Sample records for asymmetric waveform ion

  1. An intelligent detection method for high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry. (United States)

    Li, Yue; Yu, Jianwen; Ruan, Zhiming; Chen, Chilai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Han; Liu, Youjiang; Wang, Xiaozhi; Li, Shan


    In conventional high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry signal acquisition, multi-cycle detection is time consuming and limits somewhat the technique's scope for rapid field detection. In this study, a novel intelligent detection approach has been developed in which a threshold was set on the relative error of α parameters, which can eliminate unnecessary time spent on detection. In this method, two full-spectrum scans were made in advance to obtain the estimated compensation voltage at different dispersion voltages, resulting in a narrowing down of the whole scan area to just the peak area(s) of interest. This intelligent detection method can reduce the detection time to 5-10% of that of the original full-spectrum scan in a single cycle.

  2. Liquid extraction surface analysis field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry for the analysis of dried blood spots. (United States)

    Griffiths, Rian L; Dexter, Alex; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J


    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) is a surface sampling technique that allows electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of a wide range of analytes directly from biological substrates. Here, we present LESA mass spectrometry coupled with high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for the analysis of dried blood spots on filter paper. Incorporation of FAIMS in the workflow enables gas-phase separation of lipid and protein molecular classes, enabling analysis of both haemoglobin and a range of lipids (phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin species) from a single extraction sample. The work has implications for multiplexed clinical assays of multiple analytes.

  3. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (United States)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael


    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  4. Performance enhancement of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry by applying differential-RF-driven operation mode (United States)

    Zeng, Yue; Tang, Fei; Zhai, Yadong; Wang, Xiaohao


    The traditional operation mode of high-field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) uses a one-way radio frequency (RF) voltage input as the dispersion voltage. This requires a high voltage input and limits power consumption reduction and miniaturization of instruments. With higher dispersion voltages or larger compensation voltages, there also exist problems such as low signal intensity or the fact that the dispersion voltage is no longer much larger than the compensation voltage. In this paper, a differential-RF-driven operation mode of FAIMS is proposed. The two-way RF is used to generate the dispersion field, and a phase difference is added between the two RFs to generate a single step waveform field. Theoretical analysis, and experimental results from an ethanol sample, showed that the peak positions of the ion spectra changed linearly (R2 = 0.9992) with the phase difference of the two RFs in the differential-RF-driven mode and that the peak intensity of the ion spectrum could be enhanced by more than eight times for ethanol ions. In this way, it is possible to convert the ion spectrum peaks outside the separation or compensation voltage range into a detectable range, by changing the phase difference. To produce the same separation electric field, the high-voltage direct current input voltage can be maximally reduced to half of that in the traditional operation mode. Without changing the drift region size or drift condition, the differential-RF-driven operation mode can reduce power consumption, increase signal-to-noise ratio, extend the application range of the dispersion voltage and compensation voltage, and improve FAIMS detection performance.

  5. A high voltage asymmetric waveform generator for FAIMS. (United States)

    Canterbury, Jesse D; Gladden, James; Buck, Lon; Olund, Roy; MacCoss, Michael J


    High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has been used increasingly in recent years as an additional method of ion separation and selection before mass spectrometry. The FAIMS electrodes are relatively simple to design and fabricate for laboratories wishing to implement their own FAIMS designs. However, construction of the electronics apparatus needed to produce the required high magnitude asymmetric electric field oscillating at a frequency of several hundred kilohertz is not trivial. Here we present an entirely custom-built electronics setup capable of supplying the required waveforms and voltages. The apparatus is relatively simple and inexpensive to implement. We also present data acquired on this system demonstrating the use of FAIMS as a gas-phase ion filter interface to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis (United States)

    Brak, Katrien


    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  7. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer. (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A; Matheoud, Alessandro V; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10 12 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz 1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  8. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A.; Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 1012 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  9. Detection, identification, and occurrence of thiotetronic acids in drinking water from underground sources by electrospray ionization-high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lyczko, Jadwiga; Beach, Daniel; Gabryelski, Wojciech


    This paper demonstrates that electrospray ionization (ESI) with differential ion mobility spectroscopy (FAIMS) and "soft" mass spectrometry (MS) provide unique analytical capabilities that led to the discovery of sulfur-containing polar congeners of thiotetronic acid (TA) in drinking water from underground sources in Canada and the United States. Polar TAs accumulate in underground aquifers and appear to be the most abundant class of organic compounds in bottled water but cannot be detected by conventional mass spectrometry methods. We show that normally stable TAs are converted into very reactive ions in ESI which have to be analyzed using special conditions in ESI-FAIMS-MS to avoid extensive dissociation and ion/molecule reactions. De novo identification of 10 TAs was accomplished by the comparative tandem mass spectrometry analysis of authentic TA derivatives from groundwater samples and synthetic TA analogues prepared for this study. We present highlights of gas phase ion chemistry of polar TAs to explain their unique properties and reactivity. TA derivatives were originally isolated from soil bacteria and are of interest in the pharmaceutical industry due to their potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria and negligible toxicity to mammals. We suspect that TAs are natural disinfection agents protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination, but these compound undergo modifications or decompose during an ozonation water treatment.

  10. Ion pumping in nanochannels using an asymmetric electrode array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Cucu, C.F.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Locascio, L.E.; Gaitan, M.; Paegel, B.M.; Ross, D.J.; Vreeland, W.N.


    We demonstrate an ion pump, consisting of a nanochannel with an AC driven asymmetric electrode array. Our system enables us to actively pump ions using a low driving voltage. In all experiments the electrical double layers are overlapping. Via viscous coupling ion pumping is accompanied by liquid

  11. Solitary waves in asymmetric electron-positron-ion plasmas (United States)

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song


    > By solving the coupled equations of the electromagnetic field and electrostatic potential, we investigate solitary waves in an asymmetric electron-positron plasma and/or electron-positron-ion plasmas with delicate features. It is found that the solutions of the coupled equations can capture multipeak structures of solitary waves in the case of cold plasma, which are left out by using the long-wavelength approximation. By considering the effect of ion motion with respect to non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic temperature plasmas, we find that the ions' mobility can lead to larger-amplitude solitary waves; especially, this becomes more obvious for a high-temperature plasma. The effects of asymmetric temperature between electrons and positrons and the ion fraction on the solitary waves are also studied and presented. It is shown that the amplitudes of solitary waves decrease with positron temperature in asymmetric temperature electron-positron plasmas and decrease also with ion concentration.

  12. Vinylimidazole-Based Asymmetric Ion Pair Comonomers: Synthesis, Polymerization Studies and Formation of Ionically Crosslinked PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jana, S.; Vasantha, V.A.; Stubbs, L.P.; Parthiban, A.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Vinylimidazole-based asymmetric ion pair comonomers (IPCs) which are free from nonpolymerizable counter ions have been synthesized, characterized and polymerized by free radical polymerization (FRP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

  13. EMF signals and ion/ligand binding kinetics: prediction of bioeffective waveform parameters. (United States)

    Pilla, A A; Muehsam, D J; Markov, M S; Sisken, B F


    The kinetics of an electromagnetic field (EMF) target pathway are used to estimate frequency windows for EMF bioeffects. Ion/ligand binding is characterized via first order kinetics from which a specific electrical impedance can be derived. The resistance/capacitance properties of the binding pathway impedance, determined by the kinetics of the rate-determining step, define the frequency range over which the target pathway is most sensitive to external EMF. Applied signals may thus be configured such that their spectral content closely matches that of the target, using evaluation of the signal to thermal noise ratio to optimize waveform parameters. Using the approach proposed in this study, a pulsed radio frequency (PRF) waveform, currently employed clinically for soft tissue repair, was returned by modulation of burst duration, producing significant bioeffects at substantially reduced signal amplitude. Application is made to Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent myosin phosphorylation, for which the binding time constants may be estimated from reported kinetics, neurite outgrowth from embryonic chick dorsal root explants and bone repair in a fracture model. The results showed that the retuned signal produced increased phosphorylation rates, neurite outgrowth and biomechanical strength that were indistinguishable from those produced by the clinical signal, but with a tenfold reduction in peak signal amplitude, approximately 800-fold reduction in average amplitude and approximately 10(6)-fold reduction in average power.

  14. Selective injection and isolation of ions in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using notched waveforms created using the inverse Fourier transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, M.H.; Cooks, R.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))


    Broad-band excitation of ions is accomplished in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer using notched waveforms created by the SWIFT (stored waveform inverse Fourier transform) technique. A series of notched SWIFT pulses are applied during the period of ion injection from an external Cs[sup +] source to resonantly eject all ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the frequency range of the pulse while injecting only those analyte ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the limits of the notch. This allows selective injection and accumulation of the ions of interest and continuous ejection of the unwanted ions. This is shown to result in significant improvement in S/N ratio, resolution, and sensitivity for the analyte ions of interest. Selective ion injection is demonstrated by injecting the protonated molecules of peptides VSV and gramicidin S and the intact cation of l-carnitine hydrochloride, using singly notched SWIFT pulses. Multiply notched SWIFT pulses are used to simultaneously inject ions of different m/z values of l-carnitine hydrochloride into the ion trap. A new coarse/fine ion isolation procedure, which employs a doubly notched SWIFT pulse, is demonstrated for isolating ions of a single m/z value of 4-bromobiphenyl from a population of trapped ions. 36 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out......Cl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological...

  16. The distribution of ion energies at the substrate in an asymmetric bi-polar pulsed DC magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J W [Department of Physics, UMIST, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Baecker, H [Department of Physics, UMIST, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Aranda-Gonzalvo, Y [Department of Physics, UMIST, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Kelly, P J [Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Arnell, R D [Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)


    Using an energy-resolved mass spectrometer and a time-resolved Langmuir probe, the distribution of bombarding ion energies, their fluxes and energy fluxes at a substrate in an asymmetric bi-polar pulsed DC magnetron have been determined. The discharge was operated in Ar at a pressure of 0.53 Pa with a Ti target and pulsed DC frequencies of 100 and 350 kHz with a range of duty cycles (from 50 to 96%). At 100 kHz, the Ar{sup +}and Ti{sup +} time-averaged ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) reveal three peaks, which are at low energy (<10 eV), in a mid-range (20-50 eV) and at high energy (60-100 eV). We correlate these peaks with distinct phases of the discharge voltage. At 350 kHz the IEDFs show four peaks reflecting a more complex voltage waveform. The low-energy ions are generated in the 'on' phase when the plasma potential is typically a few volts above ground. The Ti{sup +} energy spectra show a remnant of the original sputter-neutral energy distribution function. The mid-range ions are produced in the quiescent region of the voltage reverse phase, when the plasma potential is raised globally a few volts above the cathode potential, typically 10-30 V. The high-energy ions are generated in a period of {approx}0.3 {mu}s, during the discharge voltage overshoot, when the target potential rises to typically over +140 V. However, given the time resolution of the Langmuir probe (0.5 {mu}s), it is not possible to determine if plasma potential is lifted globally to this high potential or only close to the cathode. At 350 kHz, these 'fast' ions make up to about a quarter of the total ion flux at the substrate and an upper bound transient power flux of about 2.5 times the maximum delivered in the 'on' phase. The total power flux to a substrate in the sustained phase of the discharge is found to increase with frequency and reverse time.

  17. Fast Orthogonal Separation by Superposition of Time of Flight and Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. (United States)

    Bohnhorst, Alexander; Kirk, Ansgar T; Berger, Marc; Zimmermann, Stefan


    Ion mobility spectrometry is a powerful and low-cost technique for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxic chemicals, or explosives in air. Drift tube ion mobility spectrometers (DT-IMS) separate ions by the absolute value of their low field ion mobility, while field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometers (FAIMS) separate them by the change of their ion mobility at high fields. However, using one of these devices alone, some common and harmless substances show the same response as the hazardous target substances. In order to increase the selectivity, orthogonal data are required. Thus, in this work, we present for the first time an ambient pressure ion mobility spectrometer which is able to separate ions both by their differential and low field mobility, providing additional information for selectivity enhancement. This novel field asymmetric time of flight ion mobility spectrometer (FAT-IMS) allows high repetition rates and reaches limits of detection in the low ppb range common for DT-IMS. The device consists of a compact 44 mm drift tube with a tritium ionization source and a resolving power of 70. An increased separation of four substances with similar low field ion mobility is shown: phosgene (K0 = 2.33 cm2/(V s)), 1,1,2-trichlorethane (K0 = 2.31 cm2/(V s)), chlorine (K0 = 2.24 cm2/(V s)), and nitrogen dioxide (K0 = 2.25 cm2/(V s)). Furthermore, the behavior and limits of detection for acetonitrile, dimethyl methylphosphonate, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate in positive polarity and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, cyanogen chloride, and hydrogen cyanide in negative polarity are investigated.

  18. Two-Scale Ion Meandering Caused by the Polarization Electric Field During Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Chen, Li-Jen; Hesse, Michael; Bessho, Naoki; Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John; Giles, Barbara L.; Torbert, Roy B.; Pollock, Craig J.; Strangeway, Robert; hide


    Ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) from a particle-in-cell simulation of asymmetric reconnection are investigated to reveal a two-scale structure of the ion diffusion region (IDR). Ions bouncing in the inner IDR are trapped mainly by the electric field normal to the current sheet (N direction), while those reaching the outer IDR are turned back mainly by the magnetic force. The resulting inner layer VDFs have counter-streaming populations along N with decreasing counter-streaming speeds away from the midplane while maintaining the out-of-plane speed, and the outer layer VDFs exhibit crescent shapes toward the out-of-plane direction. Observations of the above VDF features and the normal electric fields provide evidence for the two-scale meandering motion.

  19. Estimation of electric conductivity of the quark gluon plasma via asymmetric heavy-ion collisions


    Hirono, Yuji; Hongo, Masaru; Hirano, Tetsufumi


    We show that in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions, especially off-central Cu+Au collisions, a sizable strength of electric field directed from Au nucleus to Cu nucleus is generated in the overlapping region, because of the difference in the number of electric charges between the two nuclei. This electric field would induce an electric current in the matter created after the collision, which result in a dipole deformation of the charge distribution. The directed flow parameters $v_1^{\\pm}$ of ch...

  20. Nonlinear Waveforms for Ion-Acoustic Waves in Weakly Relativistic Plasma of Warm Ion-Fluid and Isothermal Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. El-Wakil


    Full Text Available The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV equation for small- but finite-amplitude electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in weakly relativistic plasma consisting of warm ions and isothermal electrons. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation is applied in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the KdV equation. Numerical studies have been made using plasma parameters which reveal different solutions, that is, bell-shaped solitary pulses, rational pulses, and solutions with singularity at finite points, which called “blowup” solutions in addition to the propagation of an explosive pulses. The weakly relativistic effect is found to significantly change the basic properties (namely, the amplitude and the width of the ion-acoustic waves. The result of the present investigation may be applicable to some plasma environments, such as ionosphere region.

  1. Direct Measurement of Anisotropic and Asymmetric Wave Vector Spectrum in Ion-scale Solar Wind Turbulence (United States)

    Roberts, O. W.; Narita, Y.; Escoubet, C. P.


    This analysis represents the first time that a simultaneous measurement of parallel and perpendicular spectral indices at both inertial and kinetic scales has been made directly in wave vector space, using a single interval of solar wind plasma. An interferometric wave vector analysis method is applied to four-point magnetometer data from the Cluster spacecraft to study for the first time the anisotropic and axially asymmetric energy spectrum directly in the three-dimensional wave vector space in the solar wind on spatial scales for the fluid picture (at about 6000 km) down to the ion kinetic regime (at about 400 km) without invoking Taylor’s frozen-in flow hypothesis. At fluid scales, the spectral index is found to transition from -2 along the large-scale magnetic field direction to a spectral index approaching -5/3 in the perpendicular direction. The wave number for the spectral break between ion inertial and kinetic scales occurs at larger scales in the parallel projection, compared to the perpendicular. At ion kinetic scales, the spectrum in the parallel direction is difficult to measure, while the two perpendicular directions are also anisotropic and vary between -8/3 and -11/3. This suggests that a single anisotropic process where symmetry is broken in a single direction cannot account for the results.

  2. Influence of asymmetric donor-receiver ion concentration upon transscleral iontophoretic transport. (United States)

    Li, S Kevin; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I; White, Henry S


    Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested transscleral iontophoresis as a means for non-invasive drug delivery to the eye. However, there remains a lack of information of the iontophoretic transport behavior of the sclera. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of permeant concentration upon transscleral iontophoretic transport. Constant current direct current (DC) iontophoresis was conducted with rabbit sclera in vitro at permeant concentration ranging from 0.015 to 1.0 M in the donor chamber without background electrolyte at 0.4-4 mA (current density: 2-20 mA/cm2). PBS (0.15 M) was the receiver solution. Salicylate (SA) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) were the model ionic permeants, and mannitol was the neutral probe permeant. Conductivity experiments of SA and TEA solutions were performed to determine the effects of ion concentration upon SA and TEA electromobilities. Model simulations were carried out and compared with the experimental data. It was found that the fluxes of the ionic permeants increased linearly with the electric current but were relatively independent of their donor concentrations. Electric field-induced convective solvent flow (electroosmosis) in the sclera was observed to be from the anode to cathode, suggesting that the sclera is net negatively charge at neutral pH. For the studied permeants, electrophoresis was the main transport enhancing mechanism with electroosmosis as a secondary effect. No significant interaction between the permeants and sclera was observed that significantly altered electroosmosis in the membrane. Under the asymmetric donor and receiver conditions, the transference of the permeants could not be predicted by the concentrations of the ions in the donor and receiver chambers with the assumption of constant electric field in the membrane. The membrane ion concentrations were different from those in the chambers due to the requirement of charge neutrality in the membrane. Copyright (c

  3. Exploiting the Rotational Dynamics of Asymmetric Top Molecules to make Angle Resolved, Molecular Frame Ion Yield and High Harmonic Measurements (United States)

    Makhija, Varun; Ren, Xiaoming; Tross, Jan; Mondal, Sudipta; Le, Anh-Thu; Trallero, Carlos; Kumarappan, Vinod; JRM HHG-Alignment Collaboration


    We extract the angle-dependent ionization rate of ethylene in an intense femtosecond laser pulse from the rotational revivals of the yield of the singly-charged molecular ion. By fitting the measured delay-dependent ion yield to the molecular axis distribution calculated using a rigid rotor code for asymmetric top molecules, we show that the dependence of the ionization rate on two Euler angles can be on obtained. Additionally we explore the possibility of extracting molecular frame information from similar pump-probe measurements of high harmonic generation. Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Analysis of triazines and associated metabolites with electrospray ionization field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Sandulescu, Madaline; Mathiasson, Lennart


    Triazines comprise an important pollutant class owing to continued use in certain countries, and owing to strong environmental persistence that leads to problems even in countries like Sweden where the use of triazines has been prohibited for some years. We investigated mass-selective detection...... for analysis of triazines. More specifically, we studied the background reduction and sensitivity enhancement that result from the use of a new interface technique, field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), in conjunction with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. This technique allows...

  5. Energy budget and mechanisms of cold ion heating in asymmetric magnetic reconnection (United States)

    Toledo-Redondo, Sergio; André, Mats; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Lavraud, Benoit; Vaivads, Andris; Graham, Daniel B.; Li, Wenya; Perrone, Denise; Fuselier, Stephen; Gershman, Daniel J.; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Giles, Barbara; Le Contel, Olivier; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Ergun, Robert E.; Russell, Christopher T.; Burch, James L.


    Cold ions (few tens of eV) of ionospheric origin are commonly observed on the magnetospheric side of the Earth's dayside magnetopause. As a result, they can participate in magnetic reconnection, changing locally the reconnection rate and being accelerated and heated. We present four events where cold ion heating was observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, associated with the magnetospheric Hall E field region of magnetic reconnection. For two of the events the cold ion density was small compared to the magnetosheath density, and the cold ions were heated roughly to the same temperature as magnetosheath ions inside the exhaust. On the other hand, for the other two events the cold ion density was comparable to the magnetosheath density and the cold ion heating observed was significantly smaller. Magnetic reconnection converts magnetic energy into particle energy, and ion heating is known to dominate the energy partition. We find that at least 10-25% of the energy spent by reconnection into ion heating went into magnetospheric cold ion heating. The total energy budget for cold ions may be even higher when properly accounting for the heavier species, namely helium and oxygen. Large E field fluctuations are observed in this cold ion heating region, i.e., gradients and waves, that are likely the source of particle energization.

  6. Reverse osmosis separation of some metal ions from mining effluents using heterogeneous asymmetric membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashi, S.T.; Daci, N.M.; Selimi, T.J. (University of Prishtina, Prishtine (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science)


    Heterogeneous asymmetric membranes made from a blend of cellulose acetate and powdered coal were studied. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water permeability constant A, solute transport parameter D[sub AM]/K[delta] and mass transfer coefficient k of sodium chloride solution as the reference system. These membranes were used for treatment of mining and industrial effluents. Good separation and very high productivity were obtained at low operating pressure. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs.

  7. Anisotropic and asymmetric fast ion distribution generated by magnetic reconnection in MST plasmas (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Harvey, Robert; Sarff, John


    Magnetic reconnection is important in particle transport and energization in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Global reconnection events in MST spontaneously generate an anisotropic ion distribution with a high energy tail extending up to 30x thermal energy, likely through a multi-step process that involves multiple physical scale lengths. First, thermal ions are heated by a mechanism that operates preferentially perpendicular to the magnetic field. Second, the higher energy portion of the thermal ion distribution moves into orbits that drift off the stochastic background magnetic field. In the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration, these drift velocities contribute to stable fast ion orbits that are low in diffusivity and favorable to confinement. These fast ions, separated from the background magnetic field, are unaffected by fluctuation-based, dynamo-like emfs that reduce the total electric field to 0.5 V/m. Finally, a parallel electric field ( 80 V/m), induced by the fast change in the equilibrium during magnetic relaxation, accelerates these fast ions, resulting in an ion distribution that favors high energy, parallel-streaming ions. Work is underway to model the time evolution of the fast ion distribution using CQL3D (Fokker-Planck equation solver) and RIO (full orbit tracer). Work supported by US DOE.

  8. Electron Currents and Heating in the Ion Diffusion Region of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Ergun, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Gershman, D. J.; hide


    In this letter the structure of the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earths magnetopause is investigated using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. The ion diffusion region is characterized by a strong DC electric field, approximately equal to the Hall electric field, intense currents, and electron heating parallel to the background magnetic field. Current structures well below ion spatial scales are resolved, and the electron motion associated with lower hybrid drift waves is shown to contribute significantly to the total current density. The electron heating is shown to be consistent with large-scale parallel electric fields trapping and accelerating electrons, rather than wave-particle interactions. These results show that sub-ion scale processes occur in the ion diffusion region and are important for understanding electron heating and acceleration.

  9. RF reactor with asymmetrical electrodes for reactive ion etching of semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin S. V.


    Full Text Available Results of experimental and theoretical study of RF CCP reactor for reactive ion etching of semiconductors are presented. Breakdown curve and domain of the discharge existence are measured in various gases (argon, fluorocarbon, oxygen. The dependences of the DC selfbias potential on the RF voltage applied to the electrode have been found. The radial profiles of the ion current density to the processed surface and their behavior with the discharge parameters change are presented for various gases. The experimental data are compared to the numerical simulation results obtained using the OOPIC code.

  10. The fluorine-iminium ion gauche effect: proof of principle and application to asymmetric organocatalysis. (United States)

    Sparr, Christof; Schweizer, W Bernd; Senn, Hans Martin; Gilmour, Ryan


    The gauche effect that is induced upon reversible formation of an iminium ion (see structure: green F, blue N) provides a powerful method for the preorganization of transient intermediates that are central to secondary amine catalyzed processes. This phenomenon has been exploited in the design of a novel organocatalyst and is showcased in the stereoselective epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

  11. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon, E-mail:; Alves, Andrew [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Kenny, John [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Radiation Oncology Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and School of Applied Science, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Kron, Tomas [School of Applied Science, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 3008 (Australia); Cole, Andrew [Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia)


    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  12. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen


    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin


    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  14. Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rutolo


    Full Text Available Soft rot is a commonly occurring potato tuber disease that each year causes substantial losses to the food industry. Here, we explore the possibility of early detection of the disease via gas/vapor analysis, in a laboratory environment, using a recent technology known as FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. In this work, tubers were inoculated with a bacterium causing the infection, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and stored within set environmental conditions in order to manage disease progression. They were compared with controls stored in the same conditions. Three different inoculation time courses were employed in order to obtain diseased potatoes showing clear signs of advanced infection (for standard detection and diseased potatoes with no apparent evidence of infection (for early detection. A total of 156 samples were processed by PCA (Principal Component Analysis and k-means clustering. Results show a clear discrimination between controls and diseased potatoes for all experiments with no difference among observations from standard and early detection. Further analysis was carried out by means of a statistical model based on LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis that showed a high classification accuracy of 92.1% on the test set, obtained via a LOOCV (leave-one out cross-validation.

  15. Bizarre Waveforms in Strong Motion Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper collects a rich set of strong motion records in some typical earthquakes domestic and abroad, checks its seismic events, converts the data format, corrects the zeroline and draws the waveform. Four kinds of abnormal phenomena on the acceleration waveform are revealed, such as spike, asymmetric waveform, obvious baseline drift, and strong motion records packets separation. Then reasonable processing approaches are derived from the preliminary analysis of the generation mechanism for abnormal phenomena. In addition to the effects on time history, Fourier amplitude spectrum and response spectrum are studied before and after strong motion records correction. It is shown that (1 mechanism of spikes is rather complicated; however spikes can be eliminated by “jerk” method, ratio method, and the consistency of the three-component PGA time; (2 mechanism of the asymmetric waveform is of diversity; however, to some extent, the Butterworth low-pass filtering can be applied to correct it; (3 two pieces of strong motion record packets can be connected by searching continuous and repeated data; (4 the method of cumulative adding can be used to find the clear baseline drift; (5 the abnormal waveform directly affects the characteristics of time history and frequency spectrum.

  16. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai


    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  17. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner. (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael


    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Carbon-coated LiCrTiO4 electrode material promoting phase transition to reduce asymmetric polarization for lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Yang, Jianwen; Yan, Bo; Ye, Jing; Li, Xue; Liu, Yansheng; You, Haiping


    In this work, carbon-free and carbon-coated spinel LiCrTiO4 oxides were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction. The lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of prepared electrode materials were systematically investigated using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge. Carefully comparing the charge-discharge polarization potential of both materials, we unexpectedly discovered that the pristine LiCrTiO4 electrode demonstrated asymmetric polarization during the charging-discharging process, which is possibly attributed to the nonuniform electron conductivity between the endmember of a two-phase reaction, whereas carbon coating could level this phenomenon. Additionally, using an asymmetric core-shell model from the microscopic point of view can easily explain this common phenomenon. Meanwhile, this new research perspective can be extended to other active materials in lithium ion batteries.

  19. Digital Waveform Technology and the Next Generation of Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    Hoffman, Nathan M.; Gotlib, Zachary P.; Opačić, Bojana; Huntley, Adam P.; Moon, Ashley M.; Donahoe, Katherine E. G.; Brabeck, Gregory F.; Reilly, Peter T. A.


    Ion traps and guides are integral parts of current commercial mass spectrometers. They are currently operated with sinusoidal waveform technology that has been developed over many years. Recently, digital waveform technology has begun to emerge and promises to supplant its older cousin because it presents new capabilities that result from the ability to instantaneously switch the frequency and duty cycle of the waveforms. This manuscript examines these capabilities and reveals their uses and effects on instrumentation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Modelling transthoracic defibrillation waveforms. (United States)

    Krasteva, V; Cansell, A; Daskalov, I


    Recent investigations connected with implantable defibrillators yielded new data on heart electrophysiology, resulting in reassessment of existing and advancing of new types of electrical impulses. Different electrical equivalent circuits were proposed for modelling intracardiac and transthoracic defibrillation pulse waveforms, comprising generator, electrode interface and tissue resistances. We attempted modelling of the transmembrane voltage Vm time course, induced by different applied voltage Vs waveforms, taking into account only the shapes and the relative Vs and Vm amplitudes. The excitable cell membrane impedance Zm was modelled with higher resistance and lower capacitance, so that a shunting effect on the generator and tissue resistances was avoided. The result was a very simple equivalent circuit. We proposed criteria for efficient defibrillation pulse waveforms yielding a straightforward approach to model existing and new pulses and to assess their efficiency.

  1. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C


    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  2. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio


    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  3. Waveform Catalog, Extreme Mass Ratio Binary (Capture) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...

  4. Photonic Arbitrary Waveform Generation Technology (United States)


    comb component. The generated waveform is given as [13] ∑ = ++= K k kk tkA Atf 1 0 0 )co s( 2 )( αω (1) 5 where f(t) is the desired waveform, Ak...tone waveform is not directly obtained from an extension of the single tone case. Nonetheless, by using three optical carriers, one can obtain any...pair insertion loss is ~ -7 dB, with a channel to channel crosstalk between filter channels of ~ -15 dB. For some of the experiments carried

  5. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang


    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  6. Statement for Doppler waveforms analysis. (United States)

    Mahé, Guillaume; Boulon, Carine; Desormais, Ileana; Lacroix, Philippe; Bressollette, Luc; Guilmot, Jean-Louis; Le Hello, Claire; Sevestre, Marie-Antoinette; Pernod, Gilles; Constans, Joel; Boissier, Christian; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra


    Peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs (PAD) is a common disease. Evaluation of PAD is primarily based on non-invasive examinations with analysis of the arterial Doppler signal being a key element. However, the description of arterial Doppler waveforms morphologies varies considerably across medical schools and from country to country. In order to overcome this issue, the French College of Teachers for Vascular Medicine (Collège des Enseignants de Médecine Vasculaire; CEMV) has summarised the published data on Doppler waveforms analysis and proposes a new "Saint-Bonnet" classification system to describe Doppler waveforms morphologies. The simplified Saint-Bonnet classification comprises eight types and allows taking into account if the Doppler signal does not revert to baseline. This classification, which is based on previous classifications, could improve the descriptions of both physiological and pathological waveforms, recorded in lower limb arteries. According to the reviewed literature, recommendations about the use of Doppler waveforms are proposed. This statement is a preamble to reach an international consensus on the subject, which would standardize the description of arterial waveforms and improve the management of PAD patients.

  7. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes. (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique


    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e

  8. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide


    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  9. Asymmetric Ashes (United States)


    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  10. Construction of Waveform Library in Cognitive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Guo


    Full Text Available Based on the thoughts of cognitive radar, Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT is used to generate a rotatable waveform libraries of Frank coded/Barker coded waveform in this paper. Then, the ambiguity function is used to analyze the delay resolution, Doppler resolution, delay side-lobe level, and Doppler side-lobe level of the waveform libraries and orthogonality of them is also analyzed. Furthermore, we proved theoretically that there is a fixed coordinate transformation between the waveforms of library and its origin waveform. Therefore, the Cramér-Rao low bound (CRLB of motion parameters can be computed easily using the waveforms of the libraries, which facilitate the subsequent waveform scheduled work. Simulation results show that the library waveforms can reduce delay resolution to satisfy the different situations and can bring significant benefits for delay resolution, orthogonality and reuse interval.

  11. Radar Waveform Design in Active Communications Channel


    Romero, Ric A.; Shepherd, Kevin D.


    In this paper, we investigate spectrally adaptive radar transmit waveform design and its effects on an active communication system. We specifically look at waveform design for point targets. The transmit waveform is optimized by accounting for the modulation spectrum of the communication system while trying to efficiently use the remaining spectrum. With the use of spectrally-matched radar waveform, we show that the SER detection performance of the communication system ...

  12. A New Cone Shaped Asymmetrically Substituted Calix[4]arene as an ExcellentIonophore in Construction of Ag(I) ion-Selective Membrane Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Leila Hajiagha [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Saeed Taghvaei; Modjallal, Atoosa [Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Kermanshah University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Morteza [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran [Payamenoor University, Delijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A PVC membrane electrode for silver ion based on a new cone shaped calix[4]arene (CASCA) as membrane carrier was prepared. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian response for Ag+ over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10{sup -1}-8.0 x 10{sup -6} M) with a slope of 58.2 {+-} 0.5 mV per decade. The limit of detection of the sensor is 5.0 x 10{sup -6} M. The sensor has a very fast response time ({approx}5 s) in the concentration range of {<=} = 1.0 x 10{sup -3} M, and a useful working pH range of 4.0-9.5. The proposed sensor displays excellent discriminating ability toward Ag{sup +} ion with respect to common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Ag{sup +} with EDTA and in direct determination of silver ion in wastewater of silver electroplating

  13. The Gurvich waveform has lower defibrillation threshold than the rectilinear waveform and the truncated exponential waveform in the rabbit heart. (United States)

    Qu, Fujian; Zarubin, Fidel; Wollenzier, Brian; Nikolski, Vladimir P; Efimov, Igor R


    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator studies have established the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, external defibrillator studies of biphasic waveforms are not as widespread. Our objective was to compare the defibrillation efficacy of clinically used biphasic waveforms, i.e., truncated exponential, rectilinear, and quasi-sinusoidal (Gurvich) waveforms in a fibrillating heart model. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 10) were stained with a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. Transmembrane action potentials were optically mapped from the anterior epicardium. We found that the Gurvich waveform was significantly superior (p truncated exponential waveforms. The defibrillation thresholds (mean +/- SE) were as follows: Gurvich, 0.25 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-1, 0.34 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-2, 0.33 +/- 0.01 J; and truncated exponential, 0.32 +/- 0.02 J. Using optically recorded transmembrane responses, we determined the shock-response transfer function, which allowed us to predict the cellular response to waveforms at high accuracy. The passive parallel resistor-capacitor model (RC-model) predicted polarization superiority of the Gurvich waveform in the myocardium with a membrane time constant (taum) of less than 2 ms. The finding of a lower defibrillation threshold with the Gurvich waveform in an in vitro model of external defibrillation suggests that the Gurvich waveform may be important for future external defibrillator designs.

  14. Effects of Different Waveforms on the Performance of Active Capillary Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Dumlao, Morphy C; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Daming; Fletcher, John; Donald, William A


    Active capillary dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) is emerging as a compact, low-cost, and robust method to form intact ions of small molecules for detection in near real time by portable mass spectrometers. Here, we demonstrate that by using a 10 kHz, ~2.5 kV p-p high-voltage square-wave alternating current plasma, active capillary DBDI can consume less than 1 μW of power. In contrast, the power consumed using a sine and triangle alternating current waveform is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that for the square waveform to obtain a similar voltage for plasma generation. Moreover, the plasma obtained using a square waveform can be significantly more homogenous than that obtained using sine and triangle waveforms. Protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and deprotonated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be detected at about the same or higher abundances using square-wave DBDI mass spectrometry compared with the use of sine and triangle waveforms. By use of benzylammonium thermometer ions, the extent of internal energy deposition using square, sine, or triangle waveform excited plasmas are essentially the same at the optimum voltages for ion detection. Using an H-bridge circuit driving a transformer optimized to reduce losses, square-wave active capillary DBDI can be continuously powered for ~50 h by common 9 V-battery (PP3). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas


    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (, a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  16. Automated Analysis, Classification, and Display of Waveforms (United States)

    Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff


    A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.

  17. Breast imaging using waveform attenuation tomography (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan Y.; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb


    Ex vivo studies using our ultrasound waveform attenuation algorithm have shown promising results for detection and characterization of lesions of different types. Our preliminary in vivo study shows that the waveform attenuation image has much higher resolution and can better delineate breast lesions boundaries than the corresponding ray-based attenuation image. In this study, we preprocessed our time domain waveforms acquired with a ring array and explored the directional transducer beam pattern to better match calculated wave fields with respect to the acquired wave fields. We have applied waveform attenuation to in vivo data and compared the resulting waveform attenuation images with the ray-based counterparts to assess the resolution and accuracy of the waveform attenuation reconstruction.

  18. Localization of Post-Translational Modifications in Peptide Mixtures via High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Followed by Electron Transfer Dissociation (United States)

    Baird, Matthew A.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.


    Precise localization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins and peptides is an outstanding challenge in proteomics. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has dramatically advanced PTM analyses, mixtures of localization variants that commonly coexist in cells often require prior separation. Although differential or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) achieves broad variant resolution, the need for standards to identify the features has limited the utility of approach. Here we demonstrate full a priori characterization of variant mixtures by high-resolution FAIMS coupled to ETD and the procedures to systematically extract the FAIMS spectra for all variants from such data.

  19. Goldstone Solar System Radar Waveform Generator (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy


    Due to distances and relative motions among the transmitter, target object, and receiver, the time-base between any transmitted and received signal will undergo distortion. Pre-distortion of the transmitted signal to compensate for this time-base distortion allows reception of an undistorted signal. In most radar applications, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) would be used to store the pre-calculated waveform and then play back this waveform during transmission. The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), however, has transmission durations that exceed the available memory storage of such a device. A waveform generator capable of real-time pre-distortion of a radar waveform to a given time-base distortion function is needed. To pre-distort the transmitted signal, both the baseband radar waveform and the RF carrier must be modified. In the GSSR, this occurs at the up-conversion mixing stage to an intermediate frequency (IF). A programmable oscillator (PO) is used to generate the IF along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the RF carrier. This serves as the IF input to the waveform generator where it is mixed with a baseband radar waveform whose time-base has been distorted to match the given time-base distortion function producing the modulated IF output. An error control feedback loop is used to precisely control the time-base distortion of the baseband waveform, allowing its real-time generation. The waveform generator produces IF modulated radar waveforms whose time-base has been pre-distorted to match a given arbitrary function. The following waveforms are supported: continuous wave (CW), frequency hopped (FH), binary phase code (BPC), and linear frequency modulation (LFM). The waveform generator takes as input an IF with a time varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier. The waveform generator supports interconnection with deep-space network (DSN) timing and frequency standards, and

  20. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E


    .... Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated...

  1. Waveform Diversity: Past, Present, and Future (United States)


    Pythagoras , continuing with the studies of Galileo, Fourier, and Maxwell. Examples of waveform diversity in nature, such as the bath sonar from the epoch of Pythagoras , continuing with the studies of Galileo, Fourier, and Maxwell. Examples of waveform diversity in nature, such as the

  2. Biphasic truncated exponential waveform defibrillation. (United States)

    White, R D; Blanton, D M


    This paper presents data from studies that have compared the efficacies of biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) waveform defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in in-hospital defibrillation. When a shock is delivered, rhythms evolve rapidly in a variety of directions and take different courses, even over a short time. When defibrillation is defined as termination of ventricular fibrillation at 5 seconds postshock, whether to an organized rhythm or asystole, low-energy BTE shocks appear to be more effective than high-energy MDS shocks in out-of-hospital arrest. For future research, the terms associated with defibrillation should be standardized and used uniformly by all investi-gators. In particular, there should be an agreed-upon definition of shock efficacy.

  3. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis. (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  4. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias


    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  5. Waveform Fingerprinting for Efficient Seismic Signal Detection (United States)

    Yoon, C. E.; OReilly, O. J.; Beroza, G. C.


    Cross-correlating an earthquake waveform template with continuous waveform data has proven a powerful approach for detecting events missing from earthquake catalogs. If templates do not exist, it is possible to divide the waveform data into short overlapping time windows, then identify window pairs with similar waveforms. Applying these approaches to earthquake monitoring in seismic networks has tremendous potential to improve the completeness of earthquake catalogs, but because effort scales quadratically with time, it rapidly becomes computationally infeasible. We develop a fingerprinting technique to identify similar waveforms, using only a few compact features of the original data. The concept is similar to human fingerprints, which utilize key diagnostic features to identify people uniquely. Analogous audio-fingerprinting approaches have accurately and efficiently found similar audio clips within large databases; example applications include identifying songs and finding copyrighted content within YouTube videos. In order to fingerprint waveforms, we compute a spectrogram of the time series, and segment it into multiple overlapping windows (spectral images). For each spectral image, we apply a wavelet transform, and retain only the sign of the maximum magnitude wavelet coefficients. This procedure retains just the large-scale structure of the data, providing both robustness to noise and significant dimensionality reduction. Each fingerprint is a high-dimensional, sparse, binary data object that can be stored in a database without significant storage costs. Similar fingerprints within the database are efficiently searched using locality-sensitive hashing. We test this technique on waveform data from the Northern California Seismic Network that contains events not detected in the catalog. We show that this algorithm successfully identifies similar waveforms and detects uncataloged low magnitude events in addition to cataloged events, while running to completion

  6. Glycolysis selectively shapes the presynaptic action potential waveform. (United States)

    Lujan, Brendan; Kushmerick, Christopher; Banerjee, Tania Das; Dagda, Ruben K; Renden, Robert


    Mitochondria are major suppliers of cellular energy in neurons; however, utilization of energy from glycolysis vs. mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in the presynaptic compartment during neurotransmission is largely unknown. Using presynaptic and postsynaptic recordings from the mouse calyx of Held, we examined the effect of acute selective pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial OxPhos on multiple mechanisms regulating presynaptic function. Inhibition of glycolysis via glucose depletion and iodoacetic acid (1 mM) treatment, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, rapidly altered transmission, resulting in highly variable, oscillating responses. At reduced temperature, this same treatment attenuated synaptic transmission because of a smaller and broader presynaptic action potential (AP) waveform. We show via experimental manipulation and ion channel modeling that the altered AP waveform results in smaller Ca 2+ influx, resulting in attenuated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). In contrast, inhibition of mitochondria-derived ATP production via extracellular pyruvate depletion and bath-applied oligomycin (1 μM) had no significant effect on Ca 2+ influx and did not alter the AP waveform within the same time frame (up to 30 min), and the resultant EPSC remained unaffected. Glycolysis, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, is thus required to maintain basal synaptic transmission at the presynaptic terminal. We propose that glycolytic enzymes are closely apposed to ATP-dependent ion pumps on the presynaptic membrane. Our results indicate a novel mechanism for the effect of hypoglycemia on neurotransmission. Attenuated transmission likely results from a single presynaptic mechanism at reduced temperature: a slower, smaller AP, before and independent of any effect on synaptic vesicle release or receptor activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Attosecond control of optical waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji, Takao [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauschenberger, Jens [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gohle, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Apolonski, Alexander [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia (Russian Federation); Udem, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yakovlev, Vladislav S [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tempea, Gabriel [Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, Fernkorngasse 10, A-1100 Vienna (Austria); Haensch, Theodor W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Krausz, Ferenc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Photonik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)


    A new, monolithic scheme for stabilizing the phase between the carrier wave and the envelope (CE phase) in a train of few-cycle laser pulses is demonstrated. Self-phase modulation and second-harmonic generation or difference-frequency generation in a single periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, that transmits the main laser beam, allows for the CE-phase locking directly in the usable output. The monolithic scheme obviates the need for splitting off a fraction of the laser output for CE-phase control, coupling into microstructured fibre, as well as separation and recombination of spectral components. As a result, the CE-phase error integrated over the spectral range of 0.2 mHz-35 MHz is as small as 0.016 x 2{pi} rad. This implies that the phase of the field oscillations ({lambda} {approx} 830 nm) with respect to the pulse peak is locked to within 44 attoseconds, resulting in optical waveform control with subhundred attosecond fidelity for the first time.

  8. Waveform fitting and geometry analysis for full-waveform lidar feature extraction (United States)

    Tsai, Fuan; Lai, Jhe-Syuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsiu


    This paper presents a systematic approach that integrates spline curve fitting and geometry analysis to extract full-waveform LiDAR features for land-cover classification. The cubic smoothing spline algorithm is used to fit the waveform curve of the received LiDAR signals. After that, the local peak locations of the waveform curve are detected using a second derivative method. According to the detected local peak locations, commonly used full-waveform features such as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and amplitude can then be obtained. In addition, the number of peaks, time difference between the first and last peaks, and the average amplitude are also considered as features of LiDAR waveforms with multiple returns. Based on the waveform geometry, dynamic time-warping (DTW) is applied to measure the waveform similarity. The sum of the absolute amplitude differences that remain after time-warping can be used as a similarity feature in a classification procedure. An airborne full-waveform LiDAR data set was used to test the performance of the developed feature extraction method for land-cover classification. Experimental results indicate that the developed spline curve- fitting algorithm and geometry analysis can extract helpful full-waveform LiDAR features to produce better land-cover classification than conventional LiDAR data and feature extraction methods. In particular, the multiple-return features and the dynamic time-warping index can improve the classification results significantly.

  9. Comparison of rectilinear biphasic waveform with biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a pediatric defibrillation model. (United States)

    Wang, Jinglan; Tang, Wanchun; Brewer, James E; Freeman, Gary; Chang, Yun-Te; Weil, Max Harry


    To compare the rectilinear biphasic waveform with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform for pediatric defibrillation. Prospective, randomized study. Experimental laboratory of a university-affiliated research institute. Male domestic piglets (4-24 kg). Eleven piglets (4-8 kg), which represented a patient truncated exponential waveforms, comprising five shocks at five energy settings. Each group of five shocks was fixed at a predetermined energy value, depending on the body weight of the animal. Dose-response curves were constructed using logistic regression. Aortic pressure, electrocardiogram, left ventricular pressure, and left ventricular pressure value of 40 mm Hg were continually measured. Dose-response curves determined defibrillation thresholds at 50% (D50) and 90% (D90) probability of success. The rectilinear biphasic waveform defibrillated with truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform also successfully defibrillated with significantly less energy per body weight and per heart weight compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform has superior defibrillation performance compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a piglet defibrillation model for young children.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu


    Full Text Available Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data, the analysis of full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1 the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM algorithm. 2 pulse detection method—Average Square Difference Function (ASDF. However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm—Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysis of the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.

  11. Georgia Tech Catalog of Gravitational Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jani, Karan; Clark, James A; London, Lionel; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre


    This paper introduces a catalog of gravitational waveforms from the bank of simulations by the numerical relativity effort at Georgia Tech. Currently, the catalog consists of 452 distinct waveforms from more than 600 binary black hole simulations: 128 of the waveforms are from binaries with black hole spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, and 324 are from precessing binary black hole systems. The waveforms from binaries with non-spinning black holes have mass-ratios $q = m_1/m_2 \\le 15$, and those with precessing, spinning black holes have $q \\le 8$. The waveforms expand a moderate number of orbits in the late inspiral, the burst during coalescence, and the ring-down of the final black hole. Examples of waveforms in the catalog matched against the widely used approximate models are presented. In addition, predictions of the mass and spin of the final black hole by phenomenological fits are tested against the results from the simulation bank. The role of the catalog in interpreting the GW150914 even...

  12. Asymmetrical field emitter (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.


    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  13. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology. (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan


    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  15. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  16. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  17. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system. (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu


    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  18. WFCatalog: A catalogue for seismological waveform data (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Atkinson, Malcolm; Sleeman, Reinoud; Filgueira, Rosa


    This paper reports advances in seismic waveform description and discovery leading to a new seismological service and presents the key steps in its design, implementation and adoption. This service, named WFCatalog, which stands for waveform catalogue, accommodates features of seismological waveform data. Therefore, it meets the need for seismologists to be able to select waveform data based on seismic waveform features as well as sensor geolocations and temporal specifications. We describe the collaborative design methods and the technical solution showing the central role of seismic feature catalogues in framing the technical and operational delivery of the new service. Also, we provide an overview of the complex environment wherein this endeavour is scoped and the related challenges discussed. As multi-disciplinary, multi-organisational and global collaboration is necessary to address today's challenges, canonical representations can provide a focus for collaboration and conceptual tools for agreeing directions. Such collaborations can be fostered and formalised by rallying intellectual effort into the design of novel scientific catalogues and the services that support them. This work offers an example of the benefits generated by involving cross-disciplinary skills (e.g. data and domain expertise) from the early stages of design, and by sustaining the engagement with the target community throughout the delivery and deployment process.

  19. Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms (United States)

    Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan


    We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.

  20. Interface and process for enhanced transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages at unequal pressure (United States)

    Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA


    The invention discloses a new interface with non-circular conductance limit aperture(s) useful for effective transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages with different gas pressure. In particular, the invention provides an improved coupling of field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of planar or side-to-side geometry to downstream stages such as mass spectrometry or ion mobility spectrometry. In this case, the non-circular aperture is rectangular; other geometries may be optimum in other applications. In the preferred embodiment, the non-circular aperture interface is followed by an electrodynamic ion funnel that may focus wide ion beams of any shape into tight circular beams with virtually no losses. The jet disrupter element of the funnel may also have a non-circular geometry, matching the shape of arriving ion beam. The improved sensitivity of planar FAIMS/MS has been demonstrated in experiments using a non-contiguous elongated aperture but other embodiments (e.g., with a contiguous slit aperture) may be preferable, especially in conjunction with an ion funnel operated at high pressures.

  1. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji


    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  2. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy. (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew


    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated 'total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  3. Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).

  4. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew


    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  5. Asymmetric adsorption in an open electrolytic cell (United States)

    Bousiadi, S.; Lelidis, I.


    We investigate the effect of adsorption-desorption phenomenon of ions in an asymmetric electrolytic cell at open circuit conditions. Our approach is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for electrolytes and the kinetic model of Langmuir for the description of adsorption-desorption phenomena on the electrodes. When the electrodes are immersed into the solution, selective ion adsorption takes place. It is shown, that the selective ion adsorption is responsible for generating an electrical potential difference between the electrodes of the cell. The analytical expressions for the potential difference and for the charge distribution are calculated. Finally, the time evolution of the system is investigated and the relaxation times of the problem are deduced numerically.

  6. Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina


    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.

  7. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof


    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  8. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael


    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  9. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  10. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  11. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  12. Low-tilt monophasic and biphasic waveforms compared with standard biphasic waveforms in the transvenous defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation. (United States)

    Bennett, Johan R; Darragh, Karen M; Walsh, Simon J; Allen, Desmond J; Scott, Michael; Stevenson, Michael; Adgey, Jennifer A A; Anderson, John M C J; Manoharan, Ganesh


    Commercially available implantable defibrillators utilize a high-tilt waveform. Studies in atrial fibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown improved defibrillation efficacy using low-tilt (LT) waveforms. We investigated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a LT waveform in the transvenous defibrillation of VF and hypothesized that it would be more efficacious than standard tilted biphasic (STB) waveforms. The investigation was performed in four phases in a porcine model: an efficacy study of LT monophasic waveforms (n = 9), an efficacy study of LT biphasic waveforms (n = 9), a comparison study between the most successful LT waveforms and clinically available STB waveforms (n = 15), and a safety study (n = 9). A total of 1,056 shocks were delivered (phase 1: 288, phase 2: 288, phase 3: 480). The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform was significantly more likely to successfully defibrillate than the LT monophasic and STB waveforms with an odds ratio of 122.3 (95% confidence interval: 32.5, 460.2, P defibrillation threshold (E50) for the LT 8/4-ms waveform was 12.7 J compared to 43.5 J and 45.5 J for STB waveforms 6/6 ms and 8/4 ms, respectively, and 47.7 J for LT 12-ms waveform. The LT 8/4-ms waveform had no lasting detrimental effect on cardiac function, and any transient hemodynamical or biochemical changes observed were comparable to those observed with STB waveforms. LT waveforms are effective and appear safe in transvenous defibrillation in a porcine model of VF. The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform is more efficacious than conventional waveforms. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Single-Event Transient Waveforms Depending on Transistor Spacing and Charge Sharing in 65-nm CMOS (United States)

    Mitrović, Mladen; Hofbauer, Michael; Goll, Bernhard; Schneider-Hornstein, Kerstin; Swoboda, Robert; Steindl, Bernhard; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Zimmermann, Horst


    Single-event cross sections of four inverter chains, with uniform inverter spacing ranging from 120 nm to 4 μm, were experimentally measured and compared. These inverter chains were irradiated using a focused ion beam. Full analog waveforms of responses were sensed using on-chip wide-bandwidth analog multiplexers. Cross sections are examined with respect to pulse heights and pulse widths, for direct-hit waveforms as well as for waveforms propagated through the chain. The influence of ion hit position and charge sharing effects on the initial shape and propagation of the single-event transients (SETs) was analyzed. We have observed a considerable reduction of cross section for tightly spaced inverters, for both direct hits and propagated SETs.

  14. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen


    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  15. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis


    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  16. JTRS/SCA and Custom/SDR Waveform Comparison (United States)

    Oldham, Daniel R.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.


    This paper compares two waveform implementations generating the same RF signal using the same SDR development system. Both waveforms implement a satellite modem using QPSK modulation at 1M BPS data rates with one half rate convolutional encoding. Both waveforms are partitioned the same across the general purpose processor (GPP) and the field programmable gate array (FPGA). Both waveforms implement the same equivalent set of radio functions on the GPP and FPGA. The GPP implements the majority of the radio functions and the FPGA implements the final digital RF modulator stage. One waveform is implemented directly on the SDR development system and the second waveform is implemented using the JTRS/SCA model. This paper contrasts the amount of resources to implement both waveforms and demonstrates the importance of waveform partitioning across the SDR development system.

  17. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Zhu; Z. Zhang; X. Hu; Z. Li


    ...) pulse detection method-Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform...

  19. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  20. SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.

  1. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  3. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus


    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  4. Asymmetric inclusion process. (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri


    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  5. Porcine defibrillation thresholds with chopped biphasic truncated exponential waveforms. (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph L; Melnick, Sharon B; Chapman, Fred W; Walcott, Gregory P


    Conventional biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms have been studied extensively but less is known about "chopping modulated" BTE shocks. Previous studies comparing chopped and unchopped waveforms have found conflicting results. This study compared the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of a variety of chopped and unchopped BTE waveforms. Six anesthetized pigs were defibrillated after 15s of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Three waveform types were studied: unchopped BTE, "short" duration chopped, and "long" duration chopped waveforms. Each type included waveforms generated with 50, 100, and 200 microF capacitances, giving 9 total waveforms. Shocks were delivered in a standard up-down protocol and the order of the waveforms was randomized. Defibrillation thresholds were calculated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. DFTs of the 50, 100, and 200 microF unchopped waveforms were 122+/-22, 124+/-22, and 126+/-22 J. Short chopped DFTs were at least 75+/-23 J higher than unchopped DFTs. Long chopped DFTs averaged 66+/-20 J more than short chopped DFTs. There is a 99.5% probability that the best of the chopped waveforms has a higher DFT than the worst of the unchopped waveforms, and a 95% probability that the difference is at least 37 J. DFT differences between capacitor values were less than 7 J for all waveform types. When treating swine with short-duration VF, chopped waveforms require more energy to defibrillate than unchopped waveforms. More study is required to assess the performance of chopped waveforms when treating cardiac arrest patients.

  6. Trans-sonic cusped shaped, periodic waves and solitary waves of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie


    Full Text Available By adopting an essentially fluid dynamic viewpoint we derive the wave structure equation for stationary, fully nonlinear, electrostatic, ion-cyclotron waves. The existence of two fundamental constants of the motion, namely, conservation of momentum flux parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and energy flux parallel to the direction of wave propagation, enables the wave structure equation to be reduced to a first order differential equation, which has solutions that are physically transparent. The analysis shows that sufficiently oblique waves, propagating at sub-ion acoustic speeds, form soliton pulse-like solutions whose amplitudes are greatest for perpendicular propagation. Waves that propagate supersonically have periodic cnoidal waveforms, which are asymmetric about the compressive and rarefactive phases of the wave. It is also shown that there exist critical driver fields for which the end point of the compressive phase goes sonic (in the wave frame, with the consequence that the wave form develops a cusp. It is possible that this trans-sonic, choked flow feature provides a mechanism for the 'spiky' waveforms observed in auroral electric field measurements.

  7. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup


    . During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well......-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal...... imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE–SW and facing a large ocean...

  8. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.


    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Prototype of a transient waveform recording ASIC (United States)

    Qin, J.; Zhao, L.; Cheng, B.; Chen, H.; Guo, Y.; Liu, S.; An, Q.


    The paper presents the design and measurement results of a transient waveform recording ASIC based on the Switched Capacitor Array (SCA) architecture. This 0.18 μm CMOS prototype device contains two channels and each channel employs a SCA of 128 samples deep, a 12-bit Wilkinson ADC and a serial data readout. A series of tests have been conducted and the results indicate that: a full 1 V signal voltage range is available, the input analog bandwidth is approximately 450 MHz and the sampling speed is adjustable from 0.076 to 3.2 Gsps (Gigabit Samples Per Second). For precision waveform timing extraction, careful calibration of timing intervals between samples is conducted to improve the timing resolution of such chips, and the timing precision of this ASIC is proved to be better than 15 ps RMS.

  10. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.


    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More:

  11. The European seismological waveform framework EIDA (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Quinteros, Javier; Heinloo, Andres; Euchner, Fabian; Strollo, Angelo; Sleeman, Reinoud; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin; Pinar, Ali; Evangelidis, Christos


    The ORFEUS1 European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA2) federates (currently) 11 major European seismological data centres into a common organisational and operational framework which offers: (a) transparent and uniform access tools, advanced services and products for seismological waveform data; (b) a platform for establishing common policies for the curation of seismological waveform data and the description of waveform data by standardised quality metrics; (c) proper attribution and citation (e.g. data ownership). After its establishment in 2013, EIDA has been collecting and distributing seamlessly large amounts of seismological data and products to the research community and beyond. A major task of EIDA is the on-going improvement of the services, tools and products portfolio in order to meet the increasingly demanding users' requirements. At present EIDA is entering a new operational phase and will become the reference infrastructure for seismological waveform data in the pan-European infrastructure for solid-Earth science: EPOS (European Plate Observing System)3. The EIDA Next Generation developments, initiated within the H2020 project EPOS-IP, will provide a new infrastructure that will support the seismological and multidisciplinary EPOS community facilitating interoperability in a broader context. EIDA NG comprises a number of new services and products e.g.: Routing Service, Authentication Service, WFCatalog, Mediator, Station Book and more in the near future. In this contribution we present the current status of the EIDA NG developments and provide an overview of the usage of the new services and their impact on the user community. 1 2 3

  12. Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring (United States)


    velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and...ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D...existing models perform in predicting the various regional phases, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and Pnl waves. Previous events from this Basin-and-Range

  13. Flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method for cognitive radar (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao


    The problem of waveform optimization design for cognitive radar (CR) in the presence of extended target with unknown target impulse response (TIR) is investigated. On the premise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision, a flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method taking both target detection and range resolution into account is proposed. In this method, both the estimate of TIR and transmitted waveform can be updated according to the environment information fed back by the receiver. Moreover, rather than optimizing waveforms for a single design criterion, the framework can synthesize waveforms that provide a trade-off between competing design criteria. The trade-off is determined by the parameter settings, which can be adjusted according to the requirement of radar performance in each cycle of CR. Simulation results demonstrate that CR with the proposed waveform performs better than a traditional radar system with a fixed waveform and offers more flexibility and practicability.

  14. Sparse Frequency Waveform Design for Radar-Embedded Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai


    Full Text Available According to the Tag application with function of covert communication, a method for sparse frequency waveform design based on radar-embedded communication is proposed. Firstly, sparse frequency waveforms are designed based on power spectral density fitting and quasi-Newton method. Secondly, the eigenvalue decomposition of the sparse frequency waveform sequence is used to get the dominant space. Finally the communication waveforms are designed through the projection of orthogonal pseudorandom vectors in the vertical subspace. Compared with the linear frequency modulation waveform, the sparse frequency waveform can further improve the bandwidth occupation of communication signals, thus achieving higher communication rate. A certain correlation exists between the reciprocally orthogonal communication signals samples and the sparse frequency waveform, which guarantees the low SER (signal error rate and LPI (low probability of intercept. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  15. Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen


    The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.

  16. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games. (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane


    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  17. An adaptive delineator for photoplethysmography waveforms. (United States)

    Soundararajan, Mohanalakshmi; Arunagiri, Sivasubramanian; Alagala, Swarnalatha


    Photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms are rich in cardiovascular information, and hence, their analysis is significant in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The second derivative of photoplethysmography (SDPPG) analysis for the accurate detection of significant points in characterising the PPG waveform is challenging. In this paper, a SDPPG analysis algorithm is proposed based on a resampling technique which normalises the signal and ensures the presence of all significant points of interest in all its recurrences. The proposed delineator detects a, b and e waves in SDPPG, which are based on the combined analysis of PPG waveforms and their second derivatives, characterising them beat-by-beat by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Experiments have been conducted on 46 PPG signal records, each of 10-s duration with low and varying amplitudes, and regular and irregular heart rhythms for healthy adults, as well as unhealthy and aged patients obtained from the large-scale openly available database PhysioNet. Based on the experiments conducted, it is found that the proposed algorithm performs better than existing methods in terms of sensitivity and positive predictivity with a highest sensitivity of 99.84% with respect to a (onset) and b waves, 99.67% for e waves (dicrotic notch), and 100% of positive predictivity for a and b waves and 99.82% in case of e waves.

  18. Coordinating Complementary Waveforms for Sidelobe Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Wenbing; Howard, Stephen; Moran, William; Calderbank, Robert


    We present a general method for constructing radar transmit pulse trains and receive filters for which the radar point-spread function in delay and Doppler, given by the cross-ambiguity function of the transmit pulse train and the pulse train used in the receive filter, is essentially free of range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero-Doppler axis. The transmit pulse train is constructed by coordinating the transmission of a pair of Golay complementary waveforms across time according to zeros and ones in a binary sequence P. The pulse train used to filter the received signal is constructed in a similar way, in terms of sequencing the Golay waveforms, but each waveform in the pulse train is weighted by an element from another sequence Q. We show that a spectrum jointly determined by P and Q sequences controls the size of the range sidelobes of the cross-ambiguity function and by properly choosing P and Q we can clear out the range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero- Doppler axis...

  19. Continuous high PRF waveforms for challenging environments (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Steven; Corbeil, Allan; Ryland, Robert; Sobota, David


    Current airborne radar systems segment the available time-on-target during each beam dwell into multiple Coherent Processing Intervals (CPIs) in order to eliminate range eclipsing, solve for unambiguous range, and increase the detection performance against larger Radar Cross Section (RCS) targets. As a consequence, these radars do not realize the full Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increase and detection performance improvement that is possible. Continuous High Pulse Repetition Frequency (HPRF) waveforms and processing enables the coherent integration of all available radar data over the full time-on-target. This can greatly increase the SNR for air targets at long range and/or with weak radar returns and significantly improve the detection performance against such targets. TSC worked with its partner KeyW to implement a Continuous HPRF waveform in their Sahara radar testbed and obtained measured radar data on both a ground vehicle target and an airborne target of opportunity. This experimental data was processed by TSC to validate the expected benefits of Continuous HPRF waveforms.

  20. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna


    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  1. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia


    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  2. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  3. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  4. Multi-waveform classification for seismic facies analysis (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin


    Seismic facies analysis provides an effective way to delineate the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Traditional method is using the single waveform to classify the seismic facies, which does not consider the stratigraphy continuity, and the final facies map may affect by noise. Therefore, by defining waveforms in a 3D window as multi-waveform, we developed a new seismic facies analysis algorithm represented as multi-waveform classification (MWFC) that combines the multilinear subspace learning with self-organizing map (SOM) clustering techniques. In addition, we utilize multi-window dip search algorithm to extract multi-waveform, which reduce the uncertainty of facies maps in the boundaries. Testing the proposed method on synthetic data with different S/N, we confirm that our MWFC approach is more robust to noise than the conventional waveform classification (WFC) method. The real seismic data application on F3 block in Netherlands proves our approach is an effective tool for seismic facies analysis.

  5. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds. (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek


    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  6. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  7. Water transport and purification in nanochannels controlled by asymmetric wettability. (United States)

    Chen, Qinwen; Meng, Lingyi; Li, Qikai; Wang, Dong; Guo, Wei; Shuai, Zhigang; Jiang, Lei


    Biomimetic asymmetric nanochannels have recently attracted increasing attention from researchers, especially in the aspect of the asymmetric wettability (a hydrophilic-hydrophobic system), which can be utilized to control the wetting behavior of aqueous media and to offer a means for guiding water motion. By using molecular dynamics simulations, a design for a potentially efficient water filter is presented based on (n, n) single-walled carbon nanotubes, where n = 6, 8, 10 and 12, asymmetrically modified with hydrophilic groups (carboxyl, -COOH) at one tip and hydrophobic groups (trifluoromethyl, -CF(3) ) at the other. The reduced water density on the hydrophobic sides of the functionalized nanotubes are observed in both pure water and aqueous electrolyte solution, except for the functionalized (6, 6) tube, due to the change of dipole orientation of the single-file water wire within it. The functionalized (8, 8) tube can significantly maintain the low water density on the hydrophobic side. Both (6, 6) and (8, 8) tubes have relatively high energy barriers at their tips for ion permeation, which can be obtained by calculating the potential of mean force. Such tip functionalization of a nanotube therefore suggests the great possibilities of water transport and filtration, dominated by asymmetric wettability. The functionalized (8, 8) tube could act as a nanofluidic channel for water purification, not only for ion exclusion but also as a stable water column structure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  9. Advances in waveform-agile sensing for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Sira, Sandeep Prasad


    Recent advances in sensor technology and information processing afford a new flexibility in the design of waveforms for agile sensing. Sensors are now developed with the ability to dynamically choose their transmit or receive waveforms in order to optimize an objective cost function. This has exposed a new paradigm of significant performance improvements in active sensing: dynamic waveform adaptation to environment conditions, target structures, or information features. The manuscript provides a review of recent advances in waveform-agile sensing for target tracking applications. A dynamic wav

  10. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan


    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  11. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  12. Crystallization in mass and charge asymmetric bilayers (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Filinov, Alexei; Lozovik, Yurii; Stolz, Heinrich


    We consider Coulomb crystal formation in quantum electron-ion (hole) bilayers. Varying the mass ratio M of ions and electrons between 1 and 100 for a fixed layer separation d at low temperature and high density, one can tune the hole behavior from delocalized (quantum) to localized (quasi-classical) while the electrons remain delocalized all the time. While in 3D plasmas [1], ions crystallize if the mass ratio exceeds a critical value of Mcr˜80, in bilayers Mcr can be drastically reduced by properly choosing d and the in-layer particle density. The complicated overlap of correlation and quantum effects of both, electrons and holes, is fully taken care of by performing first-principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations. [1] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov. P.R. Levashov, and H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005) and J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006). [2] P. Ludwig, A. Filinov, Yu. Lozovik, H. Stolz, and M. Bonitz, Crystallization in mass-asymmetric electron-hole bilayers, Contrib. Plasma Phys. (2007), ArXiv: cond-mat/0611556

  13. Selective deposition for ''chamber clean-free'' processes using tailored voltage waveform plasmas (United States)

    Wang, Junkang; v. Johnson, Erik


    Tailored Voltage Waveforms (TVWs) have been proven capable of creating plasma asymmetries in otherwise symmetric CCP reactors. Particularly, sawtooth TVWs (described as having strong slope-asymmetry due to different voltage rise/fall slope) can lead to different sheath dynamics, thus generating strongly asymmetric ionization near each electrode. To date, research concerning the slope-asymmetry has only focused on single-gas plasmas. Herein, we present a study looking at SiF4/H2/Ar mixtures to investigate silicon thin film deposition. The resulting surface process depends strongly on multiple precursors, and the deposition requires a specific balance between surface arrival rates of SiFx and H. For a certain gas flow ratio, we can obtain a deposition rate of 0.82Å/s on one electrode and an etching rate of 1.2Å/s on the other. Moreover, the deposition/etching balance can be controlled by H2 flow and waveform amplitude. This is uniquely possible due to the mixed-gas nature of the process and localized ionization generated by sawtooth TVWs. This encourages the prospect that one could choose process conditions to achieve a variety of desired depositions on one electrode, while leaving the other pristine.

  14. Ventilator waveform interpretation in mechanically ventilated small animals. (United States)

    Corona, Terry M; Aumann, Marcel


    To review the topic of ventilator waveforms analysis with emphasis on interpretation of ventilator waveforms and their use in the management and monitoring of mechanically ventilated small animal patients. Human clinical studies, scientific reviews, and textbooks, as well as veterinary textbooks and clinical examples of ventilator waveforms in mechanically ventilated dogs. Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of data collected from the ventilator and reflect patient-ventilator interactions. The 4 parameters pressure, volume, flow, and time are most descriptive of mechanical ventilation. Typically, 3 different graphs, also referred to as scalars, consisting of pressure versus time, volume versus time, and flow versus time, with time always plotted on the x-axis, are used. Changes in the ventilator settings as well as in the characteristics of the lungs such as airway resistance (R(aw)) and respiratory system compliance (C(rs)) can be recognized from specific variations in the waveforms. Flow-volume and pressure-volume loops provide additional information about changes in lung function. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is a common problem during mechanical ventilation and can lead to patient discomfort and an increased work of breathing. Ventilator waveforms are helpful to identify dyssynchrony, which can be divided into trigger, flow, cycle, and expiratory dyssynchrony. Ventilator waveforms allow the clinician to assess changes in respiratory mechanics, and can be useful in monitoring the progression of disease pathology and response to therapy. Adjustments in ventilator settings based on proper analysis and interpretation of these waveforms can help the clinician to optimize ventilation therapy. Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of patient-ventilator interactions. Proper interpretation of ventilator waveforms affords the critical care clinician a better understanding of the patient's respiratory function, response to therapy, and causes

  15. Method and apparatus for resonant frequency waveform modulation (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA


    A resonant modulator device and process are described that provide enhanced resonant frequency waveforms to electrical devices including, e.g., laser devices. Faster, larger, and more complex modulation waveforms are obtained than can be obtained by use of conventional current controllers alone.

  16. Effect of mechanical ventilation waveforms on airway wall shear. (United States)

    Pidaparti, Ramana M; Swanson, John


    Better understanding of airway wall shear stress/strain rate is very important in order to prevent inflammation in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation due to respiratory problems in intensive-care medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mechanical ventilation waveforms on airway wall shear/strain rate using computational fluid dynamics analysis. Six different waveforms were considered to investigate the airway wall shear stress (WSS) from fluid dynamics analysis for the airway geometry of two-to-three generations. The simulation results showed that Original with Sine Inhale Waveform (OSIW) produced the highest WSS value and the Near True Sine Waveform produced the lowest WSS value. Also, the Original with Sine Inhale Waveform and the Short Sine Inhale with Long Sine Exhale Waveform (SSILSEW) produced a higher shear strain rate in comparison to the Original Waveform (OW). These results, combined with optimization, suggest that it is possible to develop a set of mechanical ventilation waveform strategies to avoid inflammation in the lung.

  17. Multicenter study of principles-based waveforms for external defibrillation. (United States)

    Bain, A C; Swerdlow, C D; Love, C J; Ellenbogen, K A; Deering, T F; Brewer, J E; Augostini, R S; Tchou, P J


    The efficacy of a shock waveform for external defibrillation depends on the waveform characteristics. Recently, design principles based on cardiac electrophysiology have been developed to determine optimal waveform characteristics. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of principles-based monophasic and biphasic waveforms for external defibrillation. A prospective, randomized, blinded, multicenter study of 118 patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing or receiving an implantable defibrillator was conducted. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and defibrillation was attempted in each patient with a biphasic and a monophasic waveform. Patients were randomly placed into 2 groups: group 1 received shocks of escalating energy, and group 2 received only high-energy shocks. The biphasic waveform achieved a first-shock success rate of 100% in group 1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 95.1% to 100%) and group 2 (95% CI 94.6% to 100%), with average delivered energies of 201+/-17 J and 295+/-28 J, respectively. The monophasic waveform demonstrated a 96.7% (95% CI 89.1% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 215+/-12 J for group 1 and a 98.2% (95% CI 91.7% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 352+/-13 J for group 2. Using principles of electrophysiology, it is possible to design both biphasic and monophasic waveforms for external defibrillation that achieve a high first-shock efficacy.

  18. Exploring tree species signature using waveform LiDAR data (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.


    Successful classification of tree species with waveform LiDAR data would be of considerable value to estimate the biomass stocks and changes in forests. Current approaches emphasize converting the full waveform data into discrete points to get larger amount of parameters and identify tree species using several discrete-points variables. However, ignores intensity values and waveform shapes which convey important structural characteristics. The overall goal of this study was to employ the intensity and waveform shape of individual tree as the waveform signature to detect tree species. The data was acquired by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) within 250*250 m study area located in San Joaquin Experimental Range. Specific objectives were to: (1) segment individual trees using the smoothed canopy height model (CHM) derived from discrete LiDAR points; (2) link waveform LiDAR with above individual tree boundaries to derive sample signatures of three tree species and use these signatures to discriminate tree species in a large area; and (3) compare tree species detection results from discrete LiDAR data and waveform LiDAR data. An overall accuracy of the segmented individual tree of more than 80% was obtained. The preliminary results show that compared with the discrete LiDAR data, the waveform LiDAR signature has a higher potential for accurate tree species classification.

  19. An Overview of Radar Waveform Optimization for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lulu


    Full Text Available An optimal waveform design method that fully employs the knowledge of the target and the environment can further improve target detection performance, thus is of vital importance to research. In this paper, methods of radar waveform optimization for target detection are reviewed and summarized and provide the basis for the research.

  20. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.


    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  1. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista


    Full Text Available In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores–Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  2. Test results of a combined distributed ion pump/non-evaporable getter pump design developed as a proposed alternative pumping system for the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, F.; Behne, D.; Hathaway, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    The authors have built and tested an all-in-one combination plate-type distributed ion pump/non-evaporable getter pump design (DIP/NEG) considered as a proposed alternative pumping system for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER). The DIP portion of the design used a Penning cell hole size of 12 mm in a mostly uniform magnetic field of 0.18 T. The NEG portion of the design used commercially available non-evaporable getter material type St-707{trademark}. A detailed description of the design is presented along with results of pumping speed measurements.

  3. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method......, the amplitude spectrum of the transmitted waveform can be optimized, such that most of the energy is transmitted where the transducer has large amplification. To test the design method, a waveform was designed for a BK8804 linear array transducer. The resulting nonlinear frequency modulated waveform...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  4. Earthquake Fingerprints: Representing Earthquake Waveforms for Similarity-Based Detection (United States)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.


    New earthquake detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), use fast approximate similarity search to identify similar waveforms in long-duration data without templates (Yoon et al. 2015). These methods have two key components: fingerprint extraction and an efficient search algorithm. Fingerprint extraction converts waveforms into fingerprints, compact signatures that represent short-duration waveforms for identification and search. Earthquakes are detected using an efficient indexing and search scheme, such as locality-sensitive hashing, that identifies similar waveforms in a fingerprint database. The quality of the search results, and thus the earthquake detection results, is strongly dependent on the fingerprinting scheme. Fingerprint extraction should map similar earthquake waveforms to similar waveform fingerprints to ensure a high detection rate, even under additive noise and small distortions. Additionally, fingerprints corresponding to noise intervals should have mutually dissimilar fingerprints to minimize false detections. In this work, we compare the performance of multiple fingerprint extraction approaches for the earthquake waveform similarity search problem. We apply existing audio fingerprinting (used in content-based audio identification systems) and time series indexing techniques and present modified versions that are specifically adapted for seismic data. We also explore data-driven fingerprinting approaches that can take advantage of labeled or unlabeled waveform data. For each fingerprinting approach we measure its ability to identify similar waveforms in a low signal-to-noise setting, and quantify the trade-off between true and false detection rates in the presence of persistent noise sources. We compare the performance using known event waveforms from eight independent stations in the Northern California Seismic Network.

  5. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings. (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana


    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  6. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  7. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization? (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas


    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  8. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  9. Electrochemical sensing using comparison of voltage-current time differential values during waveform generation and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl


    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  10. An architecture for pre-warping general parametric frequency-modulated radar waveforms (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.


    It is often advantageous to modify, or warp, radar waveforms, particularly with respect to group-delay and spectral dilation. These warping adjustments may facilitate real-time motion compensation of waveforms in radar systems, especially when those waveforms are generated by a digital parametric waveform generator. Relevant waveforms to this paper include Frequency Modulated (FM) waveforms, such as the Linear-FM (LFM) chirp, Non-Linear FM (NLFM) chirp, and other general FM waveforms. We present techniques for making fine adjustments to dynamically warp general FM waveforms.

  11. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah


    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating the source wavelet in the logarithmic waveform inversion, we developed a source-independent logarithmic waveform inversion algorithm. In this inversion algorithm, we first normalize the wavefields with the reference wavefield to remove the source wavelet, and then take the logarithm of the normalized wavefields. Based on the properties of the logarithm, we define three types of misfit functions using the following methods: combination of amplitude and phase, amplitude-only, and phase-only. In the inversion, the gradient is computed using the back-propagation formula without directly calculating the Jacobian matrix. We apply our algorithm to noise-free and noise-added synthetic data generated for the modified version of elastic Marmousi2 model, and compare the results with those of the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion. For the noise-free data, the source-independent algorithms yield velocity models close to true velocity models. For random-noise data, the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion yields better results than the source-independent method, whereas for coherent-noise data, the results are reversed. Numerical results show that the source-independent and source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion methods have their own merits for random- and coherent-noise data. © 2011.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xing


    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  14. Truncated exponential versus damped sinusoidal waveform shocks for transthoracic defibrillation. (United States)

    Behr, J C; Hartley, L L; York, D K; Brown, D D; Kerber, R E


    Currently available transthoracic defibrillators use either a damped sinusoidal or truncated exponential (TE) waveform. Truncated exponential waveforms deliver a long pulse if the transthoracic impedance is high; it has been suggested that such a long pulse may be less effective for defibrillation. Our objective was to compare the ability of damped sinusoidal (DS) waveform shocks versus TE waveform shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF) and achieve survival from witnessed cardiac arrest. We retrospectively reviewed field-recorded electrocardiograms from 86 patients with witnessed VF, treated by prehospital personnel equipped with DS or TE waveform defibrillators. Forty-four patients received 130 shocks from TE defibrillators; 42 patients received 108 shocks from DS defibrillators. There were no significant differences in time from arrest to first shock (8.0 vs 8.1 minutes), nor were there any differences in the size of the communities involved. The shocks resulted in the following rhythms: organized rhythm: TE: 15 of 130 (12%), DS: 24 of 108 (22%), p = 0.10 (NS); persistent VF: TE: 85 of 130 (65%), DS: 45 of 108 (42%), p <0.01; asystole: TE: 30 of 130 (23%), DS: 39 of 108 (36%), p = NS; and survival to hospital discharge: TE: 5 of 44 (11%), DS: 8 of 42 (19%), p = NS. We conclude that DS waveforms terminated VF more frequently than TE, but there was no significant difference in resumption of an organized rhythm or survival. A prospective comparison of these 2 waveforms is needed.

  15. Surface Fitting Filtering of LIDAR Point Cloud with Waveform Information (United States)

    Xing, S.; Li, P.; Xu, Q.; Wang, D.; Li, P.


    Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from "WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research)" are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  16. Waveform LiDAR across forest biomass gradients (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, J.


    Detailed information on the quantity and distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) is needed to understand how it varies across space and changes over time. Waveform LiDAR data is routinely used to derive the heights of scattering elements in each illuminated footprint, and the vertical structure of vegetation is related to AGB. Changes in LiDAR waveforms across vegetation structure gradients can demonstrate instrument sensitivity to land cover transitions. A close examination of LiDAR waveforms in footprints across a forest gradient can provide new insight into the relationship of vegetation structure and forest AGB. In this study we use field measurements of individual trees within Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) footprints along transects crossing forest to non-forest gradients to examine changes in LVIS waveform characteristics at sites with low (LVIS waveforms to detect the forest AGB interval along a forest - non-forest transition in which the LVIS waveform lose the ability to discern differences in AGB. Our results help identify the lower end the forest biomass range that a ~20m footprint waveform LiDAR can detect, which can help infer accumulation of biomass after disturbances and during forest expansion, and which can guide the use of LiDAR within a multi-sensor fusion biomass mapping approach.

  17. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  19. Structure of asymmetrical peptide dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okrugin, B.M.; Neelov, I.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Borisov, Oleg V.


    Structural properties of asymmetric peptide dendrimers up to the 11th generation are studied on the basis of the self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer numerical approach. It is demonstrated that large scale properties such as, e.g., the gyration radius, are relatively weakly affected by the

  20. Control method of high-speed switched reluctance motor with an asymmetric rotor magnetic circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr


    Full Text Available In the paper, the modified (compared to the classical asymmetric half-bridge converter for a switched reluctance machine with an asymmetric rotor magnetic circuit was analysed. An analysis for two various structures of switched reluctance motors was conducted. The rotor shaping was used to obtain required start-up torque or/and to obtain less electromagnetic torque ripple. The discussed converter gives a possibility to turn a phase off much later while reduced time of a current flows in a negative slope of inductance. The results of the research in the form of waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were presented. Conclusions were formulated concerning the comparison of the characteristics of SRM supplied by the classic converter and by the one supplied by the analysed converter.

  1. Ion mobility sensor system (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.


    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  2. Ultra High Voltage Surge Waveforms Measurement Using an Optical Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. PEÑA-LECONA


    Full Text Available Ultra high voltage surge waveforms measurement by means of a portable optical transducer is presented. The sensor system uses a transducer element based on the longitudinal electro-optic effect with a double pass configuration to obtain a better sensitivity. The transducer head is allocated to one meter of distance from the generating element of electric field and it is able to measure waveform surges from 515 kV up to 1090 kV with fast response. It is demonstrated that the telemetry of ultra high voltage surge waveforms can be successfully done by means of this proposed optical transducer.

  3. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field


    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  4. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms. (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S


    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson.

  5. STEREO Observations of Turbulent Solar Wind Waveforms (United States)

    Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven J.


    Studies of solar wind turbulence have heretofore concentrated on Kolmogorov-type studies of the full MHD equations, without regard to the separate modes of the possible solutions. Further understanding of the nonlinear processes of the cascade, and especially transference of wave energy to particles, would seem to depend on more detailed understanding of the waves, their modes and their separate electric and magnetic fields. . A part of the SWAVES experiment on the STEREO spacecraft was designed to study the waves in the dissipation region of the turbulence spectrum. However, compatibility with SECCHI, the optical sensors, required that only monopole antennas could be accommodated, and these respond both to electric fields and to density fluctuations. This seemed to require that one measure four quantities with only three signals. After several years, the response of the antennas to density fluctuations was reduced, due to changes in photoemission coefficients, and measurement of separate electric fields became possible. It is found that sometimes there are short periods when a sinusoidal waveform appears which seems sufficiently pure to represent a single mode. Results of study of the fields of such waves will be presented.

  6. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.


    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  7. The influence of the envelope waveform on binaural tuning of neurons in the inferior colliculus and its relation to binaural perception. (United States)

    Dietz, Mathias; Marquardt, Torsten; Greenberg, David; McAlpine, David


    Recently, Klein-Hennig et al. (J Acoust Soc Am 129:3856–3872, 2011) suggested a design for envelope waveforms that allows for independent setting of the duration of the four segments of an envelope cycle – pause, attack, sustain, and decay. These authors conducted psychoacoustic experiments to determine the threshold interaural time differences (ITDs) for different waveforms and revealed that a steep attack flank and at least 4 ms of pause duration prior to the attack are optimal for discrimination performance, whilst sustained and decay durations were of only minor influence. The current study tests the sharpness of rate-ITD-functions recorded in the inferior colliculus of guinea pigs in response to a similar set of waveforms, examining their relationship to the psychoacoustic data. Particular focus is applied to temporally asymmetric envelope waveforms: a long 15-ms attack and a short 1.5-ms decay envelope and the temporally inverted envelope with a short 1.5-ms attack and a long 15-ms decay.

  8. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li


    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  9. Theoretical performance of reiterated LMMSE filtering and coded radar waveforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggiano, M.; Stolp, E.; Van Genderen, P.


    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms offer strong advantages for integrated communication and radar systems. However, they exhibit inherent high-range sidelobes after matched filtering when standard communication constellation symbols are used for the coding of the carriers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhou


    Full Text Available When full-waveform LiDAR (FW-LiDAR data are applied to extract the component feature information of interest targets, there exist a problem of components lost during the waveform decomposition procedure, which severely constrains the performance of subsequent targets information extraction. Focusing on the problem above, an enhance component detection algorithm, which combines Finite Mixed Method (FMM, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm and Penalized Minimum Matching Distance (PMMD,is proposed in this paper. All of the algorithms for parameters initialization, waveform decomposition and missing component detection have been improved, which greatly increase the precision of component detection, and guarantee the precision of waveform decomposition that could help the weak information extraction of interest targets. The effectiveness of this method is verified by the experimental results of simulation and measured data.

  11. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid


    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  12. Asymmetric trienamine catalysis: new opportunities in amine catalysis. (United States)

    Kumar, Indresh; Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A


    Amine catalysis, through HOMO-activating enamine and LUMO-activating iminium-ion formation, is receiving increasing attention among other organocatalytic strategies, for the activation of unmodified carbonyl compounds. Particularly, the HOMO-raising activation concept has been applied to the greatest number of asymmetric transformations through enamine, dienamine, and SOMO-activation strategies. Recently, trienamine catalysis, an extension of amine catalysis, has emerged as a powerful tool for synthetic chemists with a novel activation strategy for polyenals/polyenones. In this review article, we discuss the initial developments of trienamine catalysis for highly asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with different dienophiles and emerging opportunities for other types of cycloadditions and cascade reactions.

  13. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  14. A Note on Asymmetric Thick Branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric thick braneworld scenarios, generated after adding a constant to the superpotential associated with the scalar field. We study in particular models with odd and even polynomial superpotentials, and we show that asymmetric brane can be generated irrespective of the potential being symmetric or asymmetric. We study in addition the nonpolynomial sine-Gordon like model, also constructed with the inclusion of a constant in the standard superpotential, and we investigate gravitational stability of the asymmetric brane. The results suggest robustness of the new braneworld scenarios and add further possibilities of the construction of asymmetric branes.

  15. An Initialization Technique for the Waveform-Relaxation Circuit Simulation


    Habib, S. E.-D.; Al-Karim, G. J.


    This paper reports the development of the Cairo University Waveform Relaxation (CUWORX) simulator. In order to accelerate the convergence of the waveform relaxation (WR) in the presence of logic feedback, CUWORK is initialized via a logic simulator. This logic initialization scheme is shown to be highly effective for digital synchronous circuits. Additionally, this logic initialization scheme preserves fully the multi-rate properties of the WR algorithm.

  16. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  17. Seismic Waveform Characterization at LLNL: Analyst Guidelines and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, F; Schultz, C A


    In the first section of this paper we present an overview of general set of procedures that we have followed in seismic waveform analysis. In the second section we discuss a number of issues and complexities that we have encountered in analysis of events in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and parts of the European Arctic. To illustrate these complexities we can include examples of waveforms recorded over a variety of paths in these regions.

  18. Information Encoding on a Pseudo Random Noise Radar Waveform (United States)


    antenna under test AWG arbitrary waveform generator AWGN additive white Gaussian noise BPSK binary phase shift keying CDMA code division multiple...focused on the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and code division multiple access ( CDMA ) waveforms. The Ohio State University has...components into a single unit allows for a more mobile compact platform. The plan is diagrammed in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5: Planned modifications to

  19. Fusion of synthetic aperture radiometer and noise waveform SAR images


    Lukin, Konstantin A.; Kudriashov, V. V.


    Noise waveform SAR generates 2D SAR images of a scene. Advanced radiometric SAR imaging provides information on the objects thermal radiation, angular coordinates and even range. The brightness temperatures of rough and smooth surfaces are different. An active, noise waveform, operating mode of bistatic radiometer, based on antennae with beam synthesis, is considered with respect to the roughness criteria. The optimal and quasi-optimal algorithms for fusion of radiometric and SAR images are p...

  20. Fast prediction and evaluation of gravitational waveforms using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel


    [Abridged] We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and in more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced-order model that can be used as a surrogate for the true/fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order m L + m c_f online operations where c_f denotes the fitting function operation ...

  1. Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.


    A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.

  2. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Full Elastic Waveform Search Engine for Near Surface Imaging (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.


    For processing land seismic data, the near-surface problem is often very complex and may severely affect our capability to image the subsurface. The current state-of-the-art technology for near surface imaging is the early arrival waveform inversion that solves an acoustic wave-equation problem. However, fitting land seismic data with acoustic wavefield is sometimes invalid. On the other hand, performing elastic waveform inversion is very time-consuming. Similar to a web search engine, we develop a full elastic waveform search engine that includes a large database with synthetic elastic waveforms accounting for a wide range of interval velocity models in the CMP domain. With each CMP gather of real data as an entry, the search engine applies Multiple-Randomized K-Dimensional (MRKD) tree method to find approximate best matches to the entry in about a second. Interpolation of the velocity models at CMP positions creates 2D or 3D Vp, Vs, and density models for the near surface area. The method does not just return one solution; it gives a series of best matches in a solution space. Therefore, the results can help us to examine the resolution and nonuniqueness of the final solution. Further, this full waveform search method can avoid the issues of initial model and cycle skipping that the method of full waveform inversion is difficult to deal with.

  4. Adaptive Waveform Design for Cognitive Radar in Multiple Targets Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of cognitive radar (CR waveform optimization design for target detection and estimation in multiple extended targets situations is investigated. This problem is analyzed in signal-dependent interference, as well as additive channel noise for extended targets with unknown target impulse response (TIR. To address this problem, an improved algorithm is employed for target detection by maximizing the detection probability of the received echo on the promise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision. In this algorithm, an additional weight vector is introduced to achieve a trade-off among different targets. Both the estimate of TIR and transmit waveform can be updated at each step based on the previous step. Under the same constraint on waveform energy and bandwidth, the information theoretical approach is also considered. In addition, the relationship between the waveforms that are designed based on the two criteria is discussed. Unlike most existing works that only consider single target with temporally correlated characteristics, waveform design for multiple extended targets is considered in this method. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM signal, waveforms designed based on maximum detection probability and maximum mutual information (MI criteria can make radar echoes contain more multiple-target information and improve radar performance as a result.

  5. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen


    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  6. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.


    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  7. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem


    Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A mean-field theory on the differential capacitance of asymmetric ionic liquid electrolytes. (United States)

    Han, Yining; Huang, Shanghui; Yan, Tianying


    The size of ions significantly influences the electric double layer structure of room temperature ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes and their differential capacitance (Cd). In this study, we extended the mean-field theory (MFT) developed independently by Kornyshev (2007J. Phys. Chem. B 111 5545-57) and Kilic, Bazant, and Ajdari (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 021502) (the KKBA MFT) to take into account the asymmetric 1:1 IL electrolytes by introducing an additional parameter ξ for the anion/cation volume ratio, besides the ionic compressibility γ in the KKBA MFT. The MFT of asymmetric ions becomes KKBA MFT upon ξ = 1, and further reduces to Gouy-Chapman theory in the γ → 0 limit. The result of the extended MFT demonstrates that the asymmetric ILs give rise to an asymmetric Cd, with the higher peak in Cd occurring at positive polarization for the smaller anionic size. At high potential, Cd decays asymptotically toward KKBA MFT characterized by γ for the negative polarization, and characterized by ξγ for the positive polarization, with inverse-square-root behavior. At low potential, around the potential of zero charge, the asymmetric ions cause a higher Cd, which exceeds that of Gouy-Chapman theory.

  9. Geodesics in Asymmetric Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennucci Andrea C. G.


    Full Text Available In a recent paper [17] we studied asymmetric metric spaces; in this context we studied the length of paths, introduced the class of run-continuous paths; and noted that there are different definitions of “length spaces” (also known as “path-metric spaces” or “intrinsic spaces”. In this paper we continue the analysis of asymmetric metric spaces.We propose possible definitions of completeness and (local compactness.We define the geodesics using as admissible paths the class of run-continuous paths.We define midpoints, convexity, and quasi-midpoints, but without assuming the space be intrinsic.We distinguish all along those results that need a stronger separation hypothesis. Eventually we discuss how the newly developed theory impacts the most important results, such as the existence of geodesics, and the renowned Hopf-Rinow (or Cohn-Vossen theorem.

  10. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.


    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  11. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model


    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.


    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  12. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin


    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  13. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)


    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  14. Drift waves, intense parallel electric fields, and turbulence associated with asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Eriksson, S.; Usanova, M. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Holmes, J. C.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Newman, D. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Burch, J. L.; Webster, J. M.; Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.; Graham, D. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Goldman, M. V.; Stawarz, J. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.


    Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E||). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude ( 100 mV/m) E|| in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.

  15. Diffusivity in asymmetric Yukawa ionic mixtures in dense plasmas. (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Rudd, Robert E; Cabot, William H; Graziani, Frank R


    In this paper we present molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of the interdiffusion coefficient for asymmetric mixed plasma for thermodynamic conditions relevant to astrophysical and inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Specifically, we consider mixtures of deuterium and argon at temperatures of 100-500 eV and a number density ∼10(25) ions/cm(3). The motion of 30,000-120,000 ions is simulated in which the ions interact via the Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential. The electric field of the electrons is included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. The species diffusivity is then calculated using the Green-Kubo approach using an integral of the interdiffusion current autocorrelation function, a quantity calculated in the equilibrium MD simulations. Our MD simulation results show that a widely used expression relating the interdiffusion coefficient with the concentration-weighted sum of self-diffusion coefficients overestimates the interdiffusion coefficient. We argue that this effect due to cross-correlation terms in velocities is characteristic of asymmetric mixed plasmas. Comparison of the MD results with predictions of kinetic theories also shows a discrepancy with MD giving effectively a larger Coulomb logarithm.

  16. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation. (Z 3/π) exp[−Z (r1 + r2)], Z = Z − (5/16) for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and Z 2 scaling of energies. The scaling law is found to work ...

  17. Flow modification in canine intracranial aneurysm model by an asymmetric stent: studies using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses (United States)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott, H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen


    An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features. PMID:21666881

  18. Flow modification in canine intracranial aneurysm model by an asymmetric stent: studies using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses (United States)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen


    An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features.

  19. Method and device for ion mobility separations (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Smith, Richard D.


    Methods and devices for ion separations or manipulations in gas phase are disclosed. The device includes a single non-planar surface. Arrays of electrodes are coupled to the surface. A combination of RF and DC voltages are applied to the arrays of electrodes to create confining and driving fields that move ions through the device. The DC voltages are static DC voltages or time-dependent DC potentials or waveforms.

  20. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 5. Scaling of ... An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. ... The scaling law becomes increasingly accurate as the target nuclear charge and the energy increase.

  1. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 1 ... A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. ... The scaling law is found to work reasonably well for fast incident electrons and becomes increasingly accurate as target increases.

  2. Ocular pressure waveform reflects ventricular bigeminy and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean B Kassem


    Full Text Available Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum intraocular pressure (IOP during a cardiac cycle. Average values of OPA range from 1 to 4 mmHg. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the source of an irregular IOP waveform with elevated OPA in a 48-year-old male. Ocular pressure waveforms had an unusual shape consistent with early ventricular contraction. With a normal IOP, OPA was 9 mmHg, which is extraordinarily high. The subject was examined by a cardiologist and was determined to be in ventricular bigeminy. In addition, he had bounding carotid pulses and echocardiogram confirmed aortic insufficiency. After replacement of the aortic valve, the bigeminy resolved and the ocular pulse waveform became regular in appearance with an OPA of 1.6-2.0 mmHg. The ocular pressure waveform is a direct reflection of hemodynamics. Evaluating this waveform may provide an additional opportunity for screening subjects for cardiovascular anomalies and arrhythmias.

  3. Inversion of acoustic waveforms for velocity and attenuation (United States)

    Sun, Xinhua

    In this dissertation, I present some new schemes and techniques for processing of acoustic waveform data. New objective functions are developed for waveform inversion. I use synthetic acoustic borehole waveform data to demonstrate their novel features. These schemes require neither prior deconvolution nor knowledge of the source- receiver wavelet. The most powerful of them is the fourwise processor, which is applicable to data sets from multiple shots and receivers even when each shot has a different unknown signature and each receiver has a different unknown impulse response. I apply this scheme to inversion for shear wave velocity from the ODP sonic data measured by an LSS tool, containing two uncalibrated transmitters and receivers. A 3-D search of waveform inversion gives stable results of formation S-wave velocity inverted from the monopole sonic data in a slow formation. In addition, I develop new techniques to extract P- and S-wave attenuation from sonic logging data. The success of the techniques lies in the separation of attenuation-related wave attributes from other effects unrelated to attenuation. The wave attributes related to borehole diameter, formation density, and velocity changes are removed by use of synthetic sonograms. The novelty of the techniques is first to use a single receiver data set to extract a relative attenuation profile, then to correct it to absolute attenuation using multiple receiver data sets. The techniques are applicable to both monopole and dipole waveform log data for either P- or S-wave attenuation.

  4. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir


    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  5. Loan sales under asymmetric information


    Vargas Martínez, Mónica


    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  6. Asymmetric osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane (United States)

    Su, Jiaye; Zhao, Yunzhen; Fang, Chang; Shi, Yue


    Understanding the water permeation through a cell membrane is of primary importance for biological activities and a key step to capture its shape transformation in salt solution. In this work, we reveal the dynamical behaviors of osmotically driven transport of water molecules across a vesicle membrane by molecular dynamics simulations. Of particular interest is that the water transport in and out of vesicles is highly distinguishable given the osmotic force are the same, suggesting an asymmetric osmotic transportation. This asymmetric phenomenon exists in a broad range of parameter space such as the salt concentration, temperature, and vesicle size and can be ascribed to the similar asymmetric potential energy of lipid-ion, lipid-water, lipid-solution, lipid-lipid, and the lipid-lipid energy fluctuation. Specifically, the water flux has a linear increase with the salt concentration, similar to the prediction by Nernst-Planck equation or Fick's first law. Furthermore, due to the Arrhenius relation between the membrane permeability and temperature, the water flux also exhibits excellent Arrhenius dependence on the temperature. Meanwhile, the water flux shows a linear increase with the vesicle surface area since the flux amount across a unit membrane area should be a constant. Finally, we also present the anonymous diffusion behaviors for the vesicle itself, where transitions from normal diffusion at short times to subdiffusion at long times are identified. Our results provide significant new physical insights for the osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane and are helpful for future experimental studies.

  7. Asymmetric Flexible MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Micro-Supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Couly, Cedric


    Current microfabrication of micro-supercapacitors often involves multistep processing and delicate lithography protocols. In this study, simple fabrication of an asymmetric MXene-based micro-supercapacitor that is flexible, binder-free, and current-collector-free is reported. The interdigitated device architecture is fabricated using a custom-made mask and a scalable spray coating technique onto a flexible, transparent substrate. The electrode materials are comprised of titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which are both 2D layered materials that contribute to the fast ion diffusion in the interdigitated electrode architecture. This MXene-based asymmetric micro-supercapacitor operates at a 1 V voltage window, while retaining 97% of the initial capacitance after ten thousand cycles, and exhibits an energy density of 8.6 mW h cm−3 at a power density of 0.2 W cm−3. Further, these micro-supercapacitors show a high level of flexibility during mechanical bending. Utilizing the ability of Ti3C2Tx-MXene electrodes to operate at negative potentials in aqueous electrolytes, it is shown that using Ti3C2Tx as a negative electrode and rGO as a positive one in asymmetric architectures is a promising strategy for increasing both energy and power densities of micro-supercapacitors.

  8. Classification of Pulse Waveforms Using Edit Distance with Real Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyu


    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in sensor and signal processing techniques have provided effective tools for quantitative research in traditional Chinese pulse diagnosis (TCPD. Because of the inevitable intraclass variation of pulse patterns, the automatic classification of pulse waveforms has remained a difficult problem. In this paper, by referring to the edit distance with real penalty (ERP and the recent progress in -nearest neighbors (KNN classifiers, we propose two novel ERP-based KNN classifiers. Taking advantage of the metric property of ERP, we first develop an ERP-induced inner product and a Gaussian ERP kernel, then embed them into difference-weighted KNN classifiers, and finally develop two novel classifiers for pulse waveform classification. The experimental results show that the proposed classifiers are effective for accurate classification of pulse waveform.

  9. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis


    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  10. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah


    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  11. Analysis of Gradient Waveform in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU-YANG Shan-mei


    Full Text Available The accuracy of gradient pulse waveform affects image quality significantly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Recording and analyzing the waveform of gradient pulse helps to make rapid and accurate diagnosis of spectrometer gradient hardware and/or pulse sequence. Using the virtual instrument software LabVIEW to control the high speed data acquisition card DAQ-2005, a multi-channel acquisition scheme was designed to collect the gradient outputs from a custom-made spectrometer. The collected waveforms were post-processed (i.e., histogram statistical analysis, data filtering and difference calculation to obtain feature points containing time and amplitude information. Experiments were carried out to validate the method, which is an auxiliary test method for the development of spectrometer and pulses sequence.

  12. Closed-loop waveform control of boost inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guo Rong; Xiao, Cheng Yuan; Wang, Haoran


    The input current of single-phase inverter typically has an AC ripple component at twice the output frequency, which causes a reduction in both the operating lifetime of its DC source and the efficiency of the system. In this paper, the closed-loop performance of a proposed waveform control method...... to eliminate such a ripple current in boost inverter is investigated. The small-signal stability and the dynamic characteristic of the inverter system for input voltage or wide range load variations under the closed-loop waveform control method are studied. It is validated that with the closedloop waveform...... control, not only was stability achieved, the reference voltage of the boost inverter capacitors can be instantaneously adjusted to match the new load, thereby achieving improved ripple mitigation for a wide load range. Furthermore, with the control and feedback mechanism, there is minimal level of ripple...

  13. Asymmetric liberations in exterior resonances (United States)

    Beauge, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a general analysis of the planar circular restricted problem of three bodies in the case of exterior mean-motion resonances. Particularly, our aim is to map the phase space of various commensurabilities and determine the singular solutions of the averaged system, comparing them to the well-known case of interior resonances. In some commensurabilities (e.g. 1/2, 1/3) we show the existence of asymmetric librations; that is, librations in which the stationary value of the critical angle theta = (p+q) lambda1-p lambda-q pi is not equal to either zero or pi. The origin, stability and morphogenesis of these solutions are discussed and compared to symmetric librations. However, in some other resonances (e.g. 2/3, 3/4), these fixed points of the mean system seem to be absent. Librations in such cases are restricted to theta = O mod(pi). Asymmetric singular solutions of the plane circular problem are unknown in the case of interior resonances and cannot be reproduced by the reduced Andoyer Hamiltonian known as the Second Fundamental Model for Resonance. However, we show that the extended version of this Hamiltonian function, in which harmonics up to order two are considered, can reproduce fairly well the principal topological characteristics of the phase space and thereby constitutes a simple and useful analytical approximation for these resonances.

  14. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.


    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  15. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  16. Waveform and packet structure of lion roars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Baumjohann

    Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

  17. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.


    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  18. Seismic waveform analyses for the 1938 Off Fukushima earthquake sequence (United States)

    Murotani, S.; Satake, K.


    The 1938 Off Fukushima (Shioya-oki) earthquakes sequence, which consists of five earthquakes of Mjmaranging from 6.9 to 7.5, occurred in the southern part of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake source area. In this region, the 1938 sequence was the only known M 7 earthquakes until the 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred. Abe (1977, Tectonophysics) estimated the focal mechanisms and seismic moments of these events. The source parameters of the earthquake sequence are shown in the following table. However, the slip distributions are not known. Murotani et al. (2004, SSJ Fall Meeting) estimated slip distributions for event 1 (Mw 7.6, Fault size 60 km x 70 km), event 2 (Mw 7.9, Fault size 80 km x 60 km), and event 3 (Mw 7.8, Fault size 90 km x 60 km) from inversion of near-field seismic waveforms at Sendai, Niigata, Maebashi, Mito, and Hongo (Tokyo). We compared the observed teleseismic waveforms at Christchurch (CHR), De Bilt (DBN), Pasadena (PAS), and Pulkovo (PUL) with the calculated waveforms from these slip distributions. The result showed that the computed waveforms fairly reproduced the phases of the observation but the amplitudes for all events were several to several tens of times larger than the observations. It means that the slip amount and Mwobtained from the near field seismic waveforms inversion were over-estimated. For event 3, the slip distribution estimated from near-field data has two large slip areas (asperities) to the north and south of the hypocenter, although only the southern asperity was able to reproduce the observed near-field seismic waveforms. When we calculate the teleseismic waveforms using one asperity model, the amplitudes become small and the phases are reproduced better compared to two asperities model. Event 3 therefore seemed to have only one asperity. In addition to the re-analysis of near field seismic data, tsunami waveforms will be also computed and compared with the observations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H

  19. Krylov-subspace acceleration of time periodic waveform relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    In this paper the author uses Krylov-subspace techniques to accelerate the convergence of waveform relaxation applied to solving systems of first order time periodic ordinary differential equations. He considers the problem in the frequency domain and presents frequency dependent waveform GMRES (FDWGMRES), a member of a new class of frequency dependent Krylov-subspace techniques. FDWGMRES exhibits many desirable properties, including finite termination independent of the number of timesteps and, for certain problems, a convergence rate which is bounded from above by the convergence rate of GMRES applied to the static matrix problem corresponding to the linear time-invariant ODE.

  20. Partitioned Waveform Inversion Applied to Eurasia and Northern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bedle, H; Matzel, E; Flanagan, M


    This report summarizes the data analysis achieved during Heather Bedle's eleven-week Technical Scholar internship at Lawrence Livermore National Labs during the early summer 2006. The work completed during this internship resulted in constraints on the crustal and upper mantle S-velocity structure in Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Europe, through the fitting of regional waveform data. This data extends current raypath coverage and will be included in a joint inversion along with data from surface wave group velocity measurements, S and P teleseismic arrival time data, and receiver function data to create an improved velocity model of the upper mantle in this region. The tectonic structure of the North African/Mediterranean/Europe/Middle Eastern study region is extremely heterogeneous. This region consists of, among others, stable cratons and platforms such as the West Africa Craton, and Baltica in Northern Europe; oceanic subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean Sea where the African and Eurasian plate collide; regions of continental collision as the Arabian Plate moves northward into the Turkish Plate; and rifting in the Red Sea, separating the Arabian and Nubian shields. With such diverse tectonic structures, many of the waveforms were difficult to fit. This is not unexpected as the waveforms are fit using an averaged structure. In many cases the raypaths encounter several tectonic features, complicating the waveform, and making it hard for the software to converge on a 1D average structure. Overall, the quality of the waveform data was average, with roughly 30% of the waveforms being discarded due to excessive noise that interfered with the frequency ranges of interest. An inversion for the 3D S-velocity structure of this region was also performed following the methodology of Partitioned Waveform Inversion (Nolet, 1990; Van der Lee and Nolet, 1997). The addition of the newly fit waveforms drastically extends the range of the

  1. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cary


    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world...

  2. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max


    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  3. Asymmetric Quantum Codes on Toric Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.


    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes are quantum codes defined over biased quantum channels: qubit-flip and phase-shift errors may have equal or different probabilities. The code construction is the Calderbank-Shor-Steane construction based on two linear codes. We present families of toric...... surfaces, toric codes and associated asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes....

  4. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  5. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques. PMID:23243475

  6. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L


    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  7. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan


    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  8. Comparison of rectilinear biphasic waveform energy versus truncated exponential biphasic waveform energy for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Kim, Maureen L; Kim, Soo G; Park, David S; Gross, Jay N; Ferrick, Kevin J; Palma, Eugen C; Fisher, John D


    Success rates of cardioversion with a defibrillator using the truncated exponential biphasic waveform (with a maximum energy of 360 J) and a defibrillator using the rectilinear biphasic waveform (with a maximum energy of 200 J) were randomly compared in 145 patients. Success rates at 50, 100, 150, and 200 J were not significantly different, but 2 patients who did not achieve cardioversion after a 200-J maximum energy shock by the rectilinear device underwent successful cardioversion with a 360-J shock by the truncated exponential device after crossover.

  9. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić


    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  10. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong


    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  11. Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir


    Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model approach is utilizing the information contained in all available data sets to build a better reference model for time lapse inversion. Differential (Double-difference) waveform inversion allows to reduce the artifacts introduced into estimates of time-lapse parameter changes by imperfect inversion for the baseline-reference model. We propose centered differential waveform inversion (CDWI) which combines these two approaches in order to benefit from both of their features. We apply minimum support regularization commonly used with electromagnetic methods of geophysical exploration. We test the CDWI method on synthetic dataset with random noise and show that, with Minimum support regularization, it provides better resolution of velocity changes than with total variation and Tikhonov regularizations in time-lapse full-waveform inversion.

  12. On the Contribution of Head Waves to Full Waveform Inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazei, V.V.; Ponomarenko, A.V.; Troyan, V.N.; Kashtan, B.M.; Mulder, W.A.


    Full waveform inversion suffers from local minima, due to a lack of low frequencies in the data. A reflector below the zone of interest may, however, help in recovering the long-wavelength components of a velocity perturbation, as demonstrated in a paper by Mora. With the Born approximation for the

  13. Seismic Broadband Full Waveform Inversion by shot/receiver refocusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffinger, P.R.


    Full waveform inversion is a tool to obtain high-resolution property models of the subsurface from seismic data. However, the technique is computationally expens- ive and so far no multi-dimensional implementation exists to achieve a resolution that can directly be used for seismic interpretation

  14. Correcting low-frequency phase distortion in electroglottograph waveforms. (United States)

    Rothenberg, Martin


    Dynamic high-pass filtering with a -3 dB frequency that is a factor of ten or more below the voice fundamental frequency has a negligible effect on the amplitudes of the Fourier components of an EGG waveform. However, such a filter can significantly distort the waveform due to distortion in the phase or time alignment of these Fourier components. Such high-pass filtering can be introduced purposefully to stabilize the waveform by attenuating low-frequency noise, or may be an undesired effect of using an amplification or data acquisition system designed for acoustic signals. For a given voice fundamental frequency, the amount of distortion depends greatly on the order or attenuation characteristics of the filter and on the type of EGG waveform. Both a high-order filter and a breathy voice tend to increase the amount of distortion. If the characteristics of the high-pass filter are known, there are a number of digital filter techniques that can be used to reduce the phase distortion. However, it is shown that a relatively simple analogue network can also be used to obtain a correction that suffices for most applications. If the precise characteristics of the filter are not known, the response to a square wave can be used to adjust the compensator parameters for an optimal correction.

  15. The effect of nifedipine on fetal umbilical Doppler waveforms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nifedipine 5 mg administered sublingually to pregnant hypertensive patients was examined in a randomised controlled double-blind study. The effect on maternal blood pressure and the fetal umbilical artery Doppler waveform was studied for 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after administration of the drug or ...

  16. Waveform inversion for Earth structure: Progress and Prospects (United States)

    Geller, R. J.; Kawai, K.; Fuji, N.; Konishi, K.


    Throughout the history of seismology, knowledge of Earth structure has advanced significantly when new techniques were applied to large datasets; the J-B model and travel-time tomography are two notable examples. Recent progress in inversion of seismic body wave waveforms appears to be another such notable instance. In this talk we mainly review and summarize work by our group. In order to realize the goal of being able to invert seismic body wave waveforms, several technical developments were necessary. First, we developed accurate and efficient methods for computing synthetic seismograms (Kawai et al., GJI, 2006 and works cited therein) and their partial derivatives (Geller and Hara, GJI, 1993). Efficient software for handling large datasets, and robust methods for making static corrections (Fuji et al., 2010, PEPI) were also necessary. Finally, methods for solving the inverse problem to obtain models with appropriate parametrization and methods for confirming the resolution and robustness of the results of the inversion were also required (Konishi et al., EPSL, 2009; Kawai and Geller, JGR, 2010). We have developed the necessary methods for waveform inversion and have applied them to determine 3-D models of S-wave velocity in the lowermost mantle (submitted for publication). We have also conducted waveform inversion for anisotropy (Kawai and Geller, EPSL, 2010) and anelasticity (Fuji et al., PEPI, 2010). In the near future prospects are bright for applying these methods to much larger datasets for obtaining high-resolution 3-D images of larger regions.

  17. On the potential of OFDM enhancements as 5G waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pajukoski, Kari; Lähetkangas, Eeva


    Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and its recently proposed enhancements as 5G waveforms, mainly focusing on their capability to cope with our requirements. Significant focus is given to the novel zero-tail paradigm, which allows boosting the OFDM flexibility while circumventing demerits such as poor spectral...

  18. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang


    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  19. Waveform Diversity and Design for Interoperating Radar Systems (United States)


    University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica , Telecomunicazioni Via Girolamo Caruso 16 Pisa, Italy 56122...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica ...DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL’INFORMAZIONE ELETTRONICA, INFORMATICA , TELECOMUNICAZIONI WAVEFORM DIVERSITY AND DESIGN FOR INTEROPERATING

  20. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan


    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  1. Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices (United States)

    Ullrich, Andreas; Pfennigbauer, Martin


    In 2004, a laser scanner device for commercial airborne laser scanning applications, the RIEGL LMS-Q560, was introduced to the market, making use of a radical alternative approach to the traditional analogue signal detection and processing schemes found in LIDAR instruments so far: digitizing the echo signals received by the instrument for every laser pulse and analysing these echo signals off-line in a so-called full waveform analysis in order to retrieve almost all information contained in the echo signal using transparent algorithms adaptable to specific applications. In the field of laser scanning the somewhat unspecific term "full waveform data" has since been established. We attempt a categorisation of the different types of the full waveform data found in the market. We discuss the challenges in echo digitization and waveform analysis from an instrument designer's point of view and we will address the benefits to be gained by using this technique, especially with respect to the so-called multi-target capability of pulsed time-of-flight LIDAR instruments.

  2. Implementation and Testing of the Protected Tactical Waveform (PTW) (United States)


    ECU ) Integration In a deployed system, the PTS terminal modem design partitions all critical security functionality into an NSA- certified ECU . A...demonstrations, and risk- reduction demonstrations for a terminal End Cryptographic Unit ( ECU ) prototype. Index Terms—Satellite communications...Waveform (PTW), which provides specifications for baseband framing, modulation and coding, dynamic link adaptation protocols, and security features for

  3. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.


    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  4. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply multisource full-waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we construct the L1- and L2-norm objective functions using the normalized wavefield. The new residual seismograms obtained from the L1- and L2-norms using the normalized wavefield mitigate the problem of unmatched acquisition geometries, which enables multisource full-waveform inversion to work with marine streamer data. In the new approaches using the normalized wavefield, we used the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique to efficiently calculate the gradients of the objective functions. Numerical examples showed that multisource full-waveform inversion using the normalized wavefield yields much better convergence for marine streamer data than conventional approaches. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Analysis of acoustic emission waveforms from fatigue cracks (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Yeasin; Bao, Jingjing; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique is a well-known approach in the field of NDE/SHM. AE monitoring from the defect formation and failure in the materials were well studied by the researchers. However, conventional AE monitoring techniques are predominantly based on statistical analysis. In this study we focus on understanding the AE waveforms from the fatigue crack growth using physics based approach. The growth of the fatigue crack causes the acoustic emission in the material that propagates in the structure. One of the main challenges of this approach is to develop the physics based understanding of the AE source itself. The acoustic emission happens not only from the crack growth but also from the interaction of the crack lips during fatigue loading of the materials. As the waveforms are generated from the AE event, they propagate and create local vibration modes along the crack faces. Fatigue experiments were performed to generate the fatigue cracks. Several test specimens were used in the fatigue experiments and corresponding AE waveforms were captured. The AE waveforms were analyzed and distinguished into different groups based on the similar nature on both time domain and frequency domain. The experimental results are explained based on the physical observation of the specimen.

  6. Gaussian Mixture Model with Variable Components for Full Waveform LiDAR Data Decomposition and RJMCMC Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHAO Quanhua; LI Hongying; LI Yu


    .... Therefore, waveform decomposition is the key to full waveform LiDAR data processing. However, in waveform decomposition, determining the number of the components is a focus and difficult problem...

  7. Comparing the efficacy and safety of a novel monophasic waveform delivered by the passive implantable atrial defibrillator with biphasic waveforms in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Manoharan, Ganesh; Evans, Noel; Allen, Desmond; Anderson, John; Adgey, Jennifer


    The passive implantable atrial defibrillator (PIAD) (with no battery or discharging capacitor and powered transcutaneously by radio-frequency energy) delivering a novel monophasic low-tilt waveform is more efficacious than the standard monophasic waveform at atrial defibrillation. Standard biphasic (STB) waveforms, however, are more efficacious and safer than monophasic waveforms. This study compared the efficacy and safety of the PIAD waveform with biphasic waveforms. Sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) was induced by rapid atrial pacing. Cardioversion was attempted via 2 atrial defibrillation leads. The efficacy of the PIAD was compared with 3 biphasic waveforms (standard, single rounded, and double rounded) at varying voltage settings in 10 pigs. After a synchronized shock, hemodynamic changes between the PIAD, standard biphasic, and monophasic waveforms were compared at 1.5 and 3.0 J in 12 pigs. Myocardial injury (biochemical and histological) after ten 5-J PIAD shocks was compared with a no-shock group in 14 pigs. The PIAD 100-V setting was significantly more efficacious than the STB (100/-50 V: 100% [1.88+/-0.02 J] versus 90% [0.89+/-0.0 J]; P=0.025). No arrhythmic, hemodynamic, or myocardial injury was observed with the PIAD waveform. Defibrillation with the PIAD is more efficacious than with the STB waveform and appears safe. This device could provide a more effective option for cardioversion.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of electric field waveform samples from the Voyager 2 Plasma Wave Receiver waveform receiver obtained during the Uranus encounter. The...

  9. GLAS/ICESat L1B Global Waveform-based Range Corrections Data V034 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 1B waveform parameterization data will contain waveform-based range corrections and surface characteristics at the full 40 per second resolution. Data...

  10. IceBridge LVIS L1B Geolocated Return Energy Waveforms V002 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS L1B Geolocated Return Energy Waveforms (ILVIS1B) data set contains Greenland and Antarctica laser altimetry return energy waveform measurements...

  11. Analysis of LFM-waveform Libraries for Cognitive Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyan


    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the waveform agility in cognitive radars,the waveform libraries for maneuvering target tracking are discussed. LFM-waveform libraries are designed according to different combinations of chirp parameters and FrFT rotation angles. By applying the interact multiple model (IMM algorithm in tracking maneuvering targets, transmitted waveform is called real time from the LFM-waveform libraries. The waveforms are selected from the library according to the criterion of maximum mutual information between the current state of knowledge of the model and the measurement. Simulation results show that waveform library containing certain amount LFM-waveforms can improve the performance of cognitive tracking radar.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of electric field waveform samples from the Voyager 2 Plasma Wave Receiver waveform receiver obtained during the Neptune encounter. The...

  13. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform. (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E


    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  14. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.


    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  15. Sets of Waveform and Mismatched Filter Pairs for Clutter Suppression in Marine Radar Application


    I.V. Koshevyy; Victoria Popova


    Sets of waveform and mismatched filter pairs are used. On the contrary with Golays matched waveform filter pair the mismatched waveform filter pair does exist for all N (number pulses in waveform). Using corresponding shapes of filter good Doppler tolerance may be provided. This property together with a good range side-lobs level suppression makes it’s attractable for use in marine radar.

  16. Joint Filter and Waveform Design for Radar STAP in Signal Dependent Interference


    Setlur, Pawan; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar


    Waveform design is a pivotal component of the fully adaptive radar construct. In this paper we consider waveform design for radar space time adaptive processing (STAP), accounting for the waveform dependence of the clutter correlation matrix. Due to this dependence, in general, the joint problem of receiver filter optimization and radar waveform design becomes an intractable, non-convex optimization problem, Nevertheless, it is however shown to be individually convex either in the filter or i...

  17. A new optimization approach for source-encoding full-waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, P.P.; Keers, H.; Herrmann, F.J.; Mulder, W.A.


    Waveform inversion is the method of choice for determining a highly heterogeneous subsurface structure. However, conventional waveform inversion requires that the wavefield for each source is computed separately. This makes it very expensive for realistic 3D seismic surveys. Source-encoding waveform

  18. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures (United States)


    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  19. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.


    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  20. Nanofriction in cold ion traps. (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E


    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  1. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  2. Nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Göpfrich, K.; Kartanas, T.; Keyser, U. F.; Ahnert, S. E.


    We investigate general properties of nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions, using a computational model and DNA tile assembly experiments. By contrasting symmetric and asymmetric interactions we show that the latter can lead to self-limiting cluster growth. Furthermore, by adjusting the relative abundance of self-assembly particles in a two-particle mixture, we are able to tune the final sizes of these clusters. We show that this is a fundamental property of asymmetric interactions, which has potential applications in bioengineering, and provides insights into the study of diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  3. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  4. Modelling Sensor and Target effects on LiDAR Waveforms (United States)

    Rosette, J.; North, P. R.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Suárez, J.


    The aim of this research is to explore the influence of sensor characteristics and interactions with vegetation and terrain properties on the estimation of vegetation parameters from LiDAR waveforms. This is carried out using waveform simulations produced by the FLIGHT radiative transfer model which is based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport (North, 1996; North et al., 2010). The opportunities for vegetation analysis that are offered by LiDAR modelling are also demonstrated by other authors e.g. Sun and Ranson, 2000; Ni-Meister et al., 2001. Simulations from the FLIGHT model were driven using reflectance and transmittance properties collected from the Howland Research Forest, Maine, USA in 2003 together with a tree list for a 200m x 150m area. This was generated using field measurements of location, species and diameter at breast height. Tree height and crown dimensions of individual trees were calculated using relationships established with a competition index determined for this site. Waveforms obtained by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were used as validation of simulations. This provided a base from which factors such as slope, laser incidence angle and pulse width could be varied. This has enabled the effect of instrument design and laser interactions with different surface characteristics to be tested. As such, waveform simulation is relevant for the development of future satellite LiDAR sensors, such as NASA’s forthcoming DESDynI mission (NASA, 2010), which aim to improve capabilities of vegetation parameter estimation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank scientists at the Biospheric Sciences Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in particular to Jon Ranson and Bryan Blair. This work forms part of research funded by the NASA DESDynI project and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F021437/1). REFERENCES NASA, 2010, DESDynI: Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice. http

  5. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro


    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  6. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  7. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  8. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Clifford F


    .... There is no doubt that the current global war on terrorism is an asymmetrical war against an unpredictable enemy rather than the predictable or symmetrical threats against self-important dictators or the Soviet Union...

  9. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  10. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara


    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  11. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan


    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  12. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  13. Digitally Synthesized Alternative Current Sinusoidal Waveform for Resistive Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Trachanidis


    Full Text Available This paper presents a circuit that has the ability to provide a sinusoidal current waveform. The produced waveform is alternative,so it takes positive and negative values. This circuit comprises a microcontroller, a DAC with current outputand a fast electronic switch. The sine wave samples are stored in the microcontroller’s data memory and are applied to theDAC’s digital 8-bit input. The complementary output currents are connected alternatively through the electronic switch tothe ground. At pre-calculated timing the microcontroller changes the polarity of the switch, allowing the DAC’s output, asalternative current, to flow through the resistive sensor (load, ending through the switch to the ground. Another microcontrolleracting as data acquisition chip, at the positive peaks is sampling the voltage across the load. These measurements aretransferred through the serial port to a PC, where the resistance is calculated and presented on screen.

  14. Laser-generated focused ultrasound for arbitrary waveforms (United States)

    Chan, Weiwei; Hies, Thomas; Ohl, Claus-Dieter


    Transducers for laser generated focused ultrasound can achieve photoacoustic waves with several hundred bars positive pressure in water. Previous designs employed concave glass substrates decorated with catalytically grown carbon nanotubes. Here, we show that arbitrarily shaped surfaces made of polymers and printed with 3d printers allow the generation of waveforms with complex temporal and spatial shape. We first present three different polymer materials together with a simplified deposition technique. This is achieved by painting layers of carbon-nanotube powder and polydimethylsiloxane. Together with a clear resin (Formlabs Photopolymer Clear Resin), pressure amplitudes of 300 bar peak positive were obtained. With the flexibility of polymer substrates, complex waveforms can be generated. This is demonstrated with a stepped surface which launches two waves separated by 0.8 μs. Detailed pressure measurements are supported with shadowgraphy images and simulations of the wave.

  15. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran


    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  16. Primary study for detection of arterial blood pressure waveform components. (United States)

    Paradkar, Neeraj; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy


    The paper presents a technique to detect significant systolic peaks, the percussion (P) and tidal peak (T) and diastolic peak (D) from the arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform. The technique is aimed at robust detection even in presence of significant noise. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based dominant period extraction of the ABP waveform followed by wavelet transform and local peak detection is applied to detect the points of interest. MIMIC-II ABP databse serves as a training dataset to select SVD and wavelet transform parameters and CSL Benchmark database is used to analyze the technique. Salient systolic peak detection for the CSL dataset was performed with positive predictive value and sensitivity figures of 98.48% and 99.24% respectively.

  17. Image-domain full waveform inversion: Field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong


    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is the result of cycle skipping which degrades the low-wavenumber update in the absence of low-frequencies and long-offset data. An image-domain objective function is defined as the normed difference between the predicted and observed common image gathers (CIGs) in the subsurface offset domain. This new objective function is not constrained by cycle skipping at the far subsurface offsets. To test the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to marine data recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive to the initial model and the absence of low-frequency data compared with conventional FWI. The liability, however, is that it is almost an order of magnitude more expensive than standard FWI.

  18. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.


    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  19. Experimental evaluation of acceleration waveform replication on electrohydraulic shaking tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Shen


    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic shaking table is an essential experimental facility in many industrial applications to real-time simulate actual vibration situations including structural vibration and earthquake. However, there is still a challenging area for its acceleration waveform replication because acceleration output responses of the electrohydraulic shaking table would not be as intended in magnitude and phase of an acceleration closed-loop system due to inherent hydraulic nonlinear dynamics of electrohydraulic servo systems. Thus, how to accurately and coordinately control parallel hydraulic actuators of the electrohydraulic shaking table is a critical issue; so, many control techniques have been developed to address the issue. Some currently used key techniques in this field are reviewed in the article, which are the objectives of academic investigations and industrial applications. The article reviews some new control algorithms for the electrohydraulic shaking table to obtain high-fidelity acceleration waveform replication accuracy.

  20. Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, Pablo; Scholich, Andre; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon


    Axonemal dyneins are the molecular motors responsible for the beating of cilia and flagella. These motors generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure inside the flagellum. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains that build up within the moving axoneme, but it is not known which components of stress or strain are involved, nor how they feed back on the dyneins. To answer this question, we used isolated, reactivate axonemes of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas as a model system. We derived a theory for beat regulation in a two-dimensional model of the axoneme. We then tested the theory by measuring the beat waveforms of wild type axonemes, which have asymmetric beats, and mutant axonemes, in which the beat is nearly symmetric, using high-precision spatial and temporal imaging....

  1. Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure: electrical properties and induced airflow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, Jerome; Moreau, Eric; Touchard, Gerard [LEA, University of Poitiers/CNRS/ENSMA, Bd. Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)


    The electrical properties of an asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air have been investigated experimentally. The discharge is used for airflow production close to the dielectric surface, and the time-averaged flow velocity spatial profiles have been measured. Velocities of up to 3.5 m s{sup -1} at heights of 1-2 mm are reached when filamentary discharges with current peaks up to 20 mA are produced along the surface. In terms of powers, mechanical powers (output) of a few milliwatts are obtained for electrical powers (input) up to 10 W. Variation laws or behaviour with several discharge parameters (applied voltage waveform, distance between electrodes, dielectric thickness and permittivity) have been experimentally determined.

  2. Designing Asymmetric Multiferroics with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling


    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.


    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Unfortunately, single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature has not been discovered. Here, we propose the concept of a new type of multiferroics, namely, "asymmetric multiferroic". In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from ...

  3. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  4. (DURIP) MIMO Radar Testbed for Waveform Adaptive Sensing Research (United States)


    SDR ) testbed. The testbed consists of 14 micro SDR platforms with two transmit and one receive antennas and a standalone SDR with 4 transmit and 4...receive channels multiplexed to 32 x 32 antenna array through a switching matrix. These SDR platforms can adaptively modify both transmit waveforms... SDR ) testbed. The testbed consists of 14 micro SDR platforms with two transmit and one receive antennas and a standalone SDR with 4 transmit and 4

  5. DISECA - A Matlab code for dispersive waveform calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaždová, Renata; Vilhelm, J.


    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2011), s. 526-531 ISSN 0266-352X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : velocity dispersion * synthetic waveform * seismic method Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2011

  6. A synthesis of RLC circuits for arbitrary waveform generation (United States)

    Chi, Dong Pyo; Kim, Jinsoo


    We consider an electrical network in which the series of resistor, inductor and capacitor are connected in parallel. When the finite measurements of the current are given, we present a method to construct an RLC circuit which generates the current fitting the measurements. This method will be useful to synthesize the voltage (or current) source of an arbitrary waveform which is necessary in the measurement of damage of a semiconductor device caused by an electrostatic discharge.

  7. MURI: Adaptive Waveform Design for Full Spectral Dominance (United States)


    bats or dolphins for echo-location, for use in waveform-agile tracking [14]-[16]. We developed a sequential Bayesian algorithm for estimating the...2.4.2 Cognitive Radar for Target Tracking in Multipath Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4.3 Sparsity-Based Multi-Target Tracking Using OFDM...jamming. 2.4.2 Cognitive Radar for Target Tracking in Multipath Scenarios Problem Description In [37], we addressed the problem of target tracking in a

  8. Robust spike classification based on frequency domain neural waveform features. (United States)

    Yang, Chenhui; Yuan, Yuan; Si, Jennie


    We introduce a new spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features of the spike snippets. The goal for the algorithm is to provide high classification accuracy, low false misclassification, ease of implementation, robustness to signal degradation, and objectivity in classification outcomes. In this paper, we propose a spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features (CFDF). It makes use of frequency domain contents of the recorded neural waveforms for spike classification. The self-organizing map (SOM) is used as a tool to determine the cluster number intuitively and directly by viewing the SOM output map. After that, spike classification can be easily performed using clustering algorithms such as the k-Means. In conjunction with our previously developed multiscale correlation of wavelet coefficient (MCWC) spike detection algorithm, we show that the MCWC and CFDF detection and classification system is robust when tested on several sets of artificial and real neural waveforms. The CFDF is comparable to or outperforms some popular automatic spike classification algorithms with artificial and real neural data. The detection and classification of neural action potentials or neural spikes is an important step in single-unit-based neuroscientific studies and applications. After the detection of neural snippets potentially containing neural spikes, a robust classification algorithm is applied for the analysis of the snippets to (1) extract similar waveforms into one class for them to be considered coming from one unit, and to (2) remove noise snippets if they do not contain any features of an action potential. Usually, a snippet is a small 2 or 3 ms segment of the recorded waveform, and differences in neural action potentials can be subtle from one unit to another. Therefore, a robust, high performance classification system like the CFDF is necessary. In addition, the proposed algorithm does not require any assumptions on statistical

  9. Frequency-Dependent Blanking with Digital Linear Chirp Waveform Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andrews, John M. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Wideband radar systems, especially those that operate at lower frequencies such as VHF and UHF, are often restricted from transmitting within or across specific frequency bands in order to prevent interference to other spectrum users. Herein we describe techniques for notching the transmitted spectrum of a generated and transmitted radar waveform. The notches are fully programmable as to their location, and techniques are given that control the characteristics of the notches.

  10. Automating the Classification of Field Leakage Current Waveforms


    D. Pylarinos; K. Siderakis; Pyrgioti, E.; E. Thalassinakis; I. Vitellas


    Leakage current monitoring is widely employed to investigate the performance of high voltage insulators and the development of surface activity. Field measurements offer an exact view of experienced activity and insulators’ performance, which are strongly correlated to local conditions. The required long term monitoring however, results to the accumulation of vast amounts of data. Therefore, an identification system for the classification of field leakage current waveforms rises as a ne...

  11. Waveform design and diversity for advanced radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gini, Fulvio


    In recent years, various algorithms for radar signal design, that rely heavily upon complicated processing and/or antenna architectures, have been suggested. These techniques owe their genesis to several factors, including revolutionary technological advances (new flexible waveform generators, high speed signal processing hardware, digital array radar technology, etc.) and the stressing performance requirements, often imposed by defence applications in areas such as airborne early warning and homeland security.Increasingly complex operating scenarios calls for sophisticated algorithms with the

  12. Estimating effect of terlipressin on portal pressure in cirrhosis by observing hepatic vein Doppler waveform. (United States)

    Hussain, Qurban; Haider, Shahbaz; Solangi, Noor Muhammad; Ali, Liaquat; Liaquat, Hammad; Ahmed, Fayyaz; Shahbaz, Sumera


    To observe the changes in Doppler waveform of hepatic vein after the administration of terlipressin, and to assess indirectly the efficacy of the drug to reduce the Hepatic Vein Pressure Gradient and portal pressure. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 1 to November 25, 2011, and comprised 50 patients with cirrhosis with abnormal Doppler waveform of the hepatic vein. Patients with diseases causing abnormal hepatic vein doppler waveform were excluded. Doppler waveforms were studied for 20 minutes before and for 20 minutes after the administration of terlipressin. Tracings with best waveform before and after injection were saved for analysis. Changes in waveform after vasoactive drug were defined as mild, significant, marked and gross changes. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 50 patients, 36 (72%) were males and 14 (28%) females. Commonest waveform was monophasic 38 (76%). Gross changes i.e. turning triphasic from monophasic waveform was observed in 8 (16%) patients. Significant gross changes were seen in 24 (48%) patients. Total number of patients showing improvement in waveform was 36 (72%). In no case, waveform deteriorated after the administration of terlipressin (p = 0.001). Non-invasive method of observing the improvement of hepatic vein waveform by duplex ultrasound, after more studies, may be an important tool for assessing and monitoring the effects of portal pressure lowering drugs.

  13. Improved low energy defibrillation efficacy in man with the use of a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. (United States)

    Winkle, R A; Mead, R H; Ruder, M A; Gaudiani, V; Buch, W S; Pless, B; Sweeney, M; Schmidt, P


    The standard implantable defibrillator waveform is a truncated exponential of approximately 6 msec duration. This study compares the defibrillation efficacy of a standard monophasic truncated exponential to a biphasic 12 msec truncated exponential waveform in 21 patients undergoing automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) surgery. For the biphasic waveform, the polarity was reversed and remaining capacitor voltage was attenuated by 75% after 6 msec. Two hundred thirty episodes of VF were induced with 115 "matched pairs" of monophasic and biphasic waveforms of identical initial capacitor voltages given over a range from 70 to 600 V (0.35 to 25.7 joules). The biphasic waveform was superior to the monophasic waveform (p less than 0.006), especially for "low energy" defibrillation. For initial voltages less than 200 V, the percent successful defibrillation was 28% for the monophasic waveform versus 64% for the biphasic waveform and from 200 to 290 V (energies less than 6.4 joules) it was 45% versus 69%. There was no difference in the two waveforms in time to the first QRS complex or in the blood pressure following defibrillation. This study shows that a 12 msec biphasic truncated exponential is superior to a 6 msec monophasic waveform for defibrillation in man, especially at energies less than 6.4 joules. The waveform can be achieved in an implanted device without any increase in capacitor size or in battery energy consumption.

  14. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits. (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J


    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  15. ion with phenolate ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reaction of homoleptic tris-chelated polypyridine ruthenium(II) complexes with phenolate ions is sensitive to the structure of the ligand of the Ru(II) complex as well as of the phenolate ions 1. In recent years 2 the photophysical and photochemical properties of Ru(II) complexes based on ...

  16. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu


    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  17. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi


    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  18. The 1930 Irpinia earthquake: collection and analysis of historical waveforms (United States)

    Ferrari, G.; Megna, A.; Nardi, A.; Palombo, B.; Perniola, B.; Pino, N.


    The 1930 Irpinia earthquake is one of the most destructive events recorded by instruments in Italy. Several large events occurred in the same area before (1456, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1910) and after (1962, 1980, 1983) 1930. It has been hypothesized that significant differences characterized the source geometry. Early work carried out by several authors on macroseismic studies and a single-station waveform analysis, suggests a quasi-strike slip mechanism on an approximately EW-oriented fault plain. Conversely, all the major events in the area display normal fault mechanisms on Apennine-oriented (NW-SE) fault planes. In the present work we have collected about 45 waveforms for the 1930 earthquake, recorded in various European observatories, aiming to find precious hints on source geometry and kinematics. The seismograms have been rasterized, digitized and processed within the framework of the SISMOS project. The study of this earthquake is part of a wider ongoing research program on the 20th century Irpinia earthquakes (1910, 1030, 1962 and 1980) within the collaboration between the TROMOS and SISMOS projects of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. The search and recovery of the historical recordings is a unique opportunity to shed light upon scientific aspects related to this kind of investigation. Preliminary results about the 1930 earthquake waveform analysis are presented here.

  19. Deep brain stimulation: increasing efficiency by alternative waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiti Katerina


    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is based on the effect of high frequency stimulation (HFS in neuronal tissue. As a therapy option for patients suffering from e.g. Parkinson’s disease, DBS has been used for decades. Despite the widespread use, the effect of HFS on neurons is not fully investigated. Improving the stimulation efficiency und specificity could increase the efficiency of the INS (internal neuronal stimulator as well as potentially reduce unwanted side effects. The effect of HFS on the GABAergic system was quantified using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology during HFS stimulation in cortical human brain slices in vitro. Rectangular, sine, sawtooth and triangular waveforms were applied extracellularly. Since HFS has been hypothesized to increase the activity of the axons of GABAergic interneurons, a decrease in activity can be observed in the pyramidal cells that the interneurons project to. By isolating the incoming non- GABAergic events, we can filter out only the GABAA currents which can be verified using a GABAA antagonist. The results show that all the waveforms effectively increase the GABAA currents. The triangle waveform causes the highest significant increase in the activity which further increases over time after the stimulation was turned off.

  20. Multibeam synthesis of high-power subcycle field waveforms (United States)

    Serebryannikov, E. E.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Zheltikov, A. M.


    We identify physical scenarios whereby high-peak-power subcycle attosecond field waveforms can be synthesized by coherently combining a multibeam high-order harmonic output generated by a laser driver consisting of a pair of few-cycle pulses with different carrier frequencies. With the relative amplitudes, phases, and group delays of these driver pulses carefully adjusted in each of the driver beams toward confining the recollisions of highest-ponderomotive-energy electrons to an extremely short time gate within a fraction of the driver field cycle, the phase-matched multibeam high-harmonic output can be tailored to yield an intense isolated subgigawatt sub-10-attosecond field waveform. As a general tendency, propagation effects are shown to limit the minimum pulse width of the multibeam high-harmonic output. Still, with appropriate optimization of the gas pressure and the beam geometry, ≈10 -as field waveforms can be synthesized at the expense of one to two orders of magnitude of the output radiation energy.

  1. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.

  2. Waveform simulation of predominant periods in Osaka basin (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Tsurugi, M.


    Predominant period of strong ground motions is an important parameter in earthquake engineering practice. Resonance at predominant period may result in collapse of building. Usually, predominant periods are associated with the soil resonances. However, considering that strong ground motions are composed from source, path and site effects, predominant periods are affected by source and propagation path too. From another side, 3D basin interferences may amplify quite different periods, depending on site location relatively to the basin edges and independently on the soil depth. Moreover, constructive or destructive interference of waves from different asperities of a large source may enhance or diminish amplitudes at a particular predominant period respectively. In this study, to demonstrate variations of predominant periods due to complicated effects above, we simulated wavefield snapshots and waveforms at a few representative sites of Osaka basin, Japan. Seismic source is located in Nankai trough, hosting anticipated M9 earthquake. 3D velocity structure is combined from JIVSM velocity structure (Koketsu et al., 2012) and Osaka basin structure of Iwaki and Iwata, 2011. 3D-FDM method is used to simulate waveforms. Simulation results confirm some previous results that due to elongated elliptical shape of Osaka basin, interference effects are strong and peak amplitudes has characteristic stripped pattern elongated in parallel to the long axis of basin. We demonstrate that predominant periods have similar pattern and value of predominant period may strongly depend on the location of site and azimuthal orientation of waveform component.

  3. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong


    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current RWI methods are mostly based on isotropic media assumption. We extend the idea of the combining inversion for the background model and perturbations to address transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) media taking into consideration of the optimal parameter sensitivity information. As a result, we apply Born modeling corresponding to perturbations in only for the variable e to derive the relative reflected waveform inversion formulation. To reduce the number of parameters, we assume the background part of η = ε and work with a single variable to describe the anisotropic part of the wave propagation. Thus, the optimization variables are the horizontal velocity v, η = ε and the e perturbation. Application to the anisotropic version of Marmousi model with a single frequency of 2.5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate result starting from a linearly increasing isotropic initial velocity. Application to a real dataset demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  4. The effects of second and third phase duration on defibrillation efficacy of triphasic rectangle waveforms. (United States)

    Tang, Ce; Wang, Pei; Gong, Yushun; Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Zhang, Shaoxiang


    Biphasic waveforms are superior to monophasic waveforms for the termination of ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, whether triphasic waveforms are more effective than biphasic ones is still controversial. In the present study, we investigated the effects of second and third phase duration of triphasic rectangle waveform on defibrillation efficacy in a rabbit model of VF. VF was electrically induced and untreated for 30s in 20 New Zealand rabbits. A defibrillatory shock was applied with one of the 7 waveforms: 6 triphasic rectangle waveforms and a biphasic rectangle waveform. The triphasic waveforms had identical first duration but with different second and third phase durations. A 5 step up-and-down protocol was utilized for determining the defibrillation threshold (DFT). After a 5min interval, the procedure was repeated. A total of 35 cardiac arrest events and defibrillations were investigated for each animal. Two triphasic waveforms with identical first and second phase duration but shorter third phase duration had significantly lower DFT energy than biphasic waveform (0.57±0.18J vs. 0.80±0.28J, p=0.001; 0.60±0.18J vs. 0.80±0.28J, p=0.003). However, no statistical difference in DFT energy was observed between the two triaphsic waveforms that had identical phase duration but different voltages (0.57±0.18J vs. 0.60±0.18J, p=0.638). Phase durations played a main role on defibrillation success for triphasic rectangle waveforms. The optimal triphasic rectangle waveforms that composed of identical second and first phase durations but with shorter third pulse were superior to biphasic rectangle waveform for ventricular defibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A


    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  6. Asymmetric switching in a homodimeric ABC transporter: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Aittoniemi


    Full Text Available ABC transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including multidrug and tumor resistance and ion channel regulation. Advances in the structural and functional understanding of ABC transporters have revealed that hydrolysis at the two canonical nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs is co-operative and non-simultaneous. A conserved core architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic ABC exporters has been established, as exemplified by the crystal structure of the homodimeric multidrug exporter Sav1866. Currently, it is unclear how sequential ATP hydrolysis arises in a symmetric homodimeric transporter, since it implies at least transient asymmetry at the NBSs. We show by molecular dynamics simulation that the initially symmetric structure of Sav1866 readily undergoes asymmetric transitions at its NBSs in a pre-hydrolytic nucleotide configuration. MgATP-binding residues and a network of charged residues at the dimer interface are shown to form a sequence of putative molecular switches that allow ATP hydrolysis only at one NBS. We extend our findings to eukaryotic ABC exporters which often consist of two non-identical half-transporters, frequently with degeneracy substitutions at one of their two NBSs. Interestingly, many residues involved in asymmetric conformational switching in Sav1866 are substituted in degenerate eukaryotic NBS. This finding strengthens recent suggestions that the interplay of a consensus and a degenerate NBS in eukaroytic ABC proteins pre-determines the sequence of hydrolysis at the two NBSs.

  7. Sums of Spike Waveform Features for Motor Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li


    Full Text Available Traditionally, the key step before decoding motor intentions from cortical recordings is spike sorting, the process of identifying which neuron was responsible for an action potential. Recently, researchers have started investigating approaches to decoding which omit the spike sorting step, by directly using information about action potentials' waveform shapes in the decoder, though this approach is not yet widespread. Particularly, one recent approach involves computing the moments of waveform features and using these moment values as inputs to decoders. This computationally inexpensive approach was shown to be comparable in accuracy to traditional spike sorting. In this study, we use offline data recorded from two Rhesus monkeys to further validate this approach. We also modify this approach by using sums of exponentiated features of spikes, rather than moments. Our results show that using waveform feature sums facilitates significantly higher hand movement reconstruction accuracy than using waveform feature moments, though the magnitudes of differences are small. We find that using the sums of one simple feature, the spike amplitude, allows better offline decoding accuracy than traditional spike sorting by expert (correlation of 0.767, 0.785 vs. 0.744, 0.738, respectively, for two monkeys, average 16% reduction in mean-squared-error, as well as unsorted threshold crossings (0.746, 0.776; average 9% reduction in mean-squared-error. Our results suggest that the sums-of-features framework has potential as an alternative to both spike sorting and using unsorted threshold crossings, if developed further. Also, we present data comparing sorted vs. unsorted spike counts in terms of offline decoding accuracy. Traditional sorted spike counts do not include waveforms that do not match any template (“hash”, but threshold crossing counts do include this hash. On our data and in previous work, hash contributes to decoding accuracy. Thus, using the

  8. Colocated MIMO Radar: Beamforming, Waveform design, and Target Parameter Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah


    Thanks to its improved capabilities, the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar is attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Because it transmits orthogonal or partially correlated waveforms, this emerging technology outperformed the phased array radar by providing better parametric identifiability, achieving higher spatial resolution, and designing complex beampatterns. To avoid jamming and enhance the signal to noise ratio, it is often interesting to maximize the transmitted power in a given region of interest and minimize it elsewhere. This problem is known as the transmit beampattern design and is usually tackled as a two-step process: a transmit covariance matrix is firstly designed by minimizing a convex optimization problem, which is then used to generate practical waveforms. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method maps easily generated Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability density function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. The second part of this thesis covers the topic of target parameter estimation. To determine the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum likelihood estimation yields the best performance. However, it requires a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, its computational complexity is prohibitively high. So, we proposed a reduced complexity and optimum performance algorithm which allows the two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location

  9. Sums of Spike Waveform Features for Motor Decoding. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Zheng


    Traditionally, the key step before decoding motor intentions from cortical recordings is spike sorting, the process of identifying which neuron was responsible for an action potential. Recently, researchers have started investigating approaches to decoding which omit the spike sorting step, by directly using information about action potentials' waveform shapes in the decoder, though this approach is not yet widespread. Particularly, one recent approach involves computing the moments of waveform features and using these moment values as inputs to decoders. This computationally inexpensive approach was shown to be comparable in accuracy to traditional spike sorting. In this study, we use offline data recorded from two Rhesus monkeys to further validate this approach. We also modify this approach by using sums of exponentiated features of spikes, rather than moments. Our results show that using waveform feature sums facilitates significantly higher hand movement reconstruction accuracy than using waveform feature moments, though the magnitudes of differences are small. We find that using the sums of one simple feature, the spike amplitude, allows better offline decoding accuracy than traditional spike sorting by expert (correlation of 0.767, 0.785 vs. 0.744, 0.738, respectively, for two monkeys, average 16% reduction in mean-squared-error), as well as unsorted threshold crossings (0.746, 0.776; average 9% reduction in mean-squared-error). Our results suggest that the sums-of-features framework has potential as an alternative to both spike sorting and using unsorted threshold crossings, if developed further. Also, we present data comparing sorted vs. unsorted spike counts in terms of offline decoding accuracy. Traditional sorted spike counts do not include waveforms that do not match any template ("hash"), but threshold crossing counts do include this hash. On our data and in previous work, hash contributes to decoding accuracy. Thus, using the comparison between

  10. Ionic liquid interface at an electrode: simulations of electrochemical properties using an asymmetric restricted primitive model (United States)

    Lu, Hongduo; Nordholm, Sture; Woodward, Clifford E.; Forsman, Jan


    We use Monte Carlo simulations of a coarse-grained model to investigate structure and electrochemical behaviours at an electrode immersed in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The simple RTIL model, which we denote the asymmetric restricted primitive model (ARPM), is composed of monovalent hard-sphere ions, all of the same size, in which the charge is asymmetrically placed. Not only the hard-sphere size (d), but also the charge displacement (b), is identical for all species, i.e. the monovalent RTIL ions are fully described by only two parameters (d, b). In earlier work, it was demonstrated that the ARPM can capture typical static RTIL properties in bulk solutions with remarkable accuracy. Here, we investigate its behaviour at an electrode surface. The electrode is assumed to be a perfect conductor and image charge methods are utilized to handle polarization effects. We find that the ARPM of the ionic liquid reproduces typical (static) electrochemical properties of RTILs. Our model predicts a declining differential capacitance with increasing temperature, which is expected from simple physical arguments. We also compare our ARPM, with the corresponding RPM description, at an elevated temperature (1000 K). We conclude that, even though ion pairing occurs in the ARPM system, reducing the concentration of ‘free’ ions, it is still better able to screen charge than a corresponding RPM melt. Finally, we evaluate the option to coarse-grain the model even further, by treating the fraction of the ions that form ion pairs implicitly, only through the contribution to the dielectric constant of the corresponding dipolar (ion pair) fluid. We conclude that this primitive representation of ion pairing is not able to reproduce the structures and differential capacitances of the system with explicit ion pairs. The main problem seems to be due to a limited dielectric screening in a layer near the electrode surface, resulting from a combination of orientational

  11. Restoration of clipped seismic waveforms using projection onto convex sets method. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhai; Hao, Jinlai; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Shuqin; Zhao, Lianfeng; Wang, Weimin; Yao, Zhenxing


    The seismic waveforms would be clipped when the amplitude exceeds the upper-limit dynamic range of seismometer. Clipped waveforms are typically assumed not useful and seldom used in waveform-based research. Here, we assume the clipped components of the waveform share the same frequency content with the un-clipped components. We leverage this similarity to convert clipped waveforms to true waveforms by iteratively reconstructing the frequency spectrum using the projection onto convex sets method. Using artificially clipped data we find that statistically the restoration error is ~1% and ~5% when clipped at 70% and 40% peak amplitude, respectively. We verify our method using real data recorded at co-located seismometers that have different gain controls, one set to record large amplitudes on scale and the other set to record low amplitudes on scale. Using our restoration method we recover 87 out of 93 clipped broadband records from the 2013 Mw6.6 Lushan earthquake. Estimating that we recover 20 clipped waveforms for each M5.0+ earthquake, so for the ~1,500 M5.0+ events that occur each year we could restore ~30,000 clipped waveforms each year, which would greatly enhance useable waveform data archives. These restored waveform data would also improve the azimuthal station coverage and spatial footprint.

  12. An Ascending Ramp Biphasic Waveform Has a Lower Defibrillation Threshold and Releases Less Troponin I Than a Truncated Exponential Biphasic Waveform (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P.; Ruse, Richard B.; Bohanan, Scott J.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.


    Background We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold (DFT), but also the amount of cardiac damage. Methods and Results DFTs were determined for 11 waveforms: 3 ascending ramp, 3 descending ramp, and 3 rectilinear first phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform in 6 pigs with electrodes in the RV apex and SVC. The ascending, descending and rectilinear waveforms had 4, 8 and 16 ms 1st phases and a 3.5 ms 2nd rectilinear phase half the voltage of the 1st phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% 1st phase and a 50% 2nd phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 s of VF with a single ≈ 30 J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8 ms ascending, 8 ms rectilinear wave and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hrs after the shock. The lowest energy DFT was for the 8 ms ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 SD J), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours postshock, troponin I in ng/ml was significantly less for the ascending ramp (0.80±0.54) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17 ±0.45). Conclusions The ascending ramp has a significantly lower DFT, and at ≈ 30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the DFT and the amount of cardiac damage. PMID:22865891

  13. Diode-like properties of single- and multi-pore asymmetric track membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, K., E-mail: [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina str. 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Gapeeva, A.R.; Orelovich, O.L. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Apel, P.Yu. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); The International University “Dubna”, Universitetskaya str. 19, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    In this work, we investigated the ionic transport properties of asymmetric polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track membranes with the thickness of 5 μm. The samples containing single pores and arrays of many pores were fabricated by irradiation with accelerated ions and subsequent physicochemical treatment. The method of etching in the presence of a surface-active agent was used to prepare the pores with highly-tapered tip. The transport of monovalent inorganic ions through the nano-scale holes was studied in a conductivity cell. The effective pore radii, electrical conductance and rectification ratios of pores were measured. The geometric characteristics of nanopores were investigated using FESEM.

  14. Gaussian Mixture Model with Variable Components for Full Waveform LiDAR Data Decomposition and RJMCMC Algorithm


    Zhao, Quanhua; LI, HONGYING; Li, Yu


    Full waveform LiDAR data record the signal of the backscattered laser pulse. The elevation and the energy information of ground targets can be effectively obtained by decomposition of the full waveform LiDAR data. Therefore, waveform decomposition is the key to full waveform LiDAR data processing. However, in waveform decomposition, determining the number of the components is a focus and difficult problem. To this end, this paper presents a method which can automatically determine the number....

  15. Asymmetrical soft palate cleft repair: preliminary results. (United States)

    Bütow, K-W; Engelbrecht, H; Naidoo, S


    The reconstructions of the asymmetrical soft palate cleft is a surgical challenge when it comes to achieving symmetry and optimal soft palate muscular function. Three different versions of the intravelar veloplasty have been used: the intravelar veloplasty (1969) (type I), the modification according to anatomical defects (1991) (type II), and the modification using part of Sommerlad's technique and part of Ivanov's technique (2008) (type III). The perioperative outcomes of the type II and type III intravelar veloplasty were assessed and compared in asymmetrical cleft cases. Two hundred and seventy-seven soft palate clefts were reconstructed: 153 type II and 124 type III. Of these, 49 were asymmetrical (17.7%); 23 underwent the type II procedure and 26 the type III procedure. Of the type II procedure cases, 30.4% remained asymmetrical postoperatively compared to 3.8% of the type III cases. The uvula appeared subjectively atrophic in 47.8% of the type II cases and in 7.7% of type III cases. Oro-nasal fistula occurred in 13.0% of the type II cases and 3.8% of the type III cases. Speech results will only be assessed after 4 years of age. The type III modified intravelar veloplasty has had a major beneficial impact on patients who had an asymmetrical soft palate cleft. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division. (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara


    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  17. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold


    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  18. A sampling theory for asymmetric communities. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Temme, Nico M; Fagan, William F; Keitt, Timothy H


    We introduce the first analytical model of asymmetric community dynamics to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Our focus centers on an asymmetric extension of Hubbell's local community dynamics, while an analogous extension of Hubbell's metacommunity dynamics is deferred to an appendix. We find that mass-effects may facilitate coexistence in asymmetric local communities and generate unimodal species abundance distributions indistinguishable from those of symmetric communities. Multiple modes, however, only arise from asymmetric processes and provide a strong indication of non-neutral dynamics. Although the exact stationary distributions of fully asymmetric communities must be calculated numerically, we derive approximate sampling distributions for the general case and for nearly neutral communities where symmetry is broken by a single species distinct from all others in ecological fitness and dispersal ability. In the latter case, our approximate distributions are fully normalized, and novel asymptotic expansions of the required hypergeometric functions are provided to make evaluations tractable for large communities. Employing these results in a bayesian analysis may provide a novel statistical test to assess the consistency of species abundance data with the neutral hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Waveform inversion schemes for 3D density structure (United States)

    Blom, N.; Fichtner, A.


    We develop waveform inversion schemes for density, based on numerical wave propagation, adjoint techniques and various non-seismological constraints to enhance resolution. Density variations drive convection in the Earth and serve as a discriminator between thermal and compositional heterogeneities. However, classical seismological observables and gravity provide only weak constraints, with strong trade-offs. To put additional constraints on density structure, we develop waveform inversion schemes that exploit the seismic waveform itself for the benefit of improved density resolution. Our inversion scheme is intended to incorporate any information that can help to constrain 3D density structure. This includes non-seismological information, such as gravity and the geoid, the mass and moment of inertia of the Earth, and mineral physical constraints on maximum density heterogeneities (assuming reasonable variations in temperature and composition). In a series of initial synthetic experiments, we aim to construct efficient optimisation schemes that allow us to assimilate all the available types of information. For this, we use 2D numerical wave propagation combined with adjoint techniques for the computation of sensitivity kernels. With these kernels, we drive gradient-based optimisation schemes that incorporate our non-seismological constraints. Specifically, we assess the usefulness of an inversion strategy where additional information is used as hard constraints, as opposed to the optimisation of a single objective functional that incorporates all the information. Hard constraints may consist of the Earth's mass or moment of inertia, and are applied by solving a separate optimisation problem to project the initial (unconstrained) solution onto an allowed range. These synthetic experiments will allow us to assess to what extent velocity and density structure need to be coupled in order to obtain useful and meaningful results to a density inversion.

  20. Finite Element and Plate Theory Modeling of Acoustic Emission Waveforms (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Hamstad, M. A.; Gary, J.; OGallagher, A.


    A comparison was made between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates. A normal mode solution method for Mindlin plate theory was used to predict the response of the flexural plate mode to a point source, step-function load, applied on the plate surface. The second approach used a dynamic finite element method to model the problem using equations of motion based on exact linear elasticity. Calculations were made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials. For simulations of anisotropic plates, propagation along multiple directions was evaluated. In general, agreement between the two theoretical approaches was good. Discrepancies in the waveforms at longer times were caused by differences in reflections from the lateral plate boundaries. These differences resulted from the fact that the two methods used different boundary conditions. At shorter times in the signals, before reflections, the slight discrepancies in the waveforms were attributed to limitations of Mindlin plate theory, which is an approximate plate theory. The advantages of the finite element method are that it used the exact linear elasticity solutions, and that it can be used to model real source conditions and complicated, finite specimen geometries as well as thick plates. These advantages come at a cost of increased computational difficulty, requiring lengthy calculations on workstations or supercomputers. The Mindlin plate theory solutions, meanwhile, can be quickly generated on personal computers. Specimens with finite geometry can also be modeled. However, only limited simple geometries such as circular or rectangular plates can easily be accommodated with the normal mode solution technique. Likewise, very limited source configurations can be modeled and plate theory is applicable only to thin plates.

  1. Short ECG segments predict defibrillation outcome using quantitative waveform measures. (United States)

    Coult, Jason; Sherman, Lawrence; Kwok, Heemun; Blackwood, Jennifer; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Rea, Thomas D


    Quantitative waveform measures of the ventricular fibrillation (VF) electrocardiogram (ECG) predict defibrillation outcome. Calculation requires an ECG epoch without chest compression artifact. However, pauses in CPR can adversely affect survival. Thus the potential use of waveform measures is limited by the need to pause CPR. We sought to characterize the relationship between the length of the CPR-free epoch and the ability to predict outcome. We conducted a retrospective investigation using the CPR-free ECG prior to first shock among out-of-hospital VF cardiac arrest patients in a large metropolitan region (n=442). Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) and Median Slope (MS) were calculated using ECG epochs ranging from 5s to 0.2s. The relative ability of the measures to predict return of organized rhythm (ROR) and neurologically-intact survival was evaluated at different epoch lengths by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using the 5-s epoch as the referent group. Compared to the 5-s epoch, AMSA performance declined significantly only after reducing epoch length to 0.2s for ROR (AUC 0.77-0.74, p=0.03) and with epochs of ≤0.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.70, p=0.04). MS performance declined significantly with epochs of ≤0.8s for ROR (AUC 0.78-0.77, p=0.04) and with epochs ≤1.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.71, p=0.04). Waveform measures predict defibrillation outcome using very brief ECG epochs, a quality that may enable their use in current resuscitation algorithms designed to limit CPR interruption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waveform feature extraction algorithms for IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallraff, Marius; Boersma, David; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at South Pole consists of digital optical modules (DOMs) deep down in the ice equipped with photomultipliers to capture Cherenkov light induced by muons and other particles. These DOMs digitize the analogue pulse shapes of the photomultiplier signals. The large amount of information has to be condensed for later particle track and energy reconstructions. This talk presents a new framework (the NewFeatureExtractor) to extract the arrival times and the number of photons. Three algorithms have been implemented in this framework to analyze different types of waveforms. Their performance is tested by comparison between experimental and simulated data and by comparison with earlier algorithms.

  3. Using waveform cross correlation for automatic recovery of aftershock sequences (United States)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail


    Aftershock sequences of the largest earthquakes are difficult to recover. There can be several hundred mid-sized aftershocks per hour within a few hundred km from each other recorded by the same stations. Moreover, these events generate thousands of reflected/refracted phases having azimuth and slowness close to those from the P-waves. Therefore, aftershock sequences with thousands of events represent a major challenge for automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO). Standard methods of detection and phase association do not use all information contained in signals. As a result, wrong association of the first and later phases, both regular and site specific, produces enormous number of wrong event hypotheses and destroys valid event hypotheses in automatic IDC processing. In turn, the IDC analysts have to reject false and recreate valid hypotheses wasting precious human resources. At the current level of the IDC catalogue completeness, the method of waveform cross correlation (WCC) can resolve most of detection and association problems fully utilizing the similarity of waveforms generated by aftershocks. Array seismic stations of the International monitoring system (IMS) can enhance the performance of the WCC method: reduce station-specific detection thresholds, allow accurate estimate of signal attributes, including relative magnitude, and effectively suppress irrelevant arrivals. We have developed and tested a prototype of an aftershock tool matching all IDC processing requirements and merged it with the current IDC pipeline. This tool includes creation of master events consisting of real or synthetic waveform templates at ten and more IMS stations; cross correlation (CC) of real-time waveforms with these templates, association of arrivals detected at CC-traces in event hypotheses; building events matching the IDC quality criteria; and resolution of conflicts between events

  4. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal


    One of the key challenges associated with time-lapse surveys is ensuring the repeatability between the baseline and monitor surveys. Non-repeatability between the surveys is caused by varying environmental conditions over the course of different surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference reflector using natural reflections as the redatuming operator. This natural redatuming mitigates the artifacts introduced by the repeatability errors that originate above the reference reflector.

  5. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent


    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  6. Asymmetric microscope. Fusho no kenbisho [exclamation point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tadashi. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    It is difficult for a conventional optical analysis means to determine the configuration of a substance with an ultra low optical purity. Recently, an asymmetric microscope has been reported as a new concept for solving the above-mentioned problem. Specifically, a product with slight asymmetry is obtained by using the substance with an ultra low optical purity as the chiral initiation, and then the asymmetry of the product is amplified dramatically due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus obtaining a product having a high optical purity. A new means is to determine the configuration of the original substance having the low optical purity from the configuration of the substance having the high optical purity. According to this method, the chirality of the substance having the low optical purity is transcribed to alkanol, and the chirality is amplified due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus the absolute configuration of the original compound can be determined from the absolute configuration of the final product. (NEDO)

  7. Multi-agent Bargaining under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Marcus; Genesove, David

    information aspect is due to partly unobserved individual valuations of an elevator. We tailor Hellwig (2003) to the features of the retrofitting problem and use this to predict which building characteristics should make it easier for owners to agree. Data from Copenhagen broadly support the model......It is well know that asymmetric information might lead to underprovision of public goods. To test the theoretical prediction, we study the decision to retrofit an elevator into an old apartment building, in which each owner has to agree on how the investment cost is split. The asymmetric......'s predictions. We use transaction data to estimate the market value of an elevator and conclude that for approximately 30-40 percent of the buildings without an elevator the aggregate increase in value exceeds the investment cost....

  8. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias


    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  9. A Denoising Method for LiDAR Full-Waveform Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Lai


    Full Text Available Decomposition of LiDAR full-waveform data can not only enhance the density and positioning accuracy of a point cloud, but also provide other useful parameters, such as pulse width, peak amplitude, and peak position which are important information for subsequent processing. Full-waveform data usually contain some random noises. Traditional filtering algorithms always cause distortion in the waveform. λ/μ filtering algorithm is based on Mean Shift method. It can smooth the signal iteratively and will not cause any distortion in the waveform. In this paper, an improved λ/μ filtering algorithm is proposed, and several experiments on both simulated waveform data and real waveform data are implemented to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Fast and efficient evaluation of gravitational waveforms via reduced-order spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Galley, Chad R


    Numerical simulations of merging black hole binaries produce the most accurate gravitational waveforms. The availability of hundreds of these numerical relativity (NR) waveforms, often containing many higher spherical harmonic modes, allows one to study many aspects of gravitational waves. Amongst these are the response of data analysis pipelines, the calibration of semi-analytical models, the building of reduced-order surrogates, the estimation of the parameters of detected gravitational waves, and the composition of public catalogs of NR waveform data. The large number of generated NR waveforms consequently requires efficient data storage and handling, especially since many more waveforms will be generated at an increased rate in the forthcoming years. In addition, gravitational wave data analyses often require the NR waveforms to be interpolated and uniformly resampled at high sampling rates. Previously, this resulted in very large data files (up to $\\sim$ several GB) in memory-intensive operations, which ...

  11. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter. (United States)

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen


    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter's power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  12. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yue


    Full Text Available Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter’s power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. Investigation of Leakage Current Waveforms Recorded in a Coastal High Voltage Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Thalassinakis


    Full Text Available Leakage current monitoring is a widely employed technique to monitor the performance of outdoor insulation. The evaluation of leakage current waveforms recorded in the field, offers significant information since insulation’s performance is strongly linked with local conditions, and the waveforms’ shape correlate to different types of surface activity. In this paper, an investigation of leakage current waveforms recorded in a 150 kV coastal Substations suffering which suffers intense marine pollution is presented. Investigation of the recorded waveforms verified the basic waveform shapes described in the literature. Further, several variations of the basic types and complex waveforms, as well as field related waveforms, are presented. The need for added categorization criteria in the case of field measurements is discussed.

  14. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K


    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  15. Full Waveform Inversion with Multisource Frequency Selection of Marine Streamer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong


    The theory and practice of multisource full waveform inversion of marine supergathers are described with a frequency-selection strategy. The key enabling property of frequency selection is that it eliminates the crosstalk among sources, thus overcoming the aperture mismatch of marine multisource inversion. Tests on multisource full waveform inversion of synthetic marine data and Gulf of Mexico data show speedups of 4× and 8×, respectively, compared to conventional full waveform inversion.

  16. Algebraic Davis decomposition and asymmetric Doob inequalities


    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let $(\\M,\\tau)$ be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a weak-$*$ dense filtration of von Neumann subalgebras $(\\M_n)_{n \\ge 1}$. Let $\\E_n$ denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for $1 < p < 2$ and $x \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ one can find $a, b \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ and contractions $u_n, v_...

  17. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping


    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  18. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  19. Novel electrostatic column for ion projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, A.; Stengl, G.; Buschbeck, H.; Lammer, G.; Vonach, H.; Fischer, R.; Hammel, E.; Loeschner, H.; Nowak, R.; Wolf, P. (IMS - Ion Microfabrication Systems GmbH, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)); Finkelstein, W.; Hill, R.W. (Advanced Lithography Group, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Berry, I.L. (Department of Defense, Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Harriott, L.R. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Melngailis, J. (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)); Randall, J.N. (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas 75243 (United States)); Wolfe, J.C. (University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)); Stroh, H.; Wollnik, H. (University of Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Mondelli, A.A.; Petillo, J.J. (Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)); Leung, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of Californi


    Ion projection lithography (IPL) is being considered for high volume sub-0.25-[mu]m lithography. A novel ion-optical column has been designed for exposing 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] fields at 3[times] reduction from stencil mask to wafer substrates. A diverging lens is realized by using the stencil mask as the first electrode of the ion-optical column. The second and third electrode form an accelerating field lens. The aberrations of the first two lenses (diverging lens and field lens) are compensated by an asymmetric Einzel lens projecting an ion image of the stencil mask openings onto the wafer substrate with better than 2 mrad telecentricity. Less than 30 nm intrafield distortion was calculated within 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] exposure fields. The calculation uncertainty is estimated to be about 10 nm. The calculation holds for helium ions with [approx]10 keV ion energy at the stencil mask and 150 keV ion energy at the wafer plane. A virtual ion source size of 10 [mu]m has been assumed. The calculated chromatic aberrations are less than 60 nm, assuming 6 eV energy spread of the ions extracted from a duoplasmatron source. Recently a multicusp ion source has been developed for which preliminary results indicate an energy spread of less than 2 eV. Thus, with a multicusp source chromatic aberrations of less than 20 nm are to be expected. The ion energy at the crossover between the field lens and the asymmetric Einzel lens is 200 keV. Therefore, stochastic space charge induced degradations in resolution can be kept sufficiently low. The divergence of the ion image projected to the wafer plane is less than 2 mrad. Thus, the usable'' depth of focus for the novel ion optics is in the order of 10 [mu]m.

  20. Source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields: Application to the encoded multisource waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate-source modeling, as well as the Fourier transform of wavefields. As an alternative, we have developed the source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields. Specifically, the misfit function consists of the convolution of the observed wavefields with a reference trace from the modeled wavefield, plus the convolution of the modeled wavefields with a reference trace from the observed wavefield. In this case, the source wavelet of the observed and the modeled wavefields are equally convolved with both terms in the misfit function, and thus, the effects of the source wavelets are eliminated. Furthermore, because the modeled wavefields play a role of low-pass filtering, the observed wavefields in the misfit function, the frequency-selection strategy from low to high can be easily adopted just by setting the maximum frequency of the source wavelet of the modeled wavefields; and thus, no filtering is required. The gradient of the misfit function is computed by back-propagating the new residual seismograms and applying the imaging condition, similar to reverse-time migration. In the synthetic data evaluations, our waveform inversion yields inverted models that are close to the true model, but demonstrates, as predicted, some limitations when random noise is added to the synthetic data. We also realized that an average of traces is a better choice for the reference trace than using a single trace. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Generation of a widely tunable linearly chirped microwave waveform based on spectral filtering and unbalanced dispersion. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zou, Weiwen; Chen, Jianping


    We propose a method to generate a widely tunable linearly chirped microwave waveform based on spectral filtering and unbalanced dispersion. Heterodyne beating between two differently dispersed optical pulses in a photodetector produces the linearly chirped microwave waveform. Desired waveforms with flexible and independent control of the center frequency and sweep bandwidth can be obtained by simply tuning two optical filters. Simulation and experimental investigations are carried out, and the results are in good agreement. The measured microwave waveform has ∼5.2-ns pulse duration and ∼64-GHz sweep bandwidth, corresponding to a time-bandwidth product of ∼166.4 and a compression ratio of ∼248.

  2. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms. (United States)

    Cook, L B


    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...

  6. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator (United States)

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.


    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device.

  7. Full waveform tomography of the South Atlantic upper mantle (United States)

    Colli, Lorenzo; Bunge, Hans-Peter


    We developed a full waveform tomography of the upper mantle beneath the South Atlantic region using an adjoint method. This required 5000 wavefield simulations and a total of 750 thousand CPU-hours. The 3D seismic structure thus retrieved can help us answering various key questions concerning the geodynamic evolution of the region: (1) How and to which extent does the South Atlantic plume system feed the asthenosphere in the oceanic basin and adjacent regions? (2) What are the current thermal states of the lithosphere below the Walvis Ridge and the Etendeka and Paraná continental flood basalts? (3) Is the asthenosphere thin or thick? (4) What is the characteristic planform of asthenospheric flow? (5) Is the prominent topographic gradient across the South Atlantic region from Africa to South America explicable solely in terms of lower mantle structure, or do we also find a systematic gradient in upper mantle heterogeneity across the ocean basin? Full waveform tomography allows us to exploit information from seismograms in a very efficient way. Our approach is thus well suited for regions with comparatively low data coverage such as the South Atlantic.

  8. 3D frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast imaging (United States)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Yash; West, Erik; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Duric, Neb


    Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography is a promising method for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. It has previously been shown to accurately reconstruct the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities. The reconstructed images show detailed morphological and quantitative information that can help differentiate different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. The attenuation properties of an ex vivo phantom have also been assessed. However, the reconstruction algorithms assumed a 2D geometry while the actual data acquisition process was not. Although clinically useful sound speed images can be reconstructed assuming this mismatched geometry, artifacts from the reconstruction process exist within the reconstructed images. This is especially true for registration across different modalities and when the 2D assumption is violated. For example, this happens when a patient's breast is rapidly sloping. It is also true for attenuation imaging where energy lost or gained out of the plane gets transformed into artifacts within the image space. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, give motivation for pursuing the 3D method, discuss the 3D reconstruction algorithm, present the results of 3D forward modeling, show the mismatch that is induced by the violation of 3D modeling via numerical simulations, and present a 3D inversion of a numerical phantom.

  9. Precisely synchronous and cascadable multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Guangkun; Xiao, Yindong


    The output bandwidth and the capability to generate multiple analog outputs with accurately adjustable relative phase are important specifications of arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). To increase the output bandwidth, AWG with a multi-memory paralleled direct digital synthesizer structure (DDS) was proposed to break through operating speed limitations of memory and field programmable gate array. But this structure does complicate synchronization of the analog outputs. This paper proposes a structure for synchronization of the outputs of multi-channel high speed AWG that generates arbitrary waveforms using a multi-memory paralleled DDS. Careful distribution of the clock and trigger signals enables elimination of the random initial phase caused by the frequency divider. Based on this structure, a four-channel 600 mega samples per second AWG is designed. An embedded clock synchronization calibration module is designed to eliminate the random phase difference caused by a frequency divider inside a digital-to-analog converter. The AWG provides a 240 MHz bandwidth, 16 mega-samples storage depth, inter-channel initial skew accuracy less than 150 ps, and 0.0001° phase resolution, which can be used to generate two pairs of I/Q signals or a pair of differential I/Q signals for the quadrature modulator. Additionally, more AWGs can be cascaded to obtain more output channels with an output timing skew between adjacent channels of less than 1.6 ns.

  10. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  11. On the generation of waveforms having comb-shaped spectra (United States)

    Black, Bruce A.


    Two techniques, direct sequence and spread spectrum and frequency hopping are widely used to provide an antijam capability for communications systems. To test the effectiveness of such systems, suitable jammers must be devised. A frequency hopping system can be jammed by wideband noise, by a following frequency hopped carrier (if the hopper is slow enough), or by a multitone jamming signal. Multitone jamming signals are considered advantageous in that jamming power is not wasted on frequencies never visited by the frequency hopper, as is the case when wideband noise is used. This report considers several classes of waveforms having power spectra that are approximately comb-shaped. The report relates the properties of the comb spectrum to the time-domain properties of the waveforms. These are the repeated pseudorandom sequence, used to modulate a carrier, and the frequency-swept sinusoid. A good quality comb spectrum should have uniformly strong teeth over its passband, and the spectrum should fall away rapidly at the band edges. To minimize the distortion caused by saturating power amplifiers, it is helpful is the time-domain function has a constant envelope. It is shown that a pseudorandom sequence that is low-pass filtered prior to modulation can produce a very uniform comb with sharp band edges, provided that the required width of the comb is not excessive. A swept-frequency sinusoid can produce a comb of very wide bandwidth, also with sharp band edges.

  12. Hepatic arterial waveforms on early posttransplant Doppler ultrasound. (United States)

    Hedegard, Wade C; Bhatt, Shweta; Saad, Wael; Rubens, Deborah; Dogra, Vikram


    To determine the significance of spectral Doppler hepatic artery waveforms obtained in the first 10 days after primary liver transplantation and to determine the best early predictor of hepatic arterial thrombosis (HAT). A total of 645 patients were retrospectively followed up to 1 year after liver transplantation. Doppler waveforms of the hepatic arteries were categorized as normal, abnormally elevated, not visualized, or with resistive index (RI) hepatic artery on Doppler evaluation and 56 (8.7%) developed HAT or stenosis within the first year after transplantation. Odds ratios (ORs) demonstrate that a single nonvisualized hepatic artery (OR, 9.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.51-20.70) has a much higher incidence of HAT in the first 10 days after transplantation compared to low RI (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.77-4.79)] or high RI (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.44-2.55]. The loss or reversal of diastolic flow on Doppler ultrasound performed in the first 10 days after transplantation does not seem to correlate with active or impending HAT. Absence of hepatic arterial flow Doppler signal in the first 10 days after liver transplantation is associated with higher incidence of thrombosis than previously demonstrated, whereas persistently high diastolic flow early on seems to be more significant and leads to further hepatic arterial complications than decreased diastolic flow.

  13. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo


    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  14. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  15. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  16. The use of synthetic master events for waveform cross correlation (United States)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan


    It has been clearly demonstrated that waveform cross correlation substantially improves signal detection, phase association and event building. These processes are inherently related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The workhorse of cross correlation is the set of seismic master events (earthquakes or explosions) with high quality waveform templates recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). For the monitoring to be globally uniform, these master events have to be evenly distributed and their template waveforms should be representative and pure. However, global seismicity is characterized by a non-uniform distribution. Therefore, the master events selected from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) produced by the International Data Centre (IDC) can be found in the areas constrained by the global seismicity. There are two principal possibilities to populate the globe with master events: to replicate real REB events or to build synthetic events. Here we compare the performance of these two approaches as applied to the aftershock sequence of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera earthquake. To compute synthetic waveforms, we use AK135 teleseismic velocity model and local CRUST-2 models for source and receiver, and four different source functions representing three different source mechanisms for earthquakes and one for explosion. The synthetic modeling is performed for teleseismic events and based on the stationary phase approximation to a wave equation solution developed by J. Hudson. The grid covering the aftershock area consists of 16 points. For each grid point, we find detections associated with real, replicated, and four versions of synthetic master events at seven IMS array stations, and then build event hypothesis using the Local Association (LA) procedure based on the clustering of origin times as estimated by back projection of the relevant arrival times with known master/station travel times. Then all

  17. Transition from symmetric discharge to asymmetric discharge in a short gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Ning, Wenjun; Dai, Dong; Zhang, YuHui; Hao, Yanpeng; Li, Licheng


    The discharge dynamics of a 2.08 mm gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are studied with a one-dimensional fluid model. By increasing the amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage source, it is observed that the discharge is symmetric at first and abruptly turns into an asymmetric state after passing a certain critical value. Compared with former publications dealing with relatively larger gap-distance DBD, our simulation results indicate some new discoveries. First, in both the symmetric and asymmetric states, every discharge event is fully developed from Townsend discharge to glow discharge, and the discharge current appears as a steep narrow pulse. Second, the residual positive column is always completely dissipated before the next break down; therefore, its influence on the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition can be eliminated. It is further revealed that the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition in the short-gap DBD is more delicate. A subtle phase shift is observed before the transition process. When the phase shift is further promoted with voltage rising, a discordance of the evolution paces between electron and ions occurs, which consequently leads to the formation of discharge asymmetry.

  18. Intrinsic momentum transport in up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin; Barnes, Michael; Dorland, William; Hammett, Gregory W; Rodrigues, Paulo; Loureiro, Nuno F


    Recent work demonstrated that breaking the up-down symmetry of tokamak flux surfaces removes a constraint that limits intrinsic momentum transport, and hence toroidal rotation, to be small. We show, through MHD analysis, that ellipticity is most effective at introducing up-down asymmetry throughout the plasma. We detail an extension to GS2, a local $\\delta f$ gyrokinetic code that self-consistently calculates momentum transport, to permit up-down asymmetric configurations. Tokamaks with tilted elliptical poloidal cross-sections were simulated to determine nonlinear momentum transport. The results, which are consistent with experiment in magnitude, suggest that a toroidal velocity gradient, $\\left( \\partial u_{\\zeta i} / \\partial \\rho \\right) / v_{th i}$, of 5% of the temperature gradient, $\\left(\\partial T_{i} / \\partial \\rho \\right) / T_{i}$, is sustainable. Here $v_{th i}$ is the ion thermal speed, $u_{\\zeta i}$ is the ion toroidal mean flow, $\\rho$ is the minor radial coordinate normalized to the tokamak m...

  19. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2013 ... The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric.

  20. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    E.J. Tozzi; C Tim Scott; David Vahey; D.J. Klingenberg


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with...

  1. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is changed to asymmetric Bragg fiber. The key to this transfer matrix method (TMM) is the accurate calculation of the propagation constants of modes. And validity of this method is verified by FDTD method. We compare these results with obtained from ...

  2. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  3. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  4. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš


    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http:// library

  5. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  6. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  7. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.


    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  8. Spectral inequalities for the quantum asymmetric top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Alain; McMillen, Tyler [Department of Mathematics, California State University (Fullerton), McCarthy Hall 154, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We consider the spectrum of the quantum asymmetric top. Unlike in the case when two or three moments of inertia are equal, when the moments of inertia are distinct all degeneracy in the spectrum of the operator is removed. We derive inequalities for the spectra based on recent results on the interlacing of Van Vleck zeros.

  9. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff base glycine esters in ionic liquids. Dae Hyun Kim Jin Kyu Im Dae Won Kim Minserk Cheong Hoon Sik Kim Deb Kumar Mukherjee. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 467-476 ...

  10. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric cryptography, with ...

  11. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen


    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  12. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco


    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  13. Cold Electrons as the Drivers of Parallel, Electrostatic Waves in Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Holmes, J.; Ergun, R.; Newman, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; Schwartz, S. J.; Goodrich, K.; Eriksson, S.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Le Contel, O.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.


    The Magnetospheric MultiScale mission (MMS) has observed several instances of asymmetric reconnection at Earth's magnetopause, where plasma from the magnetosheath encounters that of the magnetosphere. On Earth's dayside, the magnetosphere is often made up of a two-component distribution of cold (cold ion plume. Magnetosheath plasma is primarily warm ( 100 eV) post-shock solar wind. Where they meet, magnetopause reconnection alters the magnetic topology such that these two populations are left cohabiting a field line and rapidly mix. There have been several events observed by MMS where the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) clearly shows cold ions near the diffusion region impinging upon the warm magnetosheath population. In many of these, we also see patches of strong electrostatic waves parallel to the magnetic field - a smoking gun for rapid mixing via nonlinear processes. Cold ions alone are too slow to create the same waves; solving for roots of a simplified dispersion relation shows the electron population damps out the ion modes. From this, we infer the presence of cold electrons; in one notable case found by Wilder et al. 2016 (in review), they have been observed directly by FPI. Vlasov simulations of plasma mixing for a number of these events closely reproduce the observed electric field signatures. We conclude from numerical analysis and direct MMS observations that cold plasma mixing, including cold electrons, is the primary driver of parallel electrostatic waves observed near the electron diffusion region in asymmetric magnetic reconnection.

  14. Determinant of asymmetric risks in Nigerian loan market: any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bank lending in Nigeria was dominated by the presence of asymmetric information, a wedge to financial intermediation. Using probit and correlation test methodology, evidence of low level asymmetric risk was found and the determinants of asymmetric risks in the market were not significantly different. The size of default ...

  15. Large-scale seismic waveform quality metric calculation using Hadoop (United States)

    Magana-Zook, S.; Gaylord, J. M.; Knapp, D. R.; Dodge, D. A.; Ruppert, S. D.


    In this work we investigated the suitability of Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark for large-scale computation of seismic waveform quality metrics by comparing their performance with that of a traditional distributed implementation. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) provided 43 terabytes of broadband waveform data of which 5.1 TB of data were processed with the traditional architecture, and the full 43 TB were processed using MapReduce and Spark. Maximum performance of 0.56 terabytes per hour was achieved using all 5 nodes of the traditional implementation. We noted that I/O dominated processing, and that I/O performance was deteriorating with the addition of the 5th node. Data collected from this experiment provided the baseline against which the Hadoop results were compared. Next, we processed the full 43 TB dataset using both MapReduce and Apache Spark on our 18-node Hadoop cluster. These experiments were conducted multiple times with various subsets of the data so that we could build models to predict performance as a function of dataset size. We found that both MapReduce and Spark significantly outperformed the traditional reference implementation. At a dataset size of 5.1 terabytes, both Spark and MapReduce were about 15 times faster than the reference implementation. Furthermore, our performance models predict that for a dataset of 350 terabytes, Spark running on a 100-node cluster would be about 265 times faster than the reference implementation. We do not expect that the reference implementation deployed on a 100-node cluster would perform significantly better than on the 5-node cluster because the I/O performance cannot be made to scale. Finally, we note that although Big Data technologies clearly provide a way to process seismic waveform datasets in a high-performance and scalable manner, the technology is still rapidly changing, requires a high degree of investment in personnel, and will likely

  16. Waveform measurement in mocrowave device characterization: impact on power amplifiers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quaglia


    Full Text Available This paper describes an example of a measurement setup enabling waveform measurements during the load-pull characterization of a microwave power device. The significance of this measurement feature is highlighted showing how waveform engineering can be exploited to design high efficiency microwave power amplifiers.

  17. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G.F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath Hoareau, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, Brian C J; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifir, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Chu, I.W.T.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vano-Vinuales, A.


    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions,

  18. A comparison of biphasic and monophasic waveform defibrillation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation. (United States)

    Tang, W; Weil, M H; Sun, S; Povoas, H P; Klouche, K; Kamohara, T; Bisera, J


    To compare the effects of biphasic defibrillation waveforms and conventional monophasic defibrillation waveforms on the success of initial defibrillation, postresuscitation myocardial function, and duration of survival after prolonged duration of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), including the effects of epinephrine. Prospective, randomized, animal study. Animal laboratory and university-affiliated research and educational institute. Domestic pigs. VF was induced in 20 anesthetized domestic pigs receiving mechanical ventilation. After 10 min of untreated VF, the animals were randomized. Defibrillation was attempted with up to three 150-J biphasic waveform shocks or a conventional sequence of 200-J, 300-J, and 360-J monophasic waveform shocks. When reversal of VF was unsuccessful, precordial compression was performed for 1 min, with or without administration of epinephrine. The protocol was repeated until spontaneous circulation was restored or for a maximum of 15 min. No significant differences in the success of initial resuscitation or in the duration of survival were observed. However, significantly less impairment of myocardial function followed biphasic shocks. Administration of epinephrine reduced the total electrical energy required for successful resuscitation with both biphasic and monophasic waveform shocks. Lower-energy biphasic waveform shocks were as effective as conventional higher-energy monophasic waveform shocks for restoration of spontaneous circulation after 10 min of untreated VF. Significantly better postresuscitation myocardial function was observed after biphasic waveform defibrillation. Administration of epinephrine after prolonged cardiac arrest decreased the total energy required for successful resuscitation.

  19. Within-footprint roughness measurements using ICESat/GLAS waveform and LVIS elevation (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun


    The surface roughness is an important characteristic over an ice sheet or glacier, since it is an identification of boundary-layer meteorology and is an important limiter on the accuracy of surface-height measurements. In this paper, we propose a simulation method to derive the within-footprint roughness (called simulation-derived roughness) using ICESat/GLAS echo waveform, laser vegetation imaging sensor (LVIS) elevations, and laser profile array (LPA) images of ICESat/GLAS. By dividing the within-footprint surface into several elements, a simulation echo waveform can be obtained as the sum of the elementary pulses reflected from each surface element. The elevation of the surface elements, which is utilized to get the return time of the elementary pulses, is implemented based on an LVIS interpolated elevation using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The intensity of the elementary pulses can be obtained from the thresholded LPA images. Based on the return time and the intensity of the elementary pulses, we used the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to approximate the simulation waveform to the ICESat/GLAS echo waveform. The full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of the elementary pulse was extracted from the simulation waveform for estimating the simulation-derived roughness. By comparing with the elevation-derived roughness (derived from the elevation) and the waveform-derived roughness (derived from the ICESat/GLAS waveform), the proposed algorithm can exclude the slope effect from waveform width broadening for describing the roughness of the surface elements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wang


    Full Text Available Full waveform data recording the reflected laser signal from ground objects have been provided by some commercial airborne LIDAR systems in the last few years. Waveform data enable users to explore more information and characteristics of the earth surface than conventional LIDAR point cloud. An important application is to extract extra point clouds from waveform data in addition to the point cloud generated by the online process of echo detection. Some difficult-to-detect points, which may be important to topographic mapping, can be rediscovered from waveform data. The motivation of this study is to explore weak and overlapped returns of a waveform. This paper presents a wavelet-based echo detection algorithm, which is compared with the zero-crossing detection method for evaluation. Some simulated waveforms deteriorated with different noises are made to test the limitations of the detector. The experimental results show that the wavelet-based detector outperformed the zero-crossing detector in both difficult-to-detect cases. The detector is also applied to a real waveform dataset. In addition to the total number of echoes provided by the instrument, the detector found 18% more of echoes. The proposed detector is significant in finding weak and overlapped returns from waveforms.

  1. Closed form of optimal current waveform for class-F PA up to fourth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, rigorous analytical derivation of the coefficients of optimal current waveform for class-F power amplifier (PA) up to fourth harmonic (dc, 1st,. 2nd and 4th harmonic) is presented. The coefficients of the optimal current waveform along with related maximum attainable efficiency are provided in closed form ...

  2. Growth mechanisms study of microcrystalline silicon deposited by SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma using tailored voltage waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, B., E-mail:; Johnson, E. V. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Wang, J. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ICARE China-Europe Institute for Clean and Renewable Energy at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Dornstetter, J.-C. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); TOTAL New Energies, 24 cours Michelet, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France)


    The use of Tailored Voltage Waveforms is a technique wherein one uses non-sinusoidal waveforms with a period equivalent to RF frequencies to excite a plasma. It has been shown to be an effective technique to decouple maximum Ion Bombardment Energy (IBE) from the ion flux at the surface of the electrodes. In this paper, we use it for the first time as a way to scan through the IBE in order to study the growth mechanism of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon using a SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistry. We find that at critical energies, a stepwise increase in the amorphous to microcrystalline transition thickness is observed, as detected by Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The same energy thresholds (30 eV and 70 eV) are found to be very influential on the final surface morphology of the samples, as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. These thresholds correspond to SiH{sub x}{sup +} bulk displacement (30 eV) and H{sub x}{sup +} (70 eV) surface displacement energies. A model is therefore proposed to account for the impact of these ions on the morphology of μc-Si:H growth.

  3. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.


    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  4. Sudoku Inspired Designs for Radar Waveforms and Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis D. Bufler


    Full Text Available Sudoku puzzles, often seen in magazines and newspapers, are logic-based challenges where each entry within the puzzle is comprised of symbols adhering to row, column and box constraints. Previously, we had investigated their potential in frequency-hopped waveforms to achieve desirable radar ambiguity functions and compared them with random, as well as the more familiar Costas sequences. This paper further examines the properties of Sudoku codes in more detail through computational search and analysis. We examine the co-hit and cross-hit arrays, defined as the correlation between two sequences, to quickly and efficiently evaluate numerous Sudoku puzzles. Additionally, we investigate the use of Sudoku puzzles for antenna applications, including array interleaving, array thinning and random element spacing.

  5. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq


    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modeled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored.

  6. Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.

  7. Multigrid waveform relaxation on spatial finite element meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Vandewalle, S. [Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    The authors shall discuss the numerical solution of a parabolic partial differential equation {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}t(x,t) = Lu(x,t) + f(x,t), x{element_of}{Omega}, t>0, (1) supplied with a boundary condition and given initial values. The spatial finite element discretization of (1) on a discrete grid {Omega}{sub h} leads to an initial value problem of the form B{dot u} + Au = f, u(0) = u{sub o}, t > 0, (2) with B a non-singular matrix. The waveform relaxation method is a method for solving ordinary differential equations. It differs from most standard iterative techniques in that it is a continuous-time method, iterating with functions in time, and thereby well-suited for parallel computation.

  8. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  9. Full-waveform inversion on heterogeneous HPC systems (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas


    We present a spectral-element implementation of full seismic waveform inversion for large heterogeneous HPC systems. In this we address the optimal parallelisation configurations of individual simulations, the large I/O requirements of adjoint simulations, and the scheduling of large numbers of forward and adjoint solves, typical for realistic inversions. Using GPU accelerators allows us to achieve a 3.5-4 times performance improvement over the best known homogeneous implementation. We achieve GPU memory throughput varying from 60 to 80% of the peak bandwidth, thus providing good utilisation of hardware resources. We demonstrate the practical applicability of our developments in a real-data application in the western Mediterranean. With the help of GPU accelerators, we are able to model and invert seismic wave propagation in a frequency band that is broader than permitted by the use of CPUs alone, which helps bridging the traditional gap between crustal and mantle tomography.

  10. Full-waveform inversion: From near surface to deep

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The ancient Persian Gulf port city of Muscat provided a spectacular setting for the SEG\\'s 2013 Workshop on Full-waveform Inversion (FWI). This active R&D topic attracted about 36 oral presentations and 20 or so posters, which added up to three intense days of ideas, images, and discussion. FWI has progressed from academic research topic to commercial workflow component in roughly 10 years, with many case studies documenting improved imaging and business value and others documenting a definite need for improved understanding of algorithms and applicability. Along with fundamental research issues of worldwide importance, the meeting provided an opportunity to showcase implications of the Middle East\\'s particular exploration challenges for the further development of FWI.

  11. Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) Technique for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Analysis (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.


    The Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to a generalized frequency domain electromagnetic problem. Most of the frequency domain techniques in computational electromagnetics result in a matrix equation, which is solved at a single frequency. In the AWE technique, the Taylor series expansion around that frequency is applied to the matrix equation. The coefficients of the Taylor's series are obtained in terms of the frequency derivatives of the matrices evaluated at the expansion frequency. The coefficients hence obtained will be used to predict the frequency response of the system over a frequency range. The detailed derivation of the coefficients (called 'moments') is given along with an illustration for electric field integral equation (or Method of Moments) technique. The radar cross section (RCS) frequency response of a square plate is presented using the AWE technique and is compared with the exact solution at various frequencies.

  12. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi


    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  13. Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley


    Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.

  14. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva


    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  15. Detection of underground pipeline based on Golay waveform design (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Xu, Dazhuan


    The detection of underground pipeline is an important problem in the development of the city, but the research about it is not mature at present. In this paper, based on the principle of waveform design in wireless communication, we design an acoustic signal detection system to detect the location of underground pipelines. According to the principle of acoustic localization, we chose DSP-F28335 as the development board, and use DA and AD module as the master control chip. The DA module uses complementary Golay sequence as emission signal. The AD module acquisiting data synchronously, so that the echo signals which containing position information of the target is recovered through the signal processing. The test result shows that the method in this paper can not only calculate the sound velocity of the soil, but also can locate the location of underground pipelines accurately.

  16. Magnetization-prepared shells trajectory with automated gradient waveform design. (United States)

    Shu, Yunhong; Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Huston, John; Weavers, Paul T; Bernstein, Matt A


    To develop a fully automated trajectory and gradient waveform design for the non-Cartesian shells acquisition, and to develop a magnetization-prepared (MP) shells acquisition to achieve an efficient three-dimensional acquisition with improved gray-to-white brain matter contrast. After reviewing the shells k-space trajectory, a novel, fully automated trajectory design is developed that allows for gradient waveforms to be automatically generated for specified acquisition parameters. Designs for two types of shells are introduced, including fully sampled and undersampled/accelerated shells. Using those designs, an MP-Shells acquisition is developed by adjusting the acquisition order of shells interleaves to synchronize the center of k-space sampling with the peak of desired gray-to-white matter contrast. The feasibility of the proposed design and MP-Shells is demonstrated using simulation, phantom, and volunteer subject experiments, and the performance of MP-Shells is compared with a clinical Cartesian magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo acquisition. Initial experiments show that MP-Shells produces excellent image quality with higher data acquisition efficiency and improved gray-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio (by 36%) compared with the conventional Cartesian magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo acquisition. We demonstrated the feasibility of a three-dimensional MP-Shells acquisition and an automated trajectory design to achieve an efficient acquisition with improved gray-to-white matter contrast. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Measurement of vehicles speed with full waveform lidar (United States)

    Muzal, Michał; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Wojtanowski, Jacek; Piotrowski, Wiesław


    Measurement of vehicles speed by means of displacement measurement with "time of flight" lidar requires gathering of accurate information about distance to the vehicle in a set time interval. As with any pulsed laser lidar, its maximum range is limited by available incoming signal to noise ratio. That ratio determines not only maximum range, but also accuracy of measurement. For fast and precise measurements of speed of the vehicles their displacement should bee measured with centimeter accuracy. However that demand is hard to reach on long distances and poor quality of the echo signal. Improving accuracy beyond given by a single pulse probing requires emission of several probing pulses. Total displacement error will than fall with the square root of the number of executed measurements. Yet this method will not extend available distance beyond the limit set by threshold detection systems. Acquisition of the full waveform of received signals is a method that allows extension of maximum range through synchronic addition of subsequent waveforms. Doing so improves SNR by a well-known factor of square root of the number of carried additions. Disadvantage of this method is that it requires use of fast analog to digital converters for data acquisition, and simple distance calculation algorithms may not give the adequate accuracy due to relatively long sampling period of reasonable priced ADC's. In this article more advanced algorithms of distance calculations that base on ADC raw data are presented and analyzed. Practical implementation of algorithm in prototype design of laser speed gun is shown along with real life test results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak


    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  19. Facial nerve action potentials: a study to assess waveform reliability. (United States)

    Axon, P R; Ramsden, R T


    To assess the reliability of the orthodromic facial nerve action potential (FNAP), recorded from the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve on stimulation within the cerebellopontine angle. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Ten consecutive patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannoma. Diagnostic. Ten consecutive FNAPs were recorded on stimulation of the facial nerve within the cerebellopontine angle. The FNAP recording probe was placed directly on the nerve surface after the fallopian canal was opened at the second genu. Ten consecutive compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded simultaneously from surface electrodes overlying the facial musculature, by use of a standardized electrode placement technique. The stimulating and recording equipment were removed (excluding CMAP surface electrodes) and reapplied, and FNAP and CMAP data were recorded for a second time (test/retest). Peak-to-peak amplitudes of all waveforms were calculated. The average FNAP peak-to-peak amplitude for all patients was larger than the CMAP peak-to-peak amplitude (2.60 mV and 1.07 mV, respectively). Random effects analysis of variance was performed to assess the individual components of variation. This showed that CMAP was less variable than FNAP for replicate error (10 consecutive FNAPs and CMAPs) and test/retest error. However, subject variance was less for FNAP, where subject variance was by far the largest contributor to overall variation. The reliability coefficient for FNAP was 0.995 and for the CMAP was 0.982, where absolute reliability is 1.0. These data confirm that the FNAP, recorded by the technique described here, is a reliable waveform when compared with the CMAP and is a valid method for assessing facial nerve function.

  20. Traditional waveform based spike sorting yields biased rate code estimates. (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie


    Much of neuroscience has to do with relating neural activity and behavior or environment. One common measure of this relationship is the firing rates of neurons as functions of behavioral or environmental parameters, often called tuning functions and receptive fields. Firing rates are estimated from the spike trains of neurons recorded by electrodes implanted in the brain. Individual neurons' spike trains are not typically readily available, because the signal collected at an electrode is often a mixture of activities from different neurons and noise. Extracting individual neurons' spike trains from voltage signals, which is known as spike sorting, is one of the most important data analysis problems in neuroscience, because it has to be undertaken prior to any analysis of neurophysiological data in which more than one neuron is believed to be recorded on a single electrode. All current spike-sorting methods consist of clustering the characteristic spike waveforms of neurons. The sequence of first spike sorting based on waveforms, then estimating tuning functions, has long been the accepted way to proceed. Here, we argue that the covariates that modulate tuning functions also contain information about spike identities, and that if tuning information is ignored for spike sorting, the resulting tuning function estimates are biased and inconsistent, unless spikes can be classified with perfect accuracy. This means, for example, that the commonly used peristimulus time histogram is a biased estimate of the firing rate of a neuron that is not perfectly isolated. We further argue that the correct conceptual way to view the problem out is to note that spike sorting provides information about rate estimation and vice versa, so that the two relationships should be considered simultaneously rather than sequentially. Indeed we show that when spike sorting and tuning-curve estimation are performed in parallel, unbiased estimates of tuning curves can be recovered even from

  1. Asymmetric Electrodes Constructed with PAN-Based Activated Carbon Fiber in Capacitive Deionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Li


    Full Text Available Capacitive deionization (CDI method has drawn much attention for its low energy consumption, low pollution, and convenient manipulation. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs possess high adsorption ability and can be used as CDI electrode material. Herein, two kinds of PAN-based ACFs with different specific surface area (SSA were used for the CDI electrodes. The CDI performance was investigated; especially asymmetric electrodes’ effect was evaluated. The results demonstrated that PAN-based ACFs showed a high electrosorption rate (complete electrosorption in less than half an hour and moderate electrosorption capacity (up to 0.2 mmol/g. CDI experiments with asymmetric electrodes displayed a variation in electrosorption capacity between forward voltage and reverse voltage. It can be attributed to the electrical double layer (EDL overlap effect and inner pore potential; thus the ions with smaller hydrated ionic radius can be adsorbed more easily.

  2. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    CERN Document Server

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Cheng, H -P; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devenson, J; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; 'Alvarez, M Dovale; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Eisenstein, R A; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Galiana, A Fern'andez; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Junker, J; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kr"amer, C; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lehmann, J; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Liu, J; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lovelace, G; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macfoy, S; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGrath, C; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Muniz, E A M; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Napier, K; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Nery, M; Neunzert, A; Newport, J M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Noack, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pace, A E; Page, J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perez, C J; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J W W; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Scheuer, J; Schmidt, E; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Schwalbe, S G; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shahriar, M S; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tippens, T; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Tso, R; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Chu, T; Hemberger, D; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Vano-Vinuales, A


    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein's equations, any such calibration is accurate only to some non-zero tolerance and is limited by the accuracy of the underlying phenomenology, availability, quality, and parameter-space coverage of numerical simulations. This paper complements the original analyses of GW150914 with an investigation of the effects of possible systematic errors in the waveform models on estimates of its source parameters. To test for systematic errors we repeat the original Bayesian analyses on mock signals from numerical simulations of a serie...

  3. Fast and accurate prediction of numerical relativity waveforms from binary black hole mergers using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A


    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An


    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  5. GLAS/ICESat L1B Global Waveform-based Range Corrections Data (HDF5) V033 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 1B waveform parameterization data will contain waveform-based range corrections and surface characteristics at the full 40 per second resolution. Data...

  6. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    Tozzi, E. J.; Scott, C. T.; Vahey, D.; Klingenberg, D. J.


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with its center of mass following a helical trajectory. Numerical and analytical methods were used to predict translational and angular velocities as well as the evolution of the fiber orientation as a function of time. A comparison of calculated and measured values shows that it is possible to quantitatively predict complex motions of particles that have highly asymmetric shape. The relations between particle shape and settling trajectory have potential applications for hydrodynamic characterization of fiber shapes and fiber separation.

  7. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas. (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang


    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  8. Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk


    Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries.

  9. Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide. (United States)

    Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori


    The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold.

  10. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li


    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  12. Asymmetric monetary policy effects in EMU


    Clausen, Volker; Hayo, Bernd


    This paper uses a semi-structural dynamic modelling approach to investigate asymmetric monetary transmission in Europe. A system of equations containing reaction functions for monetary policy, output and inflation equations is simultaneously estimated for France, Germany, and Italy. Extensive cross equation tests show that relatively large differences in simulated impulse responses are still consistent with the notion that the transmission mechanism is homogeneous across the three major EMU c...

  13. Exploitation of Full-Waveform LiDAR to Characterize / Exploit Under Canopy Targets - Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) (United States)


    specific targets, and (3) full waveform application in forestry . Exploitation of Full-waveform LiDAR to Characterize/Exploit under Canopy Targets...Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)   9    The review on current waveform processing methods, LiDAR-specific targets and forestry applications clearly indicates...proceedings of IGARSS 2012, Munich, Germany, July 23-27, 2012. Molnar, B., Laky, S., and Toth, Ch. (2011): Using Full Waveform Data in Urban Areas

  14. Predicting tensorial electrophoretic effects in asymmetric colloids (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, T. A.


    We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet. The method rigorously satisfies the condition that the object moves with no transfer of momentum to the fluid. We demonstrate that a sphere represented by 1999 well-separated Stokeslets on its surface produces flow and drag force like a solid sphere to 1% accuracy. We show that a uniformly charged sphere with 3998 body and countercharge Stokeslets obeys the Smoluchowski prediction [F. Morrison, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 210 (1970), 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90171-2] for electrophoretic mobility when the countercharges lie close to the sphere. Spheres with dipolar and quadrupolar charge distributions rotate and translate as predicted analytically to 4% accuracy or better. We describe how the method can treat general asymmetric shapes and charge distributions. This method offers promise as a way to characterize and manipulate asymmetrically charged colloid-scale objects from biology (e.g., viruses) and technology (e.g., self-assembled clusters).

  15. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin


    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  16. Decomposition of LiDAR waveforms by B-spline-based modeling (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Li, Qing-Quan; Wu, Guofeng; Zhu, Jiasong


    Waveform decomposition is a widely used technique for extracting echoes from full-waveform LiDAR data. Most previous studies recommended the Gaussian decomposition approach, which employs the Gaussian function in laser pulse modeling. As the Gaussian-shape assumption is not always satisfied for real LiDAR waveforms, some other probability distributions (e.g., the lognormal distribution, the generalized normal distribution, and the Burr distribution) have also been introduced by researchers to fit sharply-peaked and/or heavy-tailed pulses. However, these models cannot be universally used, because they are only suitable for processing the LiDAR waveforms in particular shapes. In this paper, we present a new waveform decomposition algorithm based on the B-spline modeling technique. LiDAR waveforms are not assumed to have a priori shapes but rather are modeled by B-splines, and the shape of a received waveform is treated as the mixture of finite transmitted pulses after translation and scaling transformation. The performance of the new model was tested using two full-waveform data sets acquired by a Riegl LMS-Q680i laser scanner and an Optech Aquarius laser bathymeter, comparing with three classical waveform decomposition approaches: the Gaussian, generalized normal, and lognormal distribution-based models. The experimental results show that the B-spline model performed the best in terms of waveform fitting accuracy, while the generalized normal model yielded the worst performance in the two test data sets. Riegl waveforms have nearly Gaussian pulse shapes and were well fitted by the Gaussian mixture model, while the B-spline-based modeling algorithm produced a slightly better result by further reducing 6.4% of fitting residuals, largely benefiting from alleviating the adverse impact of the ringing effect. The pulse shapes of Optech waveforms, on the other hand, are noticeably right-skewed. The Gaussian modeling results deviated significantly from original signals, and

  17. Ultrasound tomography imaging with waveform sound speed: parenchymal changes in women undergoing tamoxifen therapy (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark; Gierach, Gretchen


    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can offer quantitative measurements of breast density. Recent breakthroughs in UST image reconstruction involve the use of a waveform reconstruction as opposed to a raybased reconstruction. The sound speed (SS) images that are created using the waveform reconstruction have a much higher image quality. These waveform images offer improved resolution and contrasts between regions of dense and fatty tissues. As part of a study that was designed to assess breast density changes using UST sound speed imaging among women undergoing tamoxifen therapy, UST waveform sound speed images were then reconstructed for a subset of participants. These initial results show that changes to the parenchymal tissue can more clearly be visualized when using the waveform sound speed images. Additional quantitative testing of the waveform images was also started to test the hypothesis that waveform sound speed images are a more robust measure of breast density than ray-based reconstructions. Further analysis is still needed to better understand how tamoxifen affects breast tissue.

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion for low-frequency waveforms based on the Josephson voltage standard (United States)

    Kim, Mun-Seog; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Wan-Seop; Chong, Yonuk; Kwon, Sung-Won


    A waveform synthesizer adopting a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction array has been developed, which can generate arbitrary stepwise waveforms with a number of quantum-voltage steps up to 1 V level amplitude. As an application of the synthesizer, we have built a sampling voltmeter that measures the differential voltages between a sinusoidal waveform produced by a semiconductor-based ac source and the Josephson waveforms. We carried out extensive sampling measurements for a 50 Hz sine wave with 1 V amplitude, applying sampling apertures in the range of 55 µs <=ta <= 130 µs and using Josephson waveforms with 32, 60, 80 and 100 quantum steps. From the measurements, the amplitude of the ac waveform was determined with a type A uncertainty (k = 2) of 0.15 µV. Also, we elucidated how the phase jitter in the ac waveform is reflected in the overall uncertainty for the measurements. The type B uncertainty due to the jitter is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the type A uncertainty.

  19. [Study of sharing platform of web-based enhanced extracorporeal counterpulsation hemodynamic waveform data]. (United States)

    Huang, Mingbo; Hu, Ding; Yu, Donglan; Zheng, Zhensheng; Wang, Kuijian


    Enhanced extracorporeal counterpulsation (EECP) information consists of both text and hemodynamic waveform data. At present EECP text information has been successfully managed through Web browser, while the management and sharing of hemodynamic waveform data through Internet has not been solved yet. In order to manage EECP information completely, based on the in-depth analysis of EECP hemodynamic waveform file of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format and its disadvantages in Internet sharing, we proposed the use of the extensible markup language (XML), which is currently the Internet popular data exchange standard, as the storage specification for the sharing of EECP waveform data. Then we designed a web-based sharing system of EECP hemodynamic waveform data via ASP. NET 2.0 platform. Meanwhile, we specifically introduced the four main system function modules and their implement methods, including DICOM to XML conversion module, EECP waveform data management module, retrieval and display of EECP waveform module and the security mechanism of the system.

  20. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development. (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P


    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  1. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail:; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge into what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In this thesis, I first look into the subject of full model wavenumber to analysis the root of local minima and suggest the possible ways to avoid this problem. And then I analysis the possibility of recovering the corresponding wavenumber components through the existing inversion and migration algorithms. Migration can be taken as a generalized inversion method which mainly retrieves the high wavenumber part of the model. Conventional impedance inversion method gives a mapping relationship between the migration image (high wavenumber) and model parameters (full wavenumber) and thus provides a possible cascade inversion strategy to retrieve the full wavenumber components from seismic data. In the proposed approach, consider a mild lateral variation in the model, I find an analytical Frechet derivation corresponding to the new objective function. In the proposed approach, the gradient is given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. This is independent of the background velocity. Specifically, I apply the oriented time-domain imaging (which depends on the reflection slope instead of a background velocity) on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. Assuming that density is constant, the conventional 1D impedance inversion method is also applicable for 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of FWI. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reflection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, I

  3. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis. (United States)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Ota, Seiichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko


    CyberKnife(®) robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony(®) mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife(®). To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony(®) mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife(®) was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior-inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory phase was improved in the

  4. Retinal ganglion cells electrophysiology: the effect of cell morphology on impulse waveform. (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Wong, Raymond; Cloherty, Shaun L; Ibbotson, Michael R; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; O'Brien, Brendan J; Kameneva, Tatiana


    There are 16 morphologically defined classes of rats retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using computer simulation of a realistic anatomically correct A1 mouse RGC, we investigate the effect of the cell's morphology on its impulse waveform, using the first-, and second-order time derivatives as well as the phase plot features. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings, we recorded the impulse waveform for each of the rat RGCs types. While we found some clear differences in many features of the impulse waveforms for A2 and B2 cells compared to other cell classes, many cell types did not show clear differences.

  5. Low-Complexity Adaptive Multisine Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in the last decade. Recently, channel-adaptive waveforms have been shown to significantly increase the DC power level at the output of the rectifier. However the design of those waveforms is generally computationally complex and does not lend itself easily to practical implementation. We here propose a low-complexity channel-adaptive multisine waveform design whose performance is very close to that of the optimal design. Performance evaluations confirm the benefits of the new design in various rectifier topologies.

  6. Photonic Generation and Detection of Arbitrary MMW Waveform for High-Resolution MMW Radar Imaging (United States)


    W-band RF-AWG Mode-Locked Laser Tx W-Band Pow. Amp Real-Time Scope Tunable 30-50GHz Local Oscillator X 2 Rx W-Band LNA W-Band ~17GHz Mixer...down-chirp waveforms. These cross-correlations are overlaid in the same temporal frame in Fig. 3 in blue. For comparison the autocorrelation of...chirp waveforms (in blue) and autocorrelation of the reference down- chirp waveform (in red). Fig. 4. Phase-noise comparison of 80 GHz continuous

  7. Computer-controlled High Resolution Arbitrary Waveform Generator (HRAWG) for Focusing Beamforming Applications (United States)

    Assef, Amauri Amorin; Maia, Joaquim Miguel; Costa, Eduardo Tavares

    In advanced ultrasound imaging systems, expensive high-end integrated analog front-ends have been traditionally used to support generation of arbitrary transmit waveforms, in addition to transmit focusing and apodization control. In this paper, we present a cost-effective computer-controlled reconfigurable high-resolution arbitrary waveform generator (HRAWG) that has been designed for ultrasound research, development and teaching at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), Brazil. The 8-channel transmit beamformer is fully controlled by a host computer in which a Matlab GUI with the Field II simulation program, allows easy and accurate control over the transmission parameters such as waveform, amplitude apodization and timing.

  8. What Waveforms do Data Analysts Want?, or the dangers of systematic errors in parameter estimation (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya


    The measurement of astrophysical parameters of coalescing binaries, encoded in their gravitational-wave signature, is a crucial step for enabling gravitational-wave astronomy. However, our ability to make such measurements may be jeopardized by unknown systematic uncertainties in the waveform templates used for parameter estimation. I express my personal views on what waveform features are most crucial to maximize the astrophysical potential of advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. I also discuss ongoing work on determining whether one particular source -- neutron-star binaries -- may be largely immune to systematic waveform uncertainties.

  9. A Matching Method of Space-borne Laser Altimeter Big Footprint Waveform and Terrain Based on Cross Cumulative Residual Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUE Chunyu


    Full Text Available A matching method of space-borne laser altimeter big footprint waveform and terrain based on cross cