous works that considered tracer analysis and Brewer-Dobson circulation. The results obtained here provide evidence that the NO2 produced by N2O

  6. Two-dimensional analysis of gait asymmetry in spastic hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Simple measures of gait for routine clinical use could be useful when the complex gait analysis systems are not available. The aim of this study was to quantify asymmetry in children with spastic hemiplegia using a two-dimensional gait analysis by videography and to relate the asymmetry to motor function. Methods: Twenty-four children with spastic hemiplegia (19 males, 5 females; mean age 49 months [SD 5 months], range from 39 to 60 months were assessed with a two-dimensional gait analysis by videography and the analyzed parameters were compared with normal values and with clinical and functional data. Results: There were significant differences in swing time (p = 0.002, stance time (p = 0.01 and stance/swing time ratio (p < 0.001. The comparison with the normal values described by Sutherland also demonstrated gait asymmetry. There was no direct relationship between the motor function and asymmetry but a score analysis for specific Gross Motor Function Measure items could quantify it in terms of age of gait acquisition. Children with more adequate muscle tone presented longer stance time in the involved limb than those with more spasticity (p = 0.03. Conclusions: These results suggest that the best performance is associated with the smallest asymmetry in this sample. Although two-dimensional gait analysis does not provide as much data as three dimensional gait analyses, we believe it can contribute significantly to the gait assessment of children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  8. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  10. Large-Scale Photometric Asymmetry in Galaxy Spin Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-09-01

    Spin patterns of spiral galaxies can be broadly separated into galaxies with clockwise (Z-wise) patterns and galaxies with counterclockwise (S-wise) spin patterns. While the differences between these patterns are visually noticeable, they are a matter of the perspective of the observer, and therefore in a sufficiently large universe no other differences are expected between galaxies with Z-wise and S-wise patterns. Here, large datasets of spiral galaxies separated by their spin patterns are used to show that spiral galaxies with Z-wise spin patterns are photometrically different from spiral galaxies with S-wise patterns. That asymmetry changes based on the direction of observation, such that the observed asymmetry in one hemisphere is aligned with the inverse observed asymmetry in the opposite hemisphere. The results are consistent across different sky surveys (SDSS and PanSTARRS) and analysis methods. The proximity of the most probable asymmetry axis to the galactic pole suggests that the asymmetry might be driven by relativistic beaming. Annotated data from SDSS and PanSTARRS are publicly available.

  11. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  12. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmïden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering 160 GeV/$c$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured as a function of $Q^2$, $x_{Bj}$, or $p_{T}^{2}$. The $\\sin \\phi_S$ asymmetry is found to be $-0.019 \\pm 0.008(stat.) \\pm 0.003(syst.)$. All other asymmetries are also found to be of small magnitude and consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Very recent calculations using a GPD-based model agree well with the present results. The data is interpreted as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalized parton distributions.

  13. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Boer, L. Gamberg, B.U. Musch, A. Prokudin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  14. How sensitive to FCNC can $B^0$ CP asymmetries be?

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G; Branco, Gustavo Castello; Vives, O

    1998-01-01

    We show that the study of CP asymmetries in neutral B-meson decays provides a very sensitive probe of flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC). We introduce two new angles, $\\alpha_{SM}$ and $\\beta_{SM}$, whose main feature is that they can be readily obtained from the measurement of the CP asymmetries $a_{J/\\psi K_s}$, $a_{\\pi^+ \\pi^-}$ and the ratio $R_u presence of new physics in a model-independent way. Assuming that new physics is due to the presence of an isosinglet down-type quark, we indicate how to reconstruct the unitarity quadrangles and point out that the measurements of the above asymmetries, within the expected experimental errors, may detect FCNC effects, even for values of $|\\sum_{i=1}^3 V_{id} V_{ib}^* / (V_{td} V_{tb}^*)| $ at the level of a few times $10^{-2}$.

  15. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  16. Line asymmetry in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Bautista, Manuel; Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the 900 ks Chandra X-ray spectrum of NGC 3783, finding evidence on the asymmetry of the spectral absorption lines. The lines are fitted with a parametric expression that results from an analytical treatment of radiatively driven winds. The line asymmetry distribution derived from the spectrum is consistent with a non-spherical outflow with a finite optical depth. Within this scenario, our model explains the observed correlations between the line velocity shifts and the ionization parameter and between the line velocity shift and the line asymmetry. The present results may provide a framework for detailed testing of models for the dynamic and physical properties of warm absorber in Seyfert galaxies.

  17. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  18. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  19. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  20. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Beam-Spin Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.X. Girod; R.A. Niyazov

    2008-01-24

    The beam spin asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons on the proton (ep -> epg) were measured over a wide kinematic range and with high statistical accuracy. These asymmetries result from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Over the whole kinematic range (x_B from 0.11 to 0.58, Q^2 from 1 to 4.8 GeV^2, -t from 0.09 to 1.8 GeV^2), the azimuthal dependence of the asymmetries is compatible with expectations from leading-twist dominance, A = a*sin(phi)/[1+c*cos(phi)]. This extensive set of data can thus be used to constrain significantly the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in the valence quark sector.

  1. Asymmetry of Drop Impacts on Patterned Hydrophobic Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Geoff; Robson, Simon; Broom, Matheu

    2016-11-01

    When a water drop falls on to a flat solid surface, asymmetries in the geometry of the spreading drop can be specifically determined by patterned surface microstructures. For hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) micropillar arrays, the most important asymmetric mechanisms appear to be the surface energy of contact lines, and pathways for gas escaping from penetrated microstructure. In this presentation, static wetting and drop impact experiments will be discussed in relation to drop asymmetries. In addition to micropillar arrays, natural superhydrophobic surfaces (leaves) have been studied, and may suggest possibilities for controlling drop impacts in applications. Some of the clearest large scale drop asymmetries on leaves, which are similar to those associated with low drop impact contact times on synthetic surfaces, appear to be caused by features which generate high contact angle hysteresis, and are therefore indicative of poor superhydrophocity.

  2. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PERANAN KONSERVATISME PADA INFORMATION ASYMMETRY: SUATU TINJAUAN TEORETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.A.N. BUDIASIH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservatism is one of mechanisms of corporate governance that could reduce managers’ capability to manipulate and overstate financial report, especially financial performance, so cash flow and company’s value could be increased. Conservatism is also important in decreasing agency cost and increasing the quality of financial information to increase company’s value and the share price. Financial statement employing principle of conservatism could reduce management chance to manipulate financial report and decrease deadweight loss as an agency cost emerged due to information asymmetry. Thus it can be said that conservative financial statement could reduce information asymmetry. Information asymmetry can be handled by forcing management to fully disclose the company’s condition on the financial statement. Another way is to monitor management conduct by employing independent auditor.

  4. New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin; Sharkey, Michael J.; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ye, Gong-Yin; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera); the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew) was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms. PMID:20856815

  5. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  6. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  7. Gill asymmetry in Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ayoade

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, often used as indicator of environmental stress, was evaluated in gill rakers and filaments of Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria. Mean length and weight of 13.68+1.28 cm and 59.40+17.48 g were respectively recorded. The gill rakers (t = -0.919 and filaments (t = -1.150 from both sides were not significantly different. The gill filaments recorded (0.31+2.42 higher incidence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA compared with the gill rakers (0.21+1.58, signifying developmental interference in the population. Fish size and sex were observed to exert minimal influence on FA

  8. On Argument-Adjunct Asymmetry of Sluicing in Mandarin Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Chi Lee

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to account for the argument-adjunct asymmetry of Sluicing in Mandarin Chinese. Such an asymmetry is empirically demonstrated by a language-particular phenomenon, so-called shi-support, which is also the last resort (Chomsky, 1995a) of our linguistic mechanism. In the current related literature, shi-support is obligatory for wh-arguments but optional for wh-adjuncts (Wang, 2002). However, I argue that at the PF level shi-support is even optional for wh-arguments; that is, i...

  9. Polarization-induced stiffness asymmetry of optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Ebrahim; Samadi, Akbar; Cheraghian, Mojtaba; Reihani, S Nader S

    2012-09-01

    A tightly focused, linearly polarized laser beam, so-called optical tweezers, is proven to be a useful micromanipulation tool. It is known that there is a stiffness asymmetry in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis inherited from the polarization state of the laser. In this Letter, we report our experimental results of stiffness asymmetry for different bead sizes measured at the optimal trapping condition. We also provide the results of our generalized Lorenz-Mie based calculations, which are in good agreement with our experimental results. We also compare our results with previous reports.

  10. Investigation of Inclusive CP Asymmetries in B$^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Petersen, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Heister, A; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    A search for CP violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons is performed using a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. By studying time-dependent asymmetries in flavour-tagged samples of semileptonic and fully inclusive b-hadron decays, two measurements of the semileptonic asymmetry a_cp are extracted. No evidence for CP violation is observed, and the combined value a_cp = -0.013 +- 0.026 is obtained.

  11. Determination of Top-quark Asymmetries at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Doublet, Philippe; Pöschl, Roman; Frisson, Thibault; Rouëné, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    A study of top quark production at the future International Linear Collider, ILC, with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV is presented. The emphasis is put on determining the sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model. The analysis has been carried out with a full simulation of the ILD detector. Both, the forward-backward asymmetry and the left-right asymmetry can be determined to a precision of about 1% to 1.5%. The analysis points out an ambiguity which arises in case of the production of top-quarks with left-handed helicity.

  12. Posttraumatic Mandibular Asymmetry Presenting in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi, DDS,MS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common sites of injury of the facial skeleton is mandibular condyle. However, it is the least diagnosed site of trauma in the head and neck regions. A trauma to the mandible and specifically condylar zone during childhood, may lead to asymmetry or mandibular bilateral distortion, which is usually manifested in the second decade of life when the etiology is unknown to most people. This report is about an adult male complaining about facial asymmetry with an unknown source. Obvious clicking at the right side and shorter right ramus and condyle's head deviation directed us to a childhood trauma and fracture.

  13. Genuine T, CP, CPT asymmetry parameters for the entangled B d system

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco; Nebot, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The precise connection between the theoretical T, CP, CPT asymmetries, in terms of transition probabilities between the filtered neutral meson $B_d$ states and the experimental asymmetries between the double decay rate intensities for Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products in a B-factory of entangled states, is established. This allows the identification of genuine Asymmetry Parameters in the time distribution of the asymmetries and their measurability by disentangling genuine and possible fake...

  14. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C.J.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-01-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which T-odd functions, such as

  15. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Predicts Attentional Asymmetry in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel P.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that DNA variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) influences spatial attention asymmetry in clinical populations such as ADHD, but confirmation in non-clinical samples is required. Since non-spatial factors such as attentional load have been shown to influence spatial biases in clinical conditions, here…

  16. Handedness, heritability, neurocognition and brain asymmetry in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Hyde, Thomas M.; Callicott, Joseph P.; Lener, Marc S.; Verchinski, Beth A.; Apud, José A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Higher rates of non-right-handedness (i.e. left- and mixed-handedness) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been a centrepiece for theories of anomalous lateralization in this disorder. We investigated whether non-right-handedness is (i) more prevalent in patients as compared with unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants; (ii) familial; (iii) associated with disproportionately poorer neurocognition; and (iv) associated with grey matter volume asymmetries. We examined 1445 participants (375 patients with schizophrenia, 502 unaffected siblings and 568 unrelated controls) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a battery of neuropsychological tasks and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients displayed a leftward shift in Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotient scores as compared with both their unaffected siblings and unrelated controls, but this finding disappeared when sex was added to the model. Moreover, there was no evidence of increased familial risk for non-right-handedness. Non-right-handedness was not associated with disproportionate neurocognitive disadvantage or with grey matter volume asymmetries in the frontal pole, lateral occipital pole or temporal pole. Non-right-handedness was associated with a significant reduction in left asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus in both patients and controls. Our data neither provide strong support for ‘atypical’ handedness as a schizophrenia risk-associated heritable phenotype nor that it is associated with poorer neurocognition or anomalous cerebral asymmetries. PMID:20639549

  17. Memory Asymmetry of Forward and Backward Associations in Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Zijian; Mecklinger, Axel; Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    There is an intensive debate on whether memory for serial order is symmetric. The objective of this study was to explore whether associative asymmetry is modulated by memory task (recognition vs. cued recall). Participants were asked to memorize word triples (Experiments 1-2) or pairs (Experiments 3-6) during the study phase. They then recalled…

  18. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reference to sexual isolation, FA and inversion polymor- phism. We have found incomplete sexual ... The asymmetry did not exhibit any side speci- ficity and it was either right or left side which manifested the .... Nanda P. and Singh B. N. 2012 Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila. J. Biosci 37 ...

  19. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  20. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  1. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of underlying developmental instability (DI), motivated by the idea that morphological variance is maladaptive. Whether or not DI has evolutionary potential is a highly disputed topic, marred by methodological problems and fuzzy prejudices. We report here some results ...

  2. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common

  3. Single spin asymmetries from a single Wilson loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet; Zhou, Jian; Echevarria, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common

  4. Neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    775-778. Neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry around rotating black holes. BANIBRATA MUKHOPADHYAY and PARAMPREET sINGH. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind,. Pune 411 007, India. Abstract. Propagation of fermion in curved space-time generates gravitational inter-.

  5. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the ...

  6. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  7. Observation of floating potential asymmetry in the edge plasma of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Edge plasma properties in a tokamak is an interesting subject of study from the view point of confinement and stability of tokamak plasma. The edge plasma of SINP-tokamak has been investigated using specially designed Langmuir probes. We have observed a poloidal asymmetry of floating potentials, particularly ...

  8. Realized Stochastic Volatility with General Asymmetry and Long Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper develops a novel realized stochastic volatility model of asset returns and realized volatility that incorporates general asymmetry and long memory (hereafter the RSV-GALM model). The contribution of the paper ties in with Robert Basmann’s seminal work in terms of the

  9. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, Ernest; /York U., Canada; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2010-05-01

    We measure the charge asymmetry A of like-sign dimuon events in 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the DO detector at a center of mass energy sqrt s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  10. Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.

  11. A quantitative analysis of the marked asymmetry existing between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pelvic girdle musculature of eleven of the eighteen southern African Mabuya species described by Branch (1988) was examined, using differences in mass to emphasize the marked asymmetry existing between partners of certain muscle pairs. The lighter muscles expressed as indices of their heavier partners gave a ...

  12. The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I will give here an overview of the present observational and theoretical situation regarding the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and the related question of the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale. I will also give a simple discussion of the role of CP (charge conjugation parity) violation in this subject.

  13. Measurement of CP asymmetry in D-0 -> K- K+ decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in the Cabibbo-suppressed decay D-0 -> K- K+ is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb(-1), collected with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the charm meson at

  14. Network Asymmetries and Access Pricing in Cellular Telecommunications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kocsis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractNetwork shares and retail prices are not symmetric in the telecommunications market with multiple bottlenecks which give rise to new questions of access fee regulation. In this paper we consider a model with two types of asymmetry arising from different entry timing, i.e. a larger

  15. Handedness, heritability, neurocognition and brain asymmetry in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Hyde, Thomas M; Callicott, Joseph P; Lener, Marc S; Verchinski, Beth A; Apud, José A; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2010-10-01

    Higher rates of non-right-handedness (i.e. left- and mixed-handedness) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been a centrepiece for theories of anomalous lateralization in this disorder. We investigated whether non-right-handedness is (i) more prevalent in patients as compared with unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants; (ii) familial; (iii) associated with disproportionately poorer neurocognition; and (iv) associated with grey matter volume asymmetries. We examined 1445 participants (375 patients with schizophrenia, 502 unaffected siblings and 568 unrelated controls) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a battery of neuropsychological tasks and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients displayed a leftward shift in Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotient scores as compared with both their unaffected siblings and unrelated controls, but this finding disappeared when sex was added to the model. Moreover, there was no evidence of increased familial risk for non-right-handedness. Non-right-handedness was not associated with disproportionate neurocognitive disadvantage or with grey matter volume asymmetries in the frontal pole, lateral occipital pole or temporal pole. Non-right-handedness was associated with a significant reduction in left asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus in both patients and controls. Our data neither provide strong support for 'atypical' handedness as a schizophrenia risk-associated heritable phenotype nor that it is associated with poorer neurocognition or anomalous cerebral asymmetries.

  16. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Otten, Bert; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    2011-01-01

    How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral) and three

  17. Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the footprint and Symmetry Index (SI) methods for the assessment of gait asymmetry in hemiparetic post-stroke patients with the goal of achieving recommendations regarding physical rehabilitation. Methods: The study was conducted at the Queen Elizabeth Central ...

  18. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  19. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  20. Cosmological baryon asymmetry constraints on extensions of the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Davidson, Sacha; Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-03-01

    The existence of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe puts strong constraints on extensions of the standard model which violate baryon and/or lepton number. Interactions violating baryon number but conserving lepton number in the early universe could wash away any previously established baryon asymmetry. Interactions which violate lepton number separately (as first discussed by Fukugita and Yanagida), with or without associated violation of baryon number, could combine with non-perturbative baryon and lepton number violating electroweak effects to eradicate the cosmological baryon asymmetry. We derive the constraints on any such interaction of arbitrary dimension arising from the persistence of the cosmological baryon asymmetry. We find, in particular, severe constraints on δB≠0 interactions that could mediate nn oscillations or δB≠δL proton decay, and on interactions that could violate R parity in supersymmetric models. These constraints severely limit the potential observability of n-n oscillations and R-parity violation in present laboratory experiments. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455, USA.

  1. Ternary-fission dynamics and asymmetries in reactions with polarized neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bunakov, V E

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of measuring various asymmetries of charged-particles emission in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons, namely parity nonconserving asymmetries, left-right asymmetries and triple-odd correlations are presented. It is demonstrated what kind of new information about the mechanism of ternary fission can be obtained from their analysis

  2. Communication Apprehension and Resting Alpha Range Asymmetry in the Anterior Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Heisel, Alan D.; Lewis, Robert J.; Pence, Michelle E.; Reinhart, Amber; Tian, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between trait-like communication apprehension (CA) and resting alpha range asymmetry in the anterior cortex (AC). Although theory and research in cognitive neuroscience suggest that asymmetry in the AC constitutes a relatively stable, inborn, substrate of emotion, some studies indicate that asymmetry can…

  3. Measurement of Z0 lepton coupling asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smy, Michael Burghard [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Polarized Z0`s from e+e- collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters Ae, Aμ and Aτ from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of Aμ. The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give Aμ = 0.102 ±0.034 and the tau-pairs give Aτ = 0.195 ±0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e+e- final state measure Ae to be Ae = 0.152±0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter Ae-μ-τ = 0.151±0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin2θWeff=0.2310v0.0014 at the Z0 pole.

  4. Acidity in Precipitation and Solar North-South Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Hee Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We are motivated by both the accumulating evidence for the connection of solar variability to the chemistry of nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere and recent finding that the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR influx is associated with the solar northsouth asymmetry. We have analyzed the measured pH in precipitation over the 109 stations distributed in the United States. We have found that data of pH in precipitation as a whole appear to be marginally anti-correlated with the solar asymmetry. That is, rain seems to become less acidic when the southern hemisphere of the Sun is more active. The acidity of rain is also found to be correlated with the atmospheric temperature, while not to be correlated with solar activity itself. We have carried on the analysis with two subsamples in which stations located in the east and in the west. We find that the pH data derived from the eastern stations which are possibly polluted by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are not correlated with the solar asymmetry, but with the temperature. On the contrary, the pH data obtained from the western stations are found to be marginally anti-correlated with the solar asymmetry. In addition, the pH data obtained from the western stations are found to be correlated with the solar UV radiation. We conclude by briefly pointing out that a role of the solar asymmetry in the process of acidification of rain is to be further examined particularly when the level of pollution by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is low.

  5. [Constitutional asymmetries in aesthetic breast augmentation: incidence, postoperative satisfaction and surgical options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médard de Chardon, V; Balaguer, T; Chignon-Sicard, B; Ihrai, T; Lebreton, E

    2009-08-01

    The clinically observable, constitutional breast asymmetries are frequent and physiological in the general population. Although there has been a preponderance of literature concerning breast augmentation, a conspicuous lack of data exists regarding the preoperative breast and chest wall asymmetries seen in the patient seeking consultation for aesthetic breast augmentation. These asymmetries can lead to postoperative dissatisfaction in patients. An independent plastic surgeon analysed the data of 200 patients who had a primary aesthetic breast augmentation. The mean follow-up was 36 months. All patients had pre- and postoperative standardized pictures of the anterior chest wall. The clinical examination was achieved using an original evaluation form. Patients were also asked to fill an exhaustive satisfaction form. Breasts and chest wall asymmetries were diagnosed by clinical examination and photographic analysis. Mastopexy-augmentations, breast reconstructions, breast malformations (tuberous breasts and Poland syndrome) and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Stastical analysis was done using SPSS software version 15. There were 77% of chest wall and breast asymmetries and 69,5% of breasts asymmetries (26,5% of breast mound volume asymmetry and 62,5% of shape asymmetry). An isolated chest wall asymmetry was found in 17% of patients. Scoliosis was the main cause of asymmetry (52,9% of chest wall asymmetries) as it is often associated with chest wall rotation, chest wall depression, submammary depression or rib asymmetry. Patients often noticed an asymmetry postoperatively (28%). Among the patients complaining from a postoperative asymmetry, 83,3% had a constitutional breast or chest wall asymmetry. Asymmetry was the third cause of dissatisfaction and the third argument for revision surgery (after volume dissatisfaction and ptosis). Thirty per cent of patients asking for a surgical revision and 35.3% of unsatisfied patients complained about

  6. Naturally large cosmological neutrino asymmetries in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald

    2000-05-22

    A large neutrino asymmetry could have significant observable consequences for nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. If the baryon asymmetry originates via the Affleck-Dine mechanism along a d = 4 flat direction of the scalar potential in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and if the lepton asymmetry originates via Affleck-Dine leptogenesis along a d = 6 direction, corresponding to the lowest dimension directions conserving R parity, then the ratio n(L)/n(B) is naturally in the range 10(8)-10(9). As a result, a potentially observable neutrino asymmetry is correlated with a baryon asymmetry of the order of 10(-10).

  7. Forensic and Anthropological Application of Body Asymmetry: A Comment on Gutnik et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2016-04-01

    The present communication describes the application of bilateral asymmetry in forensic casework and anthropological research. Bilateral asymmetry is normal in the human body. The body's asymmetry is attributable to genetic and environmental (evolutionary) reasons. Handedness is a factor related to bilateral asymmetry. Gutnik et al. (2015) supported previous research, showing that the dominant side of the body is stronger than the other side due to additional stress and strain, and thus has augmented musculature and increased mass. The note is intended to elaborate on the applications of body asymmetry in forensic and anthropological practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Morphological asymmetry and habitat quality: using fleas and their rodent hosts as a novel experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-04-01

    Morphological asymmetry is widely used to measure developmental instability and higher levels of asymmetry often correlate with decreased mating success, increased inbreeding, increased stress and decreased habitat quality. We studied asymmetry and relationships between asymmetry and host identity in two flea species, host generalist Xenopsylla ramesis and host specialist Parapulex chephrenis , and asked: (1) what the level of asymmetry was in their femurs and tibiae; (2) which type of asymmetry predominates; and (3) whether fleas that fed on host species distantly related to their principal host species produced offspring that exhibited greater asymmetry compared with offspring of fleas that fed on their principal host species. We found fluctuating asymmetry in femurs and tibiae of X. ramesis and in the tibiae of P. chephrenis as well as significantly left-handed directional asymmetry in the femurs of P. chephrenis Host species identity significantly impacted asymmetry in leg segments of P. chephrenis but not in those of X. ramesis Offspring asymmetry increased when mother fleas fed on a host that was distantly related to the principal host. Fleas parasitizing multiple host species might compensate for developmental instability when utilizing a novel host species; therefore, host-switching events in host-specific parasites could be constrained by the relatedness between a novel and a principal host species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Measurement of parity-violating asymmetry in electron-deuteron inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Subedi, R.; Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bellini, V.; Beminiwattha, R.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J. -P.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; Fassi, L. El; Erler, J.; Flay, D.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Golge, S.; Grimm, K.; Hafidi, K.; Hansen, J. -O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Hyde, C. E.; Jen, C. M.; Jones, D.; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P. M.; Kowalski, S.; Kumar, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; LeRose, J. J.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; McNulty, D.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D. G.; Mercado, L.; Meziani, Z. -E.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Mesick, K. E.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Y.; Parno, D.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Rider, K.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Rubin, J.; Russo, G.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Silwal, R.; Širca, S.; Souder, P. A.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, L.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.

    2015-04-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep-inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.

  10. Response of fluctuating and directional asymmetry to selection on wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, C; Hansen, T F; Carter, A J R; Houle, D

    2006-05-01

    We tested whether directional selection on an index-based wing character in Drosophila melanogaster affected developmental stability and patterns of directional asymmetry. We selected for both an increase (up selection) and a decrease (down selection) of the index value on the left wing and compared patterns of fluctuating and directional asymmetry in the selection index and other wing traits across selection lines. Changes in fluctuating asymmetry across selection lines were predominantly small, but we observed a tendency for fluctuating asymmetry to decrease in the up-selected lines in both replicates. Because changes in fluctuating asymmetry depended on the direction of selection, and were not related to changes in trait size, these results fail to support existing hypotheses linking directional selection and developmental stability. Selection also produced a pattern of directional asymmetry that was similar in all selected lines whatever the direction of selection. This result may be interpreted as a release of genetic variance in directional asymmetry under selection.

  11. Measurement of Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Electron-Deuteron Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Subedi, R; Ahmed, Z; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Armstrong, D S; Arrington, J; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Deng, X; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Erler, J; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, A; Golge, S; Grimm, K; Hafidi, K; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Holt, R J; Huang, J; Hyde, C E; Jen, C M; Jones, D; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P M; Kowalski, S; Kumar, K S; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Long, E; McNulty, D; Margaziotis, D J; Meddi, F; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Mesick, K E; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman, A; Oh, Y; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Rider, K; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rubin, J; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Širca, S; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Waidyawansa, B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, L; Zhao, B; Zheng, X

    2014-01-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.

  12. Asymmetry assessment using cone beam CT. A Class I and Class II patient comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Matthew M; Larson, Brent E; Gaillard, Philippe R; Wey, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    To estimate possible differences in skeletal asymmetry between patients with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II relationships. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were examined from 70 consecutive patients who presented for orthodontic care and fit the inclusion criteria. Asymmetry was quantified using an asymmetry index developed by Katsumata et al. Anatomic landmarks were defined and reference planes were established to determine the asymmetry of the landmarks using a constructed coordinate plane system. Thirty randomly selected patients were reanalyzed to assess the reliability of the method. Statistical analysis did not find any significant relationship between asymmetry and A-P skeletal relationship for any of the landmarks. Asymmetry index scores were reproducible within a certain range of agreement for each landmark. Based on this study, the discrepant jaw growth resulting in a Class II skeletal pattern results in no more skeletal asymmetry than Class I skeletal patterns.

