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Sample records for asymmetrically arranged multiple

  1. Asymmetric Multilevel Diversity Coding and Asymmetric Gaussian Multiple Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajer, Soheil; Diggavi, Suhas N

    2009-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric multilevel diversity (A-MLD) coding problem, where a set of $2^K-1$ information sources, ordered in a decreasing level of importance, is encoded into $K$ messages (or descriptions). There are $2^K-1$ decoders, each of which has access to a non-empty subset of the encoded messages. Each decoder is required to reproduce the information sources up to a certain importance level depending on the combination of descriptions available to it. We obtain a single letter characterization of the achievable rate region for the 3-description problem. In contrast to symmetric multilevel diversity coding, source-separation coding is not sufficient in the asymmetric case, and ideas akin to network coding need to be used strategically. Based on the intuitions gained in treating the A-MLD problem, we derive inner and outer bounds for the rate region of the asymmetric Gaussian multiple description (MD) problem with three descriptions. Both the inner and outer bounds have a similar geometric structure t...

  2. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  3. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-03-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  4. Multiple Traveling Salesmen in Asymmetric Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Friggstad, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We consider some generalizations of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Path problem. Suppose we have an asymmetric metric G = (V,A) with two distinguished nodes s,t. We are also given a positive integer k. The goal is to find k paths of minimum total cost from s to t whose union spans all nodes. We call this the k-Person Asymmetric Traveling Salesmen Path problem (k-ATSPP). Our main result for k-ATSPP is a bicriteria approximation that, for some parameter b >= 1 we may choose, finds between k and k + k/b paths of total length O(b log |V|) times the optimum value of an LP relaxation based on the Held-Karp relaxation for the Traveling Salesman problem. On one extreme this is an O(log |V|)-approximation that uses up to 2k paths and on the other it is an O(k log |V|)-approximation that uses exactly k paths. Next, we consider the case where we have k pairs of nodes (s_1,t_1), ..., (s_k,t_k). The goal is to find an s_i-t_i path for every pair such that each node of G lies on at least one of these paths. Simple appro...

  5. Asymmetric Translation between Multiple Representations in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-01-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests…

  6. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  7. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  8. Passage times of asymmetric anomalous walks with multiple paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Manuel O [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, and CONICET, 8400, Bariloche (Argentina); Insua, G Liliana [Facultad de Ingenieria, Univ. Nac. del Comahue, 8300, Neuquen (Argentina)

    2005-04-29

    We investigate the transient and the long-time behaviour of asymmetric anomalous walks in heterogeneous media. Two types of disorder are worked out explicitly: weak and strong disorder; in addition, the occurrence of disordered multiple paths is considered. We calculate the first passage time distribution of the associated stochastic transport process. We discuss the occurrence of the crossover from a power law to an exponential decay for the long-time behaviour of the distribution of the first passage times of disordered biased walks.

  9. Unstable and Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Young Children’s Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that child care instability is associated with child behavior problems, but existing studies confound different types of instability; use small, convenience samples; and/or control insufficiently for selection into child care arrangements. This study uses survey and calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to estimate the associations between three different types of child care instability—long-term instability, multiplicity, and the use of ...

  10. A generalized theoretical model for "continuous particle separation in a microchannel having asymmetrically arranged multiple branches"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Levinsen, Simon; Svendsen, Winnie Edith;

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present a generalized theoretical model for the continuous separation of particles using the pinched flow fractionation method. So far the theoretical models have not been able to predict the separation of particles without the use of correction factors. In this article we...

  11. Investigation of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using plate-to-plate electrode with asymmetric dielectric arrangement in airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma is produced in airflow by applying nanosecond high voltage pulses with peak voltage about 35 kV and rising time about 40 ns on a plate-to-plate electrode arrangement. The effects of airflow rate (0-50 m/s) on the discharge characteristics are investigated under different barrier conditions (the bare anode case and the bare cathode case). For both cases, the breakdown voltage and the time lag increase distinctly and the discharge intensity decreases sharply when the airflow rate increases from 0 to 30 m/s, and then keep almost constant until the airflow rate is further increased to 50 m/s. For the bare anode case (the cathode is covered by dielectric plate), the discharge mode transforms gradually from filamentary to diffuse discharge with the increasing airflow rate. While for the bare cathode case, some micro-discharge channels are still excited, though the discharge becomes more diffuse when the airflow rate is higher than 30 m/s. By acquiring the time-resolved images of the discharge, it is proved that it is the primary discharge which becomes diffuse when airflow is introduced and the following two discharges of the same voltage pulse occur principally at the positions where the primary discharge is more intense. And in both cases, the plasma temperatures are reduced, but the degree is different. All the phenomena can be explained mainly by the variation of the space charge distribution when the airflow is introduced into the discharge gap. And it is indicated that the bare anode case has an advantage in obtaining diffuse discharge.

  12. Multiple Fano interferences in a plasmonic metamolecule consisting of asymmetric metallic nanodimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q., E-mail: khai.lequang@hoasen.edu.vn [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812 (United States); Alù, Andrea [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 77812 (United States); Bai, Jing [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    We theoretically explore signatures of plasmonic Fano interferences in a subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule consisting of closely packed asymmetric gold nanodimers, which lead to the possibility of generating multiple Fano resonances in the scattering spectrum. This spectral feature is attributed to the interference between bright and dark plasmonic modes sustained by the constituent nanodimers. The excited Fano dips are highly sensitive in both wavelength and amplitude to geometry and background dielectric medium. The tunability of induced Fano resonances associated with enhanced electric fields from the visible to infrared region provides promising applications, particularly in refractive index sensing, light-trapping, and photon up-converting.

  13. Multiple Fano interferences in a plasmonic metamolecule consisting of asymmetric metallic nanodimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically explore signatures of plasmonic Fano interferences in a subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule consisting of closely packed asymmetric gold nanodimers, which lead to the possibility of generating multiple Fano resonances in the scattering spectrum. This spectral feature is attributed to the interference between bright and dark plasmonic modes sustained by the constituent nanodimers. The excited Fano dips are highly sensitive in both wavelength and amplitude to geometry and background dielectric medium. The tunability of induced Fano resonances associated with enhanced electric fields from the visible to infrared region provides promising applications, particularly in refractive index sensing, light-trapping, and photon up-converting

  14. Asymmetric multiple-image encryption based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yuanchao; Tao, Ran

    2015-09-01

    A multiple-image cryptosystem is proposed based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform. During an encryption procedure, each of the original images is directly separated into two phase masks. A portion of the masks is subsequently modulated into an interim mask, which is encrypted into the ciphertext image; the others are used as the encryption keys. Using phase truncation in the fractional Fourier domain, one can use an asymmetric cryptosystem to produce a real-valued noise-like ciphertext, while a legal user can reconstruct all of the original images using a different group of phase masks. The encryption key is an indivisible part of the corresponding original image and is still useful during decryption. The proposed system has high resistance to various potential attacks, including the chosen-plaintext attack. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the security and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  15. Comparative Study of Effect of Fin Arrangement on Propulsion Performance of Bio-inspired Underwater Vehicles with Multiple SMA Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hui He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A biologically inspired underwater vehicle (BIUV was built using multiple lightweight bio inspired shape memory alloy (SMA fins. An unsteady 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD method using an unstructured, grid-based, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive re-meshing was adopted to compute unsteady flow. The hydrodynamics of multiple fins at a certain Reynolds number (Re = Uc/ν, where U is the upstream flow velocity, c is the chord length, and ν is the kinematic viscosity was studied and simulated using CFD to estimate hydrodynamic forces and characterize flow and vortex patterns created by the fins. Two common arrangements of multiple fins on the BIUV were considered: a posterior fin that is parallel to the anterior fins (case 1 and a posterior fin that is perpendicular to the anterior fins (case 2. First, the influence of the distance between two anterior undulating fins on the propulsion performance of both arrangements of multiple fins on the BIUV was investigated. The effect of the distance between the anterior undulating fins and the posterior oscillating fin was also analysed. The length of the posterior oscillating fin was varied and the fin surface area was held constant (24 mm2 to illustrate the influence of this parameter. Finally, the effect of frequency, amplitude, and wave number of anterior undulating fins on the non-dimensional drag coefficient of the posterior oscillating fin was investigated. Based on the flow structures, the reasons for the different performances of the BIUV are discussed. BIUV performances largely depend on the arrangements of multiple fins and the gap between the fins. Dimension and kinematic parameters also affect the performance of the BIUV. The results provide a physical insight into the understanding of fin interaction in fish or BIUVs that are propelled by multiple fins.

  16. Response of rainfed chickpea (cicer arietnum L.) to tween row spatial arrangement at multiple densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant density and arrangement are important factors affecting rainfed chickpea yield. A field experiment was conducted under the Eastern Mediterranean conditions for two consecutive growing seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011) to evaluate the effects of plant density (20, 25, 35 and 55 plants per m 2) and spatial configuration (conventional single 36-cm row width vs 18-cm twin rows spaced 72-cm between paired-rows). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by plant density. Twin-row arrangement had higher light interception efficiency (LIE) than the single-row. Plants grown in the higher plant densities had greater LAI and LI; however, they had inefficient use of incident solar radiation. The number of primary branches was significantly affected by both planting patterns and plant densities, but the number of secondary branches was significantly affected only by the plant densities. The number of pods and seeds/plant decreased with the increasing plant density. The highest seed weight/plant was recorded at the lowest density (20 plants/m2) while the lowest one was recorded at the highest plant density (55 plants/m2). Seed weight and harvest index in the twin row were significantly higher in tween row than in the single row. (author)

  17. Hybrid membrane resonators for multiple frequency asymmetric absorption and reflection in large waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Caixing; Yang, Min; Xiao, Songwen; Yang, Z

    2016-01-01

    We report that Hybrid membrane resonators (HMRs) made of a decorated membrane resonator backed by a shallow cavity can function as Helmholtz resonators (HRs) when mounted on the sidewall of a clear waveguide for air ventilation. When two single-frequency HMRs are used in the same scheme as two frequency-detuned HRs, asymmetric total absorption/reflection is demonstrated at 286.7 Hz with absorption coefficient over 97 % in a waveguide 9 cm x 9 cm in cross section. When two multiple-frequency HMRs are used, absorption in the range of near 60 % to above 80 % is observed at 403 Hz, 450 Hz, 688 Hz, 863 Hz and 945 Hz. Theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental data. The HMRs may replace HRs in duct noise reduction applications in that at a single operation frequency they have stronger strength to cover a much larger cross section area than that of HRs with similar cavity volume, and they can be designed to provide multiple frequency absorption band.

  18. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet–outlet arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet–outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet–multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet–multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet–two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min‑1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet–two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  19. Multiple Listing Arrangements in Residential Real Estate Transactions: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Epstein

    2008-01-01

    Let me start this short paper on the antitrust law governing multiple listings in the real estate brokerage industry with a conventional account. Thereafter I shall try to explain why this account, while not wholly wrong, is in at least one important respect incomplete.

  20. The Effectiveness of and Preschoolers' Preferences for Variations of Multiple-Schedule Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Heal, Nicole A.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple schedules of reinforcement have been used to teach children to recruit attention only when it is available, thereby minimizing disruptive requesting during instructional activities. This procedure involves alternating periods of continuous reinforcement (CRF) with periods of extinction and correlating each period with a distinct and…

  1. Reorientation of Isomeric Butanols: The Multiple Effects of Steric Bulk Arrangement on Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O; Vartia, Anthony A; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate OH reorientation in the four isomeric butanols in their bulk liquid state to examine the influence of the arrangement of the steric bulk on the alcohol reorientational and hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics. The results are interpreted within the extended jump model in which the OH reorientation is decomposed into contributions due to "jumps" between H-bond partners and "frame" reorientation of the intact H-bonded pair. Reorientation is fastest in iso-butanol and slowest in tert-butanol, while sec- and n-butanol have similar reorientation times. This latter result is a fortuitous cancellation between the jump and frame reorientation in the two alcohols. The extended jump model is shown to provide a quantitative description of the OH reorientation times. A detailed analysis of the jump times shows that a combination of entropic, enthalpic, and dynamical factors, including transition state recrossing effects, all play a role. A simple model based on the liquid structure is proposed to estimate the energetic and entropic contributions to the jump time. This represents the groundwork for a predictive model of OH reorientation in alcohols, but additional studies are required to better understand the frame reorientation and transition state recrossing effects.

  2. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in a Wounded Quark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, O. S. K.; P.K. Srivastava; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of ...

  3. Magnetic Actuator with Multiple Vibration Components Arranged at Eccentric Positions for Use in Complex Piping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a magnetic actuator using multiple vibration components to perform locomotion in a complex pipe with a 25 mm inner diameter. Due to the desire to increase the turning moment in a T-junction pipe, two vibration components were attached off-center to an acrylic plate with an eccentricity of 2 mm. The experimental results show that the magnetic actuator was able to move at 40.6 mm/s while pulling a load mass of 20 g in a pipe with an inner diameter of 25 mm. In addition, this magnetic actuator was able to move stably in U-junction and T-junction pipes. If a micro-camera is implemented in the future, the inspection of small complex pipes can be enabled. The possibility of inspection in pipes with a 25 mm inner diameter was shown by equipping the pipe with a micro-camera.

  4. Stochastic Resonance in an Asymmetric Mono-stable System Subject to Two Periodic Forces and Multiplicative and Additive Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-Dong; GUO Feng; ZHOU Yu-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in an asymmetric mono-stable system subject to two external periodic forces and multiplicative and additive noise is investigated.It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the fundamental and higher harmonics is a non-monotonic function of the intensities of the multiplicative and additive noise, as well as of the system parameter.Moreover, the SNR for the fundamental harmonic decreases with the increase of the system asymmetry, while the SNR for the higher harmonics behaves non-monotonically as the system asymmetry varies.

  5. Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlations in Symmetric and Asymmetric High Energy Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugoccioni, Roberto

    2003-07-01

    Forward-backward correlations are explored within the two-component clan model of multiparticle production. It is found that existing data are well described, and, in hh collisions, that clans must be allowed to leak particles from one hemisphere to the other. General formulae given for the symmetric case are then extended to the asymmetric one, which is relevant for pA and AB collisions.

  6. Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlations in Symmetric and Asymmetric High Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ugoccioni, R

    2002-01-01

    Forward-backward correlations are explored within the two-component clan model of multiparticle production. It is found that existing data are well described, and, in hh collisions, that clans must be allowed to leak particles from one hemisphere to the other. General formulae given for the symmetric case are then extended to the asymmetric one, which is relevant for pA and AB collisions.

  7. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in a Wounded Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, O S K; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B K

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). On phenomenological perspective a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kind of collision experiments, is much needed to provide the physical insights about the production mechanism. In this paper, firstly we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus (such as proton-lead (p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold (d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within our recently proposed wounded quark model (WQM) and ...

  8. Multiple reflection-asymmetric type band structures in $^{220}Th$ and dinuclear model

    CERN Document Server

    Shneidman, T M; Antonenko, N V; Jolos, R V; Scheid, W

    2010-01-01

    The negative parity bands in $^{220}$Th are analyzed within the dinuclear system model which was previously used for describing the alternating-parity bands in deformed actinides. The model is based on the assumption that cluster type shapes are produced by the motion of nuclear system in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. To describe the reflection-asymmetric collective modes characterized by nonzero values of $K$, the intrinsic excitations of clusters are taken into account. The angular momentum dependence of the parity splitting and the staggering behavior of the $B(E1)/B(E2)$ ratios as functions of angular momentum are explained.

  9. Multiple reflection-asymmetric-type band structures in {sup 220}Th and dinuclear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneidman, T.M.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The negative-parity bands with different values of K in {sup 220}Th are analysed within the dinuclear system model which was previously used for describing the ground-state alternating-parity bands with K = 0 in deformed actinides. The model is based on the assumption that the cluster type shapes are produced by the collective motion in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. To describe the reflection-asymmetric collective modes characterized by the nonzero values of K, the intrinsic excitations of clusters are taken into account. The observed excitation spectrum, angular-momentum dependence of the parity splitting and the staggering behaviour of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios are explained. (orig.)

  10. Correctly arranged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanuss, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Optimum yields are only possible with a good flow through the collector array. With large-scale systems it is sometimes necessary to calculate several possible arrangements in order to find the best design. (orig.)

  11. Informal social networks of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Relationship with age, communicative abilities and current living arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people wi

  12. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  13. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette; Post, Wendy; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required.Materials and Methods Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was us

  14. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  15. Study of electro-optic effect in asymmetrically ramped AlInGaAs multiple quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the electro-optic properties of two oppositely ramped asymmetric quantum well structures in the AlInGaAs material system. The grading of the bandgap in the quantum wells has been achieved by changing the ratio of Al to Ga in the quaternary alloy during the epitaxial growth. The surface normal photo-response and the Fabry-Perot fringe shift in straight waveguides are compared for both structures as a function of applied voltage at 1550 nm for TE-polarized light. The measurements show a change in the refractive index due to a red shift of the excitonic resonances due to the quantum-confined Stark effect. The 10 quantum well structure with a ramp up of the bandgap in the growth direction leads to the figure of merit of the voltage for a π phase shift, Vπ by length, L, Vπ x L, of 6 as compared to 7 V . mm in the structure with a ramp in opposite direction. Further investigations show that the reduction in Vπ is due to increased absorption at high reverse bias which induces a non-linear phase change. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Study of electro-optic effect in asymmetrically ramped AlInGaAs multiple quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Usman; Peters, Frank H.; Corbett, Brian [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Callaghan, James; Roycroft, Brendan; Thomas, Kevin; Pelucchi, Emanuele [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the electro-optic properties of two oppositely ramped asymmetric quantum well structures in the AlInGaAs material system. The grading of the bandgap in the quantum wells has been achieved by changing the ratio of Al to Ga in the quaternary alloy during the epitaxial growth. The surface normal photo-response and the Fabry-Perot fringe shift in straight waveguides are compared for both structures as a function of applied voltage at 1550 nm for TE-polarized light. The measurements show a change in the refractive index due to a red shift of the excitonic resonances due to the quantum-confined Stark effect. The 10 quantum well structure with a ramp up of the bandgap in the growth direction leads to the figure of merit of the voltage for a π phase shift, V{sub π} by length, L, V{sub π} x L, of 6 as compared to 7 V . mm in the structure with a ramp in opposite direction. Further investigations show that the reduction in V{sub π} is due to increased absorption at high reverse bias which induces a non-linear phase change. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A Multiple Scattering Theory Approach to Solving the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation with an Asymmetric Rectangular Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Victor F.; Los, Nicholas V.

    2016-04-01

    The exact expressions for an energy-dependent Green function (resolvent), space-time propagator and time-dependent solution for the wave function Ψ(r, t) of a particle moving in the presence of an asymmetric rectangular well/barrier potential are obtained. It is done by applying to this problem the multiple scattering theory (MST), which is different from previous such approaches by using the localized at the potential jumps effective potentials responsible for transmission through and reflection from the considered rectangular potential. This approach (alternative to the path-integral one) enables considering these processes from a particle (rather than a wave) point of view. The solution for the wave function describes these quantum phenomena as a function of time and is related to the fundamental issues (such as measuring time) of quantum mechanics. It is presented in terms of integrals of elementary functions and is a sum of the forward- and backward-moving components of the wave packet. The relative contribution of these components and their interference as well as of the potential asymmetry to the probability density |Ψ(x, t)|2 and particle dwell time is considered and numerically visualized for narrow and broad energy (momentum) distributions of the initial Gaussian wave packet. It is shown that in the case of a broad initial wave packet, the quantum mechanical counterintuitive effect of the influence of the backward-moving components on the considered quantities becomes significant.

  18. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first ca...

  19. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Heijden

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  20. Child Care Effects in Context: Quality, Stability, and Multiplicity in Nonmaternal Child Care Arrangements during the First 15 Months of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    Main and interactive effects of child care quality, stability, and multiplicity on infants' attachment security, language comprehension, language production, and cognitive development at 15 months were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. Thirty-nine percent of the…

  1. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of homoarginine, arginine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, nitrite and nitrate in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghikia, Aiden; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Hanff, Erik; Gold, Ralf; Haghikia, Arash; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    The pathogenic hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are cellular and humoral inflammatory infiltrates and subsequent demyelination, or astrocytic cell death in NMO, respectively. These processes are accompanied by disruption of the blood-brain barrier as regularly observed by gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. The role of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory diseases, such as MS and NMO, remains unclear. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of the nitric oxide (NO) metabolites nitrate and nitrite, the endogenous substrates of NO synthase (NOS) L-arginine (Arg) and L-homoarginine (hArg), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of NOS activity, in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS, NMO or other neurologic diseases (OND). MS (551 ± 23 nM, P = 0.004) and NMO (608 ± 51 nM, P = 0.006) patients have higher ADMA concentrations in serum than healthy controls (HC; 430 ± 24 nM). For MS, this finding was confirmed in CSF (685 ± 100 nM in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, RRMS; 597 ± 51 nM in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, SPMS) compared with OND (514 ± 37 nM; P = 0.003). Serum concentrations of Arg (61.1 ± 9.7 vs. 63.6 ± 4.9 µM, P = 0.760), hArg (2.62 ± 0.26 vs. 2.52 ± 0.23 µM, P = 0.891), nitrate (38.1 ± 2.2 vs. 38.1 ± 3.0 µM) and nitrite (1.37 ± 0.09 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03 µM) did not differ between MS and OND. Also, CSF concentrations of hArg (0.685 ± 0.100 µM in RRMS, 0.597 ± 0.051 µM in SPMS, 0.514 ± 0.037 µM in OND), nitrate (11.3 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.3 µM) and nitrite (2.84 ± 0.32 vs. 2.41 ± 0.11 µM) did not differ between the groups. In NMO patients, however, serum Arg (117 ± 11 vs. 64 ± 4.9 μM, P = 0.004), nitrate (29 ± 2.1 vs. 38 ± 3 μM, P = 0.03), and nitrite (1.09 ± 0.02 vs. 1.55 ± 0.033 µM, P < 0.0001) were significantly different as compared to OND

  2. Primitive wing feather arrangement in Archaeopteryx lithographica and Anchiornis huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Quangguo; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-12-01

    In modern birds (Neornithes), the wing is composed of a layer of long, asymmetrical flight feathers overlain by short covert feathers. It has generally been assumed that wing feathers in the Jurassic bird Archaeopteryx and Cretaceous feathered dinosaurs had the same arrangement. Here, we redescribe the wings of the archaic bird Archaeopteryx lithographica and the dinosaur Anchiornis huxleyi and show that their wings differ from those of Neornithes in being composed of multiple layers of feathers. In Archaeopteryx, primaries are overlapped by long dorsal and ventral coverts. Anchiornis has a similar configuration but is more primitive in having short, slender, symmetrical remiges. Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis therefore appear to represent early experiments in the evolution of the wing. This primitive configuration has important functional implications: although the slender feather shafts of Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis make individual feathers weak, layering of the wing feathers may have produced a strong airfoil. Furthermore, the layered arrangement may have prevented the feathers from forming a slotted tip or separating to reduce drag on the upstroke. The wings of early birds therefore may have lacked the range of functions seen in Neornithes, limiting their flight ability. PMID:23177480

  3. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRIYAVRAT DESHPANDE

    2016-08-01

    To every realizable oriented matroid there corresponds an arrangement of real hyperplanes. The homeomorphism type of the complexified complement of such an arrangement is completely determined by the oriented matroid. In this paper we study arrangements of pseudohyperplanes; they correspond to non-realizable oriented matroids. These arrangements arise as a consequence of the Folkman--Lawrence topological representation theorem. We propose a generalization of the complexification process in this context. In particular we construct a space naturally associated with these pseudo-arrangements which is homeomorphic to the complexified complement in the realizable case. Further, we generalize the classical theorem of Salvetti and show that this space has the homotopy type of a cell complex defined in terms of the oriented matroid.

  4. Arranging the Seats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官琪

    2004-01-01

    Fiveyouthsfromdifferentcountriescometoapartyandsitaroundaroundtable.AisaChinesewhoalsospeaksEnglish;BisaFrenchWhohaslearnedJapanese;CcomesfromEnglandbutalsospeaksFrench;DisaJapanesewhoseforeignlanguageisChinese;EisaFrenchwhoalsospeaksSpanish(西班牙语).HowcanyouarrangetheirseatssothattheyCanspeakwiththepersonssittingnexttohim?(Keytobefound.)Arranging the Seats@官琪

  5. Arranged Marriage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>Marriage is an important institution in our society,which binds men and women the most frequently.When men and women are together,the gender relationship becomes obvious.Most societies in the world are patriarchal,so men’s power penetrates everywhere,including the marriage institution.Marriage institution is built on men’s power,and at the same time,it contributes to men’s power.Arranged marriage is a good example to illustrate how men’s power is over women,which was prevailing in China.China also has arranged marriage today,but particularly in rural areas.Urban China develops a new form of arranged marriage recently,but whether traditional arranged

  6. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  7. High-performance laterally-arranged multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially composition-graded CdxPb1-xS nanowires on a single substrate: a design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, D A; Ning, C Z

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, laterally arranged multiple bandgap (LAMB) solar cells based on CdxPb1-xS alloy nanowires of varying composition on a single substrate are designed to be used together with a dispersive concentrator. Simulation results for a design with six subcells in series connection are presented. The design is based on a unique materials capability achieved in our recent research. An efficiency of 34.9% was obtained for operation without solar concentration, which increased to 40.5%, 41.7%, and 42.7% for concentration ratios of 25, 100, and 240 respectively. The device was also simulated with decreased carrier mobilities to model the possible reduction in absorber conductivity, depending on the nanowire geometry and configuration. For a concentration ratio of unity, decreasing the mobilities to 25% of their original values caused less than a 2.5% absolute drop in efficiency. The LAMB design offers the advantages of an integrated cell platform and the potential for low-cost, high efficiency photovoltaic systems.

  8. 舰船总布置方案的直觉模糊多属性群决策模型%Intuitionistic fuzzy multiple attribute group decision making model for general arrangement of a ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉龙; 黄胜; 侯远杭; 王文全; 郭春雨

    2012-01-01

    In order to attain consistency during the decision-making process of a general arrangement scheme of a naval ship, repetitive negotiation and compromise among experts is always needed. An evaluation system of general arrange-, ment was presented from the perspective of facilitating for combat and use of warships. To overcome the massive amount of negotiation and compromise among experts in the decision-making process, an intuitionistic fuzzy multiple attribute group decision making model based on an adaptive consensus algorithm was proposed to repeatedly update the decision-making information of experts based on group decision making information, achieving an acceptable consensus between experts. The algorithm avoided repeatedly collecting the decision-making array by each expert, allowing it to boost the efficiency of the decision-making process. It can also be applied to areas in complex industrial design.%在舰船总布置方案决策问题中,为了得到总体一致的结论,往往需要专家经过反复的协商和妥协来实现,从有利于舰船作战使用的角度,提出了总布置方案评价的指标体系.为了克服决策过程中需要通过来自不同专业领域的专家反复协商来使专家决策信息达到可接受的一致性不仅耗时且可操作性差的问题,引入了基于自适应一致性算法的直觉模糊多属性群决策模型对设计方案进行优选评价.算法在参考群决策信息的基础上,对专家决策信息进行反复修正,使专家之间的决策信息达到可接受的一致性.算法较好地模拟了专家之间真实的谈判和妥协的决策过程,不需要专家对决策矩阵进行反复的修正,提高了决策的效率,为复杂工业设计方案决策提供了参考.

  9. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  10. Coloring and Guarding Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Collette, Sébastien; Hurtado, Ferran; Korman, Matias; Langerman, Stefan; Taslakian, Perouz

    2012-01-01

    Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number $c$ of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between $\\Omega (\\log n / \\log\\log n)$. and $O(\\sqrt{n})$. Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset $S$ of the intersections of the lines in $\\mathcal{A}$ such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in $S$. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\\Hvertexcell$...

  11. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  12. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  13. Seating arrangement in Althingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þorsteinn Magnússon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost a century has passed since Althingi, the Parliament of Iceland, introduced, in 1916, the method of allocating seats to Members by drawing lots at the start of each session. This arrangement is not customary in any other national parliament in the world. It has never been established why this particular method of allocating seats was introduced in Althingi. Neither has it been mapped out how the allocation was conducted, what the Members thought of it nor what impact, if any, the arrangement had on the relations of Members and the workings of Althingi. This article therefore presents the first study of this subject in Iceland. The article also places the seat allocation procedure of Althingi in an international context, as the general rule in parliaments around the world is that Members are seated together in parliamentary party groups. The conclusions of the study are, among other things, that the seat allocation by lot was probably modelled on the House of Representatives of the United States Congress, where seats were allocated by lot from 1845-1913. The study also reveals that over 40 years passed until seat allocation by lot became fully established procedure in Althingi. In the Upper House seats were not allocated by lot at the great majority of sessions until 1959 and Members appear to have been mainly seated along party lines. In the Lower House it was common for some Members to exchange seats following the drawing of lots, and for some time attempts were made to introduce seating by parliamentary party, but the efforts were unsuccessful due to insufficient support. Since 1959 there has not been any disagreement regarding the drawing of lots for seats. Generally speaking, Members appear to hold the opinion that the seating arrangement in Althingi has a positive impact on personal relations, is a positive counterbalance to the division of Members into government supporters and opposition members and that the allocation of seats by

  14. Port entry arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

  15. Auspicious tatami mat arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Alejandro; Schurch, Mark; Woodcock, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An \\emph{auspicious tatami mat arrangement} is a tiling of a rectilinear region with two types of tiles, $1 \\times 2$ tiles (dimers) and $1 \\times 1$ tiles (monomers). The tiles must cover the region and satisfy the constraint that no four corners of the tiles meet; such tilings are called \\emph{tatami tilings}. The main focus of this paper is when the rectilinear region is a rectangle. We provide a structural characterization of rectangular tatami tilings and use it to prove that the tiling is completely determined by the tiles that are on its border. We prove that the number of tatami tilings of an $n \\times n$ square with $n$ monomers is $n2^{n-1}$. We also show that, for fixed-height, the generating function for the number of tatami tilings of a rectangle is a rational function, and outline an algorithm that produces the generating function.

  16. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...... of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output...... power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs...

  17. The Empirical Test of Multiple Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy in China%我国货币政策多重非对称效应实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张细松

    2012-01-01

    The empirical test indicates that in different years China' s economy encounters positive or negative shock of money supply. China' s eastern regions, northeast regions, western areas and central areas are not always at the same time in the boom or recession phase of regional economic cycles. The empirical test indicates that the influence that is from monetary policy is of different control direction to the economy of four regions, which are in different regional economic cycles. In other words, there is multiple asymmetric effects of monetary policy in China.%实证检验表明:在不同的年份,我国经济或受到正向货币供给冲击,或受到负向货币供给冲击;我国东部地区、东北地区、西部地区和中部地区并不总是同时处于地区经济周期的繁荣或衰退阶段;我国不同调控方向的货币政策对处于地区经济周期不同阶段的四地区经济的影响是不相同的,即存在货币政策多重非对称效应。

  18. k-Parabolic Subspace Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Severs, Christopher; White, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Nous généralisons les arrangements k-égaux à tous les groupes de réflexions finis réels. Les arrangements ainsi obtenus sont dits k-paraboliques. Dans le cas où k = 2 nous retrouvons les arrangements de Coxeter qui sont bien connus. En 1971, Brieskorn démontra que le groupe fondamental associé au complément (complexe) de l'arrangement de Coxeter de type W est en fait isomorphe au groupe pure d'Artin de type W . En 1996, Khovanov donne une description algébrique du groupe fondamental du complé...

  19. Asymmetric relationships between proteins shape genome evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaart, R.A.; Kensche, P.R.; Huynen, M.A.; Dutilh, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between proteins are often asymmetric: one protein (A) depends for its function on another protein (B), but the second protein does not depend on the first. In metabolic networks there are multiple pathways that converge into one central pathway. The enzymes in the conv

  20. Structurally Well-Defined Sigmoidal Gold Clusters: Probing the Correlation between Metal Atom Arrangement and Chiroptical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Yuechao; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetric arrangement of metal atoms is crucial for understanding the chirality origin of chiral metal nanoclusters and facilitating the design and development of new chiral catalysts and chiroptical devices. Here, we describe the construction of four asymmetric gold and gold-silver clusters by chirality transfer from diimido ligands. The acquired metal clusters show strong circular dichroism (CD) response with large anisotropy factors of up to 6 × 10(-3), larger than the values of most reported chiral gold nanoclusters. Regardless of the same absolute configuration of the applied three diimido ligands, sigmoidal and reverse-sigmoidal arrangements of gold atoms both can be achieved, which resultantly produce an opposite Cotton effect within a specific absorption range. On the basis of the detailed structural characterization via X-ray crystallography and contrast experiments, the chirality contribution of the imido ligand, the asymmetrically arranged metal cluster, and the chiral arrangement of aromatic rings of phosphine ligands have been qualitatively evaluated. Time-dependent DFT calculations reveal that the chiroptical property of the acquired metal clusters is mainly influenced by the asymmetrically arranged metal atoms. Correlation of asymmetric arrangements of metal atoms in clusters with their chiroptical response provides a viable means of fabricating a designable chiral surface of metal nanoclusters and opens a broader prospect for chiral cluster application.

  1. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Smart Sensor Engineering Center, Jiangsu R& D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214315 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes.

  2. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes.

  3. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes

  4. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  5. "Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

  6. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the lite......Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups...

  7. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  8. An asymmetric Kadison's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Bourin, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Some inequalities for positive linear maps on matrix algebras are given, especially asymmetric extensions of Kadison's inequality and several operator versions of Chebyshev's inequality. We also discuss well-known results around the matrix geometric mean and connect it with complex interpolation.

  9. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  10. Asymmetric catalysis with helical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by nature, the use of helical biopolymer catalysts has emerged over the last years as a new approach to asymmetric catalysis. In this Concept article the various approaches and designs and their application in asymmetric catalysis will be discussed.

  11. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  12. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-21

    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  13. Hyperplane Arrangements and Diagonal Harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Drew

    2011-01-01

    En 2003, la statistique bounce de Haglund a donné la première interprétation combinatoire de la somme des nombres q,t-Catalan et de la série de Hilbert des harmoniques diagonaux. Dans cet article nous proposons une nouvelle interprétation combinatoire à partir du groupe de Weyl affine de type A. En particulier, nous définissons deux statistiques sur les permutations affines; l'une à partir de l'arrangement d'hyperplans Shi, et l'autre à partir d'un nouvel arrangement — que nous appelons l'arr...

  14. Manipulating Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Fundamental Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing interconnection networks is a prime object in switching schemes. In this work the authors present a novel approach for obtaining a required channel arrangement in a multi-stage interconnectionnetwork, using a new concept – a fundamental arrangement. The fundamental arrangement is an initial N-1 stage switch arrangement that allows obtaining any required output channel arrangement given an input arrangement, using N/2 binary switches at each stage. The paper demonstrates how a fundamental arrangement can be achieved and how, once this is done, any required arrangement may be obtained within 2(N-1 steps.

  15. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  16. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... reactions constitute the first organocatalytic asymmetric higher order cycloadditions and a rational for the periselectivity and stereoselectivity is provided based on experimental and computational investigations....

  17. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  18. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  19. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p')-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities px, py and pz. The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√px, √py, √pz) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  20. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  1. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  2. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  3. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  4. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

  5. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  6. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  7. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  8. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.229 Other arrangements. With respect to those arrangements... local independent food store operators have joined together in many phases of their business. While... an economic unity of related activities for a common business purpose. In that case, the...

  9. The physics of custody arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andrés; Romagnoli, Pierre Paul

    2013-01-01

    Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.

  10. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  11. Flexible Asymmetric Encapsulation for Dehydration-Responsive Hybrid Microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Ankur S; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    A new class of smart alginate microfibers with asymmetric oil encapsulates is introduced. These fibers are produced by injecting an aqueous alginate solution into an outer aqueous calcium chloride solution to form alginate fibers, which are asymmetrically loaded with oil entities through eccentrically aligned inner capillaries. The fiber morphology and its degree of asymmetry can be tuned via altering the size, location, and frequency of the oil encapsulates. These asymmetric fibers reveal significant potential for applications where conventional symmetric fibers fail to perform. It is shown how asymmetric oil-encapsulated fibers can become dehydration-sensitive, and trigger the release of encapsulates if their hydration level drops below a critical value. It is also shown how the triggered response could be switched off on demand by stabilizing the oil encapsulates. The capability of asymmetric fibers to carry and release multiple cargos in parallel is demonstrated. The fibers loaded with equal-sized spheres are more asymmetric than those containing unequal drops, have a higher tensile strength, and show better potential for a triggered response. PMID:27352241

  12. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  13. Linearly arranged polytypic CZTSSe nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Jia; Wu, Liang; Gong, Ming; Chen, Shi You; Liu, Guang Yao; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi-Xiu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Even colloidal polytypic nanostructures show promising future in band-gap tuning and alignment, researches on them have been much less reported than the standard nano-heterostructures because of the difficulties involved in synthesis. Up to now, controlled synthesis of colloidal polytypic nanocrsytals has been only realized in II-VI tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals with branched configurations. Herein, we report a colloidal approach for synthesizing non-branched but linearly arranged polytypic I2-II-IV-VI4 nanocrystals, with a focus on polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystals. Each synthesized polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystal is consisted of two zinc blende-derived ends and one wurtzite-derived center part. The formation mechanism has been studied and the phase composition can be tuned through adjusting the reaction temperature, which brings a new band-gap tuning approach to Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x nanocrystals. PMID:23233871

  14. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  15. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motions in a waveguide with structural side branches attached at regular intervals. The analysis is based on periodic structure theory, and considers wave transmission in a fully tricoupled and semidefinite periodic...... assembly of beam-type elements or plane-wave transmission for normal incidence in a similar plate assembly. Receptances of a composite periodic element with offset resonant beams are derived and used for computing the frequency-dependent propagation constants of three coupled wave types as well...... as the distribution of motion displacements in each wave type. This is used for calculating the spatial variation of the forced harmonic responses of a semi-infinite periodic structure to point excitations by a longitudinal force and by a moment. Numerical simulations reveal the complicated wave coupling phenomena...

  16. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle...

  17. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  18. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  19. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  20. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  1. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  2. Chirped photonic crystal with different symmetries for asymmetric light propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we have carried out analysis of asymmetric light propagation in a chirped photonic crystal waveguide. The designed structures have hexagonal arrangement and square arrangement of silicon rods in air substrate. Dimensions of the defect rods are tailored, so that the proposed design structure works as an optical isolator. The transmission analysis of the structure reveals that it can act as an optical diode. We have plotted the extinction ratio and transmission analysis graphs for the structure, and it has been observed that the maximum output is obtained for telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm. Dispersion curves are obtained using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission is simulated using finite element method. The proposed structures are applicable for photonic integrated circuits due to their simple and clear operating principle.

  3. Governance Arrangements for State Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Vagliasindi, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on key challenges in governance arrangements for state owned enterprises in infrastructure sectors. The paper provides guidelines on how to classify the fuzzy and sometimes conflicting development goals of infrastructure and the governance arrangements needed to reach such goals. Three policy recommendations emerge. First, some of the structures i...

  4. The fundamental group of complex hyperplanes arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we suggest a new method to compute the fundamental group of the complemented of any complex hyperplanes arrangements. Our computation is based on a construction called labyrinth of an arrangement of complex lines. The method can be generalized for the case of an arbitrary affine curve. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  5. Encoding and Decoding Procedures for Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Babaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an algorithm based on the encoding procedure for representing a set of arrangement elements as a single number. Also the author provides the procedure for the inverse transformation of the code into arrangement elements. In addition the Article includes recommendations on the use of the above procedures in combinatorial algorithms of optimization.

  6. Music Arrangements and the Copyright Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilovsky, M. William

    1979-01-01

    This discussion of copyright law on music focuses on the special problems of the band director who wishes to make a special arrangement or alteration of a copyrighted work. Guidelines and a sample form are provided for securing the publisher's permission to arrange a musical work. (SJL)

  7. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul;

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  9. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  10. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Cai, Bao-Jun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Che Ming; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX, 75429-3011, USA)

    2009-01-01

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matte...

  11. Forces between asymmetric polymer brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, D.F.K.; Cates, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    We study the equilibrium compression of asymmetric polymer brushes grafted on flat plates, under athermal and theta solvent conditions, using a lattice self-consistent field (SCF) approach. We find that the separation d between two plates coated asymmetrically with brushes of type 1 and 2, as a function of the force F, obeys the "bisection rule", d(F) = (d1(F) + d 2(F)) /2 where d1(F)and d 2(F) are the corresponding separations for the symmetric brushes of type 1 and 2 respectively.The bisect...

  12. Research on asymmetric "Jerusalem" unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Jianbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric Jerusalem unit and the frequency selective surface(FSS)structure composed of such units are designed.The transmittance of the designed FSS structure is calculated by mode-matching method and compared with the test results.The comparison results show that the FSS center frequency of the asymmetric structure unit drifts little with the variation of the incident angles of the electromagnetic waves and keeps relatively stable.The research offers a new choice for the application of FSS under the large scanning angle of electromagnetic waves.

  13. ASYMMETRICALLY SECURED EGMP OVER MANET’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammed Raja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Group communications are significant in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. Multicast is an wellorganized technique for applying group communications. Yet, it is interesting to implement effective andaccessible multicast in MANET due to the effort in group member management and multicasting of packets forwarding in an active topology. We suggest a Asymmetrically Secured novel Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol (EGMP. EGMP uses a practical-zone-based arrangement to implement accessible and effective groupmember management. A network-wide zone-based bi-directional tree is made to attain more well-organized member management and multicast delivery. The location information is used to monitor the zone structure, multicast tree building and multicast packets forwarding, which capably reduce the overhead for route finding and tree structure maintenance. Some approaches have been suggested to further improvement in the efficiency of the protocol, for example, presenting the concept of zone depth for construction an ideal tree structure and adding the position search of group of members with the ordered group member management. To switch empty zone problem met by most routing protocols using a zone structure. Finally, we plan a pattern to switch the security problem faced by the multicasting. The scalability and the productivity of EGMP are assessed through simulations and quantitative analysis. Our results prove that EGMP has great packet delivery ratio, and low control overhead, and is accessible to both group size and network size. EGMP has expressively lower control overhead, data transmission overhead, and multicast group joining delay.

  14. Arrangement and Description of the CERN Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, Anita

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on the arrangement and description of the CERN Archive. In order to improve access a shelf list was created and then adapted to become a Guide for public use. A functional arrangement was chosen for the Guide, in the hope that this would accommodate ongoing reorganisations and would grow with CERN. A re-evaluation of this approach was carried out 18 months later, and produced several improvements. It also raised a number of questions concerning the theoretical basis for some of the decisions taken about archival arrangement, and suggested ideas for future directions.

  15. Synthesis of Asymmetric Propanetriol Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From natural tartaric acid, (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(2-tetrahydropyranyloxy) propanol 3 was designed and synthesized, and (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) propanol 7 was prepared in a new method. They can be used as chiral synthons of lysophosphatidic acid and other compounds with asymmetric propanetriol backbone.

  16. Vertical asymmetric double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, R.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Schweizer, H.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two layers of differently sized self-assembled InP-quantum dots (QDs) separated by a GaInP spacer layer with varying thickness were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Photoluminescence measurements of the QD ensembles and of individual asymmetric double QDS show coupling due to the tunnelling of carriers.

  17. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  18. 76 FR 37343 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... INFORMATION: This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 924,556 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6) (67.60% U), 625,000 kg of which is uranium, from Cameco Corporation (Cameco) in...

  19. 77 FR 53876 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 2,959,580 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6) (67.60% U), 2,000,000 kg of which is uranium, from Cameco Corporation (Cameco) in Saskatoon,...

  20. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  1. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  2. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  3. Economic Determinants of Fund Financial Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Julio A. Santaella; Knight, Malcolm D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses empirically the economic factors that lead to approval of Fund financial arrangements. We account for both the economic variables that induce a country to seek an arrangement with the Fund ("demand-side" factors) and the macroeconomic policy commitments that the Fund considers when deciding whether to approve it ("supply-side" factors). Using a pooled sample of annual observations for 91 developing countries over 1973-1991, we obtain maximum likelihood estimates of bivaria...

  4. Flexible Employment Arrangements and Workplace Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity that is witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. However, the effects of the employment flexible types on workplace performance has not been explored in Britain. In this study the relationship between two employment arrangements and the workplace performance is examined. More specifically, teleworking and compress hours are two main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee R...

  5. Symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviours of a bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue-jun, Gao; Ying-hui, Li; Yuan, Yue;

    2013-01-01

    Based on the bifurcation and stability theory of dynamical systems, the symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviours and chaotic motions of a railway bogie system under a complex nonlinear wheel–rail contact relation are investigated in detail by the ‘resultant bifurcation diagram’ method...... with slowly increasing and decreasing speed. It is found that the stationary equilibrium solution and the periodic motions coexist due to the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation in the railway bogie system. It is also found that multiple solutions coexist in many speed ranges. The coexistence of multiple solutions...... may result in a jump and hysteresis of the oscillating amplitude for different kinds of disturbances. It should be avoided in the normal operation. Furthermore, it is found that symmetry-breaking of the system through a pitchfork bifurcation leads to asymmetric chaotic motions in the railway bogie...

  6. Degrees of Freedom of Asymmetrical Multi-Way Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an asymmetrical multi-way relay channel where a base station conveys independent symbols to K different users while receiving independent symbols from the users. In this network, user i Shas Mi antennas (i ∈ [1, ..., K]), the base station has Σi=1K Mi antennas and the ...... with a proposed joint multiple access and broadcast precoding design using the signal space alignment concept....

  7. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  8. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  9. Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, R; Menzel, C; Rockstuhl, C; Azad, A K; Cheville, R A; Lederer, F; Zhang, W; Zheludev, N I

    2009-01-01

    We show for the first time that a planar metamaterial, an array of coupled metal split-ring resonators with a unit cell lacking mirror symmetry, exhibits asymmetric transmission of terahertz radiation propagating through it in opposite directions. This intriguing effect, that is compatible with Lorentz reciprocity and time-reversal, depends on a directional difference in conversion efficiency of the incident circularly polarized wave into one of opposite handedness, that is only possible in lossy low-symmetry planar chiral metamaterials. We show that asymmetric transmission is linked to excitation of enantiomerically sensitive plasmons, these are induced charge-field excitations that depend on the mutual handedness of incident wave and metamaterial pattern. Various bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities have been identified indicating the opportunity to develop polarization sensitive negative index and slow light media based on such metamaterials.

  10. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  11. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  12. Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Maurice Marchand; Marianne Vigneault

    1998-01-01

    We examine how three sources of asymmetric information affect the supply of entrepreneurs and unemployment. In the first case, banks cannot observe entrepreneurs' risk of failure so ration credit. This increases the number of entrepreneurs and the level of unemployment. In the second case, firms cannot observe workers' effort so offer a wage above the market clearing one. This results in unemployment and too few entrepreneurs. The final case arises when firms cannot observe workers' abilities...

  13. Asymmetric Microscopic Driving Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hwasoo

    2008-01-01

    Numerous theories on traffic have been developed as traffic congestion gains more and more interest in our daily life. To model traffic phenomena, many traffic theorists have adopted theories from other fields such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. However, their efforts to model the traffic at a microscopic level have not been successful yet. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of the existing theories we propose a microscopic asymmetric traffic theory based on analysis of individual...

  14. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

  15. Triple-wavelength infrared plasmonic thermal emitter using hybrid dielectric materials in periodic arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lun; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Tang, Ming-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a triple-wavelength infrared plasmonic thermal emitter using a periodic arrangement of hybrid dielectric materials within a tri-layer metal/dielectric/metal structure. The proposed arrangement makes it possible to sustain multiple resonance of localized surface plasmons (LSP), thereby providing an additional degree of freedom by which to vary the resonant wavelengths in the medium infrared region. Variations in the effective refractive index due to the different modal distribution within dielectric gratings results in multiple LSP resonances, and the resonant wavelengths can be easily tuned by altering the compositions of hybrid dielectric materials. The measured dispersion relation diagram and the finite difference time domain simulation indicated that the resonances were localized. They also indicate that the magnetic fields generated by the multiple LSP modes exhibit distribution patterns similar to that of a standing wave in the periodic arrangement of the hybrid dielectric layer, each of which presents an emission peak corresponding to a different modal order.

  16. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  17. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  18. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  19. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... the United States of America and the Government of the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and Australia... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not...

  20. Metacognitive scaffolding in an innovative learning arrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Boxtel, C.A.M. van; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing f

  1. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Republic of China (China) that would facilitate the joint development of TWR technology between a U.S... ] worldwide, non-proliferation, and the sustainable development of nuclear power; WISHING to facilitate...'s Republic of China that is being processed as a subsequent arrangement. DATES: This...

  2. 75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirement inhibits the beneficial effects of competition for shippers (NYNJFFF&BA at 3); that the tariff... shippers can rely on tariff rates to be accurate, complete and in effect for 30 days; in the event of a... exemption for non-vessel-operating common carriers agreeing to negotiated rate arrangements from...

  3. Asymmetric Information and Consumer Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilova G. N.; Danilina E. I.; Gafurov I. R.; Ismagilov R. I.; Safiullin L. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper study the peculiarities of the formation the consumer demand for durable goods, the so-called «experience goods» in markets with asymmetric information. In the known literature sources studying of the demand is based on the assumption that at the moment of the purchase of goods and services people know exactly what price they are willing to pay for them and what utility they are going to obtain using those goods and services. Consider the signal model in which the initial price a...

  4. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  5. Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of Azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Kitahara, Takeshi; Mori, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetric formal synthesis of azadirachtin, a potent insect antifeedant, was accomplished in 30 steps to Ley's synthetic intermediate (longest linear sequence). The synthesis features: 1) rapid access to the optically active right-hand segment starting from the known 5-hydroxymethyl-2-cyclopentenone scaffold; 2) construction of the B and E rings by a key intramolecular tandem radical cyclization; 3) formation of the hemiacetal moiety in the C ring through the α-oxidation of the six-membered lactone followed by methanolysis. PMID:26474211

  6. Transient Stability During Asymmetrical Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This research project has been conducted at RTE in order to study the transient stability after asymmetrical faults. When three-phase short-circuits occur in a network, almost all the electrical power is lost on the relevant line(s). Among all short-circuit types, it is the most drastic event and the issue has to be solved very quickly. But oddly, it is also the easiest problem to solve mathematically speaking. This comes from the fact that the system stays balanced, and equations can be simp...

  7. Channel Capacity Limits of Cognitive Radio in Asymmetric Fading Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Suraweera, Himal A; Smith, Peter J; Shafi, Mansoor; Faulkner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive radio technology is an innovative radio design concept which aims to increase spectrum utilization by exploiting unused spectrum in dynamically changing environments. By extending previous results, we investigate the capacity gains achievable with this dynamic spectrum approach in asymmetric fading channels. More specifically, we allow the secondary-to-primary and secondary-to-secondary user channels to undergo Rayleigh or Rician fading, with arbitrary link power. In order to compute the capacity, we derive the distributions of ratios of Rayleigh and Rician variables. Compared to the symmetric fading scenario, our results indicate several interesting features of the capacity behaviour under both average and peak received power constraints. Finally, the impact of multiple primary users on the capacity under asymmetric fading has also been studied.

  8. Dynamical Response of Particles in Asymmetric Ratchet Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman A. Marte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and response of particles in an asymmetric potential of the ratchet type is considered. An approximate asymmetric ratchet potential, which allows us to apply an analytical approach to investigate the systems’ response, is proposed based on the power series interpolation scheme. The method of multiple scales (MMS is then employed to obtain an approximate solution at the principal resonance. Comparison between results obtained from the approximated and exact potentials show excellent agreement. The frequency response curves (FRCs for different forcing are presented. The numerically computed FRCs were compared with the theoretical result to show the extent of agreement. Furthermore, by using perturbation methods, the stable and unstable domains of the solution were obtained.

  9. Enhanced Asymmetric Bilinear Model for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjuan Gong; Weishan Zhang; Jordi Gonzàlez; Yan Ren; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Bilinear models have been successfully applied to separate two factors, for example, pose variances and different identities in face recognition problems. Asymmetric model is a type of bilinear model which models a system in the most concise way. But seldom there are works exploring the applications of asymmetric bilinear model on face recognition problem with illumination changes. In this work, we propose enhanced asymmetric model for illumination-robust face recognition. Instead of initiali...

  10. CUSP CATASTROPHE MODEL OF INSTABILITY OF PILLAR IN ASYMMETRIC MINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiang-teng; CAO Ping

    2005-01-01

    A simplified mechanical model of pillar-hang wall was established in asymmetric mining and instability of the system was discussed by means of potential energy principle and cusp catastrophe theory. The necessary-sufficient condition and the jump value of displacement of pillar and the released energy expressions were derived,which established foundation for quantifying of the instability of system. The results show that instability of the system is related to load and its stiffness distribution. The critical load increases with the increasing relative stiffness, and the system is more stable. On the contrary, the instability of system is likely to occur, and the released energy is larger in instability process, and the harm is more tremendous accordingly.Furthermore, an example was calculated, and the estimated results are in good agreement with the practical experience, which provide basis for mining order and arranging stope.

  11. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  12. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  13. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  14. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Rebecca; Boreyko, Jonathan; Briggs, Dayrl; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Retterer, Scott; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2014-03-01

    Exploration of Leidenfrost droplets on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems using boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant way to direct droplet motion in a variety of emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling. This suggests that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon droplet impact onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. Asymmetric wettability and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing this to be the mechanism for the droplet directionality. This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at Oak Ridge National Lab by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, US Dept. of Energy.

  15. Asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener dynamics of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    We explore the asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener (LZ) dynamics in an ensemble of interacting Bose condensed two-level atoms coupled with a cavity field. Assuming the couplings between all atoms and the cavity field are identical, the interplay between atom-atom interaction and detuning may lead to a series of LZ transitions. Unlike the conventional sequential LZ transitions, which are symmetric to the zero detuning, the LZ transitions of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity field are asymmetric and sensitively depend on the photon number distribution of the cavity. In LZ processes involving single excitation numbers, both the variance of the relative atom number and the step slope of the sequential population ladder are asymmetric, and the asymmetry become more significant for smaller excitation numbers. Furthermore, in LZ processes involving multiple excitation numbers, there may appear asymmetric population ladders with decreasing step heights. During a dynamical LZ process, due to the atom-cavity coupling, th...

  16. Some Remarks on Asymmetric Syntheses from Recent Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    Some asymmetric syntheses were presented here and discussed briefly including NADH model reactions, phase transfer-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation, enantiotopic group-selective hydrolysis of a malonic anhydride with alkoxide anion, intramolecular acid-catalyzed lactonizations, catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder synthesis, asymmetric aldol condensation, chiral homoallyl alcohol synthesis, asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to aldehyde, kinetic resolution of racemic hydroperoxides and binaphthol...

  17. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PMID:18457493

  18. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

  19. Patterns of childcare arrangements and cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Eryigit-Madzwamuse, S.; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study investigated (a) whether identifiable patterns of childcare arrangements from birth to 51 months exist and (b) whether these patterns moderate cognitive development from 18 months to 51 months in relation to maternal stimulation of language and infant difficult temperament controlling for SES and child gender. Methods. Of the 1201 who participated in the Families, Children Childcare Study, 978 were included in the current study. Data were collected when childr...

  20. Germany; Technical Note on Crisis Management Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Germany’s challenges and measures to strengthen crisis management arrangements. Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin) and the Bundesbank have closely coordinated with the interagency risk committee on banking matters, which also encompasses BaFin representatives for all three financial sectors. The Bundesbank maintains an internal crisis committee and a steering committee. The crisis committee is chaired by a board member and combines expertise from vari...

  1. Generalized Lantern Relations and Planar Line Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Hironaka, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that to each planar line arrangement defined over the real numbers, for which no two lines are parallel, one can write down a corresponding relation on Dehn twists that can be read off from the combinatorics and relative locations of intersections. This leads to an alternate proof of Wajnryb's generalized lantern relations, and of Endo, Mark and Horn-Morris' daisy relations.

  2. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Singh H.; Raizada N; Soni R.K; Gill P J S

    1993-01-01

    Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I) 100 clerks (groups II) and 100 tabourers (Group III). The interview method was used. The most common (80%) reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmot...

  3. Simple Euclidean arrangements with one (>=5)-gon

    CERN Document Server

    Leaños, Jesus; Rivera-Martinez, Luis Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Let L be a simple Euclidean arrangement of n pseudolines. It is shown that if L has exactly one (>=5)=gon P, and k is the number of edges of P that are adjacent to an unbounded cell of the subarrangement of L induced by the pseudolines in P, then L has exactly n-k triangles and k+n(n-5)/2 quadrilaterals. We also prove that if each pseudoline of L is adjacent to P then L is stretchable.

  4. The fundamental group of the complement of complexified real arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over the real or complex numbers. An arrangement in V is a finite collection of affine hyperplanes of V. Given a real arrangement A in a real vector space V. Then its complexification, AC, is a complex arrangement in the complex vector space VC, and will be called a complexified real arrangement. In this paper, we shall prove a presentation for the fundamental group of the complement of a complexified real arrangement. (author). 7 refs

  5. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  6. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  8. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-07-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq, where qge 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1. These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q}, then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1, where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  9. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.

  10. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies. PMID:27575162

  11. Asymmetrical multi-gateways based internet connectivity for MANET6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-long; MEN Chao-guang; YANG Xiao-zong

    2005-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are autonomous and infrastructureless networks that support multi-hop wireless communications among mobile hosts. Providing global internet connectivity to MANETs is a strong trend nowadays, so the mobile hosts can enjoy the tremendous services of the Internet. In this paper, we present an asymmetrical approach that uses multiple Internet Gateways to provide MANETs nodes with Internet connectivity and access to the Intemet' s resources. The rational utilization of all available Intemet Gateways can meet the load of MANETs balance and reduce the latency of packets communication between MANETs and the Intemet; this can be concluded from the results of the simulation experiments.

  12. Allocation of Prizes in Asymmetric All-Pay Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Chen; Sela, Aner

    2005-01-01

    We study asymmetric all-pay auctions with multiple objects where players’ values for the objects are common knowledge. The players have different values for the objects but they have the same ranking. The contest designer may award one prize including all the objects to the player with the highest bid, or, alternatively, they may allocate several prizes, each prize including one object such that the first prize is awarded to the player with the highest bid, the second prize to the player with...

  13. Topology optimization of two-dimensional asymmetrical phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hao-Wen [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Su, Xiao-Xing [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2014-01-17

    The multiple elitist genetic algorithm with the adaptive fuzzy fitness granulation (AFFG) is used to design the phononic crystals with large relative bandgap width (BGW) for combined out-of-plane and in-plane wave modes. Without assumption on the symmetry of the unit-cell, we obtain an asymmetrical phononic crystal with the relative BGW which is quite larger than that of the optimized symmetrical structure. With the help of AFFG, the number of the fitness function evaluations is reduced by over 50% and the procedure converges 5 times faster than the conventional evolutionary algorithm to reach the same final fitness values.

  14. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  15. Waveguide arrangements based on adiabatic elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchowski, Haim; Mrejen, Michael; Wu, Chihhui; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-13

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanophotonics. In one aspect, an arrangement of waveguides includes a substrate and three waveguides. Each of the three waveguides may be a linear waveguide. A second waveguide is positioned between a first waveguide and a third waveguide. The dimensions and positions of the first, the second, and the third waveguides are specified to substantially eliminate coupling between the first waveguide and the third waveguide over a distance of about 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters along lengths of the first waveguide, the second waveguide, and the third waveguide.

  16. Children's living arrangements following separation and divorce: insights from empirical and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B

    2007-03-01

    When parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents or, failing private agreement, as a result of recommendations and decisions by lawyers, therapists, custody evaluators, or family courts. Most of these decisions have been based on cultural traditions and beliefs regarding postseparation parenting plans, visitation guidelines adopted within jurisdictions, unsubstantiated theory, and strongly held personal values and professional opinions, and have resulted since the 1960s in children spending most of their time with one residential parent and limited time with nonresident, or "visiting", parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after divorce. Such research remains largely unknown and untapped by parents and professionals making these crucial decisions about children's living arrangements. This article highlights empirical and clinical research that is relevant to the shape of children's living arrangements after separation, focusing first on what is known about living arrangements following divorce, what factors influence living arrangements for separated and divorced children, children's views about their living arrangements, and living arrangements associated with children's adjustment following divorce. Based on this research, it is argued that traditional visiting patterns and guidelines are, for the majority of children, outdated, unnecessarily rigid, and restrictive, and fail in both the short and long term to address their best interests. Research-based parenting plan models offering multiple options for living arrangements following separation and divorce more appropriately serve children's diverse developmental and psychological needs.

  17. Asymmetric interjoint feedback contributes to postural control of redundant multi-link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Nathan E.; Ting, Lena H.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-09-01

    Maintaining the postural configuration of a limb such as an arm or leg is a fundamental neural control task that involves the coordination of multiple linked body segments. Biological systems are known to use a complex network of inter- and intra-joint feedback mechanisms arising from muscles, spinal reflexes and higher neuronal structures to stabilize the limbs. While previous work has shown that a small amount of asymmetric heterogenic feedback contributes to the behavior of these systems, a satisfactory functional explanation for this non-conservative feedback structure has not been put forth. We hypothesized that an asymmetric multi-joint control strategy would confer both an energetic and stability advantage in maintaining endpoint position of a kinematically redundant system. We tested this hypothesis by using optimal control models incorporating symmetric versus asymmetric feedback with the goal of maintaining the endpoint location of a kinematically redundant, planar limb. Asymmetric feedback improved endpoint control performance of the limb by 16%, reduced energetic cost by 21% and increased interjoint coordination by 40% compared to the symmetric feedback system. The overall effect of the asymmetry was that proximal joint motion resulted in greater torque generation at distal joints than vice versa. The asymmetric organization is consistent with heterogenic stretch reflex gains measured experimentally. We conclude that asymmetric feedback has a functionally relevant role in coordinating redundant degrees of freedom to maintain the position of the hand or foot.

  18. ITER technical work during the transitional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the scope defined in the Terms of Reference of the ITER Transitional Arrangements (ITA) agreed at the 5th Negotiators Meeting, the work programme for the ITA should include Joint technical preparations directed at maintaining the coherence and integrity of the ITER design and at preparing for an efficient start of ITER construction. Although many aspects of the future detailed arrangements for ITER are the subject of ongoing negotiations, considerable technical work can be done to turn the design, described in detail by the Final Design Report documentation produced by the ITER Project in July 2001, into tight specifications that can be used to control the quality of ITER hardware manufacture and assembly. Together with these technical developments of specifications, technical project management systems can be investigated and deployed to a limited extent to support the organization culture that will be needed for efficient construction following ratification of the JIA. While negotiations advance slowly to their goal at present, once they are completed there will be immense pressure to get on with the technical work. The current International Team, with the Participant Teams, are preparing as best they can, given limited resources, for that moment

  19. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  20. Linear arrangement of hypopigmented Spitz nevi on the ear after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Fan, Pingshen; Gao, Tianwen

    2010-04-01

    A 10-year-old boy had multiple papules after surgery on a primary lesion on his left ear. The papules were pink and showed a linear arrangement around the helix. Histopathological examination of two separate lesions showed proliferation of epithelioid cells in the dermis and some of them formed nests. No melanin was found in the epithelioid cells, and immunohistochemistry staining with S100, HMB45 and Melan-A were positive in the neoplasm cells. According to the clinical and histopathological characteristics, it was diagnosed as hypopigmented Spitz nevi with linear arrangement after trauma.

  1. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe. PMID:22304253

  2. Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.

  3. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe.

  4. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Effective Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    In order to annihilate in the early Universe to levels well below the measured dark matter density, asymmetric dark matter must possess large couplings to the Standard Model. In this paper, we consider effective operators which allow asymmetric dark matter to annihilate into quarks. In addition to a bound from requiring sufficient annihilation, the energy scale of such operators can be constrained by limits from direct detection and monojet searches at colliders. We show that the allowed parameter space for these operators is highly constrained, leading to non-trivial requirements that any model of asymmetric dark matter must satisfy.

  5. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  6. Why Do Nucleosomes Unwrap Asymmetrically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Lennart; Tompitak, Marco; Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schiessel, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Nucleosomes, DNA spools with a protein core, engage about three-quarters of eukaryotic DNA and play a critical role in chromosomal processes, ranging from gene regulation, recombination, and replication to chromosome condensation. For more than a decade, micromanipulation experiments where nucleosomes are put under tension, as well as the theoretical interpretations of these experiments, have deepened our understanding of the stability and dynamics of nucleosomes. Here we give a theoretical explanation for a surprising new experimental finding: nucleosomes wrapped onto the 601 positioning sequence (the sequence used in most laboratories) respond highly asymmetrically to external forces by always unwrapping from the same end. Using a computational nucleosome model, we show that this asymmetry can be explained by differences in the DNA mechanics of two very short stretches on the wrapped DNA portion. Our finding suggests that the physical properties of nucleosomes, here the response to forces, can be tuned locally by the choice of the underlying base-pair sequence. This leads to a new view of nucleosomes: a physically highly varied set of DNA-protein complexes whose properties can be tuned on evolutionary time scales to their specific function in the genomic context. PMID:26991771

  7. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a single scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$ with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful DM candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, $\\Delta' \\sim b'b'b'$, with a dynamically determined mass ($\\sim 5 \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio $\\Omega_{\\rm DM}/\\Omega_{\\rm baryon} \\simeq 5$. Gauging the $U(1)'$ group leads to twin atoms ($\\Delta'$ - $\\bar {\\tau'}$ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo ...

  8. Asymmetric total synthesis of vindoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Boger, Dale L

    2010-03-24

    A concise asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-vindoline (1) is detailed based on a tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which the tether linking the initiating dienophile and oxadiazole bears a chiral substituent that controls the facial selectivity of the initiating Diels-Alder reaction and sets absolute stereochemistry of the remaining six stereocenters in the cascade cycloadduct. This key reaction introduces three rings and four C-C bonds central to the pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. Implementation of the approach also required the development of a unique ring expansion reaction to provide a six-membered ring suitably functionalized for introduction of the Delta (6, 7)-double bond found in the core structure of vindoline and defined our use of a protected hydroxymethyl group as the substituent used to control the stereochemical course of the cycloaddition cascade.

  9. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  10. Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, T B; Bahder, Thomas B.; Fazi, Chris

    2002-01-01

    When a high voltage (~30 kV) is applied to a capacitor whose electrodes have different physical dimensions, the capacitor experiences a net force toward the smaller electrode (Biefeld-Brown effect). We have verified this effect by building four capacitors of different shapes. The effect may have applications to vehicle propulsion and dielectric pumps. We review the history of this effect briefly through the history of patents by Thomas Townsend Brown. At present, the physical basis for the Biefeld-Brown effect is not understood. The order of magnitude of the net force on the asymmetric capacitor is estimated assuming two different mechanisms of charge conduction between its electrodes: ballistic ionic wind and ionic drift. The calculations indicate that ionic wind is at least three orders of magnitude too small to explain the magnitude of the observed force on the capacitor. The ionic drift transport assumption leads to the correct order of magnitude for the force, however, it is difficult to see how ionic dr...

  11. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985

  12. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  13. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  14. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping...

  15. Emergency response arrangements for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst the likelihood of an incident occurring during the transportation of radioactive material is very small and the safety arrangements are extensive, any organisation involved should ensure that comprehensive emergency management arrangements are in place. Details of the particular emergency response arrangements adopted for the Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) Fleet are covered by this paper. (author)

  16. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from any projections of the vessel's structure or equipment. (4) The marine evacuation system's passage... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation...

  17. 5 CFR 2634.306 - Agreements and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangement of the filer in existence at any time during the reporting period with respect to: (a) Future... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreements and arrangements. 2634.306....306 Agreements and arrangements. Each financial disclosure report filed pursuant to this subpart...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020... Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview... may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the need for prior Commission...

  19. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  20. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayer, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present methods to compute massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of dimensional regularization and lattice regularization. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations.

  1. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  2. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  3. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte

    observing and interviewing children in their different developmental settings as their family, kindergartens, schools, institutions for children’s leisure time and special help arrangements. In the observations the children seem deeply occupied with the common aspects of organising a child life across...... different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating...... active efforts of the children themselves in relation to the question of development. The everyday life of children in Nordic countries constitute a situation were children live a great part of their life together with children of the same age and across societal institutions were professionals have...

  4. Arrangement Computation for Planar Algebraic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Berberich, Eric; Kobel, Alexander; Sagraloff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We present a new certified and complete algorithm to compute arrangements of real planar algebraic curves. Our algorithm provides a geometric-topological analysis of the decomposition of the plane induced by a finite number of algebraic curves in terms of a cylindrical algebraic decomposition of the plane. Compared to previous approaches, we improve in two main aspects: Firstly, we significantly reduce the amount of exact operations, that is, our algorithms only uses resultant and gcd as purely symbolic operations. Secondly, we introduce a new hybrid method in the lifting step of our algorithm which combines the usage of a certified numerical complex root solver and information derived from the resultant computation. Additionally, we never consider any coordinate transformation and the output is also given with respect to the initial coordinate system. We implemented our algorithm as a prototypical package of the C++-library CGAL. Our implementation exploits graphics hardware to expedite the resultant and gcd...

  5. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  6. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Brazilian biochar debate is driven by Embrapa experts. • The dominant ADE/biochar discourse has been replaced by biochar/technology discourse. • The international biochar/climate change discourse hardly resonates in Brazil. • Biochar topic is not covered by any formal procedure in Brazil so far. - Abstract: Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE): fertile soils rich in (bio)char and human artefacts. In this article, we conceptualize biochar as an emerging policy arrangement, and examine it along the four dimensions of the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), which are actors, discourse, power and rules. We focus on Brazil as an important player in the international biochar debate. Our analysis shows that science experts are the predominant players in the network, while policy-makers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The reason for this is to be found in the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions such as ‘climate change mitigation’, the ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at the international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally, it is particularly the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ which have prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse has not (yet) been formally institutionalized in

  7. ARRANGING THE INDEX OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surifah -

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menyusun indeks yang dapat menilai pelaksanaan tata kelola perusahaan seperti yang tertulis dalam laporan tahunan. Hal ini disebut indeks pengungkapan tata kelola perusahaan. Pengaturan indeks didasarkan pada pedoman operasional tata kelola perusahaan yang baik (KNKG, 2006, literatur pada pemerintahan, hasil penelitian, dan undang-undang resmi tentang tata kelola perusahaan. Ada dua kelompok sampel. Kelompok sampel yang pertama telah dinilai oleh penilai tata kelola perusahaan dan kelompok sampel kedua belum dinilai. Nilai t-test membuktikan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kedua kelompok sampel. Ini berarti bahwa hasil dengan menggunakan indeks ini, mirip dengan hasil penilaian oleh The Indonesian Institute for Corporate Governance (IICG dalam operasi tata kelola perusahaan. Hal ini juga membuktikan bahwa indeks pengungkapan tata kelola perusahaan dalam penelitian ini mampu menjadi proksi corporate governance di luar jangkauan perusahaan bank, asuransi, dan perusahaan pembiayaan di Indonesia. The objective of the research is to arrange an index which is able to assess the implementation of corporate governance as written in the annual report, which is called disclosure index of corporate governance. Arranging Index is based on operational guidelines of good corporate governance (KNKG, 2006, literatures on governance, research results, and official laws on corporate governance. There are two groups of samples. The first one has been assessed by corporate governance assessor and the second one has not been assessed yet. The t-test score proves significant difference between the two groups of samples. It means that the result by using the index is similar to the assessment result by IICG in corporate governance operation. It also proves that the disclosure index of corporate governance in the research is able to be corporate governance proxy in companies beyond bank, insurance and finance companies in

  8. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L;

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...... short-circuit current was analyzed in order to compare the results with the allowable DC current component based in the IEC. Finally the normal operating condition for the power plant was modeled....

  9. An asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to oxindoles

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The research in this thesis describes an asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to the synthesis of a range of enantioenriched oxindoles using enantiopure oxazolidine derived nitrones and disubstituted ketenes. Chapter 1 aims to place this work in the context of the literature, describing other commonly employed or state-of-the-art asymmetric approaches to oxindoles and related compounds. Examples of where these approaches have been used successfully in the total synthesis of related indol...

  10. Asymmetric Federalism in Russia: Cure or Poison?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2003-01-01

    In the early years of its existence, the Russian Federation adopted a system of differential treatment of its regions in order to cope with the great degree of diversity present in them. This paper examines the Russian Federation’s asymmetric federalism by evaluating the system’s role, significance and effects on the Federation’s development. The study incorporates a detailed description of the asymmetric federalism over time along with the benefits and costs incurred by its implementation. I...

  11. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  12. Novel strategies for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dianjun

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes two novel possibilities for asymmetric hydrogenation: enantioselective hydrogenation using chiral ionic liquid systems and metal-free hydrogenation with boranes. In the first part, asymmetric hydrogenation systems using chiral ionic liquids in combination with racemic rhodium catalyst are presented. Enantioselectivities up to 69% ee were achieved in homogeneous Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation with tropos ligand (BIPHEP, sulfonated BIPHEP) in a proline derived cation chiral io...

  13. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy and hypothyroidism in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, D I; Murray, J.; Milner, S.; Dansky, R; Levin, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Any echocardiographic study of two children with hypothyroidism demonstrated the presence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy. One child died aged 11 months, and pronounced thickening of the interventricular septum was confirmed at necropsy. There was also hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall. Histological examination showed only slight muscle fibre disarray, but there was striking vacuolation and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. In the second case, a child aged five years, the asymmetric ...

  14. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  15. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  16. Asymmetric stochastic switching driven by intrinsic molecular noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frigola

    Full Text Available Low-copy-number molecules are involved in many functions in cells. The intrinsic fluctuations of these numbers can enable stochastic switching between multiple steady states, inducing phenotypic variability. Herein we present a theoretical and computational study based on Master Equations and Fokker-Planck and Langevin descriptions of stochastic switching for a genetic circuit of autoactivation. We show that in this circuit the intrinsic fluctuations arising from low-copy numbers, which are inherently state-dependent, drive asymmetric switching. These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data that have been reported for the bistable system of the gallactose signaling network in yeast. Our study unravels that intrinsic fluctuations, while not required to describe bistability, are fundamental to understand stochastic switching and the dynamical relative stability of multiple states.

  17. An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based on an asymmetric coupled chaotic map lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renfu Liang; Xue Tan; Hu Zhou; Shihong Wang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an asymmetric coupled map lattice (CML) combining sawtooth map as a local map is presented and its chaotic behaviours are analysed. Based on this asymmetric CML, a pseudorandom bit generator (PRBG) is proposed. The specific parameters of the system that make complicated floating-point computation and multiplication computation transform into simple shift bit operations are adopted, that not only ensures the nonlinear operations, but also increases the performance efficiency. The PRBG is implemented in software and hardware. The parallel output bit sequences pass all of the NIST SP800-22 statistical tests.

  18. Alternative radiative and dark mode-induced multi-broadband transmission in asymmetrical metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Fei, Guang Tao; Xu, Shao Hui; Shang, Guo Liang; De Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of extraordinary and multi-broadband optical transmission through sub-wavelength metallic grating with symmetry breaking has been theoretically investigated. Under normal incident light, the radiative and dark modes appear in adjacent slits of the grating with asymmetric heights. Through the destructive interference of alternative radiative and dark modes, multiple broadband transmission and enhanced light propagation is realized. The counter-propagating light circulation results in sharp dips in the transmission spectrum. These characteristics of the asymmetric grating could provide highly controllable ways to design novel devices.

  19. Tunneling and energy splitting in an asymmetric double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An asymmetric double-well potential is considered, assuming that the minima of the wells are quadratic with a frequency ω and the difference of the minima is close to a multiple of hω. A WKB wave function is constructed on both sides of the local maximum between the wells, by matching the WKB function to the exact wave functions near the classical turning points. The continuities of the wave function and its first derivative at the local maximum then give the energy-level splitting formula, which not only reproduces the instanton result for a symmetric potential, but also elucidates the appearance of resonances of tunneling in the asymmetric potential

  20. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a finite periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    and wave forces that are associated with the characteristic wave-types, which can exist in a multicoupled periodic system [Mead, J. Sound Vib. 40, 19–39 (1975)]. The third part of the paper considers a finite specific test-structure with eight periodic elements and with structural terminations...... is examined in the first part of the present paper, and the damping-dependent decrease in wave coupling is revealed for a structure with multiresonant side-branches. In the second part, the simplifying semi-infinite assumption is relaxed and general expressions for the junction responses of finite...... and multicoupled periodic systems are derived as a generalization of the governing expressions for finite, mono-coupled periodic systems [Ohlrich, J. Sound Vib. 107, 411–434 (1986)]. The present derivation of the general frequency response of a finite system utilizes the eigenvectors of displacement responses...

  1. Asymmetric plasmonic induced ionic noise in metallic nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Chang; Willems, Kherim; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; van Dorpe, Pol

    2016-06-01

    We present distinct asymmetric plasmon-induced noise properties of ionic transport observed through gold coated nanopores. We thoroughly investigated the effects of bias voltage and laser illumination. We show that the potential drop across top-coated silicon nanocavity pores can give rise to a large noise asymmetry (~2-3 orders of magnitude). Varying the bias voltage has an appreciable effect on the noise density spectra, typically in the Lorentzian components. The laser power is found to strongly affect the ionic noise level as well as the voltage threshold for light-induced noise generation. The asymmetric noise phenomenon is attributed to plasmon-induced interfacial reactions which promote light-induced charge fluctuation in the ion flow and allow voltage modulation of photo-induced carriers surmounting over such Schottky junctions. We further compare the ionic noise performances of gold nanocavities containing different material stacks, among which thermal oxide passivation of the silicon successfully mitigates the light-induced noise and is also fully CMOS-compatible. The understanding of the described noise characteristics will help to foster multiple applications using related structures including plasmonic-based sensing or plasmon-induced catalysis such as water splitting or solar energy conversion devices.We present distinct asymmetric plasmon-induced noise properties of ionic transport observed through gold coated nanopores. We thoroughly investigated the effects of bias voltage and laser illumination. We show that the potential drop across top-coated silicon nanocavity pores can give rise to a large noise asymmetry (~2-3 orders of magnitude). Varying the bias voltage has an appreciable effect on the noise density spectra, typically in the Lorentzian components. The laser power is found to strongly affect the ionic noise level as well as the voltage threshold for light-induced noise generation. The asymmetric noise phenomenon is attributed to plasmon

  2. Optical color image encryption based on an asymmetric cryptosystem in the Fresnel domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, optical color image encryption has attracted much attention in the information security field. Some approaches, such as digital holography, have been proposed to encrypt color images, but the previously proposed methods are developed based on optical symmetric cryptographic strategies. In this paper, we apply an optical asymmetric cryptosystem for the color image encryption instead of conventional symmetric cryptosystems. A phase-truncated strategy is applied in the Fresnel domain, and multiple-wavelength and indexed image methods are further employed. The security of optical asymmetric cryptosystem is also analyzed during the decryption. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical asymmetric cryptosystem for color image encryption.

  3. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  4. [Development of new methods in asymmetric reactions and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Node, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    Several novel methods using chiral reagents and biocatalysts for asymmetric reactions are described. Among those reactions, asymmetric reduction via a novel tandem Michael addition/Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction of acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones using a chiral mercapto alcohol, asymmetric synthesis of allene-1,3-dicarboxylate via crystallization induced asymmetric transformation, and improved asymmetric nitroolefination of lactones and lactames at alpha-carbon using new chiral reagents were developed. In the reactions using biocatalysts, asymmetric dealkoxycarbonylation of bicyclic beta-keto diesters having sigma-symmetry with lipase or esterase to give optically active beta-keto esters, the asymmetric reduction of bicyclic 1,3-diketones having sigma-symmetry with Baker's yeast to give optically active keto alcohols, and the asymmetric aldol reaction of glycine with threonine aldolase were also developed. The above mentioned products were effectively utilized as chiral building blocks for the asymmetric synthesis of natural products and drugs.

  5. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes is disclosed herein. This mechanism includes first means for fixedly supporting the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is positionable within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. This latter means and the mirror or other such arrangement are supported by second means for limited movement back and forth about either of the intersecting axes. Moreover, this second means supports the first means and the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is not movable in any other way whereby the point on the mirror or other arrangement coinciding with the intersection of the given axes does not move or float, thereby making the ability to adjust the mirror or other such arrangement more precise and accurate.

  6. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  7. Optical properties of quasiperiodically arranged semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werchner, Marco

    2009-12-18

    This work consists of two parts which are entitled ''One-Dimensional Resonant Fibonacci Quasicrystals'' and ''Resonant Tunneling of Light in Silicon Nanostructures''. A microscopic theory has been applied to investigate the optical properties of the respective semiconductor nanostructures. The studied one-dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals consist of GaAs quantum wells (QW) that are separated by either a large spacer L or a small one S. These spacers are arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence LSLLSLSL.. The average spacing satisfies a generalized Bragg condition with respect to the 1s-exciton resonance of the QWs. A theory, that makes use of the transfer-matrix method and that allows for the microscopic description of many-body effects such as excitation-induced dephasing caused by the Coulomb scattering of carriers, has been applied to compute the optical spectra of such structures. A pronounced sharp reflectivity minimum is found in the vicinity of the heavy-hole resonance both in the measured as well as in the calculated linear 54-QW spectra. Specifically, the influence of the carrier density, of the QW arrangement, of a detuning away from the exact Bragg condition, of the average spacing as well as of the ratio of the optical path lengths of the large and small spacers L and S, respectively, and of the QW number on the optical properties of the samples have been studied. Additionally, self-similarity among reflection spectra corresponding to different QW numbers that exceed a Fibonacci number by one is observed, which identifies certain spectral features as true fingerprints of the Fibonacci spacing. In the second part, resonant tunneling of light in stacked structures consisting of alternating parallel layers of silicon and air have been studied theoretically.Light may tunnel through the air barrier due to the existence of evanescent waves inside the air layers if the neighboring silicon layer is close

  8. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  9. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis....... In this paper, we study asymmetric information about productivity within a principal-agent framework and a tax on fishing effort is considered. It is shown that a second best optimum can be achieved if the effort tax is designed such that low-productivity agents rent is exhausted, while high-productivity agents...... receive an information rent. The information rent is equivalent to the total incentive cost. The incentive costs arise as we want to reveal the agent's type....

  10. Dc SQUIDs with asymmetric shunt resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Nagel, Joachim; Kemmler, Matthias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISAplus, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb dc SQUIDs. Simulations based on the coupled Langevin equations predict that the optimum energy resolution ε, and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID, can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R{sup -1} = R{sub 1}{sup -1} + R{sub 2}{sup -1}, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R = R{sub 1,2}/2. Both types of SQUIDs were characterized with respect to their transport and noise properties at temperature T = 4.2 K, and we compared the experimental results with numerical simulations. Experiments yielded ε ∼ 32 ℎ for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance L = 22 pH, whereas a comparable symmetric device achieved ε = 110 ℎ.

  11. Stock Market Reaction to Debt Financing Arrangements in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Fungacova, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates stock market reaction to debt arrangements in Russia. The analysis of the valuation of debt arrangements by stock markets provides information about the use of debt by Russian companies. We apply the event study methodology to check whether debt announcements lead to abnormal returns using a sample of Russian listed companies that issued syndicated loans or bonds between June 2004 and December 2008. We find a negative reaction of stock markets to debt arrangements that...

  12. Marital processes, arranged marriage, and contraception to limit fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G

    2013-10-01

    An international transition away from familially arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Although we know that this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. Drawing on theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to measure changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors, this study seeks to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility and suggest that new research should consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes.

  13. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  14. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  15. Subitizing is sensitive to the arrangement of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcsi, Attila; Szabó, Eszter; Mórocz, István Ákos

    2013-01-01

    Subitizing is a fast and accurate enumeration process of small sets of usually less than four objects. Several models were proposed in the literature. Critically, only pattern recognition theory suggests that subitizing performance is sensitive to the arrangement of the array. In our study, arrays of dots in random or canonical arrangements were enumerated. The subitizing range was larger and the reaction time slope was less steep in the canonical arrangements. When noise was added to the canonical pattern, the reaction time slope was proportional to the amount of noise. Moreover, arrangement has a stronger effect on sets with more than four objects. These results support the pattern recognition model of subitizing.

  16. Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis in fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Alessandra; Bovo, Sara; Bertoldini, Matteo; Scrivanti, Alberto; Matteoli, Ugo

    2008-06-01

    Opposite enantiomers of a chiral fragrance may exhibit different olfactory activities making a synthesis in high enantiomeric purity commercially and scientifically interesting. Accordingly, the asymmetric synthesis of four chiral odorants, Fixolide, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile, has been investigated with the aim to develop practically feasible processes. In the devised synthetic schemes, the key step that leads to the formation of the stereogenic center is the homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of a prochiral olefin. By an appropriate choice of the catalyst and the reaction conditions, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile were obtained in high enantiomeric purity, and odor profiles of the single enantiomers were determined.

  17. Asymmetric catalysis with short-chain peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bartosz; Wennemers, Helma

    2014-10-01

    Within this review article we describe recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with peptides. Numerous peptides have been established in the past two decades that catalyze a wide variety of transformations with high stereoselectivities and yields, as well as broad substrate scope. We highlight here catalytically active peptides, which have addressed challenges that had thus far remained elusive in asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective synthesis of atropoisomers and quaternary stereogenic centers, regioselective transformations of polyfunctional substrates, chemoselective transformations, catalysis in-flow and reactions in aqueous environments.

  18. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  19. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid–lipid and lipid–membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  20. Necessity of electromagnetic emission network arrangement in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turazashvili, Ioseb; Kachakhidze, Nino; Machavariani, Kakhaber; Kachakhidze, Manana; Gogoberidze, Vitali; Khazaradze, Giorgi

    2015-04-01

    The field of the tectonic stress has the hierarchical structure. The most characteristic features connected with the regional tectonic elements are determined by the geologic - tectonic data. It is established that in the young folded areas like the Caucasus the field of tectonic stress is characterized by the sharp anisotropy with the predominance of the compression perpendicular to the trend of folding. Spatial location of the main positive and negative geotectonic morphostructures of the Caucasus shows the existence of the wavy tectonic movements in the region. They are caused by the horizontal compression, provoked evidently by advancement of the Arabian lithosphere plate to the North and its re-approach with the Euro-Asian plate. All these cause considerable deformation of the lithosphere of the Caucasian region and its breaking up in separate blocks. This, in its turn, causes the concentration of stress along the boundaries of the blocks and rising of earthquakes focuses there. According to the instrumental data starting from 1899 at about 40 large earthquakes were fixed in the Caucasus. The rate of risks associated with these hazards increases every year in Georgia due to the appearance of new complicated technological construction: oil and gas pipelines large dams and hydropower plants and others. Modern ground-based and satellite methods of viewing enables to reveal those multiple anomalous geophysical phenomena which become evident in the period preceding earthquake and are directly connected with the process of its preparation. Lately special attention is attributed to the electromagnetic emission fixed during large earthquake and has already been successfully detected in Japan, America and Europe. Unfortunately there is no electromagnetic emission detection network in Georgia yet. The presented abstract concerns arrange of EM emission net and begin implementation of this vital task by arrangement of the one relevant station on the fault near Tbilisi

  1. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  2. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  3. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F

    1995-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  4. Asymmetric cell division: a persistent issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Christopher D.; Laub, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a clonal population of cells can increase survival in the face of environmental stress. In a recent issue of Science, Aldridge et al. (2012) demonstrate that cell division in mycobacteria is asymmetric, producing daughter cells that differ in size, growth rate, and susceptibility to antibiotics.

  5. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Cladospolide B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Wen-Kuan; ZHANG,Ji-Yong; HE,Jin-Mei; TANG,Shi-Bing; WANG,Xiao-Lei; SHE,Xue-Gong; PAN,Xin-Fu

    2008-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-cladospolide B was described.The key steps in this synthesis include (a) a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation to elaborate syn diol at C-4 and C-5 positions;(b) a Mitsunobu esterification to reverse the configuration at C-11 from (S) to (R);and (c) a ring-closing metathesis to access the 12-membered macrocyclic ring.

  6. Evidence of asymmetric top in 130Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduced is a new relation connecting moment of inertia, Lipas parameter and asymmetric rotor model energies and put forward much closer trend in odd even staggering of quasi γ-band. A different view point regarding generation of quasi γ-band in 130Ba have been presented

  7. The Asymmetric Effects of Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    are asymmetric: During peak-to-trough periods of investor sentiment (sentiment contractions), high sentiment predicts low future returns for the cross section of speculative stocks and for the market overall, whereas the relationship between sentiment and future returns is positive but relatively weak during...... trough-to-peak episodes (sentiment expansions). Overall, these results match theories and anecdotal accounts of investor sentiment....

  8. Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.

  9. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  10. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  11. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of mycocerosic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, B.; Feringa, B.L.; J. Minnaard, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of mycocerosic acid was achieved via the application of iterative enantioselective 1,4-addition reactions and allows for the efficient construction of 1,3-polymethyl arrays with full stereocontrol; further exemplified by the synthesis of tetramethyl-dec

  12. 14 CFR 27.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 27.477 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 27.235, 27.479 through 27.485, and 27.493 apply to landing gear with two wheels aft,...

  13. 14 CFR 29.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 29.477 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 29.235, 29.479 through 29.485, and 29.493 apply to landing gear with two wheels aft,...

  14. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three…

  15. 39 CFR 255.7 - Special arrangements for postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 255.7 Special arrangements for postal services. Members of the public who are unable... carriers. (iii) Self-service postal centers. Self-service postal centers contain vending equipment for the... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special arrangements for postal services....

  16. EQUITABLE CROPSHARE ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTENSIVE DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Burgener, Paul A.; Feuz, Dillon M.

    1999-01-01

    As producers move toward intensive dryland cropping systems, the potential for inequities in cropshare lease arrangements exists. A whole farm budget was developed to evaluate returns for landowner and tenant from different cropshare lease arrangements. Results suggest that cropshare lease adjustments are necessary as cropping systems become more intensive.

  17. Complex arrangements whose complement has Euler characteristic +/-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Philippe; Laeremans, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we prove that a complex arrangement (i.e. a finite union of hyperplanes in C-n) whose complement has Euler characteristic +/-1 is defined over Q, meaning that there exist coordinates such that the equations of the hyperplanes of the arrangement have rational coefficients.

  18. Arrangement for carrying out and studying chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, A.D.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9102029 (A) Described is an arrangement for carrying out TAP experiments. Such an arrangement comprises a reaction chamber in which a very short-lived beam of molecules is directed at a target to produce a short-lived beam of intermediate-product molecules, and a vacuum chamber wher

  19. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  20. Exploring living arrangements of divorced families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Bakker; C.H. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    We aim to gain more insight into the characteristics of divorced families with different types of post-divorce living arrangements, and in particular with co-parenting arrangements in which the child alternates between the parents’ residences. Empirical evidence comes from a mixed- method research,

  1. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227 Section 121.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  2. 14 CFR 125.125 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 125.125 Section 125.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Requirements § 125.125 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass...

  3. 40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... his facility and the potential need for the services of these organizations: (1) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties... emergency response teams, emergency response contractors, and equipment suppliers; and (4) Arrangements...

  4. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be...

  5. 45 CFR 400.72 - Arrangements for employability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangements for employability services. 400.72... Requirements for Employability Services and Employment § 400.72 Arrangements for employability services... to meet the requirements of, and receive the employability services specified in, this subpart....

  6. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling... MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff shall hold a...

  7. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some...

  8. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  9. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  10. Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donald B.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric bulkheads are proposed for the ends of vertically oriented cylindrical pressure vessels. These bulkheads, which would feature both convex and concave contours, would offer advantages over purely convex, purely concave, and flat bulkheads (see figure). Intended originally to be applied to large tanks that hold propellant liquids for launching spacecraft, the asymmetric-bulkhead concept may also be attractive for terrestrial pressure vessels for which there are requirements to maximize volumetric and mass efficiencies. A description of the relative advantages and disadvantages of prior symmetric bulkhead configurations is prerequisite to understanding the advantages of the proposed asymmetric configuration: In order to obtain adequate strength, flat bulkheads must be made thicker, relative to concave and convex bulkheads; the difference in thickness is such that, other things being equal, pressure vessels with flat bulkheads must be made heavier than ones with concave or convex bulkheads. Convex bulkhead designs increase overall tank lengths, thereby necessitating additional supporting structure for keeping tanks vertical. Concave bulkhead configurations increase tank lengths and detract from volumetric efficiency, even though they do not necessitate additional supporting structure. The shape of a bulkhead affects the proportion of residual fluid in a tank that is, the portion of fluid that unavoidably remains in the tank during outflow and hence cannot be used. In this regard, a flat bulkhead is disadvantageous in two respects: (1) It lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet and (2) a vortex that forms at the outlet during outflow prevents a relatively large amount of fluid from leaving the tank. A concave bulkhead also lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet. Like purely concave and purely convex bulkhead configurations, the proposed asymmetric bulkhead configurations would be more mass-efficient than is the flat

  11. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  12. Niche-associated activation of rac promotes the asymmetric division of Drosophila female germline stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs reside adjacent to a cellular niche that secretes Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP ligands and anchors the GSCs through adherens junctions. The GSCs divide asymmetrically such that one daughter remains in the niche as a GSC, while the other is born away from the niche and differentiates. However, given that the BMP signal can be diffusible, it remains unclear how a local extracellular asymmetry is sufficient to result in a robust pattern of asymmetric division. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that GSCs are polarized with respect to the cellular niche. We first use a modified biosensor to demonstrate that the small GTPase Rac is asymmetrically activated within the GSC at the niche-GSC interface. Experiments using loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in Rac indicate that asymmetric Rac activity both localizes the microtubule binding protein Apc2 to orient one GSC centrosome at the niche-GSC interface during interphase and activates the Jun N-terminal kinase pathway to increase the ability of the GSC to respond to BMP ligands. Other processes act in concert with each function of Rac. Specifically, we demonstrate that the GSC cell cycle arrests at prometaphase if centrosomes are misoriented. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the GSCs, an adult stem cell present in a cellular niche, have a niche-associated polarity that couples control of the division plane with increased response to an extracellular maintenance signal. Other processes work in parallel with the Rac-mediated polarity to ensure a robust pattern of asymmetric division. We suggest that all adult stem cells likely employ multiple, independently acting mechanisms to ensure asymmetric division to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  13. Power efficient and colorless PON upstream system using asymmetric clipping optical OFDM and TDMA technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Qiao, Yaojun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2012-04-01

    Asymmetric clipping optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) based time division multiple access (TDMA) Passive Optical Network (PON) upstream transmission architecture is proposed. The system features low power consumption, colorless, and cost effectiveness. Performance and validity of 10 Gb/s upstream transmission are studied and confirmed by simulation. Performance degradation due to interference from rogue Optical Network Unit (ONU) is also studied.

  14. Cooperative Communication in Cognitive Radio Networks under Asymmetric Information: A Contract-Theory Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Zhao; Minghu Wu; Wei Xiong; Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting the spatial diversity of multiple wireless nodes, cooperative communication technique is a promising technique for spectrum sharing to improve spectrum efficiency. In this paper, the incentive issue between relay nodes’ (RNs’) service and source’s relay selection is investigated in the presence of the asymmetric information scenario. Multiuser cooperative communication is modelled as a labour market, where the source designs a contract and each relay node decides to select a con...

  15. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  16. CHD6 regulates the topological arrangement of the CFTR locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Ana; Li, SiDe; Paul, Thankam; Zhang, Fan; Aguilo, Francesca; Vashisht, Ajay; Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Leleiko, Neal S; Suchy, Frederick J; Wohlschlegel, James A; Zhang, Weijia; Walsh, Martin J

    2015-05-15

    The control of transcription is regulated through the well-coordinated spatial and temporal interactions between distal genomic regulatory elements required for specialized cell-type and developmental gene expression programs. With recent findings CFTR has served as a model to understand the principles that govern genome-wide and topological organization of distal intra-chromosomal contacts as it relates to transcriptional control. This is due to the extensive characterization of the DNase hypersensitivity sites, modification of chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and the arrangement of these sites in CFTR consistent with the restrictive expression in epithelial cell types. Here, we identified CHD6 from a screen among several chromatin-remodeling proteins as a putative epigenetic modulator of CFTR expression. Moreover, our findings of CTCF interactions with CHD6 are consistent with the role described previously for CTCF in CFTR regulation. Our results now reveal that the CHD6 protein lies within the infrastructure of multiple transcriptional complexes, such as the FACT, PBAF, PAF1C, Mediator, SMC/Cohesion and MLL complexes. This model underlies the fundamental role CHD6 facilitates by tethering cis-acting regulatory elements of CFTR in proximity to these multi-subunit transcriptional protein complexes. Finally, we indicate that CHD6 structurally coordinates a three-dimensional stricture between intragenic elements of CFTR bound by several cell-type specific transcription factors, such as CDX2, SOX18, HNF4α and HNF1α. Therefore, our results reveal new insights into the epigenetic regulation of CFTR expression, whereas the manipulation of CFTR gene topology could be considered for treating specific indications of cystic fibrosis and/or pancreatitis.

  17. Combining Geomatics and Conventional Methods for Monitoring Forest Conditions under Different Governance Arrangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambika P. Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an innovative methodological framework that combines geomatics and conventional survey methods to monitor changes in forest conditions and examine their associations with local forest governance parameters in a mountain watershed covering 153.3 km2 in the middle mountains of Nepal. The study involved two spatial scales and analytical steps. First, geomatics techniques were used to map and detect changes in major land cover types in the watershed between 1976 and 2000 and to analyze relationships between forest cover changes and governance arrangements. This was followed by micro-level analysis of the relationships between the biological conditions of selected forests within the watershed and their governance arrangements, using conventional survey methods and analytical tools. The findings show that forest cover in the watershed increased by about 15 per cent during the period. The rate of increase in forest cover was highest in areas under a semi-government type of governance arrangement, while the community forests were generally better in terms of current biological conditions compared to the semi-government forests. This inconsistency between the findings from the two analyscs does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions regarding the role of property rights in determining forest condition, but it indicates that the outcomes of local forest management initiatives may be more dependent on local institutional arrangements regulating forest use and maintenance of forest resources than on the type of property rights arrangements. The findings also provide evidence of the methodological suitability of the research approach adopted, which may be useful for addressing many other research questions related to forestry and natural resources management, particularly those involving multiple spatial scales.

  18. Metal-ligand binding affinity vs reactivity: qualitative studies in Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Gavin Chit; Dougan, Patrick; Lautens, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric ring opening (ARO) of oxabenzonorbornadiene is used as a model system to qualitatively study reactions involving multiple metal-ligand interactions. The key feature of this approach is the use of product ee as an indicator to quickly gain important information such as the relative ligand binding affinity and relative reactivity of catalysts.

  19. Trends in living arrangements in Europe: Convergence or divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aart C. Liefbroer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article uses data from the Labour Force Surveys to examine trends in the living arrangements of European men and women aged 20 to 75 between 1987 and 2002. Some trends, like the decline in mean household size and the increase in living as a lone mother have occurred all across Europe. Other trends have been more pronounced or have even been limited to specific parts of Europe. In combination, it appears that the differences in living arrangements across Europe might have grown larger in the last fifteen to twenty years. Large differences in living arrangements remain along geographical divides.

  20. Designing a Miniature Wheel Arrangement for Mobile Robot Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Kayani, Saheeb Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In this research report details of design of a miniature wheel arrangement are presented. This miniature wheel arrangement is essentially a direction control mechanism intended for use on a mobile robot platform or base. The design is a specific one employing a stepper motor as actuator and as described can only be used on a certain type of wheeled robots. However as a basic steering control element, more than one of these miniature wheel arrangements can be grouped together to implement more elaborate and intelligent direction control schemes on varying configurations of wheeled mobile robot platforms.

  1. Dynamics of circular arrangements of vorticity in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Rohith V.; Ravichandran, S.; Perlekar, Prasad; Govindarajan, Rama

    2016-07-01

    The merger of two like-signed vortices is a well-studied problem, but in a turbulent flow, we may often have more than two like-signed vortices interacting. We study the merger of three or more identical corotating vortices initially arranged on the vertices of a regular polygon. At low to moderate Reynolds numbers, we find an additional stage in the merger process, absent in the merger of two vortices, where an annular vortical structure is formed and is long lived. Vortex merger is slowed down significantly due to this. Such annular vortices are known at far higher Reynolds numbers in studies of tropical cyclones, which have been noticed to a break down into individual vortices. In the preannular stage, vortical structures in a viscous flow are found here to tilt and realign in a manner similar to the inviscid case, but the pronounced filaments visible in the latter are practically absent in the former. Five or fewer vortices initially elongate radially, and then reorient their long axis closer to the azimuthal direction so as to form an annulus. With six or more vortices, the initial alignment is already azimuthal. Interestingly at higher Reynolds numbers, the merger of an odd number of vortices is found to proceed very differently from that of an even number. The former process is rapid and chaotic whereas the latter proceeds more slowly via pairing events. The annular vortex takes the form of a generalized Lamb-Oseen vortex (GLO), and diffuses inward until it forms a standard Lamb-Oseen vortex. For lower Reynolds number, the numerical (fully nonlinear) evolution of the GLO vortex follows exactly the analytical evolution until merger. At higher Reynolds numbers, the annulus goes through instabilities whose nonlinear stages show a pronounced difference between even and odd mode disturbances. Here again, the odd mode causes an early collapse of the annulus via decaying turbulence into a single central vortex, whereas the even mode disturbance causes a more

  2. Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Mehta, Anil K; Sidorov, Anton N; Orlando, Thomas M; Jiang, Zhigang; Anthony, Neil R; Lynn, David G

    2016-03-16

    Energetic insights emerging from the structural characterization of peptide cross-β assemblies have enabled the design and construction of robust asymmetric bilayer peptide membranes. Two peptides differing only in their N-terminal residue, phosphotyrosine vs lysine, coassemble as stacks of antiparallel β-sheets with precisely patterned charged lattices stabilizing the bilayer leaflet interface. Either homogeneous or mixed leaflet composition is possible, and both create nanotubes with dense negative external and positive internal solvent exposed surfaces. Cross-seeding peptide solutions with a preassembled peptide nanotube seed leads to domains of different leaflet architecture within single nanotubes. Architectural control over these cross-β assemblies, both across the bilayer membrane and along the nanotube length, provides access to highly ordered asymmetric membranes for the further construction of functional mesoscale assemblies.

  3. δ Meson Effects on Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; di Toro, M.; Greco, V.

    The impact of a δ meson field (the scalar-isovector channel) on asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within relativistic mean-field (RMF) models with both constant and density dependent (DD) nucleon-meson couplings. The Equation of State (EOS) for asymmetric nuclear matter and the neutron star properties by the different models are compared. We find that the δ-field in the constant coupling scheme leads to a larger repulsion in dense neutron-rich matter and to a definite splitting of proton and neutron effective masses, finally influencing the stability of the neutron stars. A broader analysis of possible δ-field effects is achieved considering also density dependent nucleon-meson coupling. A remarkable effect on the relation between mass and radius for the neutron stars is seen, showing a significant reduction of the radius along with a moderate mass reduction due to the increase of the effective δ coupling in high density regions.

  4. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.

  5. Applications of Chiral Anions in Asymmetric Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Gregory Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of molecules with control over their three-dimensional configuration, known as absolute stereochemistry, is one of the highest goals of synthetic organic chemists. As is so often the case, we strive to reach the facility and efficiency with which Nature achieves this goal. Fortunately, the chemist's imagination allows us to envision nearly unlimited possibilities for new modes of catalysis. In this dissertation, I discuss one branch of asymmetric catalysis that has in a short ti...

  6. New ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Valenzuela, Maria Belen

    2007-01-01

    A review on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of C=O double bonds is presented in the first chapter. Noyori’s pioneering research on ruthenium complexes containing both phosphine and diamine ligands using [i superscript]PrOH and [t superscript]BuOK is described, this system gave impressive highly chemeo-selectivity for C=O bonds and extremely high enantioselectivity for a range of acetophenone derivatives. Numerous groups have been inspired by Noyori’s catalyst of the ty...

  7. Competitive Price and Quality Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Birger Wernerfelt

    1987-01-01

    We present an analysis of equilibrium in markets with asymmetrically informed consumers. Some consumers know both price and quality of all sellers, whereas others know neither but may search among sellers. The equilibrium correlation between price and quality generally increases with the level of information in the market and can be negative when this level is sufficiently small. A meta-analysis of the available empirical studies strongly supports the model's predictions.

  8. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cortês, Marina; Liddle, Andrew R; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar conn...

  9. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Lydia Hulme; Ji-Long Liu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our t...

  10. Selective Homogeneous Catalysis in Asymmetric Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter

    The subject of this thesis is selectivity in homogeneous asymmetric transition metalcatalyzed reactions. Four different reactions within organic chemistry have been studied by kinetic measurements, computational chemistry (modelling) or both of them in parallel. A Hammett study was performed....... A thorough computational study succeeded in explaining the observed results, although other significant results were also obtained during this study. Finally, an intramolecular reaction was studied computationally, and the rate increase observed under phase transfer catalysis conditions could be related...

  11. On asymmetric collisions with large disruption parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between a weak electron bunch and a strong positron bunch are studied within a flat model. Electrons are tracked through the transverse space charge field of the positron bunch, and it is shown that positrons in a storage ring may remain stable after asymmetric collisions with a weak electron bunch in spite of large values of the electron disruption parameter. The plasma oscillations that affect collisions with large disruption parameters may be suppressed by properly matching the electrons. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Surface segregation of conformationally asymmetric polymer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanow, Semjon; Fedorenko, Andrei A.

    2005-01-01

    We have generalized the Edwards' method of collective description of dense polymer systems in terms of effective potentials to polymer blends in the presence of a surface. With this method we have studied conformationally asymmetric athermic polymer blends in the presence of a hard wall to the first order in effective potentials. For polymers with the same gyration radius $R_g$ but different statistical segment lengths $l_{A}$ and $l_{B}$ the excess concentration of stiffer polymers at the su...

  13. Neuronal alignment on asymmetric textured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C.; Staii, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify...

  14. Trapdoor Privacy in Asymmetric Searchable Encryption Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Delerue Arriaga, Afonso; TANG, QIANG; Ryan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric searchable encryption allows searches to be carried over ciphertexts, through delegation, and by means of trapdoors issued by the owner of the data. Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) is a primitive with such functionality that provides delegation of exact-match searches. As it is important that ciphertexts preserve data privacy, it is also important that trapdoors do not expose the user’s search criteria. The difficulty of formalizing a security model for trapdoor pr...

  15. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  16. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stéphanie; Kuper, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find evidence for amount asymmetry,...

  17. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  18. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  19. Ultralong distance coupling between asymmetric resonant microcavities

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Chen, Wen-Cong; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The ultralong distance coupling between two Asymmetric Resonant Microcavities (ARCs) is studied. Different from traditional short distance tunneling coupling between microcavities, the high efficient free space directional emission and excitation allow ultralong distance energy transfer between ARCs. In this paper, a novel unidirectional emission ARC, which shows directionality I40 = 0.54, is designed for materials of refractive index n = 2.0. Compared with regular whispering gallery microres...

  20. Prospects for Asymmetric PNe with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, P J

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations have made fundamental contributions to our current understanding of the transition from AGB stars to white dwarfs. The approaching era of ALMA brings significantly enhanced observing capabilities at these wavelengths and promises to push back the frontiers in a number of ways. We examine the scientific prospects of this new era for PNe, with an emphasis on how developments may contribute to the goals of the asymmetric PNe community.

  1. Asymmetric Reversal in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi-Pan; Petracic, Oleg; Morales, Rafael; Olamit, Justin; Batlle, Xavier; Liu, Kai; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymmetric magnetization reversal is an unusual phenomenon in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet (AF/FM) exchange biased bilayers. We investigated this phenomenon in a simple model system experimentally and by simulation assuming inhomogeneously distributed interfacial AF moments. The results suggest that the observed asymmetry originates from the intrinsic broken symmetry of the system, which results in local incomplete domain walls parallel to the interface in reversal to negative saturation of th...

  2. Asymmetric Orbital Distribution near Mean Motion Resonance: Application to Planets Observed by Kepler and Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ji-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many multiple-planet systems have been found by the Kepler transit survey and various radial velocity (RV) surveys. Kepler planets show an asymmetric feature, namely, there are small but significant deficits/excesses of planet pairs with orbital period spacing slightly narrow/wide of the exact resonance, particularly near the first order mean motion resonance (MMR), such as 2:1 and 3:2 MMR. Similarly, if not exactly the same, an asymmetric feature (pileup wide of 2:1 MMR) is also seen in RV planets, but only for massive ones. We analytically and numerically study planets' orbital evolutions near and in the MMR. We find that their orbital period ratios could be asymmetrically distributed around the MMR center regardless of dissipation. In the case of no dissipation, Kepler planets' asymmetric orbital distribution could be partly reproduced for 3:2 MMR but not for 2:1 MMR, implying that dissipation might be more important to the latter. The pileup of massive RV planets just wide of 2:1 MMR is found to be consis...

  3. Two-stage solar concentrators based on parabolic troughs: asymmetric versus symmetric designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Max; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-11-20

    While nonimaging concentrators can approach the thermodynamic limit of concentration, they generally suffer from poor compactness when designed for small acceptance angles, e.g., to capture direct solar irradiation. Symmetric two-stage systems utilizing an image-forming primary parabolic concentrator in tandem with a nonimaging secondary concentrator partially overcome this compactness problem, but their achievable concentration ratio is ultimately limited by the central obstruction caused by the secondary. Significant improvements can be realized by two-stage systems having asymmetric cross-sections, particularly for 2D line-focus trough designs. We therefore present a detailed analysis of two-stage line-focus asymmetric concentrators for flat receiver geometries and compare them to their symmetric counterparts. Exemplary designs are examined in terms of the key optical performance metrics, namely, geometric concentration ratio, acceptance angle, concentration-acceptance product, aspect ratio, active area fraction, and average number of reflections. Notably, we show that asymmetric designs can achieve significantly higher overall concentrations and are always more compact than symmetric systems designed for the same concentration ratio. Using this analysis as a basis, we develop novel asymmetric designs, including two-wing and nested configurations, which surpass the optical performance of two-mirror aplanats and are comparable with the best reported 2D simultaneous multiple surface designs for both hollow and dielectric-filled secondaries.

  4. Asymmetric Conditional Volatility in International Stock Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, N B; Menezes, R; Ferreira, Nuno B.; Mendes, Diana A.; Menezes, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the S&P 500, FTSE100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of chan...

  5. Asymmetric nuclear matter equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaci, I.; Lombardo, U. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, Catania (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy))

    1991-11-01

    Systematic calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter have been performed in the framework of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach in a wide range of both density and asymmetry parameter. The empirical parabolic law fulfilled by the binding energy per nucleon is confirmed by the present results in all the range of the asymmetry parameter values. The predominant role of the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1-}{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} component of the {ital NN} interaction is elucidated. A linear variation of the proton and neutron single-particle potentials is found as increasing the neutron excess; a deviation from the phenomenological potentials occurs for highly asymmetric matter as an effect of the self-consistency. The present calculations of the incompressibility predict a strong softening of the equation of state going from symmetric to asymmetric nuclear matter. The proton fraction in equilibrium with neutron matter has been determined from the beta-stability condition and its relevance to the superfluidity of neutron stars has been investigated.

  6. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  7. Traceless Synthesis of Asymmetrically Modified Bivalent Nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Carolin C; Agashe, Ninad D; Fierz, Beat

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomes carry extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), which results in complex modification patterns that are involved in epigenetic signaling. Although two copies of each histone coexist in a nucleosome, they may not carry the same PTMs and are often differently modified (asymmetric). In bivalent domains, a chromatin signature prevalent in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), namely H3 methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), coexists with H3K27me3 in asymmetric nucleosomes. We report a general, modular, and traceless method for producing asymmetrically modified nucleosomes. We further show that in bivalent nucleosomes, H3K4me3 inhibits the activity of the H3K27-specific lysine methyltransferase (KMT) polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) solely on the same histone tail, whereas H3K27me3 stimulates PRC2 activity across tails, thereby partially overriding the H3K4me3-mediated repressive effect. To maintain bivalent domains in ESCs, PRC2 activity must thus be locally restricted or reversed.

  8. The new electricity trading arrangements: prospects for market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Briefing Paper from OXERA argues that the OFGEM proposals will not solve the fundamental market problems and might even make things worse. They focus too narrowly on the technical design of one small part of the market (the Balancing Mechanism and associated imbalance settlement process), without considering the market context and dynamics. OXERA argues that the central emphasis of the White Paper was misplaced: reform of the electricity trading arrangements, the basis of the government's strategy, will not solve the upstream and downstream market problems. The Briefing Paper includes analysis of: the structure and operation of the proposed new electricity trading arrangements; risk in the electricity wholesale market, and the responses of market participants; the interaction between the new trading arrangements and other energy market developments - in particular, vertical integration between generators and suppliers; energy supply competition, and wider government policy; the prospects for market development under the new electricity trading arrangements. (author)

  9. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  10. Influence of Multi-hole Arrangement on Cooling Film Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chengfeng; ZHANG Jingzhou

    2012-01-01

    A series of computations is conducted for many multi-hole arrangements at several blowing ratios to further investigate the evolution of the film from multi-holes.The influence of multi-hole arrangement on effusion film cooling is analyzed and a preliminary relationship evaluating the film development from developing state to developed state is brought forward.Results show that the coolant jets from front rows of multi-holes merge rapidly and the strength of the kidney vortices due to mainstream-coolant jet interaction in the downstream region are mitigated under super-long-diamond arrangement where the streamwise hole-to-hole pitch is bigger than spanwise hole-to-hole pitch.The holes array arranged in super-long-diamond mode is not only in favor of obtaining developed film layer,but also improving averaged adiabatic film cooling effectiveness.

  11. The Benefits of Cooperative Learning Arrangements in Second Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Identifies linguistic, curricular, and social benefits of cooperative learning arrangements in second language and bilingual instruction. Discusses five major models of cooperative learning, and reviews research findings in linguistically diverse settings. Contains 45 references. (Author/SV)

  12. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the rel

  13. A Hybrid Cascade Converter Topology With Series-Connected Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped H-Bridge Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Ghosh, Arindam;

    2011-01-01

    A novel H-bridge multilevel pulsewidth modulation converter topology based on a series connection of a high-voltage diode-clamped inverter and a low-voltage conventional inverter is proposed in this paper. A dc link voltage arrangement for the new hybrid and asymmetric solution is presented to have...... a maximum number of output voltage levels by preserving the adjacent switching vectors between voltage levels. Hence, a 15-level hybrid converter can be attained with a minimum number of power components. A comparative study has been carried out to present high performance of the proposed configuration...... voltage with the same number of components. To balance the dc link capacitor voltages for the maximum output voltage resolution as well as synthesize asymmetrical dc link combination, a new multi-output boost converter is utilized at the dc link voltage of a seven-level H-bridge diode-clamped inverter...

  14. Multiple Base Substitution Corrections in DNA Sequence Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, M.; Mackiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, D.; Nowicka, A.; Dudkiewicz, M.; Dudek, M. R.; Cebrat, S.

    We discuss the Jukes and Cantor's one-parameter model and Kimura's two-parameter model unability to describe evolution of asymmetric DNA molecules. The standard distance measure between two DNA sequences, which is the number of substitutions per site, should include the effect of multiple base substitutions separately for each type of the base. Otherwise, the respective tables of substitutions cannot reconstruct the asymmetric DNA molecule with respect to the composition. Basing on Kimura's neutral theory, we have derived a linear law for the correlation of the mean survival time of nucleotides under constant mutation pressure and their fraction in the genome. According to the law, the corrections to Kimura's theory have been discussed to describe evolution of genomes with asymmetric nucleotide composition. We consider the particular case of the strongly asymmetric Borrelia burgdorferi genome and we discuss in detail the corrections, which should be introduced into the distance measure between two DNA sequences to include multiple base substitutions.

  15. Translated tori in the characteristic varieties of complex hyperplane arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Suciu, Alexander I.

    1999-01-01

    We give examples of complex hyperplane arrangements for which the top characteristic variety contains positive-dimensional irreducible components that do not pass through the origin of the character torus. These examples answer several questions of Libgober and Yuzvinsky. As an application, we exhibit a pair of arrangements for which the resonance varieties of the Orlik-Solomon algebra are (abstractly) isomorphic, yet whose characteristic varieties are not isomorphic. The difference comes fro...

  16. Administrative policies in Estonia : the implication on the structural arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES IN ESTONIA. THE IMPLICATION ON STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT Estonia has undergone vast range of changes and reforms in the last ten year period. The thesis seeks to give an account on the processes that depict the governance problematique from the administrative policy perspective. The thesis takes a closer look on the relevant political events, the development of legislation, and the factual arrangement of top administrative system. The research emphasizes t...

  17. Arranging transient process used in iterative learning control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Considering the same initial state error in each repetitive operation in the iterative learning system, a method of arranging the transient process is given. During the current iteration, the system will track the transient function firstly, and then the expected trajectory. After several iterations, the learning system output will trend to the arranged curve, which has avoided the effect of the initial error on the controller. Also the transient time can be changed as you need, which makes the designing si...

  18. Exploring living arrangements of divorced families in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, W; Mulder, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to gain more insight into the characteristics of divorced families with different types of post-divorce living arrangements, and in particular with co-parenting arrangements in which the child alternates between the parents’ residences. Empirical evidence comes from a mixed- method research, based on survey data from The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study and from Divorce in the Netherlands 1998 and on in-depth interviews with divorced parents. We find that the distance between the places...

  19. Guide for arranging a street floorball tournament in Leipzig, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Olli

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this practice based thesis is creating a guide for arranging a sports marketing event. The project is made for Mitteldeutscher Floorballclub, which operates in Leipzig, Germany. The aim of the thesis is to create a guidebook for arranging a floorball marketing event in Leipzig. This event is a street floorball tournament, which aims increasing awareness of floorball and Mitteldeutscher Floorballclub in Leipzig. The used data is collected mainly from literature...

  20. Orientations of linear stone arrangements in New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Fuller, Robert S.; Norris, Ray P.

    2012-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that Aboriginal linear stone arrangements in New South Wales (NSW) are oriented to cardinal directions. We accomplish this by measuring the azimuths of stone arrangements described in site cards from the NSW Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System. We then survey a subset of these sites to test the accuracy of information recorded on the site cards. We find a preference recorded in the site cards for cardinal orientations among azimuths. The field surveys show...

  1. Contractual Arrangement and Marketing Practices in the Indirect Export Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel C Bello; Williamson, Nicholas C

    1985-01-01

    The association between contractual arrangement and the marketing practices of export intermediaries and domestic supplies is examined. Based on data collected from a national sample of export management companies, the effect of structuring the export arrangement as a contractual, administrative, or conventional channel is analyzed. Prior research suggests that contractual form establishes the framework within which all the economic and sociopolitical interactions between the supplier and exp...

  2. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  3. Efficient Load Balancing Algorithm for the Arrangement-Star Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Awwad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arrangement-Star is a well-known network in the literature and it is one of the promising interconnection networks in the area of super computing, it is expected to be one of the attractive alternatives in the future for High Speed Parallel Computers. The Arrangement-Star network has many attractive topological properties such as small diameter, low degree, good connectivity, low broadcasting cost and flexibility in choosing the desired network size. Although, some of the research work has been done on Arrangement-Star network, it still needs more investigation and research efforts to explore these attractive topologies and utilize it to solve some real life applications. In this paper we attempt to fill this gap by proposing an efficient algorithm for load balancing among different processors of the Arrangement-Star network. The proposed algorithm is named as Arrangement Star Clustered Dimension Exchange Method ASCDEM presented and implemented on the Arrangement-Star network. The algorithm is based on the Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM. The ASCDEM algorithm is shown to be efficient in redistributing the load balancing among all different processors of the network as evenly as possible. A complete detail of this algorithm in addition to examples and discussions to explore the benefits of applying this distributed algorithm is presented in this paper. Furthermore an analytical study on the algorithm is presented and discussed to explore the attractive performance of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  5. Wake structures of two spheres in tandem arrangement at various gaps for Re = 300

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jianfeng; REN Anlu; DENG Jian; CHEN Wenqu

    2005-01-01

    The virtual boundary method is extended to a 3D application and used to simulate the flow field of two spheres in tandem arrangement for a Reynolds number of 300. The wake structures and flow spectra at various gaps are investigated. The numerical results show that for small gaps (≈1.5), due to the mutual suppress between the wakes of the two spheres, the full flow field is stable and axisymmetric. As the gap is increased to 2.0, an asymmetric but stable flow is constructed through a certain bifurcation. The downstream wake structure is characterized by a double-thread vortex structure that comprises two slender parallel vortex tubes. The double-thread structure has a planar symmetry at gap 2.0. The hairpin-shape vortices are periodically shed from the downstream sphere at gap 2.5, but the planar symmetry persists. The vortex structures at gaps ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 are irregular and the flow field is undergoing a kind of 3D transition. It is up to the large gap 5.0 that the hairpin-shape structures are reconstructed behind the upstream and the downstream sphere, and the planar symmetry is resumed. All these numerical computations were performed on an SGI Origin3900 machine at the Center for Engineering and Scientific Computation of Zhejiang University.

  6. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  7. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kogi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. METHODS: Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results that had led to the compilation of practicable measures to be included in these guidelines were also examined. The common support measures were then compared with ergonomic checkpoints for plant maintenance work involving irregular nightshifts. On the basis of this analysis, a new night and shift work checklist was designed. RESULTS: Both the guidelines and the plant maintenance work checkpoints were found to commonly cover multiple issues including work schedules and various job-related risks. This close link between shiftwork arrangements and risk management was important as shiftworkers in these industries considered teamwork and welfare services to be essential for managing risks associated with night and shift work. Four areas found suitable for participatory improvement by managers and workers were work schedules, ergonomic work tasks, work environment and training. The checklist designed to facilitate participatory change processes covered all these areas. CONCLUSIONS: The checklist developed to describe feasible workplace actions was suitable for integration with comprehensive safety and health management systems and offered valuable opportunities for improving working time arrangements and job content together.OBJETIVOS: Foram revisados diversas medidas de apoio úteis para incentivar abordagens conjuntas para a melhoria na organização do trabalho por turnos e os processos de gestão de saúde e segurança. As medidas para redução de risco em n

  8. AC losses in circular arrangements of parallel superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Däumling, Manfred;

    1998-01-01

    The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two arrangem......The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two...... arrangements, scale with the number of tapes and hence appear to be independent of the diameter.However, the AC loss per tape (for a given current per tape) appears to decrease with increasing diameter of the circular arrangement. Compared to a model for the AC loss in a continuous superconducting layer...... (Monoblock model) the measured values are about half an order of magnitude higher than expected for the small diameter arrangement. When compared to the AC loss calculated for N individual superconducting tapes using a well known model ( Norris elliptical) the difference is slightly smaller....

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of Disparlure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 郑剑峰; 黄培强

    2012-01-01

    Starting from propargyl alcohol (12), and on the basis of Zhou's modified Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, the sex pheromone of the Gypsy moth, disparlure (+)-8 and its enantiomer (-)-8 have been synthesized, each in six steps, with overall yields of 29% for (+)-8 and 27% for (-)-8 (ee〉98%). The use of the sequential coupling tactic renders the method flexible, which is applicable to the synthesis of other cis-epoxy pheromones.

  10. Infinite dimensional mixed economies with asymmetric information

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study asymmetric information economies consisting of both non-negligible and negligible agents and having ordered Banach spaces as their commodity spaces. In answering a question of Herv\\'{e}s-Beloso and Moreno-Garc\\'{i}a, we establish a characterization of Walrasian expectations allocations by the veto power of the grand coalition. It is also shown that when an economy contains only negligible agents a Vind's type theorem on the private core with the exact feasibility can be restored. This solves a problem of Pesce.

  11. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    CERN Document Server

    Uppu, Ravitej; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.

  12. Asymmetric chemical reactions by polarized quantum beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Kensei

    One of the most attractive hypothesis for the origin of homochirality in terrestrial bio-organic compounds (L-amino acid and D-sugar dominant) is nominated as "Cosmic Scenario"; a chiral impulse from asymmetric excitation sources in space triggered asymmetric reactions on the surfaces of such space materials as meteorites or interstellar dusts prior to the existence of terrestrial life. 1) Effective asymmetric excitation sources in space are proposed as polarized quantum beams, such as circularly polarized light and spin polarized electrons. Circularly polarized light is emitted as synchrotron radiation from tightly captured electrons by intense magnetic field around neutron stars. In this case, either left-or right-handed polarized light can be observed depending on the direction of observation. On the other hand, spin polarized electrons is emitted as beta-ray in beta decay from radioactive nuclei or neutron fireballs in supernova explosion. 2) The spin of beta-ray electrons is longitudinally polarized due to parity non-conservation in the weak interaction. The helicity (the the projection of the spin onto the direction of kinetic momentum) of beta-ray electrons is universally negative (left-handed). For the purpose of verifying the asymmetric structure emergence in bio-organic compounds by polarized quantum beams, we are now carrying out laboratory simulations using circularly polarized light from synchrotron radiation facility or spin polarized electron beam from beta-ray radiation source. 3,4) The target samples are solid film or aqueous solution of racemic amino acids. 1) K.Kobayashi, K.Kaneko, J.Takahashi, Y.Takano, in Astrobiology: from simple molecules to primitive life; Ed. V.Basiuk; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, 2008. 2) G.A.Gusev, T.Saito, V.A.Tsarev, A.V.Uryson, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere. 37, 259 (2007). 3) J.Takahashi, H.Shinojima, M.Seyama, Y.Ueno, T.Kaneko, K.Kobayashi, H.Mita, M.Adachi, M.Hosaka, M.Katoh, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, 3044

  13. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  14. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  15. The Asymmetric Effects of Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    are asymmetric: During peak-to-trough periods of investor sentiment (sentiment contractions), high sentiment predicts low future returns for the cross section of speculative stocks and for the market overall, whereas the relationship between sentiment and future returns is positive but relatively weak during......We use the returns on lottery-like stocks and a dynamic factor model to construct a novel index of investor sentiment. This new measure is highly correlated with other behavioral indicators, but more closely tracks speculative episodes. Our main new finding is that the effects of sentiment...... trough-to-peak episodes (sentiment expansions). Overall, these results match theories and anecdotal accounts of investor sentiment....

  16. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-07

    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  17. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  18. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Tentrup, Tristan B. H.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.

  19. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayer, F.; Weisz, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the methods and the results used in an accompanying paper describing the matching of effective chiral Lagrangians in dimensional and lattice regularizations. We present methods to compute 2-loop massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of these regularizations. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations, extending the results of Hasenfratz and Leutwyler for the case of dimensional regularization and we introduce a new method to calculate precisely the expansion coefficients of the 1-loop lattice sums.

  20. Plasma current resonance in asymmetric toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R. D. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Catto, Peter J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 167 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The well-known singularity in the magnetic differential equation for plasma current in an asymmetric toroidal confinement system is resolved by including in the pressure tensor corrections stemming from finite Larmor radius. The result provides an estimate of the amplitude of spikes in the parallel current that occur on rational magnetic surfaces. Resolution of the singularity is shown to depend on both the ambipolarity condition—the requirement of zero surface-averaged radial current—and the form of the magnetic differential equation near the rational surface.

  1. Plasmonic photodetectors based on asymmetric nanogap electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Junyu; Luo, Manlin; Zou, Wanghui; Peng, Wei; Duan, Huigao

    2016-08-01

    Hot electrons excited by plasmon resonance in nanostructure can be employed to enhance the properties of photodetectors, even when the photon energy is lower than the bandgap of the semiconductor. However, current research has seldom considered how to realize the efficient collection of hot electrons, which restricts the responsivity of the device. In this paper, a type of plasmonic photodetector based on asymmetric nanogap electrodes is proposed. Owing to this structure, the device achieves responsivities as high as 0.45 and 0.25 mA/W for wavelengths of 1310 and 1550 nm, respectively. These insights can aid the realization of efficient plasmon-enhanced photodetectors for infrared detection.

  2. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  3. Security-Preserving Asymmetric Protocol Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2007-01-01

    Query-response based protocols between a client and a server such as SSL, TLS, SSH are asymmetric in the sense that the querying client and the responding server play different roles, and for which there is a need for two-way linkability between queries and responses within the protocol. We are motivated by the observation that though results exist in other related contexts, no provably secure scheme has been applied to the setting of client-server protocols, which differ from conventional co...

  4. Analysis of Asymmetric Piezoelectric Composite Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J -S; Wu, K -C

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the vibration analysis of an asymmetric composite beam composed of glass a piezoelectric material. The Bernoulli's beam theory is adopted for mechanical deformations, and the electric potential field of the piezoelectric material is assumed such that the divergence-free requirement of the electrical displacements is satisfied. The accuracy of the analytic model is assessed by comparing the resonance frequencies obtained by the analytic model with those obtained by the finite element method. The model developed can be used as a tool for designing piezoelectric actuators such as micro-pumps.

  5. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  6. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom A W; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-07-25

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2×2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers. PMID:27464096

  7. Long-lived oscillons from asymmetric bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Adib, A B; Almeida, C A S; Adib, Artur B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Almeida, Carlos A. S.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility that extremely long-lived, time-dependent, and localized field configurations (``oscillons'') arise during the collapse of asymmetrical bubbles in 2+1 dimensional \\phi^4 models is investigated. It is found that oscillons can develop from a large spectrum of elliptically deformed bubbles. Moreover, it is found that such oscillons are: a) circularly symmetric; and b) stable against small arbitrary radial and angular perturbations. They may thus play an important role in the study of time-dependent nonperturbative configurations in field theory, with applications ranging from nonequilibrium statistical physics to early universe cosmology.

  8. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  9. 76 FR 76221 - Filings Required of Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Other Related Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... insurance laws. See supra note 2. \\4\\ 65 FR 715 (02/11/2000) and 68 FR 17494 (04/09/2003). The Form M-1 has... terminology of Sec. 2560.502c-5 which uses the generic term ``report'' to describe the Form M-1 filing process.... Electronic filing of benefit plan information, among other program strategies, would facilitate...

  10. 78 FR 13781 - Filings Required of Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Other Related Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... compliance. \\4\\ 65 FR 7152 (02/11/2000) and 68 FR 17494 (04/09/2003). The Form M-1 is reissued each year in... (76 FR 76222) implementing the new reporting requirements for MEWAs and ECEs. The Department received... marketer or promoter, the MEWA or ECE would have experienced a material change and would need to...

  11. Channel Optimized Distributed Multiple Description Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Valipour, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, channel optimized distributed multiple description vector quantization (CDMD) schemes are presented for distributed source coding in symmetric and asymmetric settings. The CDMD encoder is designed using a deterministic annealing approach over noisy channels with packet loss. A minimum mean squared error asymmetric CDMD decoder is proposed for effective reconstruction of a source, utilizing the side information (SI) and its corresponding received descriptions. The proposed iterative symmetric CDMD decoder jointly reconstructs the symbols of multiple correlated sources. Two types of symmetric CDMD decoders, namely the estimated-SI and the soft-SI decoders, are presented which respectively exploit the reconstructed symbols and a posteriori probabilities of other sources as SI in iterations. In a multiple source CDMD setting, for reconstruction of a source, three methods are proposed to select another source as its SI during the decoding. The methods operate based on minimum physical distance (in a...

  12. The Electronic Structure of Coupled Semiconductor Quantum Dots Arranged as a Graphene Hexagonal Lattice under a Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Juan; LI Shu-Shen

    2012-01-01

    We study the electronic spectrum of coupled quantum dots (QDs) arranged as a graphene hexagonal lattice in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic Geld. In our tight-binding model, the effect of the magnetic field is included in both the Peierls phase of the Hamiltonian and the tight-binding basis Wannier function. The energy of the system is analyzed when the magnetic flux through the lattice unit cell is a rational fraction of the quantum flux. The calculated spectrum has recursive properties, similar to those of the classical Hofstadter butterfly. However, unlike the ideal Hofstadter butterfly structure, our result is asymmetric since the impacts of the specific material and the magnetic field on the wavefunctions are included, making the results more realistic.%We study the electronic spectrum of coupled quantum dots (QDs) arranged as a graphene hexagonal lattice in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field.In our tight-binding model,the effect of the magnetic field is included in both the Peierls phase of the Hamiltonian and the tight-binding basis Wannier function.The energy of the system is analyzed when the magnetic flux through the lattice unit cell is a rational fraction of the quantum flux.The calculated spectrum has recursive properties,similar to those of the classical Hofstadter butterfly.However,unlike the ideal Hofstadter butterfly structure,our result is asymmetric since the impacts of the specific material and the magnetic field on the wavefunctions are included,making the results more realistic.

  13. RELATIONSHIP OF TRANSVERSAL ASYMMETRIC FACE AND UNILATERAL POSTERIOR CROSSBITE

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwinursanty; Krisnawati Krisnawati; Maria Purbiati

    2006-01-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite is commonly seen in mixed dentition, but it couldn’t be self corrected. If this condition is not treated properly, it could lead to asymmetric face. Asymmetric face with unilateral posterior crossbite could make the treatment process more difficult. The objective of this study is to find out the relationship between transversal skeletal asymmetry and unilateral posterior crossbite. Patients older than 13 years with skeletal asymmetric face, who had never undergo...

  14. Numerical study of asymmetric driven reconnection at dayside magnetopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional compressible MHD code has been used to numerically study the asymmetric driven reconnection processes in the vicinity of the magnetopause. The initial magnetic field configuration is assumed to be in a mechanical equilibrium state. The cases with identical temperatures (Tm0/Ts0=1.0) and four different ratios of magnetic field strength (Q=Bm0/Bs0=1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5), and the case with Tm0/Ts0=2.0 and Q=1.5 are investigated (Bm0, Tm0 and Bs0, Ts0 are the initial magnetic strength and temperature outside the current sheet on the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath, respectively ). When the magnetic field on the magnetosheath side is set as southward, a recurrent formation of multiple magnetic bubbles with various scales occurs under the action of the inward plasma flow imposed at the left and right boundaries. In the simulation, some bubbles coalesce into a bigger one and then it is convected out of the simulation domain; the others are convected through the top boundary all alone. Thus, the plasmoid events with different scales and different time intervals take place intermittently and the impulsive features of magnetic reconnection are clearly shown. The multiple magnetic islands are all high-temperature and large-density regions in comparison with the ambient environment. The bipolar signatures or fluctuant variations of normal magnetic field component are generated by the formation of multiple magnetic islands. This result is similar to the FTEs signature.

  15. Asymmetric transmission: a generic property of lossy periodic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, E; Zheludev, N I

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric transmission of circularly polarized waves is a well-established property of lossy, anisotropic, two-dimensionally chiral patterns. Here we show that asymmetric transmission can be observed for oblique incidence onto any lossy periodically structured plane. Our results greatly expand the range of natural and artificial materials in which directionally asymmetric transmission can be expected making it a cornerstone electromagnetic effect rather than a curiosity of planar chiral metamaterials. Prime candidates for asymmetric transmission at oblique incidence are rectangular arrays of plasmonic spheres or semiconductor quantum dots, lossy double-periodic gratings and planar metamaterial structures.

  16. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  17. Orientations of linear stone arrangements in New South Wales

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; Norris, Ray P

    2012-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that Aboriginal linear stone arrangements in New South Wales (NSW) are oriented to cardinal directions. We accomplish this by measuring the azimuths of stone arrangements described in site cards from the NSW Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System. We then survey a subset of these sites to test the accuracy of information recorded on the site cards. We find a preference recorded in the site cards for cardinal orientations among azimuths. The field surveys show that the site cards are reasonably accurate, but the surveyors probably did not correct for magnetic declinations. Using Monte Carlo statistics, we show that these preferred orientations did not occur by chance and that Aboriginal people deliberately aligned these arrangements to the approximate cardinal directions. We briefly explore possible reasons for these preferred orientations and highlight the need for future work.

  18. Asymmetric Localization of Cdx2 mRNA during the First Cell-Fate Decision in Early Mouse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skamagki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in mammalian development is whether the divisions that segregate pluripotent progenitor cells for the future embryo from cells that differentiate into extraembryonic structures are asymmetric in cell-fate instructions. The transcription factor Cdx2 plays a key role in the first cell-fate decision. Here, using live-embryo imaging, we show that localization of Cdx2 transcripts becomes asymmetric during development, preceding cell lineage segregation. Cdx2 transcripts preferentially localize apically at the late eight-cell stage and become inherited asymmetrically during divisions that set apart pluripotent and differentiating cells. Asymmetric localization depends on a cis element within the coding region of Cdx2 and requires cell polarization as well as intact microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Failure to enrich Cdx2 transcripts apically results in a significant decrease in the number of pluripotent cells. We discuss how the asymmetric localization and segregation of Cdx2 transcripts could contribute to multiple mechanisms that establish different cell fates in the mouse embryo.

  19. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-4 - Types of contracts and fee arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-based management contract, those contract types which incentivize performance and cost control are... arrangement or cost reduction incentive for the requirements. Pricing arrangements which provide incentives... and government's organizations to prepare, evaluate, and administer the pricing arrangement or...

  20. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or...

  1. Thermal Stratification Analyses for Arrangements of Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Yong; Choe, Yoon Jae; Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Eun Kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company., Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The thermal stratification may influence the integrity of pipe. In a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), some safety related pipes connected to reactor coolant system are known to be potentially susceptible to fatigue failure resulting from thermal stratification. According to the international operating experiences, those are the pressurizer (PZR) surge line, the injection pipes of the emergency core cooling system and residual heat removal lines. In particular, during normal operation, the thermal stratification in PZR surge line can occur differently from the other two lines because hotter water flowing from the PZR to the hot leg flows over a layer of colder water through the PZR surge line. For this reason, it is considered that the thermal stratification in PZR surge line has been one of the significant issues for structural integrity of NPP. Therefore, this study focuses on new arrangements of PZR surge line for reducing the thermal stratification during normal operation of NPP and analyzes what new arrangements can reduce the effect of thermal stratification through CFD calculation using FLUENT Ver.15. This study was suggests what new arrangement can reduce the effect of thermal stratification compared with the current arrangement of NPPs by using CFD analyses. The results show that more global thermal stratification occurred in BASE arrangement throughout the PZR surge line compared with other arrangements. In addition, the increase of flow velocity from PZR resulted in the increase of maximum temperature difference between the top and bottom sides and the reduction of thermal stratification region. The reason is that the buoyancy force is weakened by other forces such as fluid vortex, velocity increase due to the slope of surge line and turbulent penetration.

  2. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  3. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  4. Asymmetric Twin Representation: the Transfer Matrix Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Doikou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry of the Hamiltonian describing the asymmetric twin model was partially studied in earlier works, and our aim here is to generalize these results for the open transfer matrix. In this spirit we first prove, that the so called boundary quantum algebra provides a symmetry for any generic - independent of the choice of model - open transfer matrix with a trivial left boundary. In addition it is shown that the boundary quantum algebra is the centralizer of the $B$ type Hecke algebra. We then focus on the asymmetric twin representation of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. More precisely, by exploiting exchange relations dictated by the reflection equation we show that the transfer matrix with trivial boundary conditions enjoys the recognized $U_q(sl_2otimes U_i(sl_2$ symmetry. When a non-diagonal boundary is implemented the symmetry as expected is reduced, however again certain familiar boundary non-local charges turn out to commute with the corresponding transfer matrix.

  5. Asymmetric disassembly and robustness in declining networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Uzzi, Brian

    2008-10-28

    Mechanisms that enable declining networks to avert structural collapse and performance degradation are not well understood. This knowledge gap reflects a shortage of data on declining networks and an emphasis on models of network growth. Analyzing >700,000 transactions between firms in the New York garment industry over 19 years, we tracked this network's decline and measured how its topology and global performance evolved. We find that favoring asymmetric (disassortative) links is key to preserving the topology and functionality of the declining network. Based on our findings, we tested a model of network decline that combines an asymmetric disassembly process for contraction with a preferential attachment process for regrowth. Our simulation results indicate that the model can explain robustness under decline even if the total population of nodes contracts by more than an order of magnitude, in line with our observations for the empirical network. These findings suggest that disassembly mechanisms are not simply assembly mechanisms in reverse and that our model is relevant to understanding the process of decline and collapse in a broad range of biological, technological, and financial networks.

  6. Instability of asymmetric continuous shaft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, R.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the governing equation of asymmetric continuous shaft in inertial frame of reference is studied. In particular, determination of the parameter ranges for the stability or instability of the shaft response is the focus of the present work. The governing equations are a fourth-order coupled partial differential equations containing time dependent coefficients. The equations are non-dimensionalized in terms of two parameters related to the average moment of inertia and the difference of moments of inertia about the principal axes. Using the latter as the asymptotic parameter and employing modal superposition, a formal methodology based on perturbation methods is developed to ascertain the stability and instability characteristics. The methodology is applicable to shafts subjected to some of the classical boundary conditions viz. simply supported, cantilever, and fixed-fixed. Similar stability curves are obtained for each mode for these different boundary conditions. The novel non-dimensionalization scheme chosen leads to the stability boundaries as well as the loci of varying speeds to be in the form of straight lines. The intersection of these lines determine the stable and unstable speed ranges of different asymmetric shafts. The results are generalized for different material and geometric properties of the shaft.

  7. Properties of asymmetrically evolved community networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Di; Gao Zi-You; Zheng Jian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a simple asymmetrically evolved community network with a combination of preferential at-tachment and random properties. An important issue about community networks is to discover the different utility increments of two nodes, where the utility is introduced to investigate the asymmetrical effect of connecting two nodes. On the other hand, the connection of two nodes in community networks can be classified as two nodes belonging to the same or to different communities. The simulation results show that the model can reproduce a power-law utility distribution P(u)~ u-σ,σ=2+ 1/p, which can be obtained by using mean-field approximation methods. Furthermore, the model exhibits exponential behaviour with respect to small values of a parameter denoting the random effect in our model at the low-utility region and a power-law feature with respect to big values of this parameter at the high-utility region, which is in good agreement with theoretical analysis. This kind of community network can reproduce a unique utility distribution by theoretical and numerical analysis.

  8. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e+e- collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 1033 cm-2 s-1. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  9. Asymmetric transition disks: Vorticity or eccentricity?

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, A; Ghanbari, J

    2013-01-01

    Context. Transition disks typically appear in resolved millimeter observations as giant dust rings surrounding their young host stars. More accurate observations with ALMA have shown several of these rings to be in fact asymmetric: they have lopsided shapes. It has been speculated that these rings act as dust traps, which would make them important laboratories for studying planet formation. It has been shown that an elongated giant vortex produced in a disk with a strong viscosity jump strikingly resembles the observed asymmetric rings. Aims. We aim to study a similar behavior for a disk in which a giant planet is embedded. However, a giant planet can induce two kinds of asymmetries: (1) a giant vortex, and (2) an eccentric disk. We studied under which conditions each of these can appear, and how one can observationally distinguish between them. This is important because only a vortex can trap particles both radially and azimuthally, while the eccentric ring can only trap particles in radial direction. Method...

  10. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via the interference of squeezed states. In many optical systems such as parametric down conversion, the production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually assumed when demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualization of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal beamsplitter ratio for entanglement is dependent on the asymmetries and may not be 50 : 50. To support this theory, we present experimental results showing one particular asymmetric entanglement where a 78 : 22 beamsplitter is optimal for observing entanglement. (paper)

  11. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These concepts deal with establishing a framework for the analysis of institutional arrangements, with institutional arrangements under consideration in the working groups on fuel and heavy water availability, enrichment availability, assurances of long-term supply, reprocessing-plutonium handling-recycling, fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, waste management and disposal, and advanced reactor concepts. The standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, developing a consensus in international nuclear co-operation, and settlements of disputes are treated

  12. Arranging transient process used in iterative learning control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-chuan Hui; Hui Lin

    2009-01-01

    Considering the same initial state error in each repetitive operation in the iterative learning system, a method of arranging the transient process is given. During the current iteration, the system will track the transient function firstly, and then the expected trajectory. After several iterations, the learning system output will trend to the arranged curve, which has avoided the effect of the initial error on the controller. Also the transient time can be changed as you need, which makes the designing simple and the operation easy. Then the detailed designing steps are given via the robot system. At last the simulation of the robot system is given, which shows the validity of the method.

  13. Ladder Arrangement Method for Stealth Design of Vivaldi Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoXiang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stealth design method for X-band Vivaldi antenna arrays is proposed in this paper by ladder arrangement along radiation direction. Two-element array, eight-element array, and 3 × 7-element array are investigated in this paper. S parameters, RCSs, and radiation patterns are studied, respectively. According to the ladder arrangement of Vivaldi antennas presented, 16.3 dBsm maximal RCS reduction is achieved with satisfied radiation performance. As simulated and measured, results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the presented low RCS design method is validated.

  14. Supersolvability and the Koszul property of root ideal arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A root ideal arrangement $A_I$ is the set of reflecting hyperplanes corresponding to the roots in an order ideal $I$ of the root poset on the positive roots of a finite crystallographic root system. A characterisation of supersolvable root ideal arrangements is obtained. Namely, $A_I$ is supersolvable if and only if $I$ is chain peelable, meaning that it is possible to reach the empty poset from $I$ by in each step removing a maximal chain which is also an order filter. In particular, superso...

  15. 48 CFR 16.402-4 - Structuring multiple-incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multiple-incentive contracts. A properly structured multiple-incentive arrangement should— (a) Motivate the... include a cost incentive (or constraint) that operates to preclude rewarding a contractor for...

  16. Diffeomorphic types of complements of nice point arrangements in CP~l

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Stephen S.-T.; YE Fei

    2009-01-01

    We use a new method to study arrangement in CP~l,define a class of nice point arrangements and show that if two nice point arrangements have the same combinatorics,then their complements are diffeomorphic to each other. In particular,the moduli space of nice point arrangements with same combinatorics in CP~l is connected. It generalizes the result on point arrangements in CP~3 to point arrangements in CP~l for any l.

  17. Diffeomorphic types of complements of nice point arrangements in CP~l

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Stephen; S.-T.

    2009-01-01

    We use a new method to study arrangement in CPl,define a class of nice point arrangements and show that if two nice point arrangements have the same combinatorics,then their complements are diffeomorphic to each other.In particular,the moduli space of nice point arrangements with same combinatorics in CPl is connected.It generalizes the result on point arrangements in CP3 to point arrangements in CPl for any l.

  18. Instability Analysis and Free Volume Simulations of Shear Band Directions and Arrangements in Notched Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-10-01

    As a commonly used method to enhance the ductility in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the introduction of geometric constraints blocks and confines the propagation of the shear bands, reduces the degree of plastic strain on each shear band so that the catastrophic failure is prevented or delayed, and promotes the formation of multiple shear bands. The clustering of multiple shear bands near notches is often interpreted as the reason for improved ductility. Experimental works on the shear band arrangements in notched metallic glasses have been extensively carried out, but a systematic theoretical study is lacking. Using instability theory that predicts the onset of strain localization and the free-volume-based finite element simulations that predict the evolution of shear bands, this work reveals various categories of shear band arrangements in double edge notched BMGs with respect to the mode mixity of the applied stress fields. A mechanistic explanation is thus provided to a number of related experiments and especially the correlation between various types of shear bands and the stress state.

  19. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms. PMID:27271037

  20. Instability Analysis and Free Volume Simulations of Shear Band Directions and Arrangements in Notched Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    As a commonly used method to enhance the ductility in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the introduction of geometric constraints blocks and confines the propagation of the shear bands, reduces the degree of plastic strain on each shear band so that the catastrophic failure is prevented or delayed, and promotes the formation of multiple shear bands. The clustering of multiple shear bands near notches is often interpreted as the reason for improved ductility. Experimental works on the shear band arrangements in notched metallic glasses have been extensively carried out, but a systematic theoretical study is lacking. Using instability theory that predicts the onset of strain localization and the free-volume-based finite element simulations that predict the evolution of shear bands, this work reveals various categories of shear band arrangements in double edge notched BMGs with respect to the mode mixity of the applied stress fields. A mechanistic explanation is thus provided to a number of related experiments and especially the correlation between various types of shear bands and the stress state. PMID:27721462

  1. A numerical and experimental investigation of planar asymmetric SQUID gradiometer characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, U.; Walker, M.E.; Cochran, A.; Hutson, D.; Lang, G.; Weston, R.G.; Pegrum, C.M. [University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics and Applied Physics, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    A low-cost, high-performance magnetic field sensor for applications such as biomagnetism and nondestructive evaluation can be fabricated by integrating a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and a gradiometer on a single chip. Conventionally, the gradiometric pick-up loop would have a rectangular outline divided symmetrically about the midpoint of its length so that its spatial response was also symmetrical. However, it is also possible to divide the same outline asymmetrically, maintaining the field rejection order of the gradiometer by adding an extra crossover. The spatial response of this arrangement will also be asymmetric, which may be exploited to reduce the effects of the nearby SQUID as a magnetic anomaly or to enhance the sensitivity of the device to magnetic sources at a particular distance. The techniques to calculate the crossover positions are well established. Here we outline how different designs may be evaluated theoretically and report on first experimental results for three simple designs. Several devices have been fabricated using a well established Nb/Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb trilayer process with high yields. The measurement of the spatial response of an asymmetric first-order gradiometer shows the expected magnetometer characteristics for a magnetic dipole source in the near field and first-order gradiometric characteristics for a far-field source. The balance of the integrated gradiometer appears to be better than one part in 10{sup 4}, and the magnetic field gradient sensitivity has been measured to be 100 fT cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2}. (author)

  2. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  3. Numerical Study of the Effect of Turbulent Wake of Cylinder on Vortex Shedding from Flat Plate in Tandem Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzbakht, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Disturbed regions of flow will always appear in presence of any fluid flow over a stationary or moving body. These regions structures depend on both flow characteristics as well as the body. Body shape, surface roughness, orientation, size, flow velocity and viscosity are all influential parameters in the extent of disturb region. The flow structure behind multiple arrangements on bluff bodies are still an interesting subject and vastly under research because of the interaction betw...

  4. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25.477 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear...

  5. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.15 Affiliated business... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliated business arrangements. 3500.15 Section 3500.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  6. Arrangement of library materials models in Slovene public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kobal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and the alignment of library material represent an important part of the library science from its early beginnings onwards. The introduction of UDC into Slovene public libraries coincided with the alteration of the open access library collection.In Slovenia the public libraries in average take into account the references and recommendations for the arrangement of the free access library collection, considering the age groups of the users, adults and juniors. The next division is connected with the functional type of the material, which is divided into fiction, and scientific material,and then there is the UDC label for the arrangement of the material on the shelves or word systematic in one of the public libraries. In the junior department there is a need for a further division into four age/reading groups of books instead of three.Within the formed groups there is the further arrangement of books in an alphabetical order by means of author or subject headings. The public library is a unit, which services all the residents in its local area. The different needs and interests of users should take into account in the formation of a library material arrangement.

  7. 41 CFR 105-1.109-51 - Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangement. 105-1.109-51 Section 105-1.109-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System §...

  8. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  9. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a searc

  10. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry wa

  11. A survey of UK fertility clinics' approach to surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wendy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    This paper draws on the findings of the first survey of surrogacy arrangements in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) licensed fertility clinics since 1998. Given the complex social, ethical and legal issues involved, surrogacy continues to raise debate worldwide and fuel calls for increased domestic provision in developed countries. However, little is known about how recent changes have affected HFEA licensed clinics. A 24-item online survey was undertaken between August and October 2013, designed to improve understanding of recent trends and current practices associated with UK-based surrogacy, and consider the implications for future policy and practice in UK and cross-border surrogacy arrangements. The response rate was 51.4%, comprising 54 clinics. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and open-ended qualitative responses analysed for extending understanding. Of the participating clinics, 42.6% offered surrogacy (mostly gestational surrogacy). Heterosexual couples using gestational surrogacy were the largest group currently using services followed by male same-sex couples. Most clinics reported having encountered problems with surrogacy treatments, suggesting barriers still exist to expanding the UK provision of surrogacy arrangements. It is important that professionals are well informed about the legal implications of surrogacy and that clinics have consistent and appropriate operational protocols for surrogacy arrangements. PMID:26206280

  12. Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: A social relations analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The current studies addressed the associations of classroom seating arrangements with peer status using the social relations model. Study 1 examined whether physical distance between classmates was associated with likeability and popularity. Participants were 336 children from 14 fifth- and sixth-gr

  13. Parental Educational Involvement Conceived as the Arrangement of Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…

  14. 40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... type of waste handled at his facility and the potential need for the services of these organizations: (1) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the...) Agreements with State emergency response teams, emergency response contractors, and equipment suppliers;...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4361 - Acceptable ownership arrangements and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable ownership arrangements and documentation. 36.4361 Section 36.4361 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... condominium, and the most recent annual audited financial statement, if such is prepared. “Available” as...

  16. Love Matches and Arranged Marriages: A Chinese Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohe, Xu; Whyte, Martin King

    1990-01-01

    Partially replicated Japanese study by examining transition from arranged to free-choice marriages in Chinese ever-married women (n=586). The results revealed that the role of parents had declined sharply, whereas young people more and more dominated the process of mate selection. However there was still little sign of a "dating culture" emerging.…

  17. 33 CFR 157.11 - Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. 157.11 Section 157.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.11 Pumping, piping and...

  18. A taxonomy of management challenges for developing shared services arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Sol, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Shared service centres (SSCs) are an organisational arrangement to deliver services. During SSC development organisations encounter a variety of challenges affecting its success or failure. Yet in this embryonic research field a systematic insight into management challenges is absent. Drawing on lit

  19. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  20. Iron-, Cobalt-, and Nickel-Catalyzed Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation and Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yun; Yu, Shen-Luan; Shen, Wei-Yi; Gao, Jing-Xing

    2015-09-15

    Chiral alcohols are important building blocks in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. The enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by transition metal complexes, especially asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) and asymmetric hydrogenation (AH), is one of the most efficient and practical methods for producing chiral alcohols. In both academic laboratories and industrial operations, catalysts based on noble metals such as ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium dominated the asymmetric reduction of ketones. However, the limited availability, high price, and toxicity of these critical metals demand their replacement with abundant, nonprecious, and biocommon metals. In this respect, the reactions catalyzed by first-row transition metals, which are more abundant and benign, have attracted more and more attention. As one of the most abundant metals on earth, iron is inexpensive, environmentally benign, and of low toxicity, and as such it is a fascinating alternative to the precious metals for catalysis and sustainable chemical manufacturing. However, iron catalysts have been undeveloped compared to other transition metals. Compared with the examples of iron-catalyzed asymmetric reduction, cobalt- and nickel-catalyzed ATH and AH of ketones are even seldom reported. In early 2004, we reported the first ATH of ketones with catalysts generated in situ from iron cluster complex and chiral PNNP ligand. Since then, we have devoted ourselves to the development of ATH and AH of ketones with iron, cobalt, and nickel catalysts containing novel chiral aminophosphine ligands. In our study, the iron catalyst containing chiral aminophosphine ligands, which are expected to control the stereochemistry at the metal atom, restrict the number of possible diastereoisomers, and effectively transfer chiral information, are successful catalysts for enantioselective reduction of ketones. Among these novel chiral aminophosphine ligands, 22-membered macrocycle P2N4

  1. Coulomb blockade in turnstile with multiple tunnel junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S C; Kang, D S; Kim, D C; Choi, C K; Ryu, J Y

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the analytic solutions to the electrostatic problem of the multi-grated-small-junction systems, the stable domain for the Coulomb blockade of turnstile with multiple tunnel junctions at zero temperature has been analyzed as a function of the number of tunnel junction, the ratio of the gate capacitance to the junction capacitance, and the asymmetric factor. Our results show that domains form various shaped regions according to the asymmetric factor and their size depends on the number of junction and the ratio of the gate capacitance to the junction capacitance. In particular, it is shown that electrons can be transferred in positive and/or negative bias voltage depending on the asymmetric factor when an appropriate gate cycle is applied. Thus, the asymmetric factor plays an important role in determining the turnstile operation.

  2. Dcc regulates asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxia Gao

    Full Text Available The guidance receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer ortholog UNC-40 regulates neuronal asymmetry development in Caenorhabditis elegans, but it is not known whether DCC plays a role in the specification of neuronal polarity in vertebrates. To examine the roles of DCC in neuronal asymmetry regulation in vertebrates, we studied zebrafish anterior dorsal telencephalon (ADt neuronal axons. We generated transgenic zebrafish animals expressing the photo-convertible fluorescent protein Kaede in ADt neurons and then photo-converted Kaede to label specifically the ADt neuron axons. We found that ADt axons normally project ventrally. Knock down of Dcc function by injecting antisense morpholino oligonucleotides caused the ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. To examine the axon projection pattern of individual ADt neurons, we labeled single ADt neurons using a forebrain-specific promoter to drive fluorescent protein expression. We found that individual ADt neurons projected axons dorsally or formed multiple processes after morpholino knock down of Dcc function. We further found that knock down of the Dcc ligand, Netrin1, also caused ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. Knockdown of Neogenin1, a guidance receptor closely related to Dcc, enhanced the formation of aberrant dorsal axons in embryos injected with Dcc morpholino. These experiments provide the first evidence that Dcc regulates polarized axon initiation and asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in vertebrates.

  3. The evolution of Sf. Gheorghe (Danube asymmetric deltaic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred VESPREMEANU-STROE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave asymmetric Sf. Gheorghe lobe is the only active in the Danube delta where river mouth bar (and the associated barrier islands and spits continuously deployed a cyclic development for almost two millennia. During first stage, the Sf. Gheorghe distributary had a small discharge (with an order of magnitude lower than present which after that experienced a rapid increase in consequence of the successive avulsions of Împuţita (southern distributary of Sulina arm and Dunavăţ distributaries. Our morphological analyses together with the newly obtained chronology, revealed the multiple ridgesets structure of Sf. Gheorghe deltaic lobe. In fact, all ridgesets (10 follow a common morphodynamic pattern characterized by the cyclic succession of three stages: i subaqueous mouth bar development, ii barrier island emergence, iii barrier spit phase with several secondary spits derived from an updrift trunk ridge. The size of each ridgeset increased exponentially with every new cycle due to the constant lengthening of the coastline as the downdrift side of the lobe advances seaward through a series of progressively larger similar quadrilaterals, yielding to a constant enlargment of the delta front size. 

  4. Asymmetric dimethylarginine: A novel biomarker of gastric mucosal injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Zhang; Yi-You Zou; Fu-Jun Li; Chang-Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO),a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule,is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of nitric oxide synthase. NO,an important gas signaling molecule,is a gastric mucosa protective factor that contributes significantly to maintain normal gastric mucosa integrity. NO increases gastric mucosa blood flow,regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate,and inhibits the secretion of gastric juice. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been identified as the major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The function of ADMA is to decrease NO production via inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity. Besides inhibiting NO synthesis,ADMA also directly induces oxidative stress and cell apoptosis,and participates in inflammation reaction. Its systemic accumulation was observed in conjunction with several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. ADMA also mediates gastric ulcer injury induced by ethanol,stress,helicobacter pylori and indomethacin. The mechanism of ADMA directly producing adverse effect in gastric mucosa is incompletely understood. It is widely accepted that NO bioavailability decrease is the majority reason. Promotion of apoptosis and aggravation of inflammation may be other important mechanisms of ADMA-induced gastric injury. ADMA might be a novel clinical and experimental biomarker related to gastric mucosa disorder. Although therapeutic tool targeting to ADMA is available in multiple cardiovascular diseases,it is unknown in gastrointestinal disease. The strategy to inhibit ADMA is beneficial to gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. Thus,ADMA might be a candidate of therapeutic target in gastric mucosa damage.

  5. Numerical study of asymmetric driven reconnection at dayside magnetopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金曙平; 沈俊太; 郝蕾; 胡先鹏

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional compressible MHD code has been used to numerically study the asymmetric driven reconnection processes in the vicinity of the magnetopause. The initial magnetic field configuration is assumed to be in a mechanical equilibrium state. The cases with identical temperatures ( Tm0/ Ts0 = 1 .0) and four different ratios of magnetic field strength ( Q = Bm0/Bs0 = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5), and the case with Tm0/ Ts0 = 2.0 and O = 1.5 are investigated ( Bm0, Tm0 and B, Ts0 are the initial magnetic strength and temperature outside the current sheet on the magnetosphere and the mag-netosheath, respectively ). When the magnetic field on the magnetosheath side is set as southward, a recurrent formation of multiple magnetic bubbles with various scales occurs under the action of the inward plasma flow imposed at the left and right boundaries. In the simulation, some bubbles coalesce into a bigger one and then it is convected out of the simulation domain; the others are convected through the top boundary all

  6. A new convenient asymmetric approach to herbarumin Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song Chen; Shi Jun Da; Li Hong Yang; Bo Yan Xu; Zhi Xiang Xie; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of herbarumin Ⅲ 3, a naturally occurred phytotoxin, along with 8-epi-herbarumin Ⅲ 22, was succeeded in 12 steps from n-butyraldehyde based on Brown's asymmetric allylation, taking modified Julia olefination and Yamaguchi's macro-lactonization as key steps.

  7. Effects of Noise on Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yi-you; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation via a six-qubit cluster state in noisy environments, which includes the phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels. We analytically derive the fidelities of the asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation process in these two noise channels. We show that the fidelities only depend on the initial state and the noisy rate.

  8. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.

  9. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.  ……

  10. Asymmetric catalytic synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-09-01

    A concise catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B is reported. The synthetic sequence notably features an asymmetric acetaldehyde alkynylation, a Ru-catalyzed alder-ene reaction, and a Zn-ProPhenol ynone aldol condensation. Comparison with the reported data suggests a misassignment of the natural product structure.

  11. Asymmetric catalytic synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B

    OpenAIRE

    Trost, Barry M.; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    A concise catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure of Trocheliophorolide B is reported. The synthetic sequence notably features an asymmetric acetaldehyde alkynylation, Ru-catalyzed alder-ene reaction and Zn-ProPhenol ynone aldol condensation. Comparison with the reported data suggests a miss-assignment of the natural product structure.

  12. ASYMMETRIC HYDROSILYLATION CATALYZED BY POLYMER—SUPPORTED THIAZOLIDINE RHODIUM CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEIYanohui; LIHong; 等

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrisilylation catalyzed by polymeric thiazolidine rhodium catalysts was conducted.Almost the same optical yields have been obtained when comb-shaped polymeric ligands and their corresponding monomer complexed rhodium cataltysts were used to asymmetric hydrosilylation of acetophenone.Optical yield of chiral 1-methylbenzyl alcohol reaches as high as 71.5%.Temperature dependence of enantioselective hydrosilylation of acetophenone was discussed.

  13. Extensive Taguchi's Quality Loss Function Based On Asymmetric tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; LI Yuan-sheng; LIU Feng

    2004-01-01

    If specification interval is asymmetric, basic specification is the target value of quality characteristics. In this paper Taguchi's quality loss function is applied to describe quality loss based on asymmetric tolerances. The measurement of quality loss which is caused by the deviation of quality characteristics from basic specification is further presented.

  14. Asymmetric group loans, non-assortative matching and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis; Lensink, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that an asymmetric group debt contract, where one borrower co-signs for another, but not vice versa, leads to heterogeneous matching. The analysis suggests that micro finance organizations can achieve the first best by offering asymmetric group contracts. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Hexahedral mesh generation via the dual arrangement of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Tautges, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Given a general three-dimensional geometry with a prescribed quadrilateral surface mesh, the authors consider the problem of constructing a hexahedral mesh of the geometry whose boundary is exactly the prescribed surface mesh. Due to the specialized topology of hexahedra, this problem is more difficult than the analogous one for tetrahedra. Folklore has maintained that a surface mesh must have a constrained structure in order for there to exist a compatible hexahedral mesh. However, they have proof that a surface mesh need only satisfy mild parity conditions, depending on the topology of the three-dimensional geometry, for there to exist a compatible hexahedral mesh. The proof is based on the realization that a hexahedral mesh is dual to an arrangement of surfaces, and the quadrilateral surface mesh is dual to the arrangement of curves bounding these surfaces. The proof is constructive and they are currently developing an algorithm called Whisker Weaving (WW) that mirrors the proof steps. Given the bounding curves, WW builds the topological structure of an arrangement of surfaces having those curves as its boundary. WW progresses in an advancing front manner. Certain local rules are applied to avoid structures that lead to poor mesh quality. Also, after the arrangement is constructed, additional surfaces are inserted to separate features, so e.g., no two hexahedra share more than one quadrilateral face. The algorithm has generated meshes for certain non-trivial problems, but is currently unreliable. The authors are exploring strategies for consistently selecting which portion of the surface arrangement to advance based on the existence proof. This should lead us to a robust algorithm for arbitrary geometries and surface meshes.

  16. Isospin violating dark matter being asymmetric

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2013-01-01

    The isospin violating dark matter (IVDM) scenario offers an interesting possibility to reconcile conflicting results among direct dark matter search experiments for a mass range around 10 GeV. We consider two simple renormalizable IVDM models with a complex scalar dark matter and a Dirac fermion dark matter, respectively, whose stability is ensured by the conservation of "dark matter number". Although both models successfully work as the IVDM scenario with destructive interference between effective couplings to proton and neutron, the dark matter annihilation cross section is found to exceed the cosmological/astrophysical upper bounds. Then, we propose a simple scenario to reconcile the IVDM scenario with the cosmological/astrophysical bounds, namely, the IVDM being asymmetric. Assuming a suitable amount of dark matter asymmetry has been generated in the early Universe, the annihilation cross section beyond the cosmological/astrophysical upper bound nicely works to dramatically reduce the anti-dark matter rel...

  17. Asymmetric morphology of the propagating jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Philip E.; Norman, Michael L.

    1990-12-01

    Simulations of slab jets propagating in constant atmospheres are reported for a range of jet velocities and Mach numbers. At early times, the jet maintains approximate axisymmetry within a backflowing cocoon. When the jet has penetrated farther into the external medium, the symmetry is broken by sideways oscillation and the leading edge of the jet moves about within a growing lobe. The oscillation results from nonlinear resonant amplification of the initial perturbation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Finally, the jet flaps chaotically within the growing lobe. The flapping is driven by turbulent vortices in the lobe. The basic picture of Scheuer's (1982) 'dentist's drill' model of the physical processes underlying asymmetric morphologies in radio galaxies is confirmed. The fluid motions in the lobe are found to govern the location of the drill bit. The morphology is time-dependent on relatively short time scales.

  18. Asymmetric Beam Combination for Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D

    2001-01-01

    Optical interferometers increasingly use single-mode fibers as spatial filters to convert varying wavefront distortion into intensity fluctuations which can be monitored for accurate calibration of fringe amplitudes. Here I propose using an asymmetric coupler to allow the photometric intensities of each telescope beam to be measured at the same time as the fringe visibility, but without the need for dedicated photometric outputs, which reduce the light throughput in the interferometric channels. In the read-noise limited case often encountered in the infrared, I show that a 53% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for the visibility amplitude measurement is achievable, when compared to a balanced coupler setup with 50% photometric taps (e.g., the FLUOR experiment). In the Poisson-noise limit appropriate for visible light, the improvement is reduced to only ~8%. This scheme also reduces the cost and complexity of the beam combination since fewer components and detectors are required, and can be extended to mor...

  19. Asymmetric Ferromagnet-Superconductor-Ferromagnet Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadden-Zimansky, P.; Bazaliy, Ya.B.; Litvak, L.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Pearson, J.; Gu, J.Y.; You, Chun-Yeol; Beasley, M.R.; Bader, S.D.

    2011-11-04

    In layered ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet F{sub 1} /S/F{sub 2} structures, the critical temperature T{sub c} of the superconductors depends on the magnetic orientation of the ferromagnetic layers F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} relative to each other. So far, the experimentally observed magnitude of change in T{sub c} for structures utilizing weak ferromagnets has been 2 orders of magnitude smaller than is expected from calculations. We theoretically show that such a discrepancy can result from the asymmetry of F/S boundaries, and we test this possibility by performing experiments on structures where F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} are independently varied. Our experimental results indicate that asymmetric boundaries are not the source of the discrepancy. If boundary asymmetry is causing the suppressed magnitude of T{sub c} changes, it may only be possible to detect in structures with thinner ferromagnetic layers.

  20. Magnetoresistive system with concentric ferromagnetic asymmetric nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, J. I., E-mail: javila@ulg.ac.be; Tumelero, M. A.; Pasa, A. A.; Viegas, A. D. C. [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies (LFFS), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CP 476 Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    A structure consisting of two concentric asymmetric nanorings, each displaying vortex remanent states, is studied with micromagnetic calculations. By orienting in suitable directions, both the asymmetry of the rings and a uniform magnetic field, the vortices chiralities can be switched from parallel to antiparallel, obtaining in this way the analogue of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations found in bar magnets pairs. Conditions on the thickness of single rings to obtain vortex states, as well as formulas for their remanent magnetization are given. The concentric ring structure enables the creation of magnetoresistive systems comprising the qualities of magnetic nanorings, such as low stray fields and high stability. A possible application is as contacts in spin injection in semiconductors, and estimations obtained here of magnetoresistance change for a cylindrical spin injection based device show significant variations comparable to linear geometries.

  1. The Asymmetric Effects of Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    We use the returns on lottery-like stocks to construct a novel index for investor sentiment in the stock market. This new measure is closely related to previously developed sentiment indicators, but more accurately tracks speculative episodes over the sample period. Using our index, we find...... that the relationship between sentiment and returns is asymmetric: during bear markets, high sentiment predicts low future returns for the cross-section of speculative stocks and the market overall while the relationship during bull markets is weak and often insignificant. Thus, the results suggest that sophisticated...... investors only act as corrective force during certain time periods. We also show that our index predicts implied volatility, media pessimism, and mutual fund flows. Overall, our findings are consistent with both the theories and anecdotal accounts of investor sentiment in the stock market....

  2. The Asymmetric Predictive Effects of Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    We use the returns on lottery-like stocks to construct a novel index for investor sentiment in the stock market. This new measure is closely related to previously developed sentiment indicators, but more accurately tracks speculative episodes over the sample period. Using our index, we find...... that the relationship between sentiment and returns is asymmetric: during bear markets, high sentiment predicts low future returns for the cross-section of speculative stocks and the market overall while the relationship during bull markets is weak and often insignicant. Thus, the results suggest that sophisticated...... investors only act as corrective force during certain time periods. We also show that our index predicts implied volatility, media pessimism, and mutual fund flows. Overall, our findings are consistent with both the theories and anecdotal accounts of investor sentiment in the stock market....

  3. Asymmetric correlations on the Croatian equity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Kunovac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equity market in Croatia in bad (bear or turbulent and good (bull, calm market conditions. The two market regimes are formally identifi ed under the Markov Regime Switching (MRS framework. The analysis conducted suggests that correlations between equity prices are more than twice as high during bear than in bull markets. This result holds both for the shares included in the CROBEX and for the relationship among various European equity indices.In the context of international diversifi cation the result suggests only a limited benefi t that foreign investors can count on when diversifying their portfolios by expanding to developing European markets. In addition, by evaluating a portfolio optimization model that takes asymmetric correlations into account in an out-of-sample exercise, this paper also illustrates the losses that may occur if the asymmetry is ignored in practice.

  4. Distributed Function Computation in Asymmetric Communication Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Agnihotri, Samar

    2009-01-01

    We consider the distributed function computation problem in asymmetric communication scenarios, where the sink computes some deterministic function of the data split among N correlated informants. The distributed function computation problem is addressed as a generalization of distributed source coding (DSC) problem. We are mainly interested in minimizing the number of informant bits required, in the worst-case, to allow the sink to exactly compute the function. We provide a constructive solution for this in terms of an interactive communication protocol and prove its optimality. The proposed protocol also allows us to compute the worst-case achievable rate-region for the computation of any function. We define two classes of functions: lossy and lossless. We show that, in general, the lossy functions can be computed at the sink with fewer number of informant bits than the DSC problem, while computation of the lossless functions requires as many informant bits as the DSC problem.

  5. Micropolarity Ramification of Asymmetric Merging Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqui, Abuzar Abid

    2016-01-01

    The steady, asymmetric and two-dimensional flow of viscous, incompressible micropolar fluid through a rectangular channel with a splitter (parallel to walls) was formulated and simulated numerically. The plane Poiseuille flow was considered far from upstream and downstream of the splitter. The geometric parameter that controls the position of splitter was defined as splitter position parameter. A numerical scheme that comprises a fourth order method followed by special finite-difference method was used to solve the boundary value problem. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equations to system of finite difference equations which we have solved by SOR iterative method. Moreover, the results obtained were further refined and upgraded by the Richardson extrapolation method. The results were compared on different grid sizes as well as with the existing results for symmetric flow of Newtonian fluids. The comparisons were satisfactory. The microrotation effects on the splitter plate were significantly h...

  6. Asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, P S; Meyerhoff, W L; Judge, L O; Mickey, B E

    1990-07-01

    Three patients with high-intensity MR signals from one petrous apex, but nonpathologic fine-cut computed tomography are reported. In two of the three patients, normal bone marrow within the petrous apex on one side is believed to have generated the high-intensity signal. In one of the three patients, the etiology of the MR image remains obscure, but may represent the earliest stages of petrous cholesterol granuloma or mucocele. We have reviewed 500 head CT scans performed for non-otologic reasons, in an attempt to establish the frequency of this finding. The literature on MR and CT imaging of the petrous apex and asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex is reviewed. PMID:2117735

  7. Asymmetric exclusion processes with shuffled dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with periodic boundary conditions is investigated for shuffled dynamics. In this type of update, in each discrete timestep the particles are updated in a random sequence. Such an update is important for several applications, e.g., for certain models of pedestrian flow in two dimensions. For the ASEP with shuffled dynamics and a related truncated process exact results are obtained for deterministic motion (p = 1). Since the shuffled dynamics is intrinsically stochastic, also this case is nontrivial. For the case of stochastic motion (0 < p < 1) it is shown that, in contrast to all other updates studied previously, the ASEP with shuffled update does not have a product measure steady state. Approximative formulae for the steady-state distribution and fundamental diagram are derived that are in very good agreement with simulation data

  8. Chilly Dark Sectors and Asymmetric Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, $N_{\\mathrm{eff}}$, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and ...

  9. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Katherine; Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2012-01-01

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via interference of squeezed states. In many of optical systems, such as parametric down conversion or interference of optical squeezed states, production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually used for demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of the concept of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualisation of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal...

  10. Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple myeloma is a cancer that begins in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These cells ... bones. No one knows the exact causes of multiple myeloma, but it is more common in older people ...

  11. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of postpartum depression? Having multiples might increase your risk of postpartum ... Membership For Journalists For Junior Fellows For Medical Students For Patients Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement ...

  12. Neurogenesis in an early protostome relative: progenitor cells in the ventral nerve center of chaetognath hatchlings are arranged in a highly organized geometrical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Yvan; Rieger, Verena; Martin, Elise; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that Chaetognatha represent an evolutionary lineage that is the sister group to all other Protostomia thus promoting these animals as a pivotal model for our understanding of bilaterian evolutionary history. We have analyzed the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells in the developing ventral nerve center (VNC) of Spadella cephaloptera hatchlings. To that end, for the first time in Chaetognatha, we performed in vivo incorporation experiments with the S-phase specific mitosis marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Our experiments provide evidence for a high level of mitotic activity in the VNC for ca. 3 days after hatching. Neurogenesis is carried by presumptive neuronal progenitor cells that cycle rapidly and most likely divide asymmetrically. These progenitors are arranged in a distinct grid-like geometrical pattern including about 35 transverse rows. Considering Chaetognaths to be an early offshoot of the protostome lineage we conclude that the presence of neuronal progenitor cells with asymmetric division seems to be a feature that is rooted deeply in the Metazoa. In the light of previous evidence indicating the presence of serially iterated peptidergic neurons with individual identities in the chaetognath VNC, we discuss if these neuronal progenitor cells give rise to distinct lineages. Furthermore, we evaluate the serially iterated arrangement of the progenitor cells in the light of evolution of segmentation. PMID:23483730

  13. Asymmetric effects of monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilean Kleber da Silva Bejarano Aragón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we check whether the effects of monetary policy actions on output in Brazil are asymmetric. Therefore, we estimate Markov-switching models that allow positive and negative shocks to affect the growth rate of output in an asymmetric fashion in expansion and recession states. In general, results show that: i the real effects of negative monetary shocks are larger than those of positive shocks in an expansion; ii in a recession, the real effects of positive and negative shocks are the same; iii there is no evidence of asymmetry between the effects of countercyclical monetary policies; and iv it is not possible to assert that the effects of a positive (or negative shock are dependent upon the phase of the business cycle.Neste trabalho, examinamos se os efeitos das ações de política monetária sobre o produto são assimétricos no Brasil. Para isto, estimamos modelos Markov-switching que permitem que choques positivos e negativos afetem a taxa de crescimento do produto de forma assimétrica nos estados de expansão e recessão econômica. Em geral, os resultados mostram que: i os efeitos reais de choques monetários negativos são maiores do que os de choques positivos em uma expansão; ii em uma recessão, os efeitos reais de choques positivos e negativos são iguais; iii não há evidência de assimetria entre os efeitos de políticas monetárias contracíclicas; iv não se pode afirmar que os efeitos de choques positivos (ou negativos dependem da fase do ciclo econômico.

  14. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  15. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 < p < 2} and {x in L_p({M},τ)} one can find {a, b in L_p({M},τ)} and contractions {u_n, v_n in {M}} such that {E}_n(x) = a u_n + v_n b quad and quad max big{ |a|_p,|b|_p big} ≤ c_p |x|_p. Moreover, it turns out that {a u_n} and {v_n b} converge in the row/column Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  16. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  17. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e+e- collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 1033 cm-2 s-1. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  18. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrange-ments on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali∗; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance, particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared. The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  19. Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"%Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Organic chemistry exploring the world at a molecu- lar level remains essential for our society in the 21st century. Asymmetric synthesis, particularly those em- ploying catalytic approach, is one of the most important research fields in organic synthesis providing chiral compounds in an enantiopure form. The latter is critical since the two enantiomers of one chiral compound, in many cases, have a different response in biological sys- tems. The huge markets of non-racemic chiral com- pounds as synthetic intermediates, pharmaceuticals,

  20. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  1. Bending efficiency analysis of horizontal single- and multiple-slot waveguide microrings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Kargar

    2011-01-01

    @@ The bending efficiencies of three-dimensional (3D) horizontal single- and multiple-slot waveguide microrings are analyzed using the effective index and modified transfer matrix methods.The effects of waveguide parameters, low-index material,high-index material, asymmetric structure, and asymmetric slots on the bending loss are studied.The results show that the bending efficiency can be enhanced by applying asymmetric structures and asymmetric slots.In addition, it is demonstrated that the bending loss increases with the increase of the number of slots.However, by using proper thicknesses for different high-index layers of the horizontal multiple-slot waveguide, it is possile that the horizontal multiple-slot waveguide can provide a lower bending loss than the single-slot one.

  2. On the electron dynamics during island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, E., E-mail: emanuele.cazzola@wis.kuleuven.be; Innocenti, M. E., E-mail: mariaelena.innocenti@wis.kuleuven.be; Lapenta, G., E-mail: giovanni.lapenta@wis.kuleuven.be [Center for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, K.U. Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Markidis, S., E-mail: markidis@pdc.kth.se [PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 14, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Goldman, M. V., E-mail: martin.goldman@Colorado.edu; Newman, D. L., E-mail: david.newman@colorado.edu [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado Boulder, Gamow Tower, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We present an analysis of the electron dynamics during rapid island merging in asymmetric magnetic reconnection. We consider a doubly periodic system with two asymmetric transitions. The upper layer is an asymmetric Harris sheet of finite width perturbed initially to promote a single reconnection site. The lower layer is a tangential discontinuity that promotes the formation of many X-points, separated by rapidly merging islands. Across both layers, the magnetic field and the density have a strong jump, but the pressure is held constant. Our analysis focuses on the consequences of electron energization during island coalescence. We focus first on the parallel and perpendicular components of the electron temperature to establish the presence of possible anisotropies and non-gyrotropies. Thanks to the direct comparison between the two different layers simulated, we can distinguish three main types of behavior characteristic of three different regions of interest. The first type represents the regions where traditional asymmetric reconnections take place without involving island merging. The second type of regions instead shows reconnection events between two merging islands. Finally, the third regions identify the regions between two diverging island and where typical signature of reconnection is not observed. Electrons in these latter regions additionally show a flat-top distribution resulting from the saturation of a two-stream instability generated by the two interacting electron beams from the two nearest reconnection points. Finally, the analysis of agyrotropy shows the presence of a distinct double structure laying all over the lower side facing the higher magnetic field region. This structure becomes quadrupolar in the proximity of the regions of the third type. The distinguishing features found for the three types of regions investigated provide clear indicators to the recently launched Magnetospheric Multiscale NASA mission for investigating magnetopause

  3. Quantum Integrable Model of an Arrangement of Hyperplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Varchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to give a geometric construction of the Bethe algebra (of Hamiltonians of a Gaudin model associated to a simple Lie algebra. More precisely, in this paper a quantum integrable model is assigned to a weighted arrangement of affine hyperplanes. We show (under certain assumptions that the algebra of Hamiltonians of the model is isomorphic to the algebra of functions on the critical set of the corresponding master function. For a discriminantal arrangement we show (under certain assumptions that the symmetric part of the algebra of Hamiltonians is isomorphic to the Bethe algebra of the corresponding Gaudin model. It is expected that this correspondence holds in general (without the assumptions. As a byproduct of constructions we show that in a Gaudin model (associated to an arbitrary simple Lie algebra, the Bethe vector, corresponding to an isolated critical point of the master function, is nonzero.

  4. Minimum cell connection and separation in line segment arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, Helmut; Giannopoulos, Panos; Knauer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study the complexity of the following cell connection and separation problems in segment arrangements. Given a set of straight-line segments in the plane and two points a and b: (i) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to remove so that there is a path connecting a to b that does not intersect any of the remaining segments; (ii) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to remove so that the arrangement induced by the remaining segments has a single cell; (iii) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to retain so that any path connecting a to b intersects some of the retained segments. We show that problems (i) and (ii) are NP-hard, while problem (iii) is polynomial-time solvable. We also discuss special polynomial-time and fixed-parameter tractable cases.

  5. On the topology of the world exchange arrangements web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Jin, Yu Ying; Chen, Guanrong

    2004-11-01

    Exchange arrangements among different countries over the world are foundations of the world economy, which generally stand behind the daily economic evolution. As the first study of the world exchange arrangements web (WEAW), we built a bipartite network with countries as one type of nodes and currencies as the other, and found it to have a prominent scale-free feature with a power-law degree distribution. In a further empirical study of the currency section of the WEAW, we calculated the clustering coefficients, average nearest-neighbors degree, and average shortest distance. As an essential economic network, the WEAW is found to be a correlated disassortative network with a hierarchical structure, possessing a more prominent scale-free feature than the world trade web (WTW).

  6. On the topology of the world exchange arrangements web

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X L

    2004-01-01

    Exchange arrangements among different countries over the world are foundations of the world economy, which generally stand behind the daily economic evolution. As the first study of the world exchange arrangements web (WEAW), we built a bipartite network with countries as one type of nodes and currencies as the other, and found it to have a prominent scale-free feature with a power-law degree distribution. In a further empirical study of the currency section of the WEAW, we calculated the clustering coefficients, average nearest-neighbors degree, and average shortest distance. As an essential economic network, the WEAW is found to be a correlated disassortative network with a hierarchical structure, possessing a more prominent scale-free feature than the world trade web (WTW).

  7. Self arrangements in occupational safety and health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is written with the awareness of safe work culture where success does not lie to compliance with the law only. Instead it is more of an excellent management based on the principle of self organization. Self arrangements in the management of occupational safety and health do not rest on the shoulders of the employer or the safety management and safety communities, but are committed together with the leadership of the employer. Self arrangements will be more meaningful and successful if those involved have knowledge about the philosophy and principles of why and how this management is done, and so the method can be practiced and eventually cultivated as a working system. (author)

  8. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia;

    2014-01-01

    for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... concerned about the characteristics of the partner with respect to his/her professional skills and business expertise. Social aspects, e.g. previous knowledge of the partner, were perceived as more important by older than by younger farmers, while this aspects appeared to be less important for farmers...... with large business units as their primary aim of making agreements seems to comply with the regulations. These findings are applicable in intensive livestock production areas in other European countries....

  9. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines operating in a streamwise tandem arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, M. L.; Markovic, U. V.; Krane, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory-scale study of the impact of separation distance on the performance of marine hydrokinetic turbines in a streamwise tandem arrangement is described. The study aims to give guidance concerning minimum, or optimal, turbine spacing in arrays. Testing was conducted in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The devices were two-bladed model marine turbines with a rotor diameter of 0.1 m. For each separation distance, rotational speed of each device and velocity profiles of flow incident on the downstream turbine were measured. Results suggest limits for the minimum spacing between two turbines arranged in a tandem array.

  10. Arrangement of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of Staphylococcus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Amako, K; Umeda, A.; Murata, K

    1982-01-01

    The arrangement of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of Staphylococcus was observed with the newly developed freeze-fracture technique, using n-octanol instead of water as the freezing medium. The replica of the trichloroacetic acid-extracted cell wall (TCA-wall) showed two areas. One of them has a concentric circular structure, a characteristic surface structure of the staphylococcal cell wall, and the other showed an irregular and rough surface. The chemical analysis of the wall revealed that ...

  11. Drawing Boundaries: Boundary Arrangements of the IPCC Working Groups

    OpenAIRE

    van Eck, Christel

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates how the IPCC’s Working Groups safeguard their scientific character while communicating with policymakers. Due to the different nature of Working Groups’ assessments, all Working Groups make different boundary arrangements of how science is defined; what is considered as relevant knowledge; and what the division of labor is amongst Working Groups. The results show that science is a context-specific activity in a constantly changing landscape, which in turn aff...

  12. What Drives the Arrangement Timetable of Bank Loan Syndication ?

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewski, Christophe J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of loan and syndicate characteristics and information disclosure and legal environment factors on the arrangement timetable of bank loan syndications (measured as the time elapsed from the launching until the completion of the deal) from 68 countries over the 1992-2006 period. Employing accelerated failure time models from survival analysis methodology, we find that loan, syndicate, legal environment and information disclosure characteristics which reduce agency p...

  13. The changing determinants of UK young adults' living arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet Stone; Ann Berrington; Jane Falkingham

    2011-01-01

    The postponement of partnership formation and parenthood in the context of an early average age at leaving home has resulted in increased heterogeneity in the living arrangements of young adults in the UK. More young adults now remain in the parental home, or live independently of the parental home but outside of a family. The extent to which these trends are explained by the increased immigration of foreign-born young adults, the expansion in higher education, and the increased economic inse...

  14. Seed quality and optimal spatial arrangement of fodder radish

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa dos Santos Oliveira; Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho; Marcela Carlota Nery; João Almir Oliveira; Renato Mendes Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Besides the use of fodder radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg.) as green manure plant cover crops and animal feed, the seeds have high oil content and low viscosity, ideal characteristics for the production of biodiesel. Studies related to the technology of seed production for this species are insufficient to define the best spatial arrangement of plants in the field that provides higher yields associated with high-quality seeds. Thus, we investigated the space and density between p...

  15. Collagen fibre arrangement in the skin of the pig.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, W.; Neurand, K; Radke, B

    1982-01-01

    The arrangement and proportion of collagen fibres and fibre bundles in the dermis of the pig have been investigated with light microscopical (Nomarski's interference contrast, polarization optics) and scanning electron microscopical methods. Skin samples were obtained from different body regions of wild boars, domestic pigs and miniature pigs. All the methods used have demonstrated that the bulk of the dermis is dominated by a massive three dimensional network of collagen fibres and fibre bun...

  16. Definition of welded joints arrangement in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of welded joints in a pressure vessel is normally a tiresome and lengthy task. This is especially so when long vessels are provided with a great concentration of nozzles, reinforcements, rings and many other accessories. The manual solution is seldom economical from the viewpoint of minimum waste of plates and minimum labor for cutting, bevelling and welding. This paper presents a computer application that allows a more economical solution in a shorter time. (Author)

  17. Asymmetric bias in user guided segmentations of brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltbie, Eric; Bhatt, Kshamta; Paniagua, Beatriz; Smith, Rachel G; Graves, Michael M; Mosconi, Matthew W; Peterson, Sarah; White, Scott; Blocher, Joseph; El-Sayed, Mohammed; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin A

    2012-01-16

    Brain morphometric studies often incorporate comparative hemispheric asymmetry analyses of segmented brain structures. In this work, we present evidence that common user guided structural segmentation techniques exhibit strong left-right asymmetric biases and thus fundamentally influence any left-right asymmetry analyses. In this study, MRI scans from ten pediatric subjects were employed for studying segmentations of amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, and lateral ventricle. Additionally, two pediatric and three adult scans were used for studying hippocampus segmentation. Segmentations of the sub-cortical structures were performed by skilled raters using standard manual and semi-automated methods. The left-right mirrored versions of each image were included in the data and segmented in a random order to assess potential left-right asymmetric bias. Using shape analysis we further assessed whether the asymmetric bias is consistent across subjects and raters with the focus on the hippocampus. The user guided segmentation techniques on the sub-cortical structures exhibited left-right asymmetric volume bias with the hippocampus displaying the most significant asymmetry values (porigin of this asymmetric bias is considered to be based in laterality of visual perception; therefore segmentations with any degree of user interaction contain an asymmetric bias. The aim of our study is to raise awareness in the neuroimaging community regarding the presence of the asymmetric bias and its influence on any left-right hemispheric analyses. We also recommend reexamining previous research results in the light of this new finding. PMID:21889995

  18. Flexible time arrangements: relevance and impact of part-time work in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Krone-Germann, Irenka

    2010-01-01

    In recent labour market history, one of the most striking features has been the increase of non-standard employment arrangements. These types of arrangements refer to atypical and alternative employment arrangements which are often called flexible staffing arrangements. The utilization of these flexible labour arrangements has been, however, the source of much controversy in the last twenty years but nowadays it is becoming more and more common in the OECD countries, more specifically in Swit...

  19. Elastic properties of nematoid arrangements formed by amoeboid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemkemer, R.; Kling, D.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.

    2000-02-01

    In culture migrating and interacting amoeboid cells can form nematoid arrangements in analogy to a nematic liquid crystal phase. A nematoid arrangement is formed if the interaction has an apolar symmetry. Different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells) etc., form a nematoid structure. Our hypothesis is that elastic properties of these nematoid structures can be described in analogy to that of classical nematic liquid crystals. The orientational elastic energy is derived and the orientational defects (disclination) of nematoid arrangements are investigated. The existence of half-numbered disclinations shows that the nematoid structure has an apolar symmetry. The density- and order parameter dependence of the orientational elastic constants and their absolute values are estimated. From the defect structure, one finds that the splay elastic constant is smaller than the bend elastic constant (melanocytes). The core of a disclination is either a cell free space or occupied by non oriented cells (isotropic state), by a cell with a different symmetry, or by another cell type.

  20. Review of arrangements for the recent transportation of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any `incidents` involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes.

  1. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: a social relations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-02-01

    The current studies addressed the associations of classroom seating arrangements with peer status using the social relations model. Study 1 examined whether physical distance between classmates was associated with likeability and popularity. Participants were 336 children from 14 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.36 years, 47.3% boys). Children who sat closer to the center of the classroom were liked more. Moreover, classmates who sat closer together liked each other more and perceived each other as more popular. Study 2 examined whether children's likeability and popularity judgments were also reflected in the way they positioned themselves relative to their peers when they could arrange their classroom themselves. Participants were 158 children from 6 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.64 years, 50.5% boys). Participants placed liked and popular peers closer to themselves than disliked and unpopular peers. If children placed a classmate closer to themselves, they perceived that peer as better liked and more popular and were perceived as better liked and more popular in return. Implications for further research on classroom seating arrangements and peer relationships are discussed. PMID:25313926

  3. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-1). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m-1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m-11density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  4. High-Voltage, Asymmetric-Waveform Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.; Kanik, Isik

    2008-01-01

    The shapes of waveforms generated by commercially available analytical separation devices, such as some types of mass spectrometers and differential mobility spectrometers are, in general, inadequate and result in resolution degradation in output spectra. A waveform generator was designed that would be able to circumvent these shortcomings. It is capable of generating an asymmetric waveform, having a peak amplitude as large as 2 kV and frequency of several megahertz, which can be applied to a capacitive load. In the original intended application, the capacitive load would consist of the drift plates in a differential-mobility spectrometer. The main advantage to be gained by developing the proposed generator is that the shape of the waveform is made nearly optimum for various analytical devices requiring asymmetric-waveform such as differential-mobility spectrometers. In addition, this waveform generator could easily be adjusted to modify the waveform in accordance with changed operational requirements for differential-mobility spectrometers. The capacitive nature of the load is an important consideration in the design of the proposed waveform generator. For example, the design provision for shaping the output waveform is based partly on the principle that (1) the potential (V) on a capacitor is given by V=q/C, where C is the capacitance and q is the charge stored in the capacitor; and, hence (2) the rate of increase or decrease of the potential is similarly proportional to the charging or discharging current. The proposed waveform generator would comprise four functional blocks: a sine-wave generator, a buffer, a voltage shifter, and a high-voltage switch (see Figure 1). The sine-wave generator would include a pair of operational amplifiers in a feedback configuration, the parameters of which would be chosen to obtain a sinusoidal timing signal of the desired frequency. The buffer would introduce a slight delay (approximately equal to 20 ns) but would otherwise

  5. Simulation of Chaos in Asymmetric Nonlinear Chua's Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-fei; QIAO Shu-tong; JIANG Jian-guo

    2008-01-01

    In order to describe practical chaotic systems exactly, we presented a simple modified Chua's circuit,which contains an asymmetric nonlinear resistive element. Mathematical analysis was made, and simulation study was performed by MATLAB. By varying the value of linear resistor in the circuit, rich variety dynamical behaviors were observed, such as DC equilibrium point, Hopf bifurcation, period-doubling bifurcation,single-scroll strange attractor, periodic windows, and asymmetric double-scroll strange attractor. The extreme sensitivity in the state trajectory with respect to the initial conditions was exhibited; the special characteristic of asymmetric nonlinear Chua's circuit was found also.

  6. The Dualism of Asymmetric Information in Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information objectively exists in the insurance market, especially in agricultural insurance, which has a great impact on the insurance contract and market operation. This paper designs two game models to analyse the dualism of asymmetric information in agricultural insurance and its reasons of forming. We find that, the particularity of agricultural production, the agricultural risk diversification and the benefits’ spillover of the agricultural insurance are the main causes of asymmetric information. Therefore, this paper puts forward that establishment of appropriate agricultural insurance mode, optimization of insurance policy design and increasing investment in science and technology, increasing farmers’ insurance consciousness and establishing supervision system

  7. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing

    2015-05-26

    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  8. Multiple Gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multiple gliomas are well-recognized but uncommon tumors. The incidence of multiple gliomas according to some reports ranges from 0.5% to 20% of all gliomas diagnosed. Multiple gliomas can be divided into two categories. One is by location of the lesions (multifocal and multicentric). The second type is by the time of the lesions occur (synchronous and metachronous). The lesions generally show hypo, or isodensity on CT; a hypo- or isointense signal on T1-weighted images, and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Glioblastoma is the most frequent histotype. The prognosis of multiple gliomas remains unfavorable. The treatment of multiple gliomas includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Distinction between multicentric and multifocal gliomas is difficult. This report reviews in detail the aspects of multiple gliomas mentioned above.

  9. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  10. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  11. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  12. ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...

  13. Computation in dynamically bounded asymmetric systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueli Rutishauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous explanations of computations performed by recurrent networks have focused on symmetrically connected saturating neurons and their convergence toward attractors. Here we analyze the behavior of asymmetrical connected networks of linear threshold neurons, whose positive response is unbounded. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, this asymmetry brings interesting and computationally useful dynamical properties. When driven by input, the network explores potential solutions through highly unstable 'expansion' dynamics. This expansion is steered and constrained by negative divergence of the dynamics, which ensures that the dimensionality of the solution space continues to reduce until an acceptable solution manifold is reached. Then the system contracts stably on this manifold towards its final solution trajectory. The unstable positive feedback and cross inhibition that underlie expansion and divergence are common motifs in molecular and neuronal networks. Therefore we propose that very simple organizational constraints that combine these motifs can lead to spontaneous computation and so to the spontaneous modification of entropy that is characteristic of living systems.

  14. Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is then applied to the liquid-gas phase transition that may occur in the warm, dilute matter produced in energetic heavy-ion collisions. In asymmetric matter, instabilities that produce a liquid-gas phase separation arise from fluctuations in the proton concentration (chemical instability), rather than from fluctuations in the baryon density (mechanical instability)

  15. Asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric shapes of vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Fano-Feshbach resonances. It has been observed that the mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape with some excess in the low-mass wing of the resonance. It is clear that the whole phenomenon is related to some interaction with the nuclear medium. Moreover, it can be further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano-Feshbach effect. To reveal the nature of the interaction it is proposed to use a phenomenological model of the additional contribution due to Cherenkov gluons. They can be created because of the excess of the refractivity index over 1 just in the low-mass wing as required by the classical Cherenkov treatment. In quantum mechanics, this requirement is related to the positive real part of the interaction ...

  16. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  17. Evolving Relationship Structures in Multi-sourcing Arrangements: The Case of Mission Critical Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlager, Ilja; Helms, Remko; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    Information Technology Outsourcing practice and research mainly considers the outsourcing phenomenon as a generic fulfilment of the IT function by external parties. Inspired by the logic of commodity, core competencies and economies of scale; assets, existing departments and IT functions are transferred to external parties. Although the generic approach might work for desktop outsourcing, where standardisation is the dominant factor, it does not work for the management of mission critical applications. Managing mission critical applications requires a different approach where building relationships is critical. The relationships involve inter and intra organisational parties in a multi-sourcing arrangement, called an IT service chain, consisting of multiple (specialist) parties that have to collaborate closely to deliver high quality services.

  18. Chiral Brønsted Acids for Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Daniela; Reisinger, Corinna M.; List, Benjamin

    Chiral Brønsted acid catalysis is an emerging area of organocatalysis. Since the pioneering studies of the groups of Akiyama and Terada in 2004 on the use of chiral BINOL phosphates as powerful Brønsted acid catalysts in asymmetric Mannich-type reactions, numerous catalytic asymmetric transformations involving imine activation have been realized by means of this catalyst class, including among others Friedel-Crafts, Pictet-Spengler, Strecker, cycloaddition reactions, transfer hydrogenations, and reductive aminations. More recently, chiral BINOL phosphates found application in multicomponent and cascade reactions as for example in an asymmetric version of the Biginelli reaction. With the introduction of chiral BINOL-derived N-triflyl phosphoramides in 2006, asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis is no longer restricted to reactive substrates. Also certain carbonyl compounds can be activated through these stronger Brønsted acid catalysts. In dealing with sensitive substrate classes, chiral dicarboxylic acids proved of particular value.

  19. Asymmetric Aldol Reaction with Formaldehyde: a Challenging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meninno, Sara; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    The asymmetric aldol reaction with formaldehyde is a fundamental carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction in organic synthesis, as well as in the quest of the origin of life, as it is thought to have been the first "molecular brick" involved in the synthetic path to complex sugars. Products of aldol reactions, i.e., the β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, are versatile building blocks used to access a great variety of functionalised molecules. The employment of formaldehyde, as a C1 symmetric electrophile, in aldol reactions can be likely considered the most challenging, yet simplest, process to introduce a hydroxymethyl group in an asymmetric fashion. In this account, an overview of the progress achieved in the asymmetric metal- and organocatalysed aldol reaction, using readily available formalin or paraformaldehyde sources, is illustrated. Our recent contribution to this area, with the application of asymmetric hydroxymethylation in cascade processes for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactones, is also shown. PMID:27328802

  20. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Broniowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-01

    We analyze the chiral limit in dense isoptin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter. (author). 20 refs.

  1. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent.

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis of ( - ) -(2R, 3R, 6S ) -Irnigaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA, Nan; MA, Da-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of irnigaine was achieved starting from an enantiopure β-amino ester 5 using the condensation of amino alcohol 2 with acetylacetone and the subsequent intramolecular cyclization as the key steps.

  3. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar V

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  4. Loss Aversion and the Asymmetric Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Emiliano; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan;

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that monetary policy exerts asymmetric effects on output over contractions and expansions in economic activity, while price responses display no sizeable asymmetry. To rationalize these facts we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where households’ utility...

  5. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  6. Vertical Control and Parallel Trade under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avenali

    2015-05-01

    profits from the manufacturer to the wholesaler. Therefore, in R&D-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, policy makers should anticipate the likely consequences of PT under asymmetric information on the long-run incentives to innovate.

  7. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdusattar, Haximjan; Iminniyaz, Hoernisa

    2016-09-01

    Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti-particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5-dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11365022

  9. Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.

  10. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  11. Analysis of liposomes using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Decker, Christiane; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol were analyzed by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering. In addition to evaluation of fractionation conditions (flow conditions, sample mass, carrier liquid...

  12. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.)

  13. Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Valentinčič, Aljoša; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394-419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34-105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, L, characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm's financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589-609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59-82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ΔX(i). We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ΔX(i) scales with the Lévy parameter α ≈ 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails X(i)(-1-α) with infinite variance. We also find that α exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(ΔZ) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent α ≈ 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(ΔZ|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk.

  14. Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Valentinčič, Aljoša; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394-419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34-105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, L, characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm's financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589-609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59-82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ΔX(i). We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ΔX(i) scales with the Lévy parameter α ≈ 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails X(i)(-1-α) with infinite variance. We also find that α exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(ΔZ) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent α ≈ 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(ΔZ|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk. PMID:22006296

  15. Coded Schemes for Asymmetric Wireless Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, André; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the delay and throughput benefits of network coding over multiple, heterogeneous half-duplex communication interfaces is critical to fully exploit current and future devices that incorporate multiple communication technologies. The goal of this paper is two-fold. Fi......A fundamental understanding of the delay and throughput benefits of network coding over multiple, heterogeneous half-duplex communication interfaces is critical to fully exploit current and future devices that incorporate multiple communication technologies. The goal of this paper is two......-fold. First, to present fundamental limits and several strategies to trade-off data and feedback when using multiple interfaces. Our work sets forth a systematic approach to (i) analyze a variety of schemes in the presence of channels with heterogeneous round trip delays, packet transmission rates, and packet...... system with full duplex interfaces. Our second goal is to understand the practical implications of these results by designing a protocol for file transmissions, implement it in Android smart phones, and measure its performance when combining various interfaces, including, Bluetooth, WiFi, and 3G cellular...

  16. Corporate underinvestment in the presence of symmetric and asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Underinvestment and Asymmetric Information: Underinvestment arises when a firm passes up a profitable investment opportunity. The first part of the dissertation deals with corporate underinvestment in the presence of asymmetric information. Specifically, the seminal model by Myers and Majluf (1984) is presented in detail. In this three-period model, corporations have the opportunity to undertake a profitable new investment project, but have to finance it by issuing new shares. There is asy...

  17. Large deviation function of the partially asymmetric exclusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D S; Kim, D

    1999-06-01

    The large deviation function obtained recently by Derrida and Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] for the totally asymmetric exclusion process is generalized to the partially asymmetric case in the scaling limit. The asymmetry parameter rescales the scaling variable in a simple way. The finite-size corrections to the universal scaling function and the universal cumulant ratio are also obtained to the leading order. PMID:11969632

  18. Equation of state and phase transitions in asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Sanzhur, A. I.; Shlomo, S.; Firin, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the 3-dimension pressure-temperature-asymmetry surface of equilibrium of the asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within the thermal Thomas-Fermi approximation. Special attention is paid to the difference of the asymmetry parameter between the boiling sheet and that of the condensation sheet of the surface of equilibrium. We derive the condition of existence of the regime of retrograde condensation at the boiling of the asymmetric nuclear matter. We have performed calculation...

  19. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  20. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis: The Origin, Control, and Amplification of Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Delden, Richard A. van; Feringa, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. From the early days of stereochemistry, the origin of chirality in biological systems has been a challenge to the chemical sciences and numerous theories and experiments have been reported. Despite the great progress in asymmetric synthesis, there are only a few genuine absolute asymmetric syntheses known today. Novel approaches based on the interplay of molecular biology, organic chemistry,...