  13. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  14. Measurement of charge asymmetry in hadronic Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Less, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mato, P.; Mir, Ll. M.; Pacheco, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Dydak, F.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, A.; Hilgart, J.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; May, J.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; Denis, R. St.; Schlatter, D.; Takashima, M.; Talby, M.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wheeler, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Falvard, A.; El Fellous, R.; Gay, P.; Harvey, J.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhiére, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nielsen, E. R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Bourotte, J.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Veitch, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Massimo-Brancaccio, F.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Nicoletti, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, A.-G.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Albanese, J.-P.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Courvoisier, D.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Becker, H.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Jahn, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lange, E.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stierlin, U.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberber, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Moneta, L.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Viannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Saich, M. R.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; West, L. R.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Vallage, B.; Ashman, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Dogru, M.; Hatfield, F.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Grupen, C.; Meinhard, H.; Mirabito, L.; Neugebauer, E.; Schäfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Apollinari, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Liello, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stiegler, U.; Bellantoni, L.; Boudreau, J. F.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Deweerd, A. J.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jacobsen, J. E.; Jared, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Leclaire, B. W.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Walsh, A. M.; Wear, J. A.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau, Lan Wu; Zhou, Z. L.; Zobernig, G.

    1991-04-01

    A significant charge asymmetry is observed in the hadronic Z decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP. The asymmetry expressed in terms of the difference in momentum weighted charges in the two event hemispheres is measured to be -= -0.0084+/-0.0015 (stat.) +/-0.0004 (exp. sys.). In the framework of the standard model this can be interpreted as a measurement of the effective electroweak mixing angle, sin2Ow (Mz2=0.2300+/-0.0034 (stat.) +/-0.0010 (exp. sys.) +/-0.0038 (theor. sys.) or of the ratio of the vector to axual- vector coupling costants of the electron, gvegAe=+0.073+/-0.024. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DECO2- 76ER00881.

  15. ASYMMETRY OF THE BRAIN AT ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Portnichenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Association between cerebral blood flow and higher nervous activity in people at different stages of adaptation to the midlands was studied. Investigation were performed before, during and after a three-week stay in the mountains at an altitude of 2100 m, as well as during short-term ups without the physical load on the height of 3900 m. In the initial period of adaptation to hypoxia desynchronization between the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex and brain blood flow was observed. There was an inversion and an increase in the asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in the direction of the dominance of the left hemisphere of the brain. After the three-week stay in the mountains asymmetry of cerebral blood flow was disappeared, blood flow to the brain was reduced, hemispheric symmetry was formed, and blood flow synchronized with the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex again was restored.

  16. Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab

    2016-06-16

    In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.

  17. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  18. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  19. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt

    2012-09-27

    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.

  20. Collins azimuthal asymmetries of hadron production inside jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Ringer, Felix; Yuan, Feng

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the Collins azimuthal asymmetry of hadrons produced inside jets in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions. Recently, the quark transversity distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions have been extracted within global analyses from data of the processes semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and electron-positron annihilation. We calculate the Collins azimuthal asymmetry for charged pions inside jets using these extractions for RHIC kinematics at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV. We compare our results with recent data from the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and find good agreement, which confirms the universality of the Collins fragmentation functions. In addition, we further explore the impact of transverse momentum dependent evolution effects.

  1. Study of interhemispheric asymmetries in electroencephalographic signals by frequency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, J F; Garzon, J, E-mail: jose.zapata@neurologico.org.co [Grupo de Optica y Espectroscopia, Centro de Ciencia Basica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a new method for the detection of interhemispheric asymmetries in patients with continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring at Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using wavelet energy. We obtained the registration of EEG signals in 42 patients with different pathologies, and then we proceeded to perform signal processing using the Matlab program, we compared the abnormalities recorded in the report by the neurophysiologist, the images of each patient and the result of signals analysis with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Conclusions: there exists correspondence between the abnormalities found in the processing of the signal with the clinical reports of findings in patients; according to previous conclusion, the methodology used can be a useful tool for diagnosis and early quantitative detection of interhemispheric asymmetries.

  2. Handling power-asymmetry in interactions with infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon......Interaction between adults and infants by nature constitutes a strong power-asymmetry relationship. Based on the assumption that communicative practices with infants are inseparably intertwined with broader cultural ideologies of good child care, this paper will contrast how parents in two distinct....... Analysis followed a discursive psychology approach. The focus of analysis is on how mothers handle and negotiate power-distance in these interactions and what discursive strategies they draw on. Mothers in both groups used various forms of directives and control strategies. The Muenster mothers, however...

  3. Chiral vortaic effect and neutron asymmetries at NICA

    OpenAIRE

    Rogachevsky, Oleg; Sorin, Alexander; Teryaev, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of testing experimentally signatures of P-odd effects related with the vorticity of the medium. The Chiral Vortaic Effect is generalized to the case of conserved charges different from the electric one. In the case of baryonic charge and chemical potential such effect should manifest itself in neutron asymmetries at the NICA accelerator complex measured by the MPD detector. The required accuracy may be achieved in a few months of accelerator running. We also discuss p...

  4. Buying and Selling Risk - An Experiment Investigating Evaluation Asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Güth; Matteo Ploner; Ivan Soraperra

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies of the WTP-WTA gap avoid social trading by implementing an incentive compatible mechanism for each individual trader. We compare a traditional random price mechanism and a novel elicitation mechanism preserving social trading, without sacrificing mutual incentive compatibility. Furthermore, we focus on risky goods - binary monetary lotteries - for which asymmetries in evaluations are more robust with respect to experimental procedures. For both elicitation mechanisms, the...

  5. Longitudinal spin asymmetries and $\\Delta G$ at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The spin structure $g_{1}$ of the deuteron has been measured by COMPASS with unprecedented accuracy at low $x$, providing much more reliable values for the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}$ and for the quark spin contribution $\\Delta\\Sigma$. Difference-charge semi-inclusive asymmetries have been measured and seem to favor a flavor asymmetric polarized sea. The gluon polarization has been measured in the open-charm and high-$p_{t}$ channels. Large values of $\\Delta G$ are now unlikely.

  6. [Floating-Harbor syndrome in a girl with somatic asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, A T; Rogowska, M; Hubert, E; Hassman-Poznańska, E; Popko, J

    1995-09-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome, a genetic disorder of unknown etiology, was diagnosed in a 9-year-old girl with delayed morphologic, bone and dental age, lateral asymmetry of the body, triangular face, hypotelorism, broad palpepral fissures, long eye-lashes, narrow jaw, retrogenia, a defect of phonemic audition and speech delay with poor articulation. Similarity between Floating-Harbor syndrome and Silver-Russel syndrome is discussed.

  7. Symmetry restoration due to preheating and lepton number asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2017-09-01

    We study a possible symmetry restoration due to the radiative effect of particles which are explosively produced in preheating after inflation. As its application, we consider a scenario for leptogenesis based on the lepton number asymmetry generated in the right-handed neutrino sector through the inflaton decay. The scenario is examined in a one-loop radiative neutrino mass model extended with singlet scalars.

  8. A Nonsurgical Approach to Adolescent Breast Asymmetry Using External Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Carolyn M; Firriolo, Joseph M; Ontiveros, Nicole C; Kuchibhotla, Sarada P; Oppel, Olivia K; Monoxelos, Lauren C; Greene, Arin K; Labow, Brian I

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there are few nonsurgical treatment options for pediatric patients with developmental breast asymmetry. Our group established a partnership with a prosthetic unit within a local oncology center to provide custom-fit breast prostheses for young women with breast asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of this experience on patients' self-esteem and body image. Patients were administered an anonymous satisfaction survey at least 1 month after their first fitting at the prosthetic unit. The survey was designed to evaluate body image, self-esteem, as well as social and emotional well-being before and after treatment. Thematic analysis was used to assess their experiences. Seventeen patients, aged 12-19 years, visited the prosthetic unit and subsequently completed the retrospective survey. After using the breast prostheses, 14 (82.4%) patients reported an improvement in body image and 12 (70.6%) patients reported an improvement in self-esteem. Benefits pertaining to three emergent themes were revealed: "body wholeness/symmetry," "body image and psychological well-being," and "esthetic outcome." Results from the survey demonstrate the ease and efficacy of a form of nonsurgical treatment for adolescent breast asymmetry. Our partnership with an adult oncology center can serve as a national model to support the development of similar treatment programs. Existing resources that have been previously used only for adult breast cancer survivors can be effectively applied to the adolescent population to ameliorate the negative psychological effects of breast asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymmetry in development (mineralisation of permanent mandibular canine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the teeth is closely associated with the proper and unobstructed physical and psychological development of the child. Aim. To determine the existence of asymmetry in the development of the roots of the lower permanent canine teeth in different age groups of children of both sexes. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 523 ortopantomograms (253 boys and 270 girls of orthodontic patients aged 6 to 14 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš. We analyzed the development of asymmetry in the lower permanent canine root, using the method of Gleiser and Hunt, or the modification by Tijanić (1981. Results. It was found that asymmetry in the development of the root in both sexes of the lower canine teeth was present in 20 patients (3.82%, 10 boys (3.95% and 10 girls (3.70%. The difference is in the range of one stage. Asymmetric development of the roots of the lower incisors in girls and boys usually present in the 7th and 8th stages (60% in girls and in 50% in boys. In 90% of girls in developing asymmetry the root of the lower canine is present in a single stage, and in 10% of girls it presents within three stages. Asymmetric development of the root of the lower canine is the most common in the 7th and 8th stages of development (55%. Conclusion. Asymmetric root development of permanent lower canines was found in 3.82% of patients. More than half of respondents (55% had asymmetrical canine root development stage in half and three quarters of the total root length. The results of this study indicate that the canine is the tooth with very little variations in its development.

  10. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka Koichi; Hatanaka Ryota; Nikaido Yasutaka; Jono Yasutomo; Nomura Yoshifumi; Tani Keisuke; Chujo Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  11. Upper airway asymmetry in velo-cardio-facial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegar, Burke E; Tatum, Sherard A; Marrinan, Eileen; Shprintzen, Robert J

    2006-08-01

    Various forms of asymmetry have been recognized as a feature of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). This study was implemented to determine the frequency of anatomic and functional asymmetry of the velum, pharynx and larynx in children with VCFS. Individuals with VCFS underwent prospective, blinded analysis by an expert panel who assessed the velum, pharynx and larynx with multi-view videofluoroscopy (MVF) and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL). The VCFS group was compared to an age-matched group of normal individuals. Eight different parameters were assessed in both groups for functional and anatomic symmetry including: velar elevation, adenoid size, posterior pharyngeal wall size, carotid pulsations, epiglottis size and shape, arytenoid size, true vocal cord size and true vocal cord motion. One hundred and twenty-one subjects with VCFS and 20 normal individuals underwent examination. Children with VCFS showed significantly more asymmetry compared to the normal group (69% versus 20%, P=0.01) with greatest differences seen with palatal motion, posterior pharyngeal wall size and epiglottis shape. On average, subjects with VCFS had three asymmetric parameters versus one parameter in the normal group. Asymmetric development of the pharynx and larynx in children with VCFS appears to be a distinct clinical feature of this syndrome. This finding may provide an important diagnostic clue for patients presenting with subtle features of the 22q11.2 microdeletion. These developmental abnormalities may increase the risk of speech impairment, aspiration and airway obstruction in affected individuals.

  12. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, P; Dutta, D

    2016-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index ($n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$, and $c_{TY}$. Although, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invarianc...

  13. Detection of grating asymmetries by phase-structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, M. L.; Peterhänsel, S.; Buchta, D.; Frenner, K.; Osten, W.

    2017-06-01

    The characterization of nanoscale grating asymmetries is an indispensable prerequisite for improving the accuracy of process control in modern semiconductor lithography. Model-based scatterometry is the state-of-the-art optical waferinspection technique. We suggest to extend it by coherent phase-structured illumination. The resulting intensity and phase profiles are evaluated in the far-field image plane. By means of rigorous simulations, it has already been demonstrated that the use of phase-structured illumination increases the sensitivity towards any kind of grating asymmetry including asymmetric sidewall angles (SWAs), floor tilts, asymmetric top and bottom roundings, and even overlay errors. Furthermore, it is possible to determine both the absolute value and the sign (magnitude and direction) of an asymmetry. In this paper, we will recapitulate the evaluation strategy and summarize the most important simulation results. Subsequently, we will present first proof-of-principle measurements obtained by digital off-axis holography. A direct comparison between simulation and measurement demonstrates the validity of the suggested approach.

  14. Biased Brownian motion in narrow channels with asymmetry and anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kiwing; Peng, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    We study Brownian motion of a single millimeter size bead confined in a quasi-two-dimensional horizontal channel with built-in anisotropy and asymmetry. Channel asymmetry is implemented by ratchet walls while anisotropy is introduced using a channel base that is grooved along the channel axis so that a bead can acquire a horizontal impulse perpendicular to the longitudinal direction when it collides with the base. When energy is injected to the channel by vertical vibration, the combination of asymmetric walls and anisotropic base induces an effective force which drives the bead into biased diffusive motion along the channel axis with diffusivity and drift velocity increase with vibration strength. The magnitude of this driving force, which can be measured in experiments of tilted channel, is found to be consistent to those obtained from dynamic mobility and position probability distribution measurements. These results are explained by a simple collision model that suggests the random kinetic energies transfer between different translational degrees of freedom may be turned into useful work in the presence of asymmetry and anisotropy.

  15. Possible spatial asymmetry in semiregular variable UZ Arietis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, Tapas; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2014-10-01

    Semiregular variables (SRVs) though closely related to Mira variables, are a less studied class of asymptotic giant branch stars. While asymmetry in the brightness distribution of many Mira variables is fairly well known, it is detected only in a few SRVs. Asymmetry in the brightness distribution at the level of a few milliarcsecond can be detected by high angular resolution techniques like lunar occultations (LO), long baseline interferometry and aperture masking interferometry. Multi-epoch LO observations have the potential to detect a departure of brightness profile from spherical symmetry. Each LO event provides a uniform disc (UD) angular diameter along the position angle of the occultation. Any significant difference in the UD angular diameter values of multi-epoch LO observations signifies a brightness asymmetry. In this paper, we report for the first time three-epoch UD angular diameter values of a SRV UZ Arietis using the LO technique at 2.2 μm. Optical linear polarization of the source observed by us recently is also reported. The asymmetric brightness distribution of UZ Ari suggested by a small difference in the fitted UD values for the three epochs, is discussed in the context of optical polarization exhibited by the source and the direction of polarization axis in the plane of the sky.

  16. Assessment of magnetic field asymmetries in ELMO Bumpy Square

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.

    1985-05-01

    There exist two separate and independent magnetic field asymmetries in the ELMO Bumpy Square (EBS). One in associated with the small perturbations in the magnetic field, known as the field errors, caused by coil misalignments during installation, imperfection in coil winding, etc. The second source of asymmetry is the magnetic field ripple in the high-field toroidal solenoids (corners) produced by the finiteness of the number of coils. In general, these two sources of asymmetry introduce enhanced transport losses (in addition to other effects) to the system, although they affect different classes of particles. Toroidally passing (circulating) particles (v/sub parallel//v approx. 1) are influenced by the field errors whereas trapped particles (v/sub parallel//v approx. 0) in the corners are influenced by the field ripple. In this paper we discuss these two effects separately and calculate the allowable magnitudes of the field error and field ripple in EBS, both for an experimental size device and for a reactor.

  17. Asymmetries in specialization in ant–plant mutualistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Rico-Gray, Victor; Furtado dos Reis, Sérgio; Thompson, John N

    2006-01-01

    Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with compartmentalized assemblage structures that have been verified in antagonistic food webs. Here we evaluated whether nestedness is a property of another type of mutualism—the interactions between ants and extrafloral nectary-bearing plants—and whether species richness may lead to differences in degree of nestedness among biological communities. We investigated network structure in four communities in Mexico. Nested patterns in ant–plant networks were very similar to those previously reported for pollination and frugivore systems, indicating that this form of asymmetry in specialization is a common feature of mutualisms between free-living species, but not always present in species-poor systems. Other ecological factors also appeared to contribute to the nested asymmetry in specialization, because some assemblages showed more extreme asymmetry than others even when species richness was held constant. Our results support a promising approach for the development of multispecies coevolutionary theory, leading to the idea that specialization may coevolve in different but simple ways in antagonistic and mutualistic assemblages. PMID:16846911

  18. Asymmetries in specialization in ant-plant mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Rico-Gray, Victor; dos Reis, Sérgio Furtado; Thompson, John N

    2006-08-22

    Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with compartmentalized assemblage structures that have been verified in antagonistic food webs. Here we evaluated whether nestedness is a property of another type of mutualism-the interactions between ants and extrafloral nectary-bearing plants--and whether species richness may lead to differences in degree of nestedness among biological communities. We investigated network structure in four communities in Mexico. Nested patterns in ant-plant networks were very similar to those previously reported for pollination and frugivore systems, indicating that this form of asymmetry in specialization is a common feature of mutualisms between free-living species, but not always present in species-poor systems. Other ecological factors also appeared to contribute to the nested asymmetry in specialization, because some assemblages showed more extreme asymmetry than others even when species richness was held constant. Our results support a promising approach for the development of multispecies coevolutionary theory, leading to the idea that specialization may coevolve in different but simple ways in antagonistic and mutualistic assemblages.

  19. Tidal Turbines’ Layout in a Stream with Asymmetry and Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A refined assessment of tidal currents variability is a prerequisite for successful turbine deployment in the marine environment. However, the numerical evaluation of the tidal kinetic energy resource relies, most of the time, on integrated parameters, such as the averaged or maximum stream powers. Predictions from a high resolution three-dimensional model are exploited here to characterize the asymmetry and misalignment between the flood and ebb tidal currents in the “Raz de Sein”, a strait off western Brittany (France with strong potential for array development. A series of parameters is considered to assess resource variability and refine the cartography of local potential tidal stream energy sites. The strait is characterized by strong tidal flow divergence with currents’ asymmetry liable to vary output power by 60% over a tidal cycle. Pronounced misalignments over 20 ∘ are furthermore identified in a great part of energetic locations, and this may account for a deficit of the monthly averaged extractable energy by more than 12%. As sea space is limited for turbines, it is finally suggested to aggregate flood and ebb-dominant stream powers on both parts of the strait to output energy with reduced asymmetry.

  20. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  1. Features of Facial Asymmetry Following Incomplete Recovery from Facial Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hyung Rok; Jeong, Jun Hui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate peculiar patterns of facial asymmetry following incomplete recovery from facial paralysis that require optimal physical therapy for effective facial rehabilitation, and to decrease the incidence of avoidable facial sequelae. Materials and Methods This study involved 41 patients who had facial sequelae following the treatment of various facial nerve diseases from March 2000 to March 2007. All patients with a follow-up of at least 1 year after the onset of facial paralysis or hyperactive function of the facial nerve were evaluated with the global and regional House-Brackmann (HB) grading systems. The mean global HB scores and regional HB scores with standard deviations were calculated. Other factors were also analyzed. Results Four patterns of facial asymmetry can be observed in patients with incomplete facial recovery. The most frequently deteriorated facial movement is frontal wrinkling, followed by an open mouth, smile, or lip pucker in patients with sequelae following facial nerve injury. The most common type of synkinesis was unintended eye closure with an effort to smile. Conclusion We described common configurations of facial asymmetry seen in incomplete recovery following facial nerve injury in an attempt to develop an optimal strategy for physical therapy for complete and effective facial recovery, and to decrease the incidence of avoidable sequelae. PMID:20879064

  2. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pplayers. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  3. Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin

    2017-10-01

    We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 ϕ azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov suppression of the asymmetry with increasing invariant mass of the γ ∗-jet pair. Employing a small- x model input distribution, the asymmetry is found to be strongly suppressed under TMD evolution, but still remains sufficiently large to be measurable in the typical kinematical region accessible at RHIC or LHC at moderate photon virtuality, whereas it is expected to be negligible in Z/W -jet pair production at LHC. We point out the optimal kinematics for RHIC and LHC studies, in order to expedite the first experimental studies of the linearly polarized gluon distribution through this process. We further argue that this is a particularly clean process to test the k t -resummation formalism in the small- x regime.

  4. Using CSR to mitigate information asymmetry in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenescu Andreea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the power of corporate social responsibility to reduce information asymmetry and to act as a marketing instrument in the banking sector. Trust is the most important asset of a bank. Therefore, banks are motivated to use the most effective instruments to diminish information asymmetry with their stakeholders. The fact that cash disbursements in CSR actions are not directed towards shareholders makes them more valuable signals to other stakeholders regarding the financial soundness of the bank. The empirical study conducted based on limited dependent variable models supports the effectiveness of the CSR as marketing instrument in banking. It reveals the circumstances associated to a higher probability of an active CSR policy conducted by a banking institution. The results support the hypothesis that in the banking sector CSR is perceived as an instrument which helps stakeholders reduce information asymmetry. As marketing instrument, CSR contributes to increasing the tangibility of the banking products, decreasing their perceived variability and thus making them more attractive for the clients and allowing for differentiation between competitors.

  5. Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: Revisiting an old question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, Irene; Leroy, François; Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Galaburda, Albert M; Ramus, Franck

    2014-12-01

    Among the various asymmetrical structures of the human brain, the planum temporale, an anatomical region associated with a variety of auditory and language-related processes, has received particular attention. While its surface area has been shown to be greater in the left hemisphere compared to the right in about two-thirds of the general population, altered patterns of asymmetry were revealed by post mortem analyses in individuals with developmental dyslexia. These findings have been inconsistently replicated in magnetic resonance imaging studies of this disorder. In this report, we attempt to resolve past inconsistencies by analyzing the T1-weighted MR images of 81 children (mean age: 11 years, sd: 17 months), including 46 control (25 boys) and 35 dyslexic children (20 boys). We manually outlined Heschl's gyri, the planum temporale and the posterior rami of the Sylvian fissure on participants' brain images, using the same anatomical criteria as in post mortem studies. Results revealed an altered pattern of asymmetry of the planum temporale surface area in dyslexic boys only, with a greater proportion of rightward asymmetrical cases among dyslexic boys compared to control boys. Additionally, analyses of cortical thickness showed no asymmetry differences between groups for any of the regions of interest. Finally, a greater number of Heschl's gyrus full duplications emerged for the right hemisphere of dyslexic boys compared to controls. The present findings confirm and extend early post mortem observations. They also stress the importance of taking gender into account in studies of developmental dyslexia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of Emotional Valence on Hemispheric Asymmetries in Response Inhibition

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    Sebastian Ocklenburg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle in human emotion processing, but their interaction with prefrontal control processes is not well understood. To this end, we determined whether hemispheric differences in response inhibition depend on the emotional valence of the stimulus being inhibited. Participants completed a lateralised Go/Nogo task, in which Nogo stimuli were neutral or emotional (either positive or negative images, while Go stimuli were scrambled versions of the same pictures. We recorded the N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP components, two common electrophysiological measures of response inhibition processes. Behaviourally, participants were more accurate in withholding responses to emotional than to neutral stimuli. Electrophysiologically, Nogo-P3 responses were greater for emotional than for neutral stimuli, an effect driven primarily by an enhanced response to positive images. Hemispheric asymmetries were also observed, with greater Nogo-P3 following left versus right visual field stimuli. However, the visual field effect did not interact with emotion. We therefore find no evidence that emotion-related asymmetries affect response inhibition processes.

  7. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2008-03-11

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life.

  8. Asymmetry in species regional dispersal ability and the neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Zhou, Shurong

    2011-01-01

    The neutral assumption that individuals of either the same or different species share exactly the same birth, death, migration, and speciation probabilities is fundamental yet controversial to the neutral theory. Several theoretical studies have demonstrated that a slight difference in species per capita birth or death rates can have a profound consequence on species coexistence and community structure. Whether asymmetry in migration, a vital demographic parameter in the neutral model, plays an important role in community assembly still remains unknown. In this paper, we relaxed the ecological equivalence assumption of the neutral model by introducing differences into species regional dispersal ability. We investigated the effect of asymmetric dispersal on the neutral local community structure. We found that per capita asymmetric dispersal among species could reduce species richness of the local community and result in deviations of species abundance distributions from those predicted by the neutral model. But the effect was moderate compared with that of asymmetries in birth or death rates, unless very large asymmetries in dispersal were assumed. A large difference in species dispersal ability, if there is, can overwhelm the role of random drift and make local community dynamics deterministic. In this case, species with higher regional dispersal abilities tended to dominate in the local community. However, the species abundance distribution of the local community under asymmetric dispersal could be well fitted by the neutral model, but the neutral model generally underestimated the fundamental biodiversity number but overestimated the migration rate in such communities.

  9. Asymmetry in species regional dispersal ability and the neutral theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Liu

    Full Text Available The neutral assumption that individuals of either the same or different species share exactly the same birth, death, migration, and speciation probabilities is fundamental yet controversial to the neutral theory. Several theoretical studies have demonstrated that a slight difference in species per capita birth or death rates can have a profound consequence on species coexistence and community structure. Whether asymmetry in migration, a vital demographic parameter in the neutral model, plays an important role in community assembly still remains unknown. In this paper, we relaxed the ecological equivalence assumption of the neutral model by introducing differences into species regional dispersal ability. We investigated the effect of asymmetric dispersal on the neutral local community structure. We found that per capita asymmetric dispersal among species could reduce species richness of the local community and result in deviations of species abundance distributions from those predicted by the neutral model. But the effect was moderate compared with that of asymmetries in birth or death rates, unless very large asymmetries in dispersal were assumed. A large difference in species dispersal ability, if there is, can overwhelm the role of random drift and make local community dynamics deterministic. In this case, species with higher regional dispersal abilities tended to dominate in the local community. However, the species abundance distribution of the local community under asymmetric dispersal could be well fitted by the neutral model, but the neutral model generally underestimated the fundamental biodiversity number but overestimated the migration rate in such communities.

  10. Mixing asymmetries in B meson systems, the D0 like-sign dimuon asymmetry, and generic new physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, F. J.; Branco, G. C.; Nebot, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2015-02-01

    The measurement of a large like-sign dimuon asymmetry ASLb by the D0 experiment at the Tevatron departs noticeably from Standard Model (SM) expectations and it may be interpreted as a hint of physics beyond the Standard Model contributing to Δ B ≠0 transitions. In this work we analyze how the natural suppression of ASLb in the SM can be circumvented by new physics. We consider generic Standard Model extensions where the charged current mixing matrix is enlarged with respect to the usual 3 ×3 unitary Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, and show how, within this framework, a significant enhancement over Standard Model expectations for ASLb is easily reachable through enhancements of the semileptonic asymmetries ASLd and ASLs of both Bd0-B¯d 0 and Bs0-B¯s 0 systems. Despite being insufficient to reproduce the D0 measurement, such deviations from SM expectations may be probed by the LHCb experiment.

  11. Frontal brain asymmetry in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): extending the motivational dysfunction hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves motivational dysfunction, characterized by excessive behavioral approach tendencies. Frontal brain asymmetry in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) represents a neural correlate of global motivational tendencies, and abnormal asymmetry, indicating elevated approach motivation, was observed in pediatric and adult patients. To date, the relation between ADHD symptoms, depression and alpha asymmetry, its temporal metric properties and putative gender-specificity remain to be explored. Adult ADHD patients (n=52) participated in two resting-state EEG recordings, two weeks apart. Asymmetry measures were aggregated across recordings to increase trait specificity. Putative region-specific associations between asymmetry, ADHD symptoms and depression, its gender-specificity and test-retest reliability were examined. ADHD symptoms were associated with approach-related asymmetry (stronger relative right-frontal alpha power). Approach-related asymmetry was pronounced in females, and also associated with depression. The latter association was mediated by ADHD symptoms. Test-retest reliability was sufficient. The association between reliably assessable alpha asymmetry and ADHD symptoms supports the motivational dysfunction hypothesis. ADHD symptoms mediating an atypical association between asymmetry and depression may be attributed to depression arising secondary to ADHD. Gender-specific findings require replication. Frontal alpha asymmetry may represent a new reliable marker of ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymmetry of lower extremity force and muscle activation during knee extension and functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Colin W; Cook, Summer B; Swartz, Erik E; Laroche, Dain P

    2017-09-01

    Strength and power asymmetries of >10% may negatively impact physical function. Twenty-four healthy participants, 30-60 years of age, were assessed for muscle power asymmetry during isokinetic knee extension and ground reaction force asymmetry during chair-rise and vertical jump tasks. Neuromuscular activation asymmetry and coactivation of vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) were assessed in each condition. Symmetric (SG) and asymmetric (AG) groups were identified using a 10% knee extension power asymmetry criterion. The AG had greater chair-rise rate of force development asymmetry (P = 0.003, d = 1.29), but a similar chair-rise and vertical jump peak force asymmetry as the SG. Large group effects were found for VL activation asymmetry during knee extension (P = 0.047, d = 0.87), BF activation asymmetry during vertical jump (P = 0.015, d = 1.12), and strong leg coactivation during vertical jump (P = 0.028, d = 0.96). Compensation for muscle power asymmetry may occur during functional tasks, potentially through differential activation of strong and weak leg muscles. Muscle Nerve 56: 495-504, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Principles of surgical treatment of congenital, developmental and acquired female breast asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Marijan; Lukac, Marija; Kozarski, Jefta; Stepić, Nenad; Djordjević, Boban; Vulović, Dejan; Rajović, Milica; Milev, Bosko; Milićević, Sasa

    2010-04-01

    There is a natural asymmetry in normal female brests. When the difference in the shape, size or position of the breast and nipple-areola complex is visible, surgical correction is the only treatment option and presents one of the greatest challenges for a plastic surgeon. Based on the Nahai classification presented in details, the aim of the study was to present the possibilities of plastic surgery to correct primary (congenital), secondary (developmental) and tertiary (acquired) brest asymmetries. We conducted a retrospective analysis of female breast asymmetry surgeries performed in the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Military Medical Academy (MMA), Belgrade over the last seven years (January 2002 - January 2009). During the above mentioned period, 82 female patients, 18 - 65 years of age, underwent surgery for breast asymmetry. The most frequent asymmetries were developmental, "pubertal" (n = 43); acquired asymmetries as a consequence of tumor surgery were found in the other 22 patients, while 7 patients were diagnosed with primary asymmetries such as congenital chest-wall asymmetry (Sy. Poland), accessory and tuberous breasts. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination, while hormone status was determined in those with developmental, "pubertal" asymmetries. The selection of surgical procedure for correction of breast asymmetry depended upon clinical examination findings and patient's wish relating to the shape and size of the breasts. The most of breast asymmetries were corrected by a combination of surgical procedures including primary and secondary reconstruction, reduction, suspension or augmentation mammoplasty. Having combined different surgical procedures, we managed to achive satisfactory results. The hypertrophic scar formation after reduction mamoplasty was seen in some cases, however, they caused no significant patient's discomfort. Application of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgical principles can considerably

  14. Principles of surgical treatment of congenital, developmental and acquired female breast asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Marijan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a natural asymmetry in normal female brests. When the difference in the shape, size or position of the breast and nipple-areola complex is visible, surgical correction is the only treatment option and presents one of the greatest challenges for a plastic surgeon. Based on the Nahai classification presented in details, the aim of the study was to present the possibilities of plastic surgery to correct primary (congenital, secondary (developmental and tertiary (acquired brest asymmetries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of female breast asymmetry surgeries performed in the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Military Medical Academy (MMA, Belgrade over the last seven years (January 2002 - January 2009. Results. During the above mentioned period, 82 female patients, 18 - 65 years of age, underwent surgery for breast asymmetry. The most frequent asymmetries were developmental, 'pubertal' (n = 43; acquired asymmetries as a consequence of tumor surgery were found in the other 22 patients, while 7 patients were diagnosed with primary asymmetries such as congenital chest-wall asymmetry (Sy. Poland, accessory and tuberous breasts. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination, while hormone status was determined in those with developmental, 'pubertal' asymmetries. The selection of surgical procedure for correction of breast asymmetry depended upon clinical examination findings and patient's wish relating to the shape and size of the breasts. The most of breast asymmetries were corrected by a combination of surgical procedures including primary and secondary reconstruction, reduction, suspension or augmentation mammoplasty. Having combined different surgical procedures, we managed to achieve satisfactory results. The hypertrophic scar formation after reduction mamoplasty was seen in some cases, however, they caused no significant patient's discomfort. Conclusion. Application of plastic, reconstructive

  15. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry from general initial state during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: mh.namjoo@ipm.ir [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We consider a general initial state for inflation as the mechanism for generating scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry. An observable scale-dependent non-Gaussianity is generated that leads to observable hemispherical asymmetry from the super-horizon long mode modulation. We show that the amplitude of dipole asymmetry falls off exponentially on small angular scales which can address the absence of dipole asymmetry at these scales. In addition, depending on the nature of non-vaccum initial state, the amplitude of the dipole asymmetry has oscillatory features which can be detected in a careful CMB map analysis. Furthermore, we show that the non-vacuum initial state provides a natural mechanism for enhancing the super horizon long mode perturbation as required to generate the dipole asymmetry.

  17. The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.

  18. Right-handed snakes: convergent evolution of asymmetry for functional specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoso, Masaki; Asami, Takahiro; Hori, Michio

    2007-01-01

    External asymmetry found in diverse animals bears critical functions to fulfil ecological requirements. Some snail-eating arthropods exhibit directional asymmetry in their feeding apparatus for foraging efficiency because dextral (clockwise) species are overwhelmingly predominant in snails. Here, we show convergence of directional asymmetry in the dentition of snail-eating vertebrates. We found that snakes in the subfamily Pareatinae, except for non-snail-eating specialists, have more teeth o...

  19. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle in lumbar radicular nerve compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad, Mazda; Gerber, Christian; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A.; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Laufer-Molnar, Viviane; Min, Kan [Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    The multifidus muscle is the only paraspinal lumbar muscle that is innervated by a single nerve root. This study aimes to evaluate if the asymmetry of the multifidus muscle is related to the severity of compression of the nerve root or the duration of radiculopathy. MRI scans of 79 patients with symptomatic single level, unilateral, lumbar radiculopathy were reviewed for this retrospective case series with a nested case-control study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus muscle and the perpendicular distance of the multifidus to the lamina (MLD) were measured bilaterally by two radiologists and set into relation to the severity of nerve compression, duration of radiculopathy and probability of an indication for surgical decompression. In 67 recessal and 12 foraminal symptomatic nerve root compressions, neither the MLD ratio (severe 1.19 ± 0.55 vs less severe nerve compression: 1.12 ± 0.30, p = 0.664) nor the CSA ratio (severe 1 ± 0.16 vs less severe 0.98 ± 0.13, p = 0.577) nor the duration of symptoms significantly correlated with the degree of nerve compression. MR measurements of multifidus were not different in patients with (n = 20) and those without (n = 59) clinical muscle weakness in the extremity caused by nerve root compression. A MLD >1.5 was, however, associated with the probability of an indication for surgical decompression (OR 3, specificity 92 %, PPV 73 %). Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle correlates with neither the severity nor the duration of nerve root compression in the lumbar spine. Severe asymmetry with substantial multifidus atrophy seems associated with the probability of an indication of surgical decompression. (orig.)

  20. Perception of temporal asymmetries in dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eReinl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we examined whether timeline-reversals and emotional direction of dynamic facial expressions affect subjective experience of human observers. We recorded natural movies of faces that increased or decreased their expressions of fear, and played them either in the natural frame order or reversed from last to first frame (reversed timeline. This led to four conditions of increasing or decreasing fear, either following the natural or reversed temporal trajectory of facial dynamics. This 2-by-2 factorial design controlled for visual low-level properties, static visual content, and motion energy across the different factors. It allowed us to examine perceptual consequences that would occur if the timeline trajectory of facial muscle movements during the increase of an emotion are not the exact mirror of the timeline during the decrease. It additionally allowed us to study perceptual differences between increasing and decreasing emotional expressions. Perception of these time-dependent asymmetries have not yet been quantified. We found that three emotional measures, emotional intensity, artificialness of facial movement, and convincingness or plausibility of emotion portrayal, were affected by timeline reversals as well as by the emotional direction of the facial expressions. Our results imply that natural dynamic facial expressions contain temporal asymmetries, and show that deviations from the natural timeline lead to a reduction of perceived emotional intensity and convincingness, and to an increase of perceived artificialness of the dynamic facial expression. In addition, they show that decreasing facial expressions are judged as less plausible than increasing facial expressions. Our findings are of relevance for both, behavioural as well as neuroimaging studies, as processing and perception are influenced by temporal asymmetries.

  1. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  2. The polar amplification asymmetry: role of Antarctic surface height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have attributed an overall weaker (or slower) polar amplification in Antarctica compared to the Arctic to a weaker Antarctic surface albedo feedback and also to more efficient ocean heat uptake in the Southern Ocean in combination with Antarctic ozone depletion. Here, the role of the Antarctic surface height for meridional heat transport and local radiative feedbacks, including the surface albedo feedback, was investigated based on CO2-doubling experiments in a low-resolution coupled climate model. When Antarctica was assumed to be flat, the north-south asymmetry of the zonal mean top of the atmosphere radiation budget was notably reduced. Doubling CO2 in a flat Antarctica (flat AA) model setup led to a stronger increase in southern hemispheric poleward atmospheric and oceanic heat transport compared to the base model setup. Based on partial radiative perturbation (PRP) computations, it was shown that local radiative feedbacks and an increase in the CO2 forcing in the deeper atmospheric column also contributed to stronger Antarctic warming in the flat AA model setup, and the roles of the individual radiative feedbacks are discussed in some detail. A considerable fraction (between 24 and 80 % for three consecutive 25-year time slices starting in year 51 and ending in year 126 after CO2 doubling) of the polar amplification asymmetry was explained by the difference in surface height, but the fraction was subject to transient changes and might to some extent also depend on model uncertainties. In order to arrive at a more reliable estimate of the role of land height for the observed polar amplification asymmetry, additional studies based on ensemble runs from higher-resolution models and an improved model setup with a more realistic gradual increase in the CO2 concentration are required.

  3. Asymmetric muscle function in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Wang, X M; Wang, M Q; Widmalm, S E

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that developmental mandibular asymmetry is associated with increased asymmetry in muscle activity. Patients with mandibular condylar and/or ramus hyperplasia having unilateral cross-bite were compared with healthy subjects with normal occlusion. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electrodes in the masseter, suprahyoid, sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and upper trapezius areas during jaw opening-closing-clenching, head-neck flexion-extension, and elevation-lowering of shoulders. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values were calculated and analysed using anova and t-tests with P muscles showed co-activation during jaw and head movements, significantly more asymmetric in the patients than in the healthy subjects. The RMS and MPF values were higher in the patients than in the controls in the SCM and suprahyoid areas on both sides during jaw opening-closing movement. The results indicate that the ability to perform symmetric jaw and neck muscle activities is disturbed in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. This is of clinical interest because asymmetric activity may be an etiologic factor in temporomandibular joint and cervical pain. The results support that co-activation occurs between jaw and neck muscles during voluntary jaw opening and indicate that postural antigravity reflex activity occurs in the masseter area during head extension. Further studies, where EMG recordings are made from the DMA patients at early stages are motivated to verify activity sources and test if the asymmetric activity is associated with muscle and joint pain in the jaw and cervical areas.

  4. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Asymmetries of the arcuate fasciculus in monozygotic twins: genetic and nongenetic influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle S Häberling

    Full Text Available We assessed cerebral asymmetry for language in 35 monozygotic twin pairs. Using DTI, we reconstructed the arcuate fasciculus in each twin. Among the male twins, right-handed pairs showed greater left-sided asymmetry of connectivity in the arcuate fasciculus than did those with discordant handedness, and within the discordant group the right-handers had greater left-sided volume asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus than did their left-handed co-twins. There were no such effects in the female twins. Cerebral asymmetry for language showed more consistent results, with the more left-cerebrally dominant twins also showing more leftward asymmetry of high anisotropic fibers in the arcuate fasciculus, a result applying equally to female as to male twins. Reversals of arcuate fasciculus asymmetry were restricted to pairs discordant for language dominance, with the left-cerebrally dominant twins showing leftward and the right-cerebrally dominant twins rightward asymmetry of anisotropic diffusion in the arcuate fasciculus. Because monozygotic twin pairs share the same genotype, our results indicate a strong nongenetic component in arcuate fasciculus asymmetry, particularly in those discordant for cerebral asymmetry.

  6. The Baryon asymmetry in the Standard Model with a low cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Bodeker, D; Huber, S J; Seniuch, M; Bodeker, Dietrich; Fromme, Lars; Huber, Stephan J.; Seniuch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry in a variant of the standard model, where the Higgs field is stabilized by a dimension-six interaction. Analyzing the one-loop potential, we find a strong first order electroweak phase transition for Higgs masses up to at least 170 GeV. Dimension-six operators induce also new sources of CP violation. We compute the baryon asymmetry in the WKB approximation. Novel source terms in the transport equations enhance the generated baryon asymmetry. For a wide range of parameters the model predicts a baryon asymmetry close to the observed value.

  7. Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N A; Field, T

    1999-01-01

    EEG asymmetry, specifically greater relative right frontal activation, is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy (n = 14) or music therapy (n = 16). EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions.

  8. Measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on transversely polarised protons

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizza, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmitt, L.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.-W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons produced in deeply inelastic scattering on transversely polarised protons have been extracted from the data collected in 2007 with the CERN SPS muon beam tuned at 160 GeV/c. At large values of the Bjorken x variable non-zero Collins asymmetries are observed both for positive and negative hadrons while the Sivers asymmetry for positive hadrons is slightly positive over almost all the measured x range. These results nicely support the present theoretical interpretation of these asymmetries, in terms of leading-twist quark distribution and fragmentation functions.

  9. Frontal EEG asymmetry and later behavior vulnerability in infants with congenital visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle A; Bathelt, Joe; Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi J; de Haan, Michelle

    2017-11-01

    Young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) are at increased risk of behavioral vulnerabilities. Studies on 'at risk' populations suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may be associated with behavioral risk. We investigated frontal asymmetry at 1year (Time 1), behavior at 2years (Time 2) and their longitudinal associations within a sample of infants with VI. Frontal asymmetry in the VI sample at 1year was also compared cross-sectionally to an age-matched typically sighted (TS) group. At Time 1, 22 infants with VI and 10 TS infants underwent 128-channel EEG recording. Frontal asymmetry ratios were calculated from power spectral density values in the alpha frequency band. At Time 2, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist data was obtained for the VI sample. 63.6% of the VI sample and 50% of the TS sample showed left frontal asymmetry; no significant difference in frontal asymmetry was found between the two groups. 22.7% of the VI sample had subclinical to clinical range 'internalizing' behavior difficulties. Greater left frontal asymmetry at one year was significantly associated with greater emotionally reactive scores at two years within the VI sample (r=0.50, p=0.02). Left frontal asymmetry correlates with later behavior risk within this vulnerable population. These findings make an important first contribution regarding the utility of frontal EEG asymmetry as a method to investigate risk in infants with VI. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C. J.; Mulders, P. J.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-01-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which $T$-odd functions, such as the Sivers function, appear in these processes does not merely involve a sign flip when compared with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, such as in the case of the Drell-Yan process. Expres...

  11. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, S; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; SWang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3 fb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=1.96 GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.

  12. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, S.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clément, B.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Michaut, M.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3fb-1 of data collected at s=1.96GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.

  13. Goal-Source Asymmetry and Russian Spatial Prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Markovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I draw on data from Russian to argue for the asymmetry between Goal and Source prepositional phrases. Source prepositional phrases are structurally ambiguous; they can occur both as arguments and adjuncts in certain syntactic contexts. Goal prepositional phrases are unambiguously arguments. I claim that Source prepositions have lexically specified semantics, which determines their relative structural freedom; whereas Goal prepositions are derived from locative prepositions when the building of the event structure takes place and therefore they are bound to be the arguments of the verb.

  14. Parity-nonconserving asymmetry in n-d scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Gibson, B.F.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.; Henley, E.M.

    1977-11-28

    The weak parity-nonconserving asymmetry in the total cross section for the scattering of longitudinally polarized neutrons from deuterons at 14.4 MeV is estimated using strong n-d scattering amplitudes from an s-wave, separable-potential Faddeev calculation. The weak force is parametrized in terms of rho, ..omega.., and ..pi.. exchange and treated perturbatively. We find that A/sub n d/ = 0.8 x 10/sup -7/ when A/sub p p/ = 2.6 x 10/sup -7/.

  15. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    COMPASS has studied exclusive production of 0 mesons using a 160 GeV/ c muon beam and a transversely polarised NH 3 target. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal aymmetries were measured in dependence on Q 2 , x Bj ,or p 2 T . Except the sin S asymmetry, obtained to be − 0.019 ± 0.008( stat .) ± 0.003( syst .), all others were found to be consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Phenomenological GPD-based model calculations agree well with the data and interpret the result as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalised parton distribution

  16. The photometric and kinematic structure and asymmetry of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David Roger

    2001-09-01

    We establish a sample of 39 nearby, nearly face-on disk galaxies for a detailed study of their photometric and kinematic structure and asymmetries. For this sample we collected two-dimensional Halpha velocity-fields at echelle resolutions with the DensePak integral field unit on the WIYN 3.5m telescope, HI line widths taken with the Nancay radio telescope, and deep R and I-band imaging from the WIYN telescope, the 2.1m telescope at KPNO, and the Harlan J. Smith 2.7m telescope at McDonald Observatory. These data put constraints on the shape of disk galaxies and their halos and are used to study the fundamental disk galaxy scaling relationship between rotation speed and luminosity, i.e., the Tully-Fisher relation. To study the shapes of galaxy disks, we measured both photometric and kinematic asymmetries. From studies of the asymmetry, we were able to show that the now commonly used photometric rotational asymmetry index does not measure disk flocculence as previously suggested; instead it is shown to be equivalent to low order, odd Fourier amplitudes, i.e., lopsidedness. In addition to studying disk lopsidedness, a set of kinematic and photometric indices are used to present the first measurements of disk ellipticity for galaxies outside the Milky Way. These measurements are decoupled from a phase angle which plagues previous estimates of disk ellipticity. Nonetheless, our disk ellipticity measurement of 0.083 +/- 0.054 is consistent with these previous estimates. This measurement allows us to put a limit of 0.15 mag on Tully-Fisher scatter due to the intrinsic ellipticity of disk galaxies. Kinematic inclination angles, one of the primary kinematic indices used to measure disk ellipticity, were derived from model velocity-field fits to our Halpha velocity fields. These inclinations are both accurate and precise and allowed us to create the first Tully-Fisher relation for nearly face-on disk galaxies. We demonstrate that our face-on Tully-Fisher sample is well fit by

  17. Fluctuations, conformational asymmetry and block copolymer phase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, F.S.; Schulz, M.F.; Khandpur, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    parameter and degree of polymerization, respectively. epsilon accounts for differences in the conformational and volume-filling characteristics of each block. Conformational asymmetry, epsilon not equal 1, produces an asymmetric phase diagram around f = 1/2. The importance of fluctuation effects...... are inversely related to the magnitude of ($) over bar N, a type of Ginzburg parameter that is proportional to N. As ($) over bar N decreases, the bicontinuous Ia ($) over bar 3d phase appears adjacent to the ODT. Development of this cubic phase can be rationalized based on chain-packing frustration near...

  18. A Facial Attractiveness Account of Gender Asymmetries in Interracial Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael Bevan

    2012-01-01

    Background\\ud In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups.\\ud \\ud Method and Findings\\ud This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facia...

  19. LHCb: Measurement of $D^{\\pm}$ Production Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quark production in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC need not be flavour symmetric. Here the production asymmetry, $A_p$ , between $D_s^+$ and $D_s^-$ mesons is measured using the $\\phi\\pi$ decay mode. The difference between $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ detection efficiencies is measured using the ratio of fully reconstructed to partially reconstructed $D^*$ decays. Using 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector, we find $A_p = (-0.39 \\pm 0.22 \\pm 0.08)$%.

  20. Theories relating baryon asymmetry and dark matter: a Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eMorisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are two of the deepest mysteries of modern particle physics. In the absence of hints regarding a possible solution to these mysteries, many approaches have been developed to tackle them simultaneously { leading to very diverse and rich models}. We give a short review where we describe the general features of some of these models and an overview on the general problem. We also propose a diagrammatic notation to label the different models.

  1. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN THE OTOLITH WIDTH OF Carangoides caeruleopinnatus (CARANGIDAE COLLECTED FROM MUSCAT CITY COAST ON THE SEA OF OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Al-Mamari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuating asymmetry in two otolith dimensions, the length and width of adult teleost Carangoides caeruleopinnatus were calculated. The highest asymmetry value was observed in the otolith width. The fish length groups 201-210 and 281-290 mm showed the lowest and the highest value of asymmetry respectively. In addition, few fish length groups have shown zero value for otolith size asymmetry. Different pollutants and their presence in the area appeared to be one of the reasons that cause the asymmetry in this species. A trend of increase in the asymmetry values with the fish length was noticed for the otolith length and width.

  2. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pizzarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  3. Recreational Drug Use and Fluctuating Asymmetry: Testing the Handicap Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Borkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Zahavi's handicap principle suggests that only organisms with good genetic quality can afford to engage in costly behaviors. Recreational drug use can be harmful to one's health and therefore might be viewed as a costly signal of one's genetic quality. One of the measurements of genetic quality is bodily symmetry assessed by fluctuating asymmetry. If unhealthy drug use is a behavioral example of Zahavi's handicap principle, then men who use different stimulants or recreational drugs should be more symmetrical than men who do not use them at all or use them only in low quantity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between drug use and fluctuating asymmetry. The subjects were 190 young women and 202 young men. Six bilaterally symmetrical traits were measured: length of II–V digits, wrist breadth, and ear height. Questionnaires included questions about smoking, alcohol drinking, drug use, and designer drug use. There was no relationship between bodily symmetry and smoking frequency, alcohol drinking frequency, drug or designer drug use, total substance use, age of smoking initiation, or reason of this initiation. The results indicate that drug use does not reflect genetic quality and does not necessarily relate to the handicap hypothesis.

  4. Is "circling" behavior in humans related to postural asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bestaven

    Full Text Available In attempting to walk rectilinearly in the absence of visual landmarks, persons will gradually turn in a circle to eventually become lost. The aim of the present study was to provide insights into the possible underlying mechanisms of this behavior. For each subject (N = 15 six trajectories were monitored during blindfolded walking in a large enclosed area to suppress external cues, and ground irregularities that may elicit unexpected changes in direction. There was a substantial variability from trial to trial for a given subject and between subjects who could either veer very early or relatively late. Of the total number of trials, 50% trajectories terminated on the left side, 39% on the right side and 11% were defined as "straight". For each subject, we established a "turning score" that reflected his/her preferential side of veering. The turning score was found to be unrelated to any evident biomechanical asymmetry or functional dominance (eye, hand.... Posturographic analysis, used to assess if there was a relationship between functional postural asymmetry and veering revealed that the mean position of the center of foot pressure during balance tests was correlated with the turning score. Finally, we established that the mean position of the center of pressure was correlated with perceived verticality assessed by a subjective verticality test. Together, our results suggest that veering is related to a "sense of straight ahead" that could be shaped by vestibular inputs.

  5. Six "beyond Collins and Sivers" transverse spin asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2014-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target high energy physics experiment at the SPS at CERN \\cite{Abbon:2007pq}. One of the important objectives of the experiment is the exploration of the transverse spin structure of the nucleon via spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries in single-hadron production in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized $^6LiD$ (in 2002, 2003 and 2004) and $NH_3$ (in 2007 and 2010) targets. Till now main attention was focused on Collins and Sivers asymmetries and obtained results play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon in terms of Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and Fragmentation Functions (FFs). In addition to these two measured leading-twist effects, the SIDIS cross-section counts six more target transverse spin dependent az...

  6. A new “culprit” for matter-antimatter asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In our matter-dominated Universe, the observation of new processes showing matter-antimatter asymmetry allows scientists to test their theories and, possibly, to explore new territories. The LHCb collaboration has recently observed matter-antimatter asymmetries in the decays of the B0s meson, which thus becomes the fourth particle known to present such behaviour.   The VELO detector: a crucial element for particle identifiation in LHCb. Almost all physics processes known to scientists show perfect symmetry if a particle is interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then if left and right are swapped (P symmetry). So it becomes very hard to explain why the Universe itself does not conform to this symmetry and, instead, shows a huge preference for matter. Processes that violate this symmetry are rare and of great interest to scientists. Violation of the CP symmetry in neutral kaons was first observed by Nobel Prize Laureates James Cronin and Val Fitch in the 1960s. About 40 years la...

  7. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, O. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE; Moortgat-Pick, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Rolbiecki, K.; Terwort, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schade, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {chi}{sup 0}{sub i}{chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} and subsequent leptonic twobody decays {chi}{sup 0}{sub i} {yields} l{sub R}l, l{sub R} {yields} {chi}{sup 0}{sub 1}l for l=e,{mu} within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of {radical}(s)=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb{sup -1} collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scenario. (orig.)

  8. Primal seduction, matricial space and asymmetry in the psychoanalytic encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetrit-Vatine, Viviane

    2004-08-01

    Wishing to highlight the asymmetric dimension that characterizes ethics as 'responsibility toward the other' in Levinas's philosophy, the author presents as an introduction three related concepts of Levinas's thinking: the caress, the face, the saying. Following some poetic narrative reflections offered as 'interlude' moments, the author seeks to bring together her concept of 'matricial space' inspired by Levinas's conception of ethics and the Laplanchian concept of 'primal seduction', both based on asymmetry. She suggests adding to Laplanche's proposition of two kinds of transference (filled-in transference and hollowed-out transference) a third kind: the matricial-space transference. She argues that together with the hollowed-out transference, which is related to the primal seduction, the matricial-space transference, which relates to the matricial position in the parent/analyst, is provoked by the analyst. If the hollowed-out transference assures the moving-on of the analysis, the matricial-space transference, in combination with the hollowed-out transference, is prerequisite for transformation to occur and may be deciphered specifically in 'impasse' situations, at what she coined 'subjectal moments'. As a conclusion, while insisting on the need for asymmetry in the analytic encounter, she suggests the existence in the human neonate of a need for ethics, and she questions the origin of the human capacity to be responsible toward the other. She illustrates her argument using clinical material from her own work alongside that of other authors.

  9. First observation of the parity violaing asymmetry in moller scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younus, Imran [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the E158 experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), which has made the first observation of the parity non-conserving asymmetry in Moller scattering. Longitudinally polarized 48 GeV electrons are scattered off unpolarized (atomic) electrons in a liquid hydrogen target with an average Q2 of 0.027 GeV2. The asymmetry in this process is proportional to ( 1 4 ₋ sin2 θW), where sin2 =W gives the weak mixing angle. The thesis describes the experiment in detail, with a particular focus on the design and construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This calorimeter was the primary detector in the experiment used to measure the flux of the scattered Moller electrons and eP electrons. It employed the quartz fiber calorimetry technique, and was built at Syracuse University. The preliminary results from the first experimental data taken in spring 2002 give APV = ₋151.9±29.0(stat)±32.5(syst) parts per billion. This in turn gives sin2θW = 0.

  10. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  11. Computations of Vertical Displacement Events with Toroidal Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinec, C. R.; Bunkers, K. J.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear numerical MHD modeling with the NIMROD code [https://nimrodteam.org] is being developed to investigate asymmetry during vertical displacement events. We start from idealized up/down symmetric tokamak equilibria with small levels of imposed toroidally asymmetric field errors. Vertical displacement results when removing current from one of the two divertor coils. The Eulerian reference-frame modeling uses temperature-dependent resistivity and anisotropic thermal conduction to distinguish the hot plasma region from surrounding cold, low-density conditions. Diffusion through a resistive wall is slow relative to Alfvenic scales but much faster than resistive plasma diffusion. Loss of the initial edge pressure and current distributions leads to a narrow layer of parallel current, which drives low-n modes that may be related to peeling-dominated ELMs. These modes induce toroidal asymmetry in the conduction current, which connects the simulated plasma to the wall. Work supported by the US DOE through Grant Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  12. Separate T, CP, CPT Asymmetries in Neutral Meson Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2017-07-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I will discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2-σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K and Bd transitions. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV. A clean methodology to disentangle CPTV effects in the Hamiltonian dynamics and the ω-effect weakening Entanglement in a given experiment is discussed.

  13. Channel Asymmetry in Cellular OFDMA-TDD Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agyapong Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies time division duplex- (TDD- specific interference issues in orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA- TDD cellular networks arising from various uplink (UL/downlink (DL traffic asymmetries, considering both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS conditions among base stations (BSs. The study explores aspects both of channel allocation and user scheduling. In particular, a comparison is drawn between the fixed slot allocation (FSA technique and a dynamic channel allocation (DCA technique for different UL/DL loads. For the latter, random time slot opposing (RTSO is assumed due to its simplicity and its low signaling overhead. Both channel allocation techniques do not obviate the need for user scheduling algorithms, therefore, a greedy and a fair scheduling approach are applied to both the RTSO and the FSA. The systems are evaluated based on spectral efficiency, subcarrier utilization, and user outage. The results show that RTSO networks with DL-favored traffic asymmetries outperform FSA networks for all considered metrics and are robust to LOS between BSs. In addition, it is demonstrated that the greedy scheduling algorithm only offers a marginal increase in spectral efficiency as compared to the fair scheduling algorithm, while the latter exhibits up to 20% lower outage.

  14. Channel Asymmetry in Cellular OFDMA-TDD Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Haas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies time division duplex- (TDD- specific interference issues in orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA- TDD cellular networks arising from various uplink (UL/downlink (DL traffic asymmetries, considering both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS conditions among base stations (BSs. The study explores aspects both of channel allocation and user scheduling. In particular, a comparison is drawn between the fixed slot allocation (FSA technique and a dynamic channel allocation (DCA technique for different UL/DL loads. For the latter, random time slot opposing (RTSO is assumed due to its simplicity and its low signaling overhead. Both channel allocation techniques do not obviate the need for user scheduling algorithms, therefore, a greedy and a fair scheduling approach are applied to both the RTSO and the FSA. The systems are evaluated based on spectral efficiency, subcarrier utilization, and user outage. The results show that RTSO networks with DL-favored traffic asymmetries outperform FSA networks for all considered metrics and are robust to LOS between BSs. In addition, it is demonstrated that the greedy scheduling algorithm only offers a marginal increase in spectral efficiency as compared to the fair scheduling algorithm, while the latter exhibits up to ≈20% lower outage.

  15. A facial attractiveness account of gender asymmetries in interracial marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Lewis

    Full Text Available In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups.This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facial attractiveness. This found that Black males are perceived as more attractive than White or East Asian males whereas among females, it is the East Asians that are perceived as most attractive on average.Incorporating these attractiveness patterns into the model of marriage decisions produces asymmetries in interracial marriage similar to those in the observed data in terms of direction and relative size. This model does not require differences in status between races nor different strategies based on gender. Predictions are also generated regarding the relative attractiveness of those engaging in interracial marriage.

  16. A facial attractiveness account of gender asymmetries in interracial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    In the US and UK, more Black men are married to White women than vice versa and there are more White men married to Asian women than vice versa. Models of interracial marriage, based on the exchange of racial status for other capital, cannot explain these asymmetries. A new explanation is offered based on the relative perceived facial attractiveness of the different race-by-gender groups. This explanation was tested using a survey of perceived facial attractiveness. This found that Black males are perceived as more attractive than White or East Asian males whereas among females, it is the East Asians that are perceived as most attractive on average. Incorporating these attractiveness patterns into the model of marriage decisions produces asymmetries in interracial marriage similar to those in the observed data in terms of direction and relative size. This model does not require differences in status between races nor different strategies based on gender. Predictions are also generated regarding the relative attractiveness of those engaging in interracial marriage.

  17. Transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment operating at the SPS at CERN. Wide physics program of the experiment comprises study of hadron structure and spectroscopy with high energy muon and hadrons beams. As for the muon-program, one of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of the transverse spin structure of the nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in single-hadron production in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized 6LiD (in 2002, 2003 and 2004) and NH3 (in 2007 and 2010) targets. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for unpolarized target azimuthal asymmetries, Sivers and Collins effects and other azimuthal observables play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twsit-2" set of transv...

  18. Revisiting dental fluctuating asymmetry in neandertals and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher K; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Sciulli, Paul W

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Neandertals experienced greater physiological stress and/or were less capable of mitigating stress than most prehistoric modern human populations. The current study compares estimates of dental fluctuating asymmetry (DFA) for prehistoric Inupiat from Point Hope Alaska, the Late Archaic, and Protohistoric periods from Ohio and West Virginia, and a modern sample from Ohio to Neandertals from Europe and Southwest Asia. DFA results from developmental perturbation during crown formation and is thus an indicator of developmental stress, which previous studies have found to be higher in Neandertals than in several modern human populations. Here, we use recent methodological improvements in the analysis of fluctuating asymmetry suggested by Palmer and Strobeck (Annu Rev Ecol Syst 17 (1986) 391-421, Developmental instability: causes and consequences (2003a) v.1-v.36, Developmental instability: causes and consequences (2003b) 279-319) and compare the fit of Neandertal DFA Index values with those of modern humans. DFA estimates for each of the modern population samples exceeded measurement error, with the Inupiat exhibiting the highest levels of DFA for most tooth positions. All significant Neandertal z-scores were positive, exceeding the estimates for each of the modern prehistoric groups. Neandertals exhibited the fewest significant differences from the Inupiat (9.2% of values are significant at P Neandertal z-scores are significant at P Neandertals were under greater developmental stress than all other prehistoric modern human samples. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry in mirror nuclei: A = 9

    CERN Multimedia

    Axelsson, L E; Smedberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of light nuclei close to the drip lines have revealed new and intriguing features of the nuclear structure. The occurrence of halo structures in loosely bound systems has had a great impact on the nuclear physics research in the last years. As intriguing but not yet solved is the nature of transitions with very large $\\beta$ - strength. \\\\ \\\\We report here on the investigation of this latter feature by an accurate measurement of the $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry between the mirror nuclei in the A=9 mass chain.\\\\ \\\\The possible asymmetry for the decay to the states around 12 MeV is interesting not only due to the fact that the individual B$_{GT}$ values are large (with large overlap in wave-functions, an unambiguous interpretation is much easier made), but also due to the special role played by this transition for the $^{9}$Li decay. It seems to belong to a class of high-B$_{GT}$ transitions observed at the neutron drip line and has been suggested to be due either to a lowering of the giant Gamow-Te...

  20. Asymmetries in altruistic behavior during violent intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes

    2013-10-23

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of altruistic behavior in intergroup conflict in humans frequently make use of the assumption that warfare can be modeled as a symmetrical n-person prisoner's dilemma, abstracting away the strategic differences between attack and defense. In contrast, some empirical studies on intergroup conflict in hunter-gatherer societies and chimpanzees indicate that fitness relevant risks and potential benefits of attacks and defenses might have differed substantially under ancestral conditions. Drawing on these studies, it is hypothesized that the success of defenses was much more important for individual and kin survival and that a disposition to act altruistically during intergroup conflict is thus more likely to evolve for the strategic situation of defense. It is then investigated empirically if such asymmetries in the occurrence of altruistic behavior during intergroup conflict can be found. Analyzing detailed historical case data from 20th century wars, this study finds that altruistic behavior towards members of the in-group indeed seems to occur more frequently when soldiers are defending themselves and their comrades against enemy attacks. It is proposed that this asymmetry reflects adaptive behavioral responses to the materially different strategic character of attacks and defenses under ancestral conditions. If true, this would call for a refinement of theories of the evolutionary interaction of intergroup conflict and altruism.

  1. First Observation of the Parity Violating Asymmetry in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younus, Imran; /Syracuse U.

    2005-07-06

    This thesis reports on the E158 experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), which has made the first observation of the parity non-conserving asymmetry in Moller scattering. Longitudinally polarized 48 GeV electrons are scattered off unpolarized (atomic) electrons in a liquid hydrogen target with an average Q{sup 2} of 0.027 GeV{sup 2}. The asymmetry in this process is proportional to (1/4 - sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}), where sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} gives the weak mixing angle. The thesis describes the experiment in detail, with a particular focus on the design and construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This calorimeter was the primary detector in the experiment used to measure the flux of the scattered Moller electrons and eP electrons. It employed the quartz fiber calorimetry technique, and was built at Syracuse University. The preliminary results from the first experimental data taken in spring 2002 give A{sub PV} = -151.9 {+-} 29.0(stat) {+-} 32.5(syst) parts per billion. This in turn gives sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2371 {+-} 0.0025 {+-} 0.0027, which is consistent with the Standard Model prediction (0.2386 {+-} 0.0006).

  2. Cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry mechanism and linear Ekman friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefranov, S. G., E-mail: schefranov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Allowance for the linear Ekman friction has been found to ensure a threshold (in rotation frequency) realization of the linear dissipative–centrifugal instability and the related chiral symmetry breaking in the dynamics of Lagrangian particles, which leads to the cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry. An excess of the fluid rotation rate ω{sub 0} over some threshold value determined by the fluid eigenfrequency ω (i.e., ω{sub 0} > ω) is shown to be a condition for the realization of such an instability. A new generalization of the solution of the Karman problem to determine the steady-state velocity field in a viscous incompressible fluid above a rotating solid disk of large radius, in which the linear Ekman friction was additionally taken into account, has been obtained. A correspondence of this solution and the conditions for the realization of the dissipative–centrifugal instability of a chiral-symmetric vortex state and the corresponding cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry has been shown. A generalization of the well-known spiral velocity distribution in an “Ekman layer” near a solid surface has been established for the case where the fluid rotation frequency far from the disk ω differs from the disk rotation frequency ω{sub 0}.

  3. Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Rapidly Rotating Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spacecraft measurements reveal perplexing dawn-dusk asymmetries of field and plasma properties in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter. Here we describe a previously unrecognized source of dawn-dusk asymmetry in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. As plasma rotates from dawn to noon on a dipolarizing flux tube, it flows away from the equator at close to the sound speed. As plasma rotates from noon to dusk on a stretching flux tube, it is accelerated back to the equator by centrifugal acceleration at flow speeds typically smaller than the sound speed. Correspondingly, the plasma sheet remains far thicker in the afternoon than in the morning. Using two magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we analyze the forces that account for flows along and across the field in Saturn's magnetosphere and point out analogous effects at Jupiter. Different radial force balance in the morning and afternoon sectors produces net dusk to dawn flow, or equivalently, a large-scale electric field oriented from post-noon to pre-midnight.

  4. Transversely polarized Drell-Yan asymmetry AT T at NLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Florian, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We present the first fully differential next-to-leading order QCD calculation for lepton production in transversely polarized hadronic collisions, p ↑p ↑→ℓ±X , where the lepton arises from the decay of an electroweak gauge boson. The calculation is implemented in the Monte-Carlo like code che that already includes the unpolarized and longitudinally polarized cross sections and may be readily used to perform a comparison to experimental data and to extract information on the related parton distributions. We analyze the perturbative stability of the cross-section and double spin asymmetry AT T at RHIC kinematics. We find that the QCD corrections are non-negligible even at the level of asymmetries and that they strongly depend on the lepton kinematics. Furthermore, we present two scenarios for transversely polarized parton distributions, based on the de Florian-Sassot-Stratmann-Vogelsang (DSSV) set of longitudinally parton densities and fully evolved to NLO accuracy, that can be used for the evaluation of different observables involving transverse polarization.

  5. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  6. Symptomatic asymmetry in the first six months of life : differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuysink, Jacqueline; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.

    Asymmetry in infancy is a clinical condition with a wide variation in appearances (shape, posture, and movement), etiology, localization, and severity. The prevalence of an asymmetric positional preference is 12% of all newborns during the first six months of life. The asymmetry is either idiopathic

  7. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  8. Asymmetry During Maximal Sprint Performance in 11- to 16-Year-Old Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Robert W; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age and maturation upon magnitude of asymmetry in the force, stiffness and the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in a large cohort of boys. 344 boys between the ages of 11 and 16 years completed an anthropometric assessment and a 35 m sprint test, during which sprint performance was recorded via a ground-level optical measurement system. Maximal sprint velocity, as well as asymmetry in spatiotemporal variables, modeled force and stiffness data were established for each participant. For analysis, participants were grouped into chronological age, maturation and percentile groups. The range of mean asymmetry across age groups and variables was 2.3-12.6%. The magnitude of asymmetry in all the sprint variables was not significantly different across age and maturation groups (p > .05), except relative leg stiffness (p < .05). No strong relationships between asymmetry in sprint variables and maximal sprint velocity were evident (rs < .39). These results provide a novel benchmark for the expected magnitude of asymmetry in a large cohort of uninjured boys during maximal sprint performance. Asymmetry in sprint performance is largely unaffected by age or maturation and no strong relationships exist between the magnitude of asymmetry and maximal sprint velocity.

  9. Double Sivers effect asymmetries and their impact on transversity measurements at RHIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Kotzinian, Aram

    2011-01-01

    We study double transverse spin asymmetries in the Drell-Yan process at measured transverse momentum of the lepton pair. Contrary to what a collinear factorization approach would suggest, a nonzero double transverse spin asymmetry in the laboratory frame a priori does not imply nonzero transversity.

  10. Double-spin cos phi asymmetry in semi-inclusive electroproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oganessyan, K. A.; Mulders, P.J.G.; De Sanctis, E.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the double-spin cos φ asymmetry for pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized leptons off longitudinally polarized protons. We estimate the size of the asymmetry in the approximation where all twist-3 interaction-dependent distribution

  11. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airapetian, A.; Blok, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the Hermes experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle ψ about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the

  12. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Left-Right Laryngeal Asymmetries Based on Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computational modeling was used to examine the consequences of 5 different laryngeal asymmetries on acoustic and perceptual measures of vocal function. Method: A kinematic vocal fold model was used to impose 5 laryngeal asymmetries: adduction, edge bulging, nodal point ratio, amplitude of vibration, and starting phase. Thirty /a/ and /?/…

  13. Balance asymmetry in Parkinson's disease and its contribution to freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Vugt, J.P.P. van; Kooij, H. van der; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a)

  14. Balance asymmetry in Parkinson's disease and its contribution to freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Van Vugt, J.P.P.; Van der Kooij, H.; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a)

  15. Balance Asymmetry in Parkinson's Disease and Its Contribution to Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Tjitske; van Vugt, J.P.P.; van der Kooij, Herman; Bloem, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture) is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a)

  16. Forward-backward charge asymmetry in e sup + e sup minus r arrow hadron jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, D.; Breedon, R.E.; Kim, G.N.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.L.; Maeshima, K.; Malchow, R.L.; Smith, J.R.; Imlay, R.; Kirk, P.; Lim, J.; McNeil, R.R.; Metcalf, W.; Myung, S.S.; Cheng, C.P.; Gu, P.; Li, J.; Li, Y.K.; Ye, M.H.; Zhu, Y.C.; Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Hu, K.P.; Low, E.H.; Mattson, M.E.; Piilonen, L.; Sterner, K.L.; Lusin, S.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wang, A.T.M.; Wilson, S.; Frautschi, M.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trahern, C.G.; Abe, K.; Fujii, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Kim, S.K.; Kurihara, Y.; Maki, A.; Nozaki, T.; Omori, T.; Sagawa, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sugimoto, Y.; Takaiwa, Y.; Terada, S.; Walker, R.; Kajino, F.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Thomas, T.; Ishi, Y.; Miyano, K.; Miyata, H.; Sasaki, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Bacala, A.; Liu, J.; Park, I.H.; Sannes, F.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Vinson, J.; Auchincloss, P.; Blanis, D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Eno, S.; Fry, C.A.; Harada, H.; Ho, Y.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kumita, T.; Mori, T.; Olsen, S.L.; Shaw, N.M.; Sill, A.; Thorndike, E.H.; Ueno, K.; Zheng, H.W.; Kobayashi, S.; AMY Collaboration

    1990-02-26

    The forward-backward asymmetry of quarks produced in {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} annihilations, summed over all flavors, is measured at {radical}{ital s} between 50 and 60.8 GeV. Methods of determining the charge direction of jet pairs are discussed. The asymmetry is found to agree with the five-flavor standard model.

  17. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting.

  18. Transverse target-spin asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschler, Jeroen

    2008-10-15

    This thesis reports the first measurements of the asymmetry in exclusive {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction from a transversely polarized proton. The asymmetry was extracted from data taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target and the 27.6 GeV electron (positron) beam of HERA. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying Asymmetry and Scar Quality of Children With Repaired Cleft Lip and Palate Using Symnose 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, Ronald W; Pigott, Brian B

    2016-05-01

    The Symnose semiautomated assessment of outcome of the appearance of the repaired cleft lip and nose was developed to measure asymmetry. Symnose 2 has been further developed to include quantification of the extent of scar color, intensity, and contour and midline dehiscence, underexpressed in the measurement of asymmetry.

  20. Developmental Changes in Topological Asymmetry Between Hemispheric Brain White Matter Networks from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang

    2017-04-01

    Human brain asymmetries have been well described. Intriguingly, a number of asymmetries in brain phenotypes have been shown to change throughout the lifespan. Recent studies have revealed topological asymmetries between hemispheric white matter networks in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and how these topological asymmetries evolve from adolescence to young adulthood, a critical period that constitutes the second peak of human brain and cognitive development. To address this question, the present study included a large cohort of healthy adolescents and young adults. Diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired to construct hemispheric white matter networks, and graph-theory was applied to quantify topological parameters of the hemispheric networks. In both adolescents and young adults, rightward asymmetry in both global and local network efficiencies was consistently observed between the 2 hemispheres, but the degree of the asymmetry was significantly decreased in young adults. At the nodal level, the young adults exhibited less rightward asymmetry of nodal efficiency mainly around the parasylvian area, posterior tempo-parietal cortex, and fusiform gyrus. These developmental patterns of network asymmetry provide novel insight into the human brain structural development from adolescence to young adulthood and also likely relate to the maturation of language and social cognition that takes place during this period. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2007-01-01

    of each infant's head, and again employed to estimate the improvement of asym- metry after the helmet therapy. A statistical model of head asymmetry was developed (PCA). The main modes of variation were in good agreement with clinical observations, and the model provided an excellent and instructive...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....

  2. A General Valence Asymmetry in Similarity: Good Is More Alike than Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alex; Alves, Hans; Krüger, Tobias; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmüller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive…

  3. Measurement of CP asymmetry in D0→K−K+ decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aaij

    2017-04-01

    These are the most precise measurements from a single experiment. The result for ACP(K−K+ is the most precise determination of a time-integrated CP asymmetry in the charm sector to date, and neither measurement shows evidence of CP asymmetry.

  4. Facial asymmetry in children surgically treated for unicoronal synostosis in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öwall, L.; Darvann, TA; Larsen, Per

    Facial asymmetry in children surgically treated for unicoronal synostosis in infancy. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association 71st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana 2014.......Facial asymmetry in children surgically treated for unicoronal synostosis in infancy. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association 71st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana 2014....

  5. The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been suggested to index tendencies in affective responding and thus may be associated with hormonal stress responses. To assess the functional role of frontal asymmetry (FA) in stress, we measured FA at rest and following exposure to acute stress induced

  6. Differences in kinetic asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, S. W.; Buist, I.; Kluitenberg, B.

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to describe natural levels of asymmetry in running, compare levels of asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners and compare kinetic variables between the injured and noninjured lower limb within the novice runners with an injury.

  7. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the

  8. ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION ASYMMETRY ON EVALUATION AND RISK OF CLUSTER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine and analyse the main approaches of evaluation of cluster or group performance under information asymmetry within cluster. It is assumed that one of the most relevant causes of information asymmetry inside the business clusters are the different interests of its stakeholders and their willingness to dominate. This paper contributes to the further analysis, development and generalisation of evaluation approach of cluster performance and of the impact of information asymmetry on the activities of business clusters. Purpose – is to investigate the impact of information asymmetry on the evaluation on performance of business clusters and the methods and approaches of evaluation of performance with regard to information asymmetry. Design/methodology/approach – general overview of research papers presenting concepts and methodologies of evaluation of performance with regard to information asymmetry. Findings – information asymmetry has a significant impact on the performance of business clusters, and can be the decisive factor in the viability of a cluster. The members of cluster can be seem as subjects willing to dominate in cluster and to gain a relatively more portion of profit of clusters, some conflicts of interests can appear. However, there is no universal approach for evaluation of the impact of information asymmetry on cluster or group efficiency. This paper aims to highlight the main types of information asymmetry and respective approaches of evaluation analysed by the researchers.Research limitations/implications – the complexity and nature of information that can be used in the process of creation of innovation. The strong assumptions on information asymmetry from one side and the lack of advanced investigation focussed on the evaluation of business clusters performance efficiency under information asymmetry from other side are the most relevant limitations of research. Therefore the conclusions are

  9. Asymmetry in inclusive polarized electron scattering from polarized nuclei: Sum rule approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidemann, W.; Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Universit di Trento, Povo (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Universita di Trento, Povo (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    The asymmetry of the inelastic cross section for the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets is investigated in the quasielastic region by using sum rule techniques. The sum rule method provides for the deuteron and {sup 3}He an elegant and direct way to extract the dependence of the asymmetry on the neutron electric form factor. The nuclear structure ingredients entering the expressions for the asymmetry are the nonspherical components of the ground state wave functions and the structure functions. The sum rule predictions for the asymmetry have been compared with the results of microscopic calculations for the deuteron and {sup 3}He. Application of the method to heavier nuclei shows that the asymmetry is particularly sensitive to core polarization effects.

  10. Orthodontic management of facial asymmetry caused by early condilar fracture in a growing patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopulos Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There are numerous possible causes of facial asymmetry. The facial asymmetry can be summarized and divided into three main categories: congenital, developmental, and acquired, resulting from disease or trauma. The most common cause of acquired facial asymmetry is condylar fracture. One of therapy concepts is the functional orthodontic treatment. Case Outline. The case presented is a 10.4 years old girl whose chief complaint was a progressive facial asymmetry. The patient’s medical history established a facial trauma at the age of 2 years. The treatment plan consisted of functional jaw orthopedic appliance therapy (modification of activator and fixed appliances on the upper and lower jaw. Conclusion. Timely diagnosis of condylar fracture, which can lead to facial asymmetry, can be managed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

  11. Children’s Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children’s depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children’s EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using parent-report of Children’s Depression Inventory. The key findings are the interaction effects between baseline and film frontal EEG asymmetry on child depressive symptoms. Specifically, relative right frontal EEG asymmetry while watching happy or sad film clip was associated with elevated depressive symptoms for children who also exhibited right frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. Results suggest that right frontal EEG asymmetry that is consistent across situations may be an marker of depression-prone children. PMID:21894523

  12. Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Polo-Cavia

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1 the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2 the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed, and 3 whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species.

  13. Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Vázquez, Zoraida; de Miguel, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1) the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2) the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed), and 3) whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species.

  14. Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brochmann, M.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapelain, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Drutskoy, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Limosani, A.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansour, J.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Miconi, F.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Nunnemann, T.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Ortolan, L.; Osman, N.; Pagliarone, C.; Pal, A.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parker, W.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santi, L.; Santos, A. S.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savitskyi, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shkola, O.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, H.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sorin, V.; Soustruznik, K.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stentz, D.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vernieri, C.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfmeister, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J. M.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=1.96 TeV . We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is AFBt t ¯=0.128 ±0.025 . The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions.

  15. Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; et al.

    2017-09-14

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt s =1.96$ TeV. We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is $A_{\\mathrm{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}} = 0.128 \\pm 0.025$. The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions.

  16. Growth and asymmetry of soil microfungal colonies from "Evolution Canyon," Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluctuating asymmetry is a contentious indicator of stress in populations of animals and plants. Nevertheless, it is a measure of developmental noise, typically obtained by measuring asymmetry across an individual organism's left-right axis of symmetry. These individual, signed asymmetries are symmetrically distributed around a mean of zero. Fluctuating asymmetry, however, has rarely been studied in microorganisms, and never in fungi. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We examined colony growth and random phenotypic variation of five soil microfungal species isolated from the opposing slopes of "Evolution Canyon," Mount Carmel, Israel. This canyon provides an opportunity to study diverse taxa inhabiting a single microsite, under different kinds and intensities of abiotic and biotic stress. The south-facing "African" slope of "Evolution Canyon" is xeric, warm, and tropical. It is only 200 m, on average, from the north-facing "European" slope, which is mesic, cool, and temperate. Five fungal species inhabiting both the south-facing "African" slope, and the north-facing "European" slope of the canyon were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, where we measured the fluctuating radial asymmetry and sizes of their colonies. RESULTS: Different species displayed different amounts of radial asymmetry (and colony size. Moreover, there were highly significant slope by species interactions for size, and marginally significant ones for fluctuating asymmetry. There were no universal differences (i.e., across all species in radial asymmetry and colony size between strains from "African" and "European" slopes, but colonies of Clonostachys rosea from the "African" slope were more asymmetric than those from the "European" slope. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that fluctuating radial asymmetry has potential as an indicator of random phenotypic variation and stress in soil microfungi. Interaction of slope and species for both growth rate

  17. Growth and asymmetry of soil microfungal colonies from "Evolution Canyon," Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Graham, John H; Cohen, Ayelet; de Bivort, Benjamin L; Grishkan, Isabella; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry is a contentious indicator of stress in populations of animals and plants. Nevertheless, it is a measure of developmental noise, typically obtained by measuring asymmetry across an individual organism's left-right axis of symmetry. These individual, signed asymmetries are symmetrically distributed around a mean of zero. Fluctuating asymmetry, however, has rarely been studied in microorganisms, and never in fungi. We examined colony growth and random phenotypic variation of five soil microfungal species isolated from the opposing slopes of "Evolution Canyon," Mount Carmel, Israel. This canyon provides an opportunity to study diverse taxa inhabiting a single microsite, under different kinds and intensities of abiotic and biotic stress. The south-facing "African" slope of "Evolution Canyon" is xeric, warm, and tropical. It is only 200 m, on average, from the north-facing "European" slope, which is mesic, cool, and temperate. Five fungal species inhabiting both the south-facing "African" slope, and the north-facing "European" slope of the canyon were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, where we measured the fluctuating radial asymmetry and sizes of their colonies. Different species displayed different amounts of radial asymmetry (and colony size). Moreover, there were highly significant slope by species interactions for size, and marginally significant ones for fluctuating asymmetry. There were no universal differences (i.e., across all species) in radial asymmetry and colony size between strains from "African" and "European" slopes, but colonies of Clonostachys rosea from the "African" slope were more asymmetric than those from the "European" slope. Our study suggests that fluctuating radial asymmetry has potential as an indicator of random phenotypic variation and stress in soil microfungi. Interaction of slope and species for both growth rate and asymmetry of microfungi in a common environment is evidence of genetic differences

  18. Migraines prevalence and its relationship with crane mandible’s asymmetries in 6 to 13 year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Sevillano, Darío; Castañeda Mosto, María; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Pediátrica, Facultad de Odontología, UNMSM, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the existence of a relationship between the primary migraines and the macroscopic face asymmetries in patients of 6 to 13 years of Dental Faculty of San Marcos University. In order to determine the prevalence of migraine in the pediatric population a test with the criteria of macroscopic IHS 2004 was used and the facial asymmetry were divided in soft weave Asymmetries and hard weave Asymmetries. For the first the photograph method was used, and panora...

  19. Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C. J.; Mulders, P. J.; Pijlman, F.

    2005-08-01

    We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which T-odd functions, such as the Sivers function, appear in these processes does not merely involve a sign flip when compared with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, such as in the case of the Drell-Yan process. Expressions for the weighted scattering cross sections in terms of distribution and fragmentation functions folded with hard cross sections are obtained by introducing modified hard cross sections, referred to as gluonic-pole cross sections.

  20. Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert Aybat, Ted Rogers, Alexey Prokudin

    2012-06-01

    In this letter, we show that it is necessary to include the full treatment of QCD evolution of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton densities to explain discrepancies between HERMES data and recent COMPASS data on a proton target for the Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Calculations based on existing fits to TMDs in SIDIS, and including evolution within the Collins-Soper-Sterman with properly defined TMD PDFs are shown to provide a good explanation for the discrepancy. The non-perturbative input needed for the implementation of evolution is taken from earlier analyses of unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering at high energy. Its success in describing the Sivers function in SIDIS data at much lower energies is strong evidence in support of the unifying aspect of the QCD TMD-factorization formalism.

  1. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  2. Testing the Asymmetry of Shocks with Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the demand and supply shocks affecting 13 EU member states and to estimate their degree of correlation with the Euro area shocks. This research ensures identifying the asymmetry of shocks degree with the monetary union, depending on which it’s judging the desirability of adopting a single currency. The analysis is also useful for the economies outside the Euro area, because they are strongly commercial and financial integrated especially with the core economies from union. Applying the Blanchard and Quah methodology to estimate the shocks in the period from 1998:1- 2010:3, I have found a weak and negative correlation between demand shocks and a medium to high correlation of the supply shocks. The results obtained suggest the presence of a structural convergence process with the Euro area, in the context of domestic macroeconomic policies rather different, both inside and outside the monetary union.

  3. Hypermagnetic gyrotropy, inflation and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the production of the hypermagnetic gyrotropy when the electric and magnetic gauge couplings evolve at different rates, as it happens in the the relativistic theory of the Van der Waals forces. If a pseudo-scalar interaction breaks the duality symmetry of the corresponding equations, the gyrotropic configurations of the hypermagnetic fields can be amplified from the vacuum during an inflationary stage of expansion. After charting the parameter space of the model in terms of the rates of evolution of the magnetic and electric gauge couplings, we identify the regions where the gyrotropy is sufficiently intense to seed the baryon asymmetry of the Universe at the electroweak epoch while the backreaction constraints, the strong coupling bounds and the other astrophysical limits are concurrently satisfied.

  4. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in semileptonic Bs0 decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Holubyev, K; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-04-13

    We have performed the first direct measurement of the time-integrated flavor untagged charge asymmetry in semileptonic Bs0 decays ASLs,unt by comparing the decay rate of Bs0-->micro+Ds-nuX, where Ds- -->phipi- and phi-->K+K-, with the charge-conjugate Bs0 decay rate. This sample was selected from 1.3 fb-1 of data collected by the D0 experiment in run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain ASLs,unt=[1.23+/-0.97(stat)+/-0.17(syst)]x10(-2). Assuming that Deltam(s)/Gamma(s)>1, this result can be translated into a measurement of the CP-violating phase in Bs0 mixing: DeltaGamma(s)/Deltam(s)tanphi(s)=[2.45+/-1.93(stat)+/-0.35(syst)]x10(-2).

  5. Enhanced techniques for asymmetry quantification in brain imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Imielinska, Celina; Rosiene, Joel; Connolly, E. S.; D'Ambrosio, Anthony L.

    2006-03-01

    We present an automated generic methodology for symmetry identification and asymmetry quantification, novel method of identifying and delineation of brain pathology by analyzing the opposing sides of the brain utilizing of inherent left-right symmetry in the brain. After symmetry axis has been detected, we apply non-parametric statistical tests operating on the pairs of samples to identify initial seeds points which is defined defined as the pixels where the most statistically significant difference appears. Local region growing is performed on the difference map, from where the seeds are aggregating until it captures all 8-way connected high signals from the difference map. We illustrate the capability of our method with examples ranging from tumors in patient MR data to animal stroke data. The validation results on Rat stroke data have shown that this approach has promise to achieve high precision and full automation in segmenting lesions in reflectional symmetrical objects.

  6. Diurnal trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry in endogenous depressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Melnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry was studied in patients with endogenous depressions in morning and evening hours. In the morning, the spectral power of alpha rhythm particularly in the occipital cortical regions, proved to be higher than that in the evening. In the morning, the interhemispheric differences in the power of occipital alpha rhythm were leveled off while in the evening there was normalization of interhemispheric balance with the higher power of alpha rhythm in the right occipital region. Analysis of the mean coherence (mean Coh of alpha rhythm in individual cortical regions revealed that the patients with endogenous depression had higher readings mainly in the parietal and central regions of both hemispheres and in the right temporal regions in the morning than in the evening. The occipital and posttemporal regions showed an inverse trend in the mean Coh - it was lower in the morning than in the evening

  7. Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry due to the gravitational interaction alone is discussed, considering the gravitational coupling of fermion matter related to the Yang-Mills (1954) gauge symmetry with the unique generalization of the four-dimensional Poincare group. Attention is given to the case of weak static fields which determines the space-time metric where only large source terms are retained. In addition, considering lowest-order Feynman diagrams, there are presented gravitational potential energies between fermions, between antifermions, and between a fermion and an antifermion. It is concluded that the gravitational force between matter is different from that between antimatter; implications from this concerning the evolution of the universe are discussed.

  8. Analysis of the low-altitude proton flux asymmetry: methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglanski, M

    1999-01-01

    Existing East-West asymmetry models of the trapped proton fluxes at low altitudes depend on the local magnetic dip angle and a density scale height derived from atmospheric models. We propose an alternative approach which maps the directional flux over a drift shell (B sub m , L) in terms of the local pitch and azimuthal angles alpha and beta, where beta is defined in the local mirror plane as the angle between the proton arrival direction and the surface normal to the drift shell. This approach has the advantage that it only depends on drift shell parameters and does not involve an atmosphere model. A semi-empirical model based on the new methodology is able to reproduce the angular distribution of a set of SAMPEX/PET proton flux measurements. Guidelines are proposed for spacecraft missions and data analysis procedures that are intended to be used for the building of new trapped radiation environment models.

  9. Overcoming information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2007-04-01

    Consumer-centric healthcare has been extolled as the centerpiece of a new model for managing both quality and price. However, information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) is a challenge that must be addressed. For CDHPs to work as intended and to gain acceptance, consumers need information regarding the quality and price of healthcare purchases. The federal government, particularly the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, could function as an official resource for information on performance and comparisons among facilities and providers. Because of workforce constraints among primary care physicians, a new group of healthcare professionals called "medical decision advisors" could be trained. Academic health centers would have to play a critical role in devising an appropriate curriculum, as well as designing a certification and credentialing process. However, with appropriate curricula and training, medical decision advisors could furnish information for consumers and aid in the complicated decisions they will face under CDHPs.

  10. The Influence of Deceleration on Asymmetry Observed between Twin Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.

    We developed a jet model which could be directly fitted to the observed brightness distribution of a real jet. If a radio-source is intrinsically symmetrical, we can describe its central engine properties (and/or events in the surrounding medium) neglecting lots of assumption concerning particular phenomena in the physical model (like in hydrodynamical simulations). In this paper, the phenomenological description of the jet as a set of plasma volumes is exploited. The plasma element moves at relativistic speed with constant deceleration along a straight line. Using such an approximation for both jets of double-lobed radio source, we are able to derive a new model of asymmetry observed in radio structures. Bellow I show the preliminary results obtained with the fitting procedure for VLBI maps of radio structures.

  11. Head-dependent asymmetries in Munster Irish prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Iosad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose an analysis of stress in Munster Irish which builds on two important premises. First, I argue for a distinction between the notion ‘head of a constituent’ and the notion of ‘stress’: these are separate entities, and the typologically frequent isomorphic distribution of the two is just one possible outcome of the phonological computation. Second, I propose to employ a particular family of constraints requiring head-dependent asymmetries (Dresher and van der Hulst 1998 to account for the mismatch between the placement of foot heads and stress in Munster Irish. Overall, the paper is an argument for elaborate abstract structure as an explanatory factor in phonology, as opposed to relatively shallow, substance-based representations.

  12. How reproducible are the measurements of leaf fluctuating asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Kozlov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents small, non-directional deviations from perfect symmetry in morphological characters. FA is generally assumed to increase in response to stress; therefore, FA is frequently used in ecological studies as an index of environmental or genetic stress experienced by an organism. The values of FA are usually small, and therefore the reliable detection of FA requires precise measurements. The reproducibility of fluctuating asymmetry (FA was explored by comparing the results of measurements of scanned images of 100 leaves of downy birch (Betula pubescens conducted by 31 volunteer scientists experienced in studying plant FA. The median values of FA varied significantly among the participants, from 0.000 to 0.074, and the coefficients of variation in FA for individual leaves ranged from 25% to 179%. The overall reproducibility of the results among the participants was rather low (0.074. Variation in instruments and methods used by the participants had little effect on the reported FA values, but the reproducibility of the measurements increased by 30% following exclusion of data provided by seven participants who had modified the suggested protocol for leaf measurements. The scientists working with plant FA are advised to pay utmost attention to adequate and detailed description of their data acquisition protocols in their forthcoming publications, because all characteristics of instruments and methods need to be controlled to increase the quality and reproducibility of the data. Whenever possible, the images of all measured objects and the results of primary measurements should be published as electronic appendices to scientific papers.

  13. Medical information asymmetry in the cyberworld of manuel castells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasztelowicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    Before 1997, the Internet was strongly associated with universities and higher education, including medical research. There were only small virtual communities at that time, but all their members had equal access to the entire body of information placed on the net. Each networking participant was able not only to retrieve but also to create and distribute medical information. This state was a symmetry, of sorts, between passive and active Internet usage. Since that time, however, significant commercialization of the Internet (including the medical domain) has been increasing its asymmetry. We currently observe a division into providers, serving and distributing medical information on the net, and consumers, who receive pre-prepared "products". This brings new challenges for both academic and practicing e-health physicians. First, while all large-scale initiatives to certify medical portals have so far failed, the public must be educated to chose valuable, high quality medical information themselves. Secondly, this imbalance favors abusive commercial behavior, such as spam, spreading viruses and advertising without content-related information. Stimulating a restoration of the previous idea of the Internet for non-profit activities seems to be best way to avoid the continuation of Internet "degeneration". Manuel Castells has defined future industrial and postindustrial progress of humanity as activity in global virtual communities, interchanging ideas, knowledge and information. The role of medical professionals seems to be to educate patients and their families on how to search for quality medical information and to stimulate other medical professionals, researchers as well as patients' supportive groups to be active themselves. Reducing the medical information asymmetry will provide a positive influence on the progress of e-health in the future. Open source software may help reduce costs by creating adequate resources.

  14. Asymmetry and inequity in the inheritance of a bacterial adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Benjamin J.; Dellos-Nolan, Sheri; Dhamani, Numa; Todd, Ross; Waller, William; Wozniak, Daniel; Gordon, Vernita D.

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that forms biofilm infections in a wide variety of contexts. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a surface, which triggers changes in gene expression leading to the biofilm phenotype. We have previously shown, for the P. aeruginosa lab strain PAO1, that the self-produced polymer Psl is the most dominant adhesive for attachment to the surface but that another self-produced polymer, Pel, controls the geometry of attachment of these rod-shaped bacteria—strains that make Psl but not Pel are permanently attached to the surface but adhere at only one end (tilting up off the surface), whereas wild-type bacteria that make both Psl and Pel are permanently attached and lie down flat with very little or no tilting (Cooley et al 2013 Soft Matter 9 3871-6). Here we show that the change in attachment geometry reflects a change in the distribution of Psl on the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria that make Psl and Pel have Psl evenly coating the surface, whereas bacteria that make only Psl have Psl concentrated at only one end. We show that Psl can act as an inheritable, epigenetic factor. Rod-shaped P. aeruginosa grows lengthwise and divides across the middle. We find that asymmetry in the distribution of Psl on a parent cell is reflected in asymmetry between siblings in their attachment to the surface. Thus, Pel not only promotes P. aeruginosa lying down flat on the surface, it also helps to homogenize the distribution of Psl within a bacterial population.

  15. Beam Spin Asymmetry Measurements for Two Pion Photoproduction at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark D. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    The overarching goal of this analysis, and many like it, is to develop our understanding of the strong force interactions within the nucleon by examining the nature of their excitation spectra. As the resonances of these spectra have very short lifetimes (tau = 1x10-23 s) and often have very similar masses, it is often impossible to directly observe resonances in the excitation spectra of nucleons. Polarization observables allow us to study the resonances by looking at how they affect the spin state of final state particles. The beam asymmetry is a polarization observable that allows us to detect the sensitivity of these resonances, and other transition mechanisms, to the electric vector orientation of incident photons. Presented in this thesis are first measurements of the beam asymmetries in the resonant region for the reaction channel pgamma p --> p π+ π-focusing on the intermediate mesonic states rho^0 and f^0, and the final state pions. The analysis used data from the g8b experiment undertaken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), the first experiment at JLab to use a linearly polarized photon beam. Using the coherent Bremsstrahlung facility and the CLAS detector of Hall B at JLab allowed for many multi-channel reactions to be detected and the first measurements of many polarization observables including those presented here. A brief overview of the theoretical framework used to undertake this analysis is given, followed by a description of the experimental details of the facilities used, then a description of the calibration of the Bremsstrahlung tagging facility which the author undertook, and finally the analysis is presented and the resulting measurements.

  16. Breast asymmetry and pectus excavatum improvement with fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, Christophe; Delaporte, Thomas; Meruta, Andreea; La Marca, Sophie; Toussoun, Gilles; Delay, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    In women, pectus excavatum malformation can cause modified breast morphology, resulting in mammary asymmetry, which can be increased by placing mammary implants alone. Fat transfer can be an elegant solution to increase the volume and projection of the breast. The authors discuss their experience treating pectus excavatum with fat transfer (lipomodeling) since 2000. The charts of 19 consecutive patients with a pectus excavatum breast asymmetry who underwent lipomodeling treatment at the authors' facility between January 2000 and November 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated using the Chin classification (type 1, 2, and 3). Data points for each patient included age and body mass index, number of interventions and volume of fat injected during each session, total volume transferred, and postoperative complications. The clinical result was evaluated by the patient and the surgical team on a 4-point scale: very good, good, fair, or poor. Most (74%) patients in this series had type 3 Chin pectus excavatum. The average age was 28 years, and the average body mass index was 20.3. The average number of lipomodeling sessions was 1.63, and the average volume of fat transferred was 230 mL per session and 375 mL total. The patients and the surgical team were very satisfied or satisfied in 95% of cases and considered the result fair in 5% of cases. There were no complications. Fat transfer for treatment of pectus excavatum yields very good (natural and stable) results and high patient satisfaction rates, which makes this technique our preferred method for treating thoracomammary malformations in pectus excavatum.

  17. Corneal hysteresis and visual field asymmetry in open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Aashish; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Teng, Christopher C; Tello, Celso; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the association between corneal biomechanical parameters and asymmetric primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). In a prospective cross-sectional study, ORA parameters were measured in 117 POAG patients with asymmetric visual fields (VF). The asymmetry in VF was defined as a five point difference between the eyes using the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) scoring system. Subjects with previous intraocular or refractive surgery, ocular comorbidities and diabetes were excluded. In worse eyes, mean AGIS scores were significantly higher (8.1 ± 4.3 vs. 1.0 ± 1.6; P corneal hysteresis (CH) was significantly lower (8.2 ± 1.9 vs. 8.9 ± 1.9 mm Hg; P corneal resistance factor (P = 0.04) and more myopic mean spherical equivalent (P = 0.02). No difference was seen in the central corneal thickness (CCT; P = 0.63) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT; P = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, only CH retained an association with the worse eye (odds ratio, 25.9; 95% confidence interval, 10.1-66.5). ROC curves showed that only CH and IOP(cc) had a discriminative ability for the eye with worse VF (AUC, 0.82 and 0.70, respectively). Asymmetric POAG was associated with asymmetry in ORA parameters but not in CCT and GAT. Lower CH was associated with worse eyes independently of its effect on IOP measurement and had the best discriminability for the eye with the worse VF.

  18. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  19. Asymmetry of the Venus nightside ionosphere: Magnus force effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Tejada, H.

    2008-11-01

    A study of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Venus nightside ionosphere is conducted by examining the configuration of the ionospheric trans-terminator flow around Venus and also the dawn-ward displacement of the region where most of the ionospheric holes and the electron density plateau profiles are observed (dawn meaning the west in the retrograde rotation of Venus and that corresponds to the trailing side in its orbital motion). The study describes the position of the holes and the density plateau profiles which occur at neighboring locations in a region that is scanned as the trajectory of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) sweeps through the nightside hemisphere with increasing orbit number. The holes are interpreted as crossings through plasma channels that extend downstream from the magnetic polar regions of the Venus ionosphere and the plateau profiles represent cases in which the electron density maintains nearly constant values in the upper ionosphere along the PVO trajectory. From a collection of PVO passes in which these profiles were observed it is found that they appear at neighboring positions of the ionospheric holes in a local solar time (LST) map including cases where only a density plateau profile or an ionospheric hole was detected. It is argued that the ionospheric holes and the density plateau profiles have a common origin at the magnetic polar regions where plasma channels are formed and that the density plateau profiles represent crossings through a friction layer that is adjacent to the plasma channels. It is further suggested that the dawn-dusk asymmetry in the position of both features in the nightside ionosphere results from a fluid dynamic force (Magnus force) that is produced by the combined effects of the trans-terminator flow and the rotational motion of the ionosphere that have been inferred from the PVO measurements.

  20. Music-induced changes in functional cerebral asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Hodgetts, Sophie; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    After decades of research, it remains unclear whether emotion lateralization occurs because one hemisphere is dominant for processing the emotional content of the stimuli, or whether emotional stimuli activate lateralised networks associated with the subjective emotional experience. By using emotion-induction procedures, we investigated the effect of listening to happy and sad music on three well-established lateralization tasks. In a prestudy, Mozart's piano sonata (K. 448) and Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata were rated as the most happy and sad excerpts, respectively. Participants listened to either one emotional excerpt, or sat in silence before completing an emotional chimeric faces task (Experiment 1), visual line bisection task (Experiment 2) and a dichotic listening task (Experiment 3 and 4). Listening to happy music resulted in a reduced right hemispheric bias in facial emotion recognition (Experiment 1) and visuospatial attention (Experiment 2) and increased left hemispheric bias in language lateralization (Experiments 3 and 4). Although Experiments 1-3 revealed an increased positive emotional state after listening to happy music, mediation analyses revealed that the effect on hemispheric asymmetries was not mediated by music-induced emotional changes. The direct effect of music listening on lateralization was investigated in Experiment 4 in which tempo of the happy excerpt was manipulated by controlling for other acoustic features. However, the results of Experiment 4 made it rather unlikely that tempo is the critical cue accounting for the effects. We conclude that listening to music can affect functional cerebral asymmetries in well-established emotional and cognitive laterality tasks, independent of music-induced changes in the emotion state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D. L. [Occidental College, Physics Department, Los Angeles, California 90041 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ{sub 1}(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v{sub r}/ω{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  2. Asymmetry of Hemispheric Network Topology Reveals Dissociable Processes between Functional and Structural Brain Connectome in Community-Living Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Sun; Junhua Li; John Suckling; Lei Feng

    2017-01-01

    Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between struct...

  3. How Does Asymmetry of Solar Panels Influence Constructive Component of Microacceleration Field of Inner Environment of Space Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelnikov, A. V.; Molyavko, D. P.; Potienko, K. I.

    2017-08-01

    The following asymmetries of spacecraft solar panels are considered: mass, linear and asymmetry of points connecting big elastic elements to the spacecraft body. Micro-accelerations are shown to increase when asymmetries of the above mentioned types appear. Conclusions about the importance of geometrical symmetries for successful gravity-sensitive experiments or technological processes on board space laboratories are discussed.

  4. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  6. Intereye asymmetry in bilateral keratoconus, keratoconus suspect and normal eyes and its relationship with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Zarrinbakhsh, Parviz

    2017-11-01

    To describe the intereye asymmetry in patients with keratoconus (KC), keratoconus suspect (KCS) and normal participants, and to evaluate the relationship between asymmetry and disease severity. In this prospective observational comparative study, 446 patients with bilateral KC, 68 patients with bilateral KCS and 306 normal participants underwent topographic, keratometric and pachymetric evaluations by Pentacam as well as refractive and visual acuity examinations. The intereye asymmetry in each parameter was calculated and compared between the groups. All parameters were significantly different between the worse and better eyes in the KC group (p0.05). There was a statistically significant greater intereye asymmetry in all parameters in the KC group compared with the KCS and normal groups (pKeratoconus Severity Score classification (p<0.05). According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the intereye asymmetry would effectively discriminate KC and KCS from normal eyes. KC is an asymmetric disease, and the degree of asymmetry is associated with disease severity. The analysis of intereye asymmetry should be performed along with unilateral evaluation in the screening of KC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Diffusion tractography reveals pervasive asymmetry of cerebral white matter tracts in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexandra K; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Ridgway, Sam H; Scadeng, Miriam

    2017-11-30

    Brain enlargement is associated with concomitant growth of interneuronal distance, increased conduction time, and reduced neuronal interconnectivity. Recognition of these functional constraints led to the hypothesis that large-brained mammals should exhibit greater structural and functional brain lateralization. As a taxon with the largest brains in the animal kingdom, Cetacea provides a unique opportunity to examine asymmetries of brain structure and function. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging and tractography were used to investigate cerebral white matter asymmetry in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Widespread white matter asymmetries were observed with the preponderance of tracts exhibiting leftward structural asymmetries. Leftward lateralization may reflect differential processing and execution of behaviorally variant sensory and motor functions by the cerebral hemispheres. The arcuate fasciculus, an association tract linked to human language evolution, was isolated and exhibited rightward asymmetry suggesting a right hemisphere bias for conspecific communication unlike that of most mammals. This study represents the first examination of cetacean white matter asymmetry and constitutes an important step toward understanding potential drivers of structural asymmetry and its role in underpinning functional and behavioral lateralization in cetaceans.

  8. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Asymmetry in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Beladi, Amir Saied; Khojastepour, Leila

    2016-07-21

      The purpose of the present study was to compare mandibular vertical asymmetry in patients with unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate and subjects with normal occlusion.   Cone beam computed tomography scans of three groups consisting of 20 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 20 patients affected by bilateral cleft lip and palate, and a control group of 20 subjects with normal occlusion were analyzed for this study. Condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry indices were measured for all subjects using the method of Habets et al. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine any significant differences between the groups for all indices at the 95% level of confidence.   There were no significant differences regarding sex for all mandibular asymmetry indices in all three groups. All Asymmetry indices (condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry) were significantly higher in the unilateral cleft group compared with the other two groups.   Cone beam computed tomography images showed that patients with cleft lip and palate suffered from mandibular asymmetry. Subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had a more asymmetric mandible compared with the bilateral cleft lip and palate and control groups. Therefore, the mandible appears to be the leading factor in facial asymmetry in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  9. The fornix of the human brain: evidence of left/right asymmetry on axial MRI scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supprian, T; Hofmann, E

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the observation that there is a left/right asymmetry of the anterior columns of the fornix in the human brain. This asymmetry is present in the position of the two columns of the fornix in relation to the septum pellucidum. The left columna fornicis was found to be located caudal to the right, and this can be readily visualized on axial MRI scans. This difference was seen in most of the subjects, but in some subjects there was no left/right-difference and in a few the asymmetry was inverse. The asymmetry of the fornix with respect to the anterior-posterior axis was independent of the well-known dissimilar lateral ventricular volumes. However, the left/right difference in the position of the fornix was evident in subjects with or without differences in ventricular volumes. This suggests that the mechanism underlying the development of asymmetry of the fornix is independent of the mechanism leading to ventricular asymmetry. So far, no functional relevance has been ascribed to such differences in location. The finding is gaining interest in connection with recent reports of asymmetries in hippocampal subfields. Studies of fornical lesions should therefore give attention to possible side-to-side differences.

  10. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  11. The effect of foot orthoses on joint moment asymmetry in male children with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnezhadgero, AmirAli; Madadi Shad, Morteza; Ferber, Reed

    2018-01-01

    It has been widely postulated that structural and functional misalignments of the foot, such as flat foot, may cause mechanical deviations of the lower limb during walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity joint moment asymmetry during the stance phase of walking in children with asymptomatic flexible flat feet. Fourteen volunteer male children, clinically diagnosed with flexible flat feet, participated in this study. Subjects completed 12 walking trials at a self-selected walking speed while 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected for two conditions: shod with no orthoses, and shod with orthoses. The gait asymmetry index for each variable for each subject was defined as: (1-(lesser moment/greater moment)) × 100. Results reveal no significant differences in ankle or knee joint moment asymmetry. However, the use of foot orthoses decreased asymmetry for the hip abduction moment (P = 0.04) compared to walking without orthoses and also resulted in subtle, non-significant increases in frontal plane subtalar and sagittal plane knee and hip joints moment asymmetry. We conclude that foot orthoses decrease frontal plane hip joint moment asymmetry, but have little effect on ankle and knee joint asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Savannah; Schaefer, Jacob; Peterson, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length) were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River), as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012)--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon) showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites) could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.

  13. [Epidemiological study of dental and facial asymmetries in a sample of preschool subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Marina Consuelo; Barbieri, Federica; Ricotta, Riccardo; Arpesella, Marisa; Emanuelli, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    to identify the typologies of facial and dental asymmetries in a sample of children aged between 3 and 6 years and to correlate these asymmetries with possible morphological and functional situations. cross-sectional observational study. sample of 95 subjects aged between 3 and 6 years. Clinical data were collected in 10 sessions conducted during school hours in April 2013 by a doctor of Dentistry at two preschools in the city of Sanremo (Liguria Region, Northern Italy) and a kindergarten in the city of Pavia (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy). To collect the data, a weighted clinical questionnaire was used. presence and type of bad habit, type of breathing, presence and type of facial asymmetry, dental formula, presence of diastema, presence and type of occlusal asymmetries, presence and type of dental malocclusions. analysed sample consisted of 53.7% (51/95) of males and 46.3 % (44/95) females; the mean age was 4.3 ± 0.9 years. Most frequent facial asymmetry is orbits asymmetry (35%, 33/95); dental malocclusions are detected in 70%(67/95) of cases. High percentage of subjects (69.5%, 66/95) presents displacement between superior dental midline (SDM) and inferior dental midline (IDM). Several statistically significant associations are observed: in particular, asymmetry of molar ratios is linked to asymmetry of the cheekbones and displacement of the SDM; facial midline has statistical association with asymmetry of the cheekbones (p habits observed and the close correlation between: the presence of dental malocclusions and the presence of compromising habits, the presence of dental malocclusions and the presence of oral breathing.

  14. Systematic Mapping and Statistical Analyses of Valley Landform and Vegetation Asymmetries Across Hydroclimatic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Terrain aspect alters the spatial distribution of insolation across topography, driving eco-pedo-hydro-geomorphic feedbacks that can alter landform evolution and result in valley asymmetries for a suite of land surface characteristics (e.g. slope length and steepness, vegetation, soil properties, and drainage development). Asymmetric valleys serve as natural laboratories for studying how landscapes respond to climate perturbation. In the semi-arid montane granodioritic terrain of the Idaho batholith, Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, prior works indicate that reduced insolation on northern (pole-facing) aspects prolongs snow pack persistence, and is associated with thicker, finer-grained soils, that retain more water, prolong the growing season, support coniferous forest rather than sagebrush steppe ecosystems, stabilize slopes at steeper angles, and produce sparser drainage networks. We hypothesize that the primary drivers of valley asymmetry development are changes in the pedon-scale water-balance that coalesce to alter catchment-scale runoff and drainage development, and ultimately cause the divide between north and south-facing land surfaces to migrate northward. We explore this conceptual framework by coupling land surface analyses with statistical modeling to assess relationships and the relative importance of land surface characteristics. Throughout the Idaho batholith, we systematically mapped and tabulated various statistical measures of landforms, land cover, and hydroclimate within discrete valley segments (n=~10,000). We developed a random forest based statistical model to predict valley slope asymmetry based upon numerous measures (n>300) of landscape asymmetries. Preliminary results suggest that drainages are tightly coupled with hillslopes throughout the region, with drainage-network slope being one of the strongest predictors of land-surface-averaged slope asymmetry. When slope-related statistics are excluded, due to possible autocorrelation, valley

  15. Shared pattern of endocranial shape asymmetries among great apes, anatomically modern humans, and fossil hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Balzeau

    Full Text Available Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of "virtual" 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens.These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself

  16. Shared pattern of endocranial shape asymmetries among great apes, anatomically modern humans, and fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of "virtual" 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens.These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself, which is not unique

  17. Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah Michaelsen

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River, as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.

  18. Mandibular and maxillary asymmetry in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspos, C P; Kyrkanides, S; Tallents, R H; Moss, M E; Subtelny, J D

    1997-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degree of maxillary and mandibular asymmetry in the verticle and transverse planes seen in posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs relative to chronologic age in postoperative complete UCLP patients compared to controls. Mandibular and nasomaxillary asymmetry was retrospectively studied in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and noncleft individuals (controls) by means of posteroanterior cephalometric analysis. All the UCLP patients available (total 40) and randomly selected noncleft controls (total 142) were included in the study. The UCLP patients had undergone lip and palate reconstruction in Strong Memorial Hospital, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, and orthodontic treatment in the Department of Orthodontics, Eastman Dental Center, Rochester, New York. The controls were selected based on the age that treatment was initiated and were treated in the department for various malocclusions; none had undergone maxillary expansion or surgical treatment. The asymmetry assessed on mixed longitudinal records of the patients with UCLP was analyzed relative to three chronologic age groups and compared to the controls. In addition, mandibular asymmetry was correlated to maxillary asymmetry in UCLP individuals to investigate possible growth patterns between the two jaws. Mandibular asymmetry in UCLP individuals was found to increase with growth and time and peaked at post-pubertal growth-spurt stages. The cleft subjects were more asymmetric than controls in all stages of growth. Mandibular asymmetry followed the affected maxilla closely, indicating a parallel growth pattern of the jaws. The unilateral cleft lip and palate patients manifested asymmetry of the mandible. This asymmetry develops in a parallel pattern with the affected maxilla, suggesting that early evaluation and treatment of the anomalies in the nasomaxillary skeleton as well as in the mandible is necessary when treating unilateral cleft lip and

  19. Frontal sinus asymmetry: Is it an effect of cranial asymmetry? X-ray analysis of 469 normal adult human frontal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kanat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is no study in the literature that investigates an asymmetric morphological feature of the frontal sinus (FS. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-nine consecutive direct X-rays of FSs were analyzed for the asymmetry between the right and left sides. When an asymmetry in the height and contour of the FS existed, this difference was quantified. Results: Of the 469 patients, X-rays of 402 patients (85.7%, there was an asymmetry between right and left sides of the FS. Of these 235 (50.1% were dominant on the left side, whereas 167 (35.6% were dominant on the right, the sinuses of remaining 67 patients (14.3% was symmetric. Statistical Analysis: The comparisons between parameters were performed using Wilkinson signed rank test. The relationship between handedness and sinus asymmetry was also examined by two proportions test. There is statistically significant difference between the dominance of left and right FS. Conclusions: Hemispheric dominance may have some effect (s of on sinus asymmetry of the human cranium. Surgeons sometimes enter the cranium through the FS and knowledge of asymmetric FS is important to minimize surgical complications.

  20. Heating-Cooling Asymmetry in the δ-γ Transformation in Plutonium: Clausius-Clapeyron Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Slides discuss the subject under the following topics: Pu phase transformations and features of the γ-δ transformation (heating-cooling asymmetry, cooling rate, effect of impurities); pressure effects in γ-δ transformations; Clausius-Clapeyron analysis; and discussion of heating-cooling asymmetry in the γ-δ transformation. The following conclusions are reached: burst behavior and extended transformation range due to pressure arrest; low slope of P-T curve for γ-δ favors this transformation for pressure arrest; asymmetry w.r.t. direction of transformation likely due to defects.

  1. From Tevatron's top and lepton-based asymmetries to the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian; Falkowski, Adam; Khatibi, Sara; Najafabadi, Mojtaba Mohammadi; Perez, Gilad; Santiago, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We define a lepton-based asymmetry in semi-leptonic ttbar production at the LHC. We show that the ratio of this lepton-based asymmetry and the ttbar charge asymmetry, measured as a function of the lepton transverse momentum or the ttbar invariant mass is a robust observable in the Standard Model. It is stable against higher order corrections and mis-modeling effects. We show that this ratio can also be a powerful discriminant among different new physics models and between them and the Standard Model. Finally, we show that a related ratio defined at the Tevatron is also robust as a function of the ttbar invariant mass.

  2. A Preliminary Measurement of the Left-Right Parity-Violating ep Asymmetry at E158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesiada, J.

    2005-04-11

    This thesis investigates the parity-violating ep asymmetry based on the Run I data produced in Spring of 2002 by the E158 experiment, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main scientific objective of the experiment is the precision measurement of the weak mixing angle of the Standard Model. The ep asymmetry is an important background in the experiment and theoretically interesting in its own right, providing insights into the structure of the proton. The analysis centers upon identifying systematic error and consistency. The definite measurement of the ep asymmetry will await the final reprocessing of the data set during the Fall of 2002.

  3. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamu, Yusupujiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Ji, Chueng -Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  4. Single blastomere expression profiling of Xenopus laevis embryos of 8 to 32-cells reveals developmental asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Flachsova, Monika; Sindelka, Radek; Kubista, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the expression of 41 maternal mRNAs in individual blastomeres collected from the 8 to 32-cell Xenopus laevis embryos to determine when and how asymmetry in the body plan is introduced. We demonstrate that the asymmetry along the animal-vegetal axis in the oocyte is transferred to the daughter cells during early cell divisions. All studied mRNAs are distributed evenly among the set of animal as well as vegetal blastomeres. We find no asymmetry in mRNA levels that might be ascr...

  5. Asymmetries at the Z pole: The Quark and Lepton Quantum Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Tenchini, R

    2016-01-01

    The impressive progress on the knowledge of lepton and quark electroweak couplings over the LEP and SLC decade is reviewed. The experimental methods for measuring the forward-backward asymmetry of charged-fermion pair-production are described, for different fermion species. The precise measurements of the left–right asymmetry and of tau polarisation at the Z resonance are also reminded. After discussing the determination of the Weinberg electroweak mixing angle, lepton and quark couplings are extracted by combining asymmetry and polarisation measurements with measurements of partial decay widths of the Z boson, performed at LEP in the same years.

  6. Collins and Sivers asymmetries in muonproduction of pions and kaons off transversely polarised protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

  7. Collins and Sivers asymmetries in muonproduction of pions and kaons off transversely polarised proton

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr , M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Jörg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W -D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peshekhonov, D V; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rychter, A; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Virius, M; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

  8. Measurement of the B+ --> rho+ pi0 Branching Fraction and Direct CP Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, W; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, K Yu; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We present improved measurements of the branching fraction and CP asymmetry for the process B+ --> rho+ pi0. The data sample corresponding to 211/fb comprises 232 million Y(4S)-->BBbar decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. The yield and CP asymmetry are measured using an extended maximum likelihood fitting method. The branching fraction and CP asymmetry are found to be BR(B+ --> rho+ pi0)= [10.2 +- 1.4(stat) +- 0.9(syst)] x 10^-6 and Acp (B+ --> rho+ pi0) = -0.01 +- 0.13(stat) +- 0.02(syst).

  9. Next-to leading order analysis of target mass corrections to structure functions and asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. T. Brady, A. Accardi, T. J. Hobbs, W. Melnitchouk

    2011-10-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of target mass corrections (TMCs) to spin-averaged structure functions and asymmetries at next-to-leading order. Several different prescriptions for TMCs are considered, including the operator product expansion, and various approximations to it, collinear factorization, and xi-scaling. We assess the impact of each of these on a number of observables, such as the neutron to proton F{sub 2} structure function ratio, and parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries for protons and deuterons which are sensitive to gamma-Z interference effects. The corrections from higher order radiative and nuclear effects on the parity-violating deuteron asymmetry are also quantified.

  10. North-South asymmetry of the Earth and planets’ figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokityansky, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) team discovered «the striking difference» in elevation between northern and southern hemispheres: «on Mars, the South Pole lying about six km higher than the North Pole» (Physics Today, Oct 1999, p.34). The same topography we have for solid Earth. No sound explanation of NS asymmetry was proposed. Meanwhile, NS asymmetry is inherent property of any freely rotating flexible celestial body as it follows from Kozyrev’s Causal or asymmetrical mechanics. Kozyrev postulated absolute difference of past and future, right and left rotations, introduced new universal constant C - course of time. In a rotating system, course of time changes that creates an additional asymmetrical force in it. Laboratory measurements proved that asymmetric force carry energy and angular moment, but no momentum. It means, that in rapidly rotated parts asymmetrical force directed along axes of rotation, in slowly rotating parts (near the axes) - in opposite directions. Applying the result to rotating planets, one can expect that at some latitude asymmetrical force pass through zero changing the sign. Kozyrev’s measurements at northern latitudes φ from 45 to 84 degrees proved that causal force is directed to the North for φ73 degrees. The change of the direction occur at the distance 1860 km from the Earth’s axes. The magnitude of causal force has order (1-5)×10-5 of gravity force. Being directed to North in low and middle latitudes, asymmetrical force pull matter to North creating its excess in the Northern hemisphere, thus explaining predominance of continents, and its (matter)deficit in the Southern hemisphere, thus giving space for oceans predominance there. In high latitudes (φ>73) asymmetric force is directed to South almost normal to earth surface, that explains low Arctic and high Antarctica. Asymmetrical force can influence the liquid core dynamics. Liquid core has radius 3490 km, then at the distances from the Earth’s axes more than

  11. Probing nucleon strange asymmetry from charm production in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Puze; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    .... The difference for the $D(c\\bar{q})$ and $\\bar{D}(\\bar{c}q)$ meson production cross sections in neutrino and antineutrino induced charged current deep inelastic scattering is illustrated to be sensitive to the nucleon strange asymmetry...

  12. Lizards from urban areas are more asymmetric: using fluctuating asymmetry to evaluate environmental disturbance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazić, Marko M; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; Carretero, Miguel A; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka

    2013-01-01

    .... Several studies have suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) can be an easy, direct measure of developmental instability because it is associated to environmental stress and, as such, it can be a useful indicator of population disturbance...

  13. North-south asymmetries in cold plasma density in the magnetotail lobes: Cluster observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, S.; Lybekk, B.; Maes, L.; Laundal, K.; Pedersen, A.; Tenfjord, P.; Ohma, A.; Østgaard, N.; Reistad, J.; Snekvik, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present observations of cold (0-70 eV) plasma density in the magnetotail lobes. The observations and results are based on 16 years of Cluster observation of spacecraft potential measurements converted into local plasma densities. Measurements from all four Cluster spacecraft have been used, and the survey indicates a persistent asymmetry in lobe density, with consistently higher cold plasma densities in the northern lobe. External influences, such as daily and seasonal variations in the Earth's tilt angle, can introduce temporary north-south asymmetries through asymmetric ionization of the two hemispheres. Likewise, external drivers, such as the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field can set up additional spatial asymmetries in outflow and lobe filling. The persistent asymmetry reported in this paper is also influenced by these external factors but is mainly caused by differences in magnetic field configuration in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere ionospheres.

  14. Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A.P. [European Space Agency, ESAC, Madrid (Spain). Science and Robotic Exploration Directorate; Haaland, S. [Max-Planck-Institue for Solar System Research, Goettingen (Germany); Bergen Univ. (Norway). Birkeland Center for Space Science; Forsyth, C. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary (United Kingdom). UCL Dept. of Space and Climate Physics; and others

    2014-10-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries are ubiquitous features of the coupled solar-wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. During the last decades, increasing availability of satellite and ground-based measurements has made it possible to study these phenomena in more detail. Numerous publications have documented the existence of persistent asymmetries in processes, properties and topology of plasma structures in various regions of geospace. In this paper, we present a review of our present knowledge of some of the most pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries. We focus on four key aspects: (1) the role of external influences such as the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere; (2) properties of the magnetosphere itself; (3) the role of the ionosphere and (4) feedback and coupling between regions. We have also identified potential inconsistencies and gaps in our understanding of dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere.

  15. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on an unpolarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from an unpolarized deuterium target are measured with respect to beam helicity and charge. They appear in the distribution of these photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual-photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted asymmetries are attributed to either the deeply virtual Compton scattering process or its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are compared with earlier results on the proton target. In the measured kinematic region, the beam-charge asymmetry amplitudes and the leading amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetries on an unpolarized deuteron target are compatible with the results from unpolarized protons. (orig.)

  16. Phylogenomic analysis of carangimorph fishes reveals flatfish asymmetry arose in a blink of the evolutionary eye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrington, Richard C; Faircloth, Brant C; Eytan, Ron I; Smith, W. Leo; Near, Thomas J; Alfaro, Michael E; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Flatfish cranial asymmetry represents one of the most remarkable morphological innovations among vertebrates, and has fueled vigorous debate on the manner and rate at which strikingly divergent phenotypes evolve...

  17. Facial asymmetry in children with unicoronal synostosis who have undergone craniofacial reconstruction in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öwall, Birgitta Louise Charlotte; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P

    2016-01-01

    (s) : Using 3D surface scanning, a detailed map of 3D asymmetry presenting the amount of asymmetry in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse directions was calculated for six facial subregions. Results : The facial asymmetry in the UCS group was significantly larger than in the control group for all regions......, to the largest extent in the sagittal direction (level of significance: 5%). The regions with the most pronounced asymmetry were cheeks (mean: 5.45 mm; SD: 1.83 mm), forehead (mean: 5.00 mm; SD: 1.57 mm), and eyes (mean: 4.26 mm; SD: 1.44 mm). Conclusions : Ninety percent of the UCS patients in the study had...

  18. Realized Matrix-Exponential Stochastic Volatility with Asymmetry, Long Memory and Spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper develops a novel realized matrix-exponential stochastic volatility model of multivariate returns and realized covariances that incorporates asymmetry and long memory (hereafter the RMESV-ALM model). The matrix exponential transformation guarantees the

  19. The role of frontal EEG asymmetry in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Giesbrecht, T.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meijer, E.H.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry, a biomarker derived from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, has often been associated with psychological adjustment, with more left-sided frontal activity predicting approach motivation and lower levels of depression and anxiety. This suggests high relevance to

  20. Dawn–dusk asymmetries in the coupled solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Walsh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dawn–dusk asymmetries are ubiquitous features of the coupled solar-wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere system. During the last decades, increasing availability of satellite and ground-based measurements has made it possible to study these phenomena in more detail. Numerous publications have documented the existence of persistent asymmetries in processes, properties and topology of plasma structures in various regions of geospace. In this paper, we present a review of our present knowledge of some of the most pronounced dawn–dusk asymmetries. We focus on four key aspects: (1 the role of external influences such as the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere; (2 properties of the magnetosphere itself; (3 the role of the ionosphere and (4 feedback and coupling between regions. We have also identified potential inconsistencies and gaps in our understanding of dawn–dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere.

  1. Normal range of facial asymmetry in spherical coordinates: a CBCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suk-Ja; Wang, Rui-Feng; Na, Hee Ja; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to measure the bilateral differences of facial lines in spherical coordinates from faces within a normal range of asymmetry utilizing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans from 22 females with normal symmetric-looking faces (mean age 24 years and 8 months) were selected for the study. The average menton deviation was 1.01±0.66 mm. The spherical coordinates, length, and midsagittal and coronal inclination angles of the ramal and mandibular lines were calculated from CBCT. The bilateral differences in the facial lines were determined. All of the study subjects had minimal bilateral differences of facial lines. The normal range of facial asymmetry of the ramal and mandibular lines was obtained in spherical coordinates. The normal range of facial asymmetry in the spherical coordinate system in this study should be useful as a reference for diagnosing facial asymmetry.

  2. Prognostic implications of left ventricular asymmetry in patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigvardsen, Per Ejlstrup; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Carstensen, Helle Gervig

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Left ventricular (LV) regional hypertrophy in the form of LV asymmetry is a common finding in patients with aortic valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that LV asymmetry predicts future symptomatic status and indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patie......Aims: Left ventricular (LV) regional hypertrophy in the form of LV asymmetry is a common finding in patients with aortic valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that LV asymmetry predicts future symptomatic status and indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR...... by multi-detector computed tomography according to previous definitions. Follow-up was conducted using electronic health records. Event-free survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Patients were followed for a median of 2.2 years (interquartile range 1.6-3.6). Indication for AVR...

  3. Normal range of facial asymmetry in spherical coordinates: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rui Feng [Research Laboratory Specialist Intermediate, Department of Biologic and Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Na, Hee Ja [Dept. ofDental Hygiene, Honam University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Matin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed to measure the bilateral differences of facial lines in spherical coordinates from faces within a normal range of asymmetry utilizing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans from 22 females with normal symmetric-looking faces (mean age 24 years and 8 months) were selected for the study. The average menton deviation was 1.01{+-}0.66 mm. The spherical coordinates, length, and midsagittal and coronal inclination angles of the ramal and mandibular lines were calculated from CBCT. The bilateral differences in the facial lines were determined. All of the study subjects had minimal bilateral differences of facial lines. The normal range of facial asymmetry of the ramal and mandibular lines was obtained in spherical coordinates. The normal range of facial asymmetry in the spherical coordinate system in this study should be useful as a reference for diagnosing facial asymmetry.

  4. Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R; Brown, Christopher W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-09-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Bessel-weighted asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.; Gamberg, L.; Musch, B. U.; Prokudin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation

  6. Natural funnel asymmetries. A simulation analysis of the three basic tools of meta analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent Abdelkader Francois; Paldam, Martin

    Meta-analysis studies a set of estimates of one parameter with three basic tools: The funnel diagram is the distribution of the estimates as a function of their precision; the funnel asymmetry test, FAT; and the meta average, where PET is an estimate. The FAT-PET MRA is a meta regression analysis......, on the data of the funnel, which jointly estimates the FAT and the PET. Ideal funnels are lean and symmetric. Empirical funnels are wide, and most have asymmetries biasing the plain average. Many asymmetries are due to censoring made during the research-publication process. The PET is tooled to correct...... the average for censoring. We show that estimation faults and misspecification may cause natural asymme¬tries, which the PET does not correct. If the MRA includes controls for omitted variables, the PET does correct for omitted variables bias. Thus, it is important to know the reason for an asymmetry....

  7. Asymmetry compensation in a small vampire bat population in a cave: a case study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ueti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the wings are assumed to be symmetrical, since radical departure from symmetry is known to hinder flight. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the symmetry of the wing structure in a population of common vampire bats, Desmodus rotundus. The bones of both wings were measured, and the area of each wing was calculated. Asymmetry was found, with males having a larger number of asymmetric bone structures than females. Moreover, both directional asymmetry and antisymmetry were identified for the males, whereas for the females only fluctuating asymmetry was found. However, although asymmetry does occur, it is generally compensated for by complementary changes in the structures of the other wing. We believe that by keeping the wing area symmetrical, potential aerodynamic problems may be minimized.

  8. Right-handed snakes: convergent evolution of asymmetry for functional specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoso, Masaki; Asami, Takahiro; Hori, Michio

    2007-04-22

    External asymmetry found in diverse animals bears critical functions to fulfil ecological requirements. Some snail-eating arthropods exhibit directional asymmetry in their feeding apparatus for foraging efficiency because dextral (clockwise) species are overwhelmingly predominant in snails. Here, we show convergence of directional asymmetry in the dentition of snail-eating vertebrates. We found that snakes in the subfamily Pareatinae, except for non-snail-eating specialists, have more teeth on the right mandible than the left. In feeding experiments, a snail-eating specialist Pareas iwasakii completed extracting a dextral soft body faster with fewer mandible retractions than a sinistral body. The snakes failed in holding and dropped sinistral snails more often owing to behavioural asymmetry when striking. Our results demonstrate that symmetry break in dentition is a key innovation that has opened a unique ecological niche for snake predators.

  9. Attachment classification, psychophysiology and frontal EEG asymmetry across the lifespan: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years research on physiological response and frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in different patterns of infant and adult attachment has increased. We review research findings regarding associations between attachment classifications and frontal EEG asymmetry, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA). Studies indicate that insecure attachment is related to a heightened adrenocortical activity, heart rate and skin conductance in response to stress, which is consistent with the hypothesis that attachment insecurity leads to impaired emotion regulation. Research on frontal EEG asymmetry also shows a clear difference in the emotional arousal between the attachment groups evidenced by specific frontal asymmetry changes. Furthermore, we discuss neurophysiological evidence of attachment organization and present up-to-date findings of EEG-research with adults. Based on the overall patterns of results presented in this article we identify some major areas of interest and directions for future research. PMID:25745393

  10. Quark structure of the nucleon and angular asymmetry of proton-neutron hard elastic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Carlos G; Sargsian, Misak M

    2009-11-20

    We investigate an asymmetry in the angular distribution of hard elastic proton-neutron scattering with respect to the 90 degrees center of mass scattering angle and demonstrate that it's magnitude is related to the helicity-isospin symmetry of the quark wave function of the nucleon. Our estimate of the asymmetry within the quark-interchange model of hard scattering demonstrates that the quark wave function of a nucleon based on the exact SU(6) symmetry predicts an angular asymmetry opposite to that of experimental observations. We found that the quark wave function based on the diquark picture of the nucleon produces a correct asymmetry. Comparison with the data allowed us to show that the vector diquarks contribute around 10% in the nucleon wave function and they are in negative phase relative to the scalar diquarks. These observations are essential in constraining QCD models of a nucleon.

  11. Age, spreading rates, and spreading asymmetry of the world's ocean crust

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The authors present four companion digital models of the age, age uncertainty, spreading rates and spreading asymmetries of the world's ocean basins as geographic...

  12. Analysis and Interpretation of Transverse Spin Dependent Azimuthal Asymmetries in SIDIS at the COMPASS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2007-01-01

    In general, eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target. In the QCD parton model four of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and other four are twist-three level contributions. Two leading twist transverse spin asymmetries, namely Collins and Sivers effects were already published by HERMES and COMPASS collaborations. While the remaining six new asymmetries have been measured for the first time in COMPASS using a high energy longitudinally polarized muon beam and a transversely polarized deuterium target. In the introductory chapter of this thesis we describe the general expression of the cross-section of polarized SIDIS and review the aspects of the QCD parton model with transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions. Then we define the target transverse spin asymmetries arising in SIDIS and motivate the importance o...

  13. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Milhano, José Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    The di-jet asymmetry --- the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system --- is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator \\jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy ion collisions two additional sources contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable.

  14. Orthognathic Surgery with Simultaneous Autologous Fat Transfer for Correction of Facial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ching; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yueh-Tse; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chang, Chun-Shin; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2017-03-01

    Most patients treated with orthognathic surgery for facial asymmetry would value improvement in residual soft-tissue asymmetry. Autologous fat transfer is widely used to augment facial soft tissue. The authors assessed the effect of combining orthognathic surgery with autologous fat transfer for treating patients with facial asymmetry. In this retrospective study, 15 consecutive adults underwent combined orthognathic surgery and autologous fat transfer between January of 2013 and December of 2015. Lower facial profile symmetry was assessed using postoperative standard frontal photographs. Lower facial symmetry was much improved by combining orthognathic surgery and autologous fat injection. The combined use of orthognathic surgery and autologous fat transfer is a promising technique for improving facial symmetry in patients with facial asymmetry. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Beam-spin Asymmetries from Semi-inclusive Pion Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohn, Wesley P. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Joo, Kyungseon [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Ungaro, Maurizio [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have measured the moment A{sup sin{phi}}{sub LU} corresponding to the polarized electron beam-spin asymmetry in SIDIS. A{sup sin{phi}}{sub LU} is a twist-3 quantity providing information about quark-gluon correlations. Data were taken with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab using a 5.498 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. All three pion channels (pi{sup +}, pi{sup 0} and pi{sup -}) were measured simultaneously over a large range of kinematics within the virtuality range Q{sup 2} ~ 1.0-4.5 GeV{sup 2}. The observable was measured with good statistical precision over a large range of z, P{sub T}, x{sub B}, and Q{sup 2}, which permits comparison with several reaction models. The discussed measurements provide an upgrade in statistics over previous measurements, and serve as the first evidence for the negative sign of the {pi}{sup -} sin{phi} Moment.

  16. Trust, the asymmetry principle, and the role of prior beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2004-12-01

    Within the risk literature there is an ongoing debate on whether trust is vulnerable or enduring. Previous research on nuclear energy by Slovic in 1993 has shown that negative events have much greater impact on self-reported trust than do positive events. Slovic attributes this to the asymmetry principle: specifically, that trust is much easier to destroy than to create. In a questionnaire survey concerning genetically modified (GM) food in Britain (n= 396) we similarly find that negative events have a greater impact on trust than positive events. Because public opinion in Britain is skewed in the direction of opposition toward GM food, the pattern of results could either be caused by the fact that negative information is more informative than positive information (a negativity bias) or reflect the influence of people's prior attitudes toward the issue (a confirmatory bias). The results were largely in line with the confirmatory bias hypothesis: participants with clear positive or negative beliefs interpreted events in line with their existing attitude position. However, for participants with intermediate attitudes, negative items still had greater impact than the positive. This latter finding suggests that, congruent with the negativity bias hypothesis, negative information may still be more informative than positive information for undecided people. The study also identified the labeling of GM products, consulting the public, making biotechnology companies liable for any damage, and making a test available to detect GM produce as being particularly important preconditions for maintaining trust in the regulation of agricultural biotechnology.

  17. The European power industry : asymmetries and price volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel, M.; Soares, R.T. [Porto Univ., Porto (Portugal). Faculty of Economics

    2005-07-01

    A time series model was used to obtain empirical evidence on the spot price volatility of the Spanish electricity market. The model was based on a single market operator and 2 system operators. A generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model was used to model and forecast conditional variances related to the spot price volatility of the Spanish electricity market. A correlogram analysis was used to model the processes behind the time series. Autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions were used to demonstrate that the the derived electricity spot price series was not a random walk. Lags in various areas were attributed to the fact that a large proportion of electricity is consumed by industry. Weekly cycles justified values presented by a lags multiple of 7. Results of the modelling study showed that the method can be used in the risk management of electricity portfolios as well as in the pricing and hedging of different types of derivatives in electricity markets. It was concluded that further work is needed to reduce instability and asymmetries between generators, consumers and regulators. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Measurement of double polarisation asymmetries in ω-photoproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Eberhardt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of the beam-target-helicity-asymmetries E and G in the photoproduction of ω-mesons off protons at the CBELSA/TAPS experiment are reported. E (G was measured using circularly (linearly polarised photons and a longitudinally polarised target. E was measured over the photon energy range from close to threshold (Eγ=1108 MeV to Eγ=2300 MeV and G at a single energy interval of 1108

  19. Can pterygoid plate asymmetry be linked to temporomandibular joint disorders ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Jacobs, Reinhilde [OIC, OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Beltran, Jorge [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Post-Graduate School, Universidad Privada Cayetano Heredia, Lima (Peru); Laat, Antoon [Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dept. of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between pterygoid plate asymmetry and temporomandibular joint disorders. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 60 patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involving pain were analyzed and compared with images of 60 age- and gender-matched controls. Three observers performed linear measurements of the lateral pterygoid plates. Statistically significant differences were found between measurements of the lateral pterygoid plates on the site that had pain and the contralateral site (p<0.05). The average length of the lateral pterygoid plates (LPPs) in patients with TMD was 17.01±3.64 mm on the right side and 16.21±3.51 mm on the left side, and in patients without TMD, it was 11.86±1.97 mm on the right side and 11.98±1.85 mm on the left side. Statistically significant differences in the LPP length, measured on CBCT, were found between patients with and without TMD (p<0.05). The inter-examiner reliability obtained in this study was very high for all the examiners (0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). Within the limits of the present study, CBCT lateral pterygoid plate measurements at the side with TMD were found to be significantly different from those on the side without TMD. More research is needed to explore potential etiological correlations and implications for treatment.

  20. Photometric Asymmetry Between Clockwise and Counterclockwise Spiral Galaxies in SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-02-01

    While galaxies with clockwise and counterclockwise handedness are visually different, they are expected to be symmetric in all of their other characteristics. Previous experiments using both manual analysis and machine vision have shown that the handedness of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies can be predicted with accuracy significantly higher than mere chance using its photometric data alone. However, some of these previous experiments were based on manually classified galaxies, and the results may therefore be subjected to bias originated from the human perception. This paper describes an experiment based on a set of 162,514 galaxies classified automatically to clockwise and counterclockwise spiral galaxies, showing that the source of the asymmetry in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is not the human perception bias. The results are compared to two smaller datasets, and confirm the observation that the handedness of SDSS galaxies can be predicted by their photometry. The experiment also shows statistically significant differences in the measured magnitude of SDSS galaxies, according which galaxies with clockwise patterns are brighter than galaxies with counterclockwise patterns. The magnitude of that difference changes across RA ranges, and exhibits a strong correlation with the cosine of the right ascension.

  1. Asymmetry in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Sokai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF results in poor survival. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the impact of asymmetrical ground-glass opacity (GGO and/or consolidation on outcomes in patients with AE-IPF. The cases of 59 consecutive patients with AE-IPF were retrospectively reviewed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT at diagnosis of an AE was assessed to determine the disease extent and asymmetry. Asymmetrical AE was defined as a right-to-left ratio of GGO and consolidation ≥2.0 or ≤0.5. The impacts of HRCT indices and other clinical parameters on 180-day mortality were analysed. The overall 180-day mortality rate was 59.2%, and asymmetrical AE was observed in 13 patients (22.0%. A multivariate analysis revealed that asymmetrical AE was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality (hazard ratio=0.36, p=0.047, long-term oxygen therapy before AE and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The 180-day mortality of patients with asymmetrical AE was significantly lower than that of patients with symmetrical AE (asymmetrical AE 30.8% versus symmetrical AE 68.2%, p=0.03. An asymmetrical distribution of GGO and/or consolidation is a predictor of survival in patients with AE-IPF.

  2. Otolith mass asymmetry: natural, and after weightlessness and hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    It is believed that otolith mass asymmetry (OA) can play an essential role in genesis of vestibular space disturbances in human subjects and fish. This review poster presents data on values and characters of OA in animals of various species and classes and on the effect of weightlessness and hypergravity on OA; the issue of the effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions also is considered (Lychakov, Rebane, 2004, 2005; Lychakov et al., 2006, 2008). In symmetric vertebrates, OA was shown to be fluctuating, its coefficient chiχ ranges from - 0.2 to + 0.2 (±± 20%). It should be stressed that in the overwhelming majority of individuals absolute values of chiχ selection. Unlike symmetric vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA. Otoliths in the lower labyrinth, on average, are significantly heavier than those in the upper labyrinth. The organs of flatfish represent the only example when OA, being directional, seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the source of sound. The short-term weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity (> 3g as well as some diseases and age-related changes can indirectly enhance OA and cause some functional disturbances. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  3. Effect of negative and positive emotions on EEG spectral asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgo, L; Bachmann, M; Lass, J; Hinrikus, H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral asymmetry index (SASI) for discrimination of the effect of negative and positive emotions on human brain bioelectrical activity. SASI has been previously proposed as a method to detect depression based on the balance of EEG theta and beta frequency band powers. Emotions were evoked on 22 healthy subjects using emotional pictures portraying humans from International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and late response to stimuli was examined (1700-2200 ms). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 30 channels divided into 10 brain regions: left frontal, right frontal, left temporal, right temporal, frontal, frontocentral, central, centroparietal, parietal and occipital. Negative stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli, significantly increased SASI in frontocentral, central, centroparietal, parietal and occipital areas. Positive stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli, significantly decreased SASI in left temporal, centroparietal, parietal and occipital areas. The results indicate that SASI provides a good discrimination between the effects of negative, neutral and positive emotions on human EEG.

  4. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in semileptonic Bs decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have performed the first direct measurement of the time integrated flavor untagged charge asymmetry in semileptonic B{sub s}{sup 0} decays, A{sub SL}{sup a,unt}, by comparing the decay rate of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -}{nu}X, where D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup -} and {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}, with the charge-conjugate {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} decay rate. This sample was selected from 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. They obtain A{sub SL}{sup a,unt} = [1.23 {+-} 0.97(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst)] x 10{sup -2}. Assuming that {Delta}m{sub s}/{bar {Lambda}}{sub s} >> 1 and {Delta}{Lambda}{sub a}/(2{bar {Lambda}}{sub s}) < 1, this result can be translated into a measurement on the CP-violating phase in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing: {Delta}{Lambda}{sub s}/{Delta}m{sub s} {center_dot} tan {phi}{sub s} = [2.45 {+-} 1.93(stat) {+-} 0.35(syst)] x 10{sup -2}.

  5. Analysis of Neutral Pion Helicity Asymmetry with the STAR Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Alec; Strand, Noah; STAR Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The gluon contribution to the proton spin is poorly constrained compared to the quark contribution. To further constrain the gluon contribution, the STAR collaboration at RHIC analyzes the asymmetry in neutral pion (π0) production as a function of spin alignment in longitudinally polarized proton beam collisions. These π0s mostly decay into photon pairs, some of which are identified in the Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) within the STAR detector. The EEMC has a pseudorapidity range of 1 < η < 2 with full azimuthal coverage. The EEMC's Shower Max Detector (SMD) determines the positions of photon showers. A first step in identifying photons is reconstructing clusters of energy in each layer of the SMD. Knowing the position and energy of these photons allows us to reconstruct the π0s they decayed from. From these reconstructed π0s, a corrected count is determined by fitting signal and background templates from Monte Carlo simulation to the π0 candidate invariant mass distributions. We will describe the state of our analysis on the √{ s} = 510 GeV dataset from 2012 (integrated luminosity 82 pb-1) including cluster identification, Monte Carlo simulation, and data. We will also give a first glimpse of the 2013 dataset (300 pb-1).

  6. New measurements of transverse spin asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzi, F

    2012-01-01

    The study of transverse momentum effects and transverse spin structure of the nucleon is an important part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The transverse effects are investigated via semi inclusive DIS reactions with a 160 GeV /c muon beam impinging on transversely polarised targets. The hadrons produced in the reactions are detected in a wide momentum and angular range by a two-stage spectrometer. A deuterium target has been used in the first part of COMPASS data taking from 2002 to 2004, while a proton target has been used in 2007 and 2010. Here we present the recent results obtained from the 2010 data on different channels, involving the azimuthal distribution of single hadrons and the azimuthal dependence of the plane cont aining hadron pairs. The results confirm the published results of the 2007 data taking with an improved statistical significance; the measured azimuthal asymmetries are clearly non zero, at variance with those measured on a deuterium targ...

  7. Entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter from heavy neutrino decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Schmitz, K.; Vertongen, G.

    2011-04-15

    The origin of the hot phase of the early universe remains so far an unsolved puzzle. A viable option is entropy production through the decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos whose lifetimes determine the initial temperature. We show that baryogenesis and the production of dark matter are natural by-products of this mechanism. As is well known, the cosmological baryon asymmetry can be accounted for by lepto- genesis for characteristic neutrino mass parameters. We nd that thermal gravitino production then automatically yields the observed amount of dark matter, for the gravitino as the lightest superparticle and typical gluino masses. As an example, we consider the production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the course of tachyonic preheating associated with spontaneous B-L breaking. A quantitative analysis leads to contraints on the superparticle masses in terms of neutrino masses: For a light neutrino mass of 10{sup -5} eV the gravitino mass can be as small as 200 MeV, whereas a lower neutrino mass bound of 0.01 eV implies a lower bound of 9 GeV on the gravitino mass. The measurement of a light neutrino mass of 0.1 eV would rule out heavy neutrino decays as the origin of entropy, visible and dark matter. (orig.)

  8. Actor/observer asymmetry in risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez-Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Are people willing to gamble more for themselves than what they deem reasonable for others? We addressed this question in a simplified computer gambling task in which subjects chose from a set of 10 cards. Subjects selected one card at a time after being instructed that 9 cards were good (win a dollar per card and one was really bad (lose all the money and end the game. Subjects could stop playing at any time to collect their winnings. Some subjects played the game, others observed a confederate. Both groups took risks beyond what was rational (i.e., 5 cards but extit{actors} were riskier than extit{observers}. The actor/observer asymmetry occurred even after controlling for monetary outcome (i.e., having observers win prizes and after controlling for how the question was framed (i.e., asking observers what they themselves extit{would} do as opposed to what the confederate extit{should} do. We discuss these results in relation to theories of decision making that emphasize separate contributions of rational and experiential systems.

  9. Baryon asymmetry generation in the E6CHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, R.; Thomas, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    In the E6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) the strongly interacting sector possesses an SU (6) global symmetry which is expected to be broken down to its SU (5) subgroup at the scale f ≳ 10 TeV. This breakdown results in a set of pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) that includes one Standard Model (SM) singlet scalar, a SM-like Higgs doublet and an SU(3)C triplet of scalar fields, T. In the E6CHM the Z2L symmetry, which is a discrete subgroup of the U(1)L associated with lepton number conservation, can be used to forbid operators which lead to rapid proton decay. The remaining baryon number violating operators are sufficiently strongly suppressed because of the large value of the scale f. We argue that in this variant of the E6CHM a sizeable baryon number asymmetry can be induced if CP is violated. At the same time, the presence of the SU(3)C scalar triplet with mass in the few TeV range may give rise to spectacular new physics signals that may be detected at the LHC in the near future.

  10. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraoka Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue

  11. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  12. Asymmetries in the Magnetosheath Field Draping on Venus' Nightside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, M.; Volwerk, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Bertucci, C.

    2017-10-01

    Draping features of the interplanetary magnetic field around nonmagnetic bodies, especially Venus, have been studied in detail in numerical simulations and also from observations. Existing analytical and numerical work for nonperpendicular interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind velocity direction show a kink in the draped fieldlines in the near magnetosheath on the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. Here long-term magnetic field data from the Venus Express mission (2006-2014) are analyzed in the near-nightside region of the magnetosheath, searching for differences in the draping pattern between the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular side of the shock. From these magnetometer (MAG) data, the kink in the fieldlines occurring only on the quasi-parallel side is clearly identified from the change of sign in the field component parallel to the solar wind velocity. Furthermore, an asymmetry in the deflection of the out-of-plane field component due to the slipping of the fieldlines over the planetary obstacle is also found, which confirms predictions from numeral studies and from earlier work.

  13. Kinematic asymmetries of the lower limbs during ergometer rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, Erica; Hislop, Simon; Bull, Anthony; McGregor, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Rowing injuries, particularly of the lumbar spine, are often attributed to poor technique. Rowing technique comprises a series of coordinated movements between the back, upper limbs, and lower limbs, and abnormalities in these may lead to injury. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ergometer rowing is symmetrical with respect to lower limb motion and that deviations from symmetry result from rowing experience, work rate, or stroke position. Twenty-two rowers in three levels of ability participated in this study. A motion analysis system was used with an instrumented rowing ergometer, which incorporated load cells at the handle and seat. Kinematic measurements of the knees, hips, lumbar-pelvic joints, and pelvic twist, in addition to measures of handle force, seat force, stroke length, mediolateral seat drift, and mean external power, were made during an incremental step test. Elite rowers exhibited the largest handle force and mean external power (P rowing stroke, particularly at the hips, can contribute to suboptimal kinematics of the lumbar-pelvic region. Quantification of hip ROM asymmetries may therefore be a useful tool in predicting the development of low back pain in rowers.

  14. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

  15. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  16. Triple product asymmetries in Λb and Ξb0 decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gronau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The LHCb experiment is capable of studying four-body decays of the b-flavored baryons Λb and Ξb0 to charmless final states consisting of charged pions, kaons, and baryons. We remark on the search in such modes for CP-violating triple product asymmetries and for CP rate asymmetries relative to decays involving charmed baryons.

  17. Systematic Fuel Cavity Asymmetries in Directly Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. C.; Haines, B. M.; Wysocki, F. J.; Benage, J. F.; Fooks, J. A.; Glebov, V.; Hakel, P.; Hoppe, M.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Kagan, G.; Mancini, R. C.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Murphy, T. J.; Schoff, M. E.; Silverstein, K.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2017-03-01

    We present narrow-band self-emission x-ray images from a titanium tracer layer placed at the fuel-shell interface in 60-laser-beam implosion experiments at the OMEGA facility. The images are acquired during deceleration with inferred convergences of ˜9 - 14. Novel here is that a systematically observed asymmetry of the emission is linked, using full sphere 3D implosion modeling, to performance-limiting low mode asymmetry of the drive.

  18. Attachment classification, psychophysiology and frontal EEG asymmetry across the lifespan: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela eGander; Anna eBuchheim

    2015-01-01

    In recent years research on physiological response and frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in different patterns of infant and adult attachment has increased. We review research findings regarding associations between attachment classifications and frontal EEG asymmetry, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA). Studies indicate that insecure attachment is related to a heightened adrenocortical activity, heart rate and skin conduc...

  19. New lower-limb gait asymmetry indices based on a depth camera

    OpenAIRE

    Edouard Auvinet; Franck Multon; Jean Meunier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. Methods: To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerl...

  20. Frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder is associated with alexithymia

    OpenAIRE

    Flasbeck, Vera; Popkirov, Stoyan; Brüne, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Frontal EEG asymmetry is a widely studied correlate of emotion processing and psychopathology. Recent research suggests that frontal EEG asymmetry during resting state is related to approach/withdrawal motivation and is also found in affective disorders such as major depressive disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show aberrant behavior in relation to both approach and withdrawal motivation, which may arguably be associated with their difficulties in emotio...

  1. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  2. Force coordination strategies in on-water single sculling: Are asymmetries related to better rowing performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Richard; Draper, Conny; Harrison, Andrew; Bargary, Norma; Cobley, Stephen

    2017-12-09

    Asymmetries of the rowing stroke cycle have been assessed with reference to kinematics and foot-force measures in laboratory testing environments. It remains unclear how asymmetries in propulsive kinetic measures are related to on-water rowing performance. A new approach for the evaluation of both global and local asymmetries across the entire movement was used to assess the continuous role of asymmetries and whether these change according to level of competitive representation. Twenty seven highly skilled female rowers (national and international competition level), rowing at 32 strokes per minute in a single scull boat were evaluated. A symmetry index (SI) and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques were applied to a continuous difference time-series, which described fluctuating asymmetry in propulsive pin forces for each rower. Univariate ANOVAs revealed that differences in asymmetries were present as a factor of competition level for the SI and results of FDA. International athletes were more likely to utilize an asymmetry strategy with increased stroke-side (port-side) force early in the drive phase, and increased bow-side (starboard) force through the second half of the drive. This was likely the result of international performers customizing their movement strategies relative to known boat mechanical offsets. The first half of the drive phase was also found to be an adaptive part of the rowing stroke cycle, suggesting asymmetries may have a functional role in successful execution of movements during the rowing stroke. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of sensorimotor cortical representation asymmetries and motor skills in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2007-12-01

    As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.

  4. Changes of Fluctuating Asymmetry with Age in Human Fetuses and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Van Dongen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA, increases with stress in humans, yet little is known about how stress affects the changes of asymmetry with age. More specifically, it is unknown if fetuses experiencing a major congenital abnormality will express higher FA already during early development or only at a later age; (2 Methods: We combine two datasets to study associations between age and asymmetry in human fetuses and young infants. One population consists of fetuses from spontaneous abortions and early deceased infants where many experienced major congenital abnormalities, and a second from elicited abortions for social reasons; (3 Results: While the occurrence of major abnormalities did not seem to affect the way asymmetry decreased with age, differences between the two populations were observed; and (4 Conclusions: In one population where fetuses and young infants deceased of natural causes, asymmetry decreased rapidly until 20 weeks of age and then leveled off. Over the entire timespan (week 15–49, individuals with major congenital abnormalities showed higher FA, suggesting that developmental perturbations increase FA rapidly. In the second, more normal population with abortions solicited for social reasons, the decrease in asymmetry with age was less profound and not statistically significant, calling for further research toward understanding regional differences.

  5. Robust and regional 3D facial asymmetry assessment in hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M; Claes, P; Kakulas, E; Clement, J G

    2013-01-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) and hemimandibular elongation (HE) anomalies present with facial asymmetry and deranged occlusion. Currently, diagnosis and assessment of the facial dysmorphology is based on subjective clinical evaluation, supported by radiological scans. Advancements in objective assessments of facial asymmetry from three-dimensional (3D) facial scans facilitate a re-evaluation of the patterns of facial dysmorphology. Automated, robust and localised asymmetry assessments were obtained by comparing a 3D facial scan with its reflected image using a weighted least-squares superimposition. This robust superimposition is insensitive to severe asymmetries. This provides an estimation of the anatomical midline and a spatially dense vector map visualising localised directional differences between the left and right hemifaces. Analysis was conducted on three condylar hyperplasia phenotypes confirmed by clinical and CT evaluation: HH; HE; and hybrid phenotype. The midline extraction revealed chin point displacements in all cases. The upper lip philtrum and nose tip deviation to the affected side and a marked asymmetry of the mid face was noted in cases involving HE. Downward and medial rotation of the mandible with minor involvement of the midface was seen in the HH associated deformity. The hybrid phenotype case exhibited asymmetry features of both HH and HE cases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yield asymmetry design of magnesium alloys by integrated computational materials engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [Qatar Foundation Research adn Development (Qatar); Ahzi, Said [Univ. of Strasbourg (France)

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in the automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to texture and grain size. A polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, modified intermediate Φ-model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry via thermomechanical processing. For example, CYS/TYS in rolled texture is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In other textures, such as extruded texture, CYS/TYS is large along the normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, asymmetry will increase to close to 1 along the rolling direction after being compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our modified Φ-model also shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Along with texture control, grain refinement also can optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreases to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 because CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  7. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  8. LHCb; Measurement of the forward-central $b \\bar{b}$ production asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Salustino Guimarães, V

    2013-01-01

    CDF and D0 collaborations results suggests that the top-quark forward-backward production asymmetry is much larger than the Standard Model (SM) predictions. Measuring the $b \\bar{b}$ asymmetry production would provide constraint on the flavor structure of any model that attempts to explain the CDF and D0 results. A measurement of the forward-central (FC) $b\\bar{b}$ production asymmetry is presented based on the LHCb data collected in 2011 at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ using selected events that have two identified $b$ jets, one of which is flavor tagged by one muon with high momentum. The FC asymmetry is defined as \\begin{align} A^{b \\bar{b}}_{FC}=\\frac{N(\\Delta y > 0)-N(\\Delta y 0)+N(\\Delta y 100$ GeV the expected asymmetry is about $\\cal{O}$(0.1 %) where gluon fusion which has no asymmetry is less dominant at high mass.

  9. Genetic specification of left–right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoy, Camille; Dinvaut, Sarah; Chaix, Yohan; Morlé, Laurette; Sanyas, Isabelle; Bozon, Muriel; Kindbeiter, Karine; Durand, Bénédicte; Skidmore, Jennifer M; De Groef, Lies; Seki, Motoaki; Moons, Lieve; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left–right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs. We further found that phrenic motoneurons receive an early L/R genetic imprint, with L versus R differences both in Slit/Robo signaling and MMP2 activity and in the contribution of both pathways to establish phrenic nerve asymmetry. Our study therefore demonstrates L–R imprinting of spinal motoneurons and describes how L/R modulation of axon guidance signaling helps to match neural circuit formation to organ asymmetry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18481.001 PMID:28639940

  10. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, William M; Morris, Andrew P; Evans, David M; Scerri, Thomas S; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Smith, George Davey; Ring, Susan M; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P; Talcott, Joel B; Fisher, Simon E; Webber, Caleb; Paracchini, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9)), is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666). As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR) asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%). We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%). Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  11. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  12. Influence of rectal prolapse on the asymmetry of the anal sphincter in patients with anal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Xavier

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal sphincter defects have been shown to increase pressure asymmetry within the anal canal in patients with fecal incontinence. However, this correlation is far from perfect, and other factors may play a role. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of rectal prolapse on anal pressure asymmetry in patients with anal incontinence. Methods 44 patients, (42 women, mean age: 64 (11 years, complaining of anal incontinence, underwent anal vector manometry, endo-anal ultrasonography (to assess sphincter defects and pelvic viscerogram (for the diagnosis of rectal prolapse. Resting and squeeze anal pressures, and anal asymmetry index at rest and during voluntary squeeze were determined by vector manometry. Results Ultrasonography identified 19 anal sphincter defects; there were 9 cases of overt rectal prolapse, and 14 other cases revealed by pelvic viscerogram (recto-anal intussuception. Patients with rectal prolapse had a significantly higher anal sphincter asymmetry index at rest, whether patients with anal sphincter defects were included in the analysis or not (30 (3 % versus 20 (2 %, p Conclusions In anal incontinent patients, anal asymmetry index may be increased in case of anal sphincter defect and/or rectal prolapse. In the absence of anal sphincter defect at ultrasonogaphy, an increased anal asymmetry index at rest may point to the presence of a rectal prolapse.

  13. Cerebellar Asymmetry and Cortical Connectivity in Monozygotic Twins with Discordant Handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, R E; Cowell, P E; Gurd, J M

    2017-10-23

    Handedness differentiates patterns of neural asymmetry and interhemispheric connectivity in cortical systems that underpin manual and language functions. Contemporary models of cerebellar function incorporate complex motor behaviour and higher-order cognition, expanding upon earlier, traditional associations between the cerebellum and motor control. Structural MRI defined cerebellar volume asymmetries and correlations with corpus callosum (CC) size were compared in 19 pairs of adult female monozygotic twins strongly discordant for handedness (MZHd). Volume and asymmetry of cerebellar lobules were obtained using automated parcellation.CC area and regional widths were obtained from midsagittal planimetric measurements. Within the cerebellum and CC, neurofunctional distinctions were drawn between motor and higher-order cognitive systems. Relationships amongst regional cerebellar asymmetry and cortical connectivity (as indicated by CC widths) were investigated. Interactions between hemisphere and handedness in the anterior cerebellum were due to a larger right-greater-than-left hemispheric asymmetry in right-handed (RH) compared to left-handed (LH) twins. In LH twins only, anterior cerebellar lobule volumes (IV, V) for motor control were associated with CC size, particularly in callosal regions associated with motor cortex connectivity. Superior posterior cerebellar lobule volumes (VI, Crus I, Crus II, VIIb) showed no correlation with CC size in either handedness group. These novel results reflected distinct patterns of cerebellar-cortical relationships delineated by specific CC regions and an anterior-posterior cerebellar topographical mapping. Hence, anterior cerebellar asymmetry may contribute to the greater degree of bilateral cortical organisation of frontal motor function in LH individuals.

  14. Integral steric asymmetry in the inelastic scattering of NO(X2Π).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, M; Gordon, S D S; Hackett Boyle, A; Heid, C G; Nichols, B; Walpole, V; Aoiz, F J; Stolte, S

    2017-01-07

    The integral steric asymmetry for the inelastic scattering of NO(X) by a variety of collision partners was recorded using a crossed molecular beam apparatus. The initial state of the NO(X, v = 0, j = 1/2, Ω=1/2, ϵ=-1,f) molecule was selected using a hexapole electric field, before the NO bond axis was oriented in a static electric field, allowing probing of the scattering of the collision partner at either the N- or O-end of the molecule. Scattered NO molecules were state selectively probed using (1 + 1') resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionisation, coupled with velocity-map ion imaging. Experimental integral steric asymmetries are presented for NO(X) + Ar, for both spin-orbit manifolds, and Kr, for the spin-orbit conserving manifold. The integral steric asymmetry for spin-orbit conserving and changing transitions of the NO(X) + O2 system is also presented. Close-coupled quantum mechanical scattering calculations employing well-tested ab initio potential energy surfaces were able to reproduce the steric asymmetry observed for the NO-rare gas systems. Quantum mechanical scattering and quasi-classical trajectory calculations were further used to help interpret the integral steric asymmetry for NO + O2. Whilst the main features of the integral steric asymmetry of NO with the rare gases are also observed for the O2 collision partner, some subtle differences provide insight into the form of the underlying potentials for the more complex system.

  15. Opt2 mediates the exposure of phospholipids during cellular adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Saori; Obara, Keisuke; Uchibori, Kenya; Kamimura, Akiko; Azumi, Kaoru; Kihara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane lipid asymmetry is important for various membrane-associated functions and is regulated by membrane proteins termed flippases and floppases. The Rim101 pathway senses altered lipid asymmetry in the yeast plasma membrane. The mutant lem3Δ cells, in which lipid asymmetry is disturbed owing to the inactivation of the plasma membrane flippases, showed a severe growth defect when the Rim101 pathway was impaired. To identify factors involved in the Rim101-pathway-dependent adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry, we performed DNA microarray analysis and found that Opt2 induced by the Rim101 pathway plays an important role in the adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry. Biochemical investigation of Opt2 revealed its localization to the plasma membrane and the Golgi, and provided several lines of evidence for the Opt2-mediated exposure of phospholipids. In addition, Opt2 was found to be required for the maintenance of vacuolar morphology and polarized cell growth. These results suggest that Opt2 is a novel factor involved in cell homeostasis by regulating lipid asymmetry. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Evidence for a Mass Dependent Forward-Backward Asymmetry in Top Quark Pair Production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J.P.; Chung, W.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Ciobanu, C.I.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; De Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H.C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M.J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J.E.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jha, M.K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, H.W.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R.L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, S.W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Lin, C.J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D.O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martinez, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M.S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Griso, S.Pagan; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A.A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D.E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R.St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G.L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G.A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzman, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R.L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W.C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.S.; Yun, J.C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the inclusive forward-backward t-tbar production asymmetry and its rapidity and mass dependence. The measurements are performed with 5.3 fb^{-1} of p-pbar collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV, recorded with CDF II at the Fermilab Tevatron. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in the laboratory and t-tbar rest frame, and are consistent with CP conservation under interchange of t and tbar. In the t-tbar rest frame, the asymmetry increases with the t-tbar rapidity difference, \\Delta(y), and with the invariant mass M_{t-tbar} of the t-tbar system. Parton-level asymmetries are derived in two regions of each variable, and the asymmetry is found to be most significant at large \\Delta(y) and M_{t-tbar}. For M_{t-tbar} > 450 GeV/c^2, the parton-level asymmetry in the t-tbar rest frame is A^{t-tbar} = 0.475\\pm 0.114 compared to a next-to-leading order QCD prediction of 0.088\\pm 0.013.

  17. Effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use during adolescence on hippocampal volume and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J; Tapert, Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Participants were adolescent (aged 15-18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (palcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right>left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (pverbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents.

  18. Genetic specification of left-right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoy, Camille; Dinvaut, Sarah; Chaix, Yohan; Morlé, Laurette; Sanyas, Isabelle; Bozon, Muriel; Kindbeiter, Karine; Durand, Bénédicte; Skidmore, Jennifer M; De Groef, Lies; Seki, Motoaki; Moons, Lieve; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valerie

    2017-06-22

    The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs. We further found that phrenic motoneurons receive an early L/R genetic imprint, with L versus R differences both in Slit/Robo signaling and MMP2 activity and in the contribution of both pathways to establish phrenic nerve asymmetry. Our study therefore demonstrates L-R imprinting of spinal motoneurons and describes how L/R modulation of axon guidance signaling helps to match neural circuit formation to organ asymmetry.

  19. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993–2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future.

  20. A Study Of Facial Asymmetries By The Stereometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crete, N.; Deloison, Y.; Mollard, R.

    1980-07-01

    In order to determine the part played in facial dissymmetry observed on a living person by the various constitutive elements of the cephalic tip (the soft parts - skin, muscles and the underlying bone structure) we undertook, using a biostereometric method, to evaluate asymmetries between homologous right and left dimensions on a living person's face and on a skeleton. While in an individual, a marked degree of facial dissymmetry can sometimes be observed; average differences between the right and left sides of the face may nethertheless balance out, and remain slight. Conventional anthropometrics techniques do not show up such slight values. With a view to securing a higher degree of accuracy, study of the stereometric technique of measurements. Using this technique, quasi imperceptible differences between the right and the left sides of the face on a living person as well as on a skeleton, together with variations in the orientation or angulation of anatomical segments in a three-dimensional space can be measured. We were thus able to detect, in a number of dry skulls, average differences of approxi-mately a millimetre between the two sides of the face which cannot be attributed to back of accuracy in measurements. Although statistically the difference are not always significant, the para-metric values of facial dimensions are invariably greater for the left side. On the other hand, for the sample of living subjects as a whole, the differences between homologous distances are not statistically significant. But it may be that, on a living subject, the experimenter is inclined to take measurements that are susceptible of symmetrization (for instance, the nasion in the median sagittal plane) whereas on a dry skull anatomical reference marks can be determined with the utmost accuracy. It may be inferred from there results that the softer parts tend, as a rule, to correct the dissymmetry of the underlying skeleton.

  1. GENDER ASYMMETRY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Makarova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article deals with the gender role in the management of Russian universities. Materials and Methods: the authors used statistical and sociological methods of evaluating the Russian university management environment to find out composition and role of women directors in the institution of higher education. Results: the women are less able to influence decision-making processes at universities, although the share of women among top managers of higher education institutions tends to increase for last fifteen years, namely: at positions of deans of faculties – by 18%, at positions of vice rectors and managers of departments – by 15%, at rector positions – by 8%. That allows to state about active involvement of women into the higher education institution management. Besides, the barriers interfering with the women’s career development in the higher education are examined in the article. Firstly, the external factors which do not depend on women (gender stereotypes concerning female heads, gender asymmetry, informal arrangements on exclusively male vacancies, intervention of relatives capable to suppress career aspiration, secondly, the internal factors typical of women (need to be implemented in family life; unavailability to undertake responsibility; underestimation of personal leader potential. Primary groups of increase factors in personal competitiveness of female heads are identified.. Discussion and Conclusions: the authors draw conclusions on gender equality in the Russian universities management. They provide direction for the implementation of special gender researches. The article may be interesting to the experts investigating the problems of the higher education institution management and may be useful for administrative staff of the Russian universities, in particular, for women occupying the seniour management positions.

  2. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rübsamen Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing. In this paradigm, sounds are played directly from behind and the direction of turn is recorded. This assay rests on the assumption that a hemispheric asymmetry in processing is coupled to an orienting bias towards the contralateral side. To examine this largely untested assumption, speech stimuli as well as artificial sounds were presented to 224 right-handed human subjects shopping in supermarkets in Germany and in the UK. To verify the lateralized processing of the speech stimuli, we additionally assessed the brain activation in response to presentation of the different stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results In the naturalistic behavioural experiments, there was no difference in orienting behaviour in relation to the stimulus material (speech, artificial sounds. Contrary to our predictions, subjects revealed a significant left bias, irrespective of the sound category. This left bias was slightly but not significantly stronger in German subjects. The fMRI experiments confirmed that the speech stimuli evoked a significant left lateralized activation in BA44 compared to the artificial sounds. Conclusion These findings suggest that in adult humans, orienting biases are not necessarily coupled with lateralized processing of acoustic stimuli. Our results – as well as the inconsistent orienting biases found in different animal species – suggest that the orienting assay should be used with caution. Apparently, attention biases, experience, and experimental conditions may all affect head turning

  3. Planetary dynamo energies for paleomagnetic intensity, scaling, inversions and asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starchenko, S. V.

    2014-04-01

    I derive, simplify and analyze integral evolutional laws of the kinetic, magnetic, and an original orientation energies in the liquid core of the Earth or another Earth's type planet. These integral laws are reduced to the rude but simplest system of three ordinary differential equations for cross-helicity Z, root-mean square averaged magnetic field Y and velocity X. This system is controlled by the relatively well-known convection power W and other parameters. Estimates are obtained for the characteristic velocities, magnetic fields, periods and scales depending on the convection power at the stable states and near the inversion/excursion where the above system has its stationary (market by s) points. It was shown that for the implementation of this short-time inversion/excursion the convection power should achieve some rare value, while a normal deviation from this value results in longer-time stable period. Here the inversion is a global process when the volume integral of the scalar product of convective velocity on the magnetic field changes sign. So, the inversions and asymmetries are due to two types of stable states. Named as "lined" is a state with the magnetic field predominantly directed along velocity, while "contra lined" state is with their opposite direction. The lined state is characterized by smaller convection power and magnetic field in contrast to the contra lined state. The duration of the lined state is likely smaller than the duration of opposite state when the geodynamo power gradually increases with time, while for decreasing power it is vice versa. Basing on the obtained results I estimate how diffusion can determine the average period between geomagnetic reversals due to turbulent, thermal, electromagnetic and critical viscositycompositional processes. Predominant in this process, in many cases, can be identified from the dependence of the reversal frequency on the magnetic field intensity from paleomagnetic data. The data available to me

  4. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pushpendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 % has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027 in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern’s systematics.

  5. Measuring symmetry, asymmetry and randomness in neural network connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Esposito

    Full Text Available Cognitive functions are stored in the connectome, the wiring diagram of the brain, which exhibits non-random features, so-called motifs. In this work, we focus on bidirectional, symmetric motifs, i.e. two neurons that project to each other via connections of equal strength, and unidirectional, non-symmetric motifs, i.e. within a pair of neurons only one neuron projects to the other. We hypothesise that such motifs have been shaped via activity dependent synaptic plasticity processes. As a consequence, learning moves the distribution of the synaptic connections away from randomness. Our aim is to provide a global, macroscopic, single parameter characterisation of the statistical occurrence of bidirectional and unidirectional motifs. To this end we define a symmetry measure that does not require any a priori thresholding of the weights or knowledge of their maximal value. We calculate its mean and variance for random uniform or Gaussian distributions, which allows us to introduce a confidence measure of how significantly symmetric or asymmetric a specific configuration is, i.e. how likely it is that the configuration is the result of chance. We demonstrate the discriminatory power of our symmetry measure by inspecting the eigenvalues of different types of connectivity matrices. We show that a Gaussian weight distribution biases the connectivity motifs to more symmetric configurations than a uniform distribution and that introducing a random synaptic pruning, mimicking developmental regulation in synaptogenesis, biases the connectivity motifs to more asymmetric configurations, regardless of the distribution. We expect that our work will benefit the computational modelling community, by providing a systematic way to characterise symmetry and asymmetry in network structures. Further, our symmetry measure will be of use to electrophysiologists that investigate symmetry of network connectivity.

  6. An asymmetry of translational biological motion perception in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin eHastings

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Biological motion perception is served by a network of regions in the occipital, posterior temporal and parietal lobe, overlapping areas of reduced cortical volume in schizophrenia. The atrophy in these regions is assumed to account for deficits in biological motion perception described in schizophrenia but it is unknown whether the asymmetry of atrophy described in previous studies has a perceptual correlate. Here we look for possible differences in sensitivity to leftwards and rightwards translation of point-light biological motion in data collected for a previous study and explore its underlying neurobiology using functional imaging. Methods n=64 patients with schizophrenia and n=64 controls performed a task requiring the detection of leftward or rightward biological motion using a standard psychophysical staircase procedure. 6 control subjects took part in the functional imaging experiment. Results We found a deficit of leftward but not rightward biological motion (leftward biological motion % accuracy patients = 57.9%±14.3; controls = 63.6%±11.3 p=0.01; rightward biological motion patients = 62.7%±12.4; controls = 64.1%±11.7; p>0.05. The deficit reflected differences in distribution of leftward and rightward accuracy bias in the two populations. Directional bias correlated with functional outcome as measured by the Role Functioning Scale in the patient group when co-varying for negative symptoms (r=-0.272, p=0.016. Cortical regions with preferential activation for leftwards or rightwards translation were identified in both hemispheres suggesting the psychophysical findings could not be accounted for by selective atrophy or functional change in one hemisphere alone. Conclusions The findings point to translational direction as a novel functional probe to help understand the underlying neural mechanisms of wider cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  7. Poloidal asymmetries of the heavy ions in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odstrcil, Tomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Puetterich, Thomas; Angioni, Clemente; Bilato, Roberto; Gude, Anja; Vezinet, Didier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Mazon, Didier [CEA, IRFM, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Poloidal asymmetries of heavy ions in the tokamak plasma are caused by the presence of forces parallel with field-lines which have comparable magnitude to the thermal pressure. The most important examples are the centrifugal force (CF) and the electric force (EF). The CF is caused by fast toroidal rotation of the plasma column which is pushing impurity ions, that have a substantially higher mass than the main ions, on the outer-side of the plasma. And the EF can be produced by ion cyclotron heated fast particles with high pitch angle that are trapped by the mirror force on the low field side of the plasma. The excessive charge produced by these particles is affecting highly charged impurities and pushing them to the high field side of the plasma. From predictions based on neoclassical and turbulent theory, it follows that the radial flux of heavy ions will be significantly changed by the presence of these asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of these asymmetries in ASDEX Upgrade and verify the predicted consequences on the particles flux. High intrinsic content of the tungsten in AUG plasma makes this device well suitable for such studies. Precise measurement of the SXR (soft-X-ray) radiation profiles has identified a presence of CF generated asymmetries in every NBI heated Asdex discharge. Poloidal asymmetry should than lead to the significant change in the neoclassical and turbulent radial transport of these heavy ions. High intrinsic content of the tungsten in Asdex plasma makes this device well suitable for studying these asymmetries. Precise measurement of the SXR (soft-X-ray) radiation profiles has identified a presence of CF generated asymmetries in every NBI heated Asdex discharge. For heavy and highly charged impurities multiple mechanisms exist that produce non-constant impurities densities on the flux surfaces. As for neoclassical and turbulent transport models such an asymmetry is of highly importance an effort is

  8. A study of limb asymmetry and its effect on estimation of stature in forensic case work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2010-07-15

    Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of commingled, mutilated and skeletal remains in forensic examinations. Bilateral asymmetry is defined as the difference between the measurements of the left and right sides of the human body. While estimating stature from skeletal material as well as from body parts in forensic anthropology case work, asymmetry of the human body may result in erroneous estimates due to bilateral variations present in dimensions of the human body and bones. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate asymmetry in upper and lower extremity dimensions in a north Indian population and to see its effect on the estimation of stature from these dimensions. The study was based on a sample of right-handed 967 adult male Gujjars, an endogamous group of North India. Bilateral asymmetry was assessed in six limb dimensions i.e. total upper extremity length, upper arm length, forearm length, hand length, total lower extremity length and lower leg length using a paired t-test. The results indicated that statistical significant bilateral asymmetry exists in total upper extremity length, upper arm length, forearm length, total lower extremity length and lower leg length (pstature were found to be highly significant (pestimation of stature from these limb dimensions using both left and right sides. The study concludes that there is a higher possibility of obtaining erroneous results while estimating stature from those body dimensions which show statistically significant bilateral asymmetry when formula developed from one side is used on the other side. Although, there seems to be a little possibility of obtaining erroneous results while estimating stature from those body dimensions which showed statistically insignificant asymmetry, it is strongly recommended that the examiner must first identify the side to which the limb part or bone belongs to, and then apply the appropriate formula derived for that particular side. (c) 2010

  9. Depressive mood and frontal alpha asymmetry during the luteal phase in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Mei; Tsai, Yu-Che; Peper, Erik; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-05-01

    Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience moderate to severe physical and mood symptoms during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The purposes of this study were to examine whether there were significant differences in frontal alpha asymmetry between PMDD and non-PMDD women during a depressive induction condition during the luteal and follicular phases and to examine the relations between premenstrual distress and depressive symptoms, and frontal alpha asymmetry. The participants included 12 college women with PMDD and 12 without PMDD as controls. Frontal electroencephalograms (F3/F4) were measured during the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle in the following sequence: resting baseline, depressive induction, depressive recall, recovery, and relaxation. Premenstrual distress questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were administered. The participants with PMDD had higher frontal alpha asymmetry than those without PMDD during the depressive induction and relaxation conditions only during the luteal phase. For PMDD and non-PMDD during the luteal phase, a positive correlation was observed between negative affect (measured by premenstrual distress questionnaires) and frontal alpha asymmetry under the depressive induction stage. In addition, higher Beck Depression Inventory II somatic depression was positively correlated with frontal alpha asymmetry under the depressive induction stage. This study supports the significant difference between PMDD and non-PMDD on frontal alpha asymmetry, and frontal alpha asymmetry was related to negative affect and somatic depression, while participants with PMDD were in the depressive mood during the luteal phase. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Vessel asymmetry as an additional diagnostic tool in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Barry J

    2009-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the local mechanical stress exceeds the local mechanical strength of the wall tissue. On the basis of this hypothesis, the knowledge of the stress acting on the wall of an unruptured aneurysm could be useful in determining the risk of rupture. The role of asymmetry has previously been identified in idealized AAA models and is now studied using realistic AAAs in the current work. METHODS: Fifteen patient-specific AAAs were studied to estimate the relationship between wall stress and geometrical parameters. Three-dimensional AAA models were reconstructed from computed tomography scan data. The stress distribution on the AAA wall was evaluated by the finite element method, and peak wall stress was compared with both diameter and centerline asymmetry. A simple method of determining asymmetry was adapted and developed. Statistical analyses were performed to determine potential significance of results. RESULTS: Mean von Mises peak wall stress +\\/- standard deviation was 0.4505 +\\/- 0.14 MPa (range, 0.3157-0.9048 MPa). Posterior wall stress increases with anterior centerline asymmetry. Peak stress increased by 48% and posterior wall stress by 38% when asymmetry was introduced into a realistic AAA model. CONCLUSION: The relationship between posterior wall stress and AAA asymmetry showed that excessive bulging of one surface results in elevated wall stress on the opposite surface. Assessing the degree of bulging and asymmetry that is experienced in an individual AAA may be of benefit to surgeons in the decision-making process and may provide a useful adjunct to diameter as a surgical intervention guide.

  11. Directional Asymmetry in the Limbs, Skull and Pelvis of the Silver Fox (V. vulpes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Chase, Kevin; Kukekova, Anna V.; Lark, Karl G.

    2011-01-01

    Directional asymmetry (DA) is a characteristic of most vertebrates, most strikingly exhibited by the placement of various organs (heart, lungs, liver, etc.) but also noted in small differences in the metrics of skeletal structures such as the pelvis of certain fish or sauropsids. We have analyzed DA in the skeleton of the fox (V. vulpes), using ~1,000 radiographs of foxes from populations used in the genetic analysis of behavior and morphology. Careful measurements from this robust data base demonstrate that: 1) DA occurs in the limb bones, the ileum, and ischium and in the mandible; 2) regardless of the direction of the length asymmetry vector of a particular skeletal unit, the vectorial direction of length is always opposite to that of width; 3) with the exception of the humerus and radius, there is no correlation or inverse correlation between vectorial amplitudes or magnitudes of bone asymmetries. 4) Postnatal measurements on foxes demonstrate that the asymmetry increases after birth and continues to change (increasing or decreasing) during postnatal growth. 5) A behavior test for preferential use of a specific forelimb exhibited fluctuating asymmetry but not DA. None of the skeletal asymmetries were significantly correlated with a preferential use of a specific forelimb. We suggest that for the majority of fox skeletal parameters, growth on the right and left side of the fox are differentially biased resulting in fixed differences between the two sides in either the rate of growth or the length of the period during which growth occurs. Random effects around these fixed differences perturb the magnitude of the effects such that the magnitudes of length and width asymmetries are not inversely correlated at the level of individual animals. PMID:20862692

  12. Genuine T, CP, CPT asymmetry parameters for the entangled B d system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Nebot, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The precise connection between the theoretical T, CP, CPT asymmetries, in terms of transition probabilities between the filtered neutral meson B d states, and the experimental asymmetries, in terms of the double decay rate intensities for Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products in a B-factory of entangled states, is established. This allows the identification of genuine Asymmetry Parameters in the time distribution of the asymmetries and their measurability by disentangling genuine and possible fake terms. We express the nine asymmetry parameters — three different observables for each one of the three symmetries — in terms of the ingredients of the Weisskopf-Wigner dynamical description of the entangled B d -meson states and we obtain a global fit to their values from the BaBar collaboration experimental results. The possible fake terms are all compatible with zero and the information content of the nine asymmetry parameters is indeed different. The non-vanishing [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] are impressive separate direct evidence of Time-Reversal-violation and CP-violation in these transitions and compatible with Standard Model expectations. An intriguing 2 σ effect for the Re( θ) parameter responsible of CPT-violation appears which, interpreted as an upper limit, leads to |{M}_{{overline{B}}^0{overline{B}}^0}-{M}_B{{{}{^0}}_B}{^0}|<4.0× 1{0}^{-5} eV at 95% C.L. for the diagonal flavour terms of the mass matrix. It contributes to the CP-violating [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] asymmetry parameter in an unorthodox manner — in its cos(Δ M t) time dependence —, and it is accessible in facilities with non-entangled B d 's, like the LHCb experiment.

  13. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  14. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  15. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)

  16. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  17. Marked brain asymmetry with intact cognitive functioning in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jared J; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Schwab, Nadine A; Hizel, Loren P; Nguyen, Peter T; Okun, Michael S; Price, Catherine C

    2017-04-01

    A 71-year-old (MN) with an 11-year history of left onset tremor diagnosed as Parkinson's disease (PD) completed longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. MRI scans showed an asymmetric caudate nucleus (right neuropsychological assessments. For comparison, left onset PD (n = 15) and non-PD (n = 43) peers completed the same baseline protocol. All MRI scans were processed with FreeSurfer and the FMRIB Software Library to analyze gray matter structures and frontal fractional anisotropy (FA) metrics. Processing speed, working memory, language, verbal memory, abstract reasoning, visuospatial, and motor functions were examined using reliable change methods. At baseline, MN had striatal volume and frontal lobe thickness asymmetry relative to peers with mild prefrontal white matter FA asymmetry. Over time only MN's right caudate nucleus showed accelerated atrophy. Cognitively, MN had slowed psychomotor speed and visuospatial-linked deficits with mild visuospatial working memory declines longitudinally. This is a unique report using normative neuroimaging and neuropsychology to describe an individual diagnosed with PD who had striking striatal asymmetry followed secondarily by cortical thickness asymmetry and possible frontal white matter asymmetry. His decline and variability in visual working memory could be linked to ongoing atrophy of his right caudate nucleus.

  18. Masked translation priming asymmetry in Chinese-English bilinguals: making sense of the Sense Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Violet; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Masked translation priming asymmetry is the robust finding that priming from a bilingual's first language (L1) to their second language (L2) is stronger than priming from L2 to L1. This asymmetry has been claimed to be task dependent. The Sense Model proposed by Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol, and Nakamura (2004) claims that the asymmetry is reduced in semantic categorization relative to lexical decision due to a category filtering mechanism that limits the features considered in categorization decisions to dominant, category-relevant features. This paper reports two pairs of semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks designed to test the Sense Model's predictions. The experiments replicated the finding of Finkbeiner et al. that L2-L1 priming is somewhat stronger in semantic categorization than lexical decision, selectively for exemplars of the category. However, the direct comparison of L2-L1 and L1-L2 translation priming across tasks failed to confirm the Sense Model's central prediction that translation priming asymmetry is significantly reduced in semantic categorization. The data therefore fail to support the category filtering account of translation priming asymmetry. Rather, they suggest that pre-activation of conceptual features of the target category provides feedback to lexical forms that compensates for the weak connections between the lexical and conceptual representations of L2 words.

  19. The relationship between asymmetry, size and unusual venation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopuch, S; Tofilski, A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that symmetry is common in nature, it is rarely perfect. Because there is a wide range of phenotypes which differs from the average one, the asymmetry should increase along with deviation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of asymmetry in normal individuals as well as in phenodeviants categorized as minor or major based on abnormalities in forewing venation in honey bees. Shape fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was lower in normal individuals and minor phenodeviants compared with major phenodeviants, whereas the former two categories were comparable in drones. In workers and queens, there were not significant differences in FA shape between categories. FA size was significantly lower in normal individuals compared with major phenodeviant drones and higher compared with minor phenodeviant workers. In queens, there were no significant differences between categories. The correlation between FA shape and FA size was significantly positive in drones, and insignificant in workers and queens. Moreover, a considerable level of directional asymmetry was found as the right wing was constantly bigger than the left one. Surprisingly, normal individuals were significantly smaller than minor phenodeviants in queens and drones, and they were comparable with major phenodeviants in all castes. The correlation between wing size and wing asymmetry was negative, indicating that smaller individuals were more asymmetrical. The high proportion of phenodeviants in drones compared with workers and queens confirmed their large variability. Thus, the results of the present study showed that minor phenodeviants were not always intermediate as might have been expected.

  20. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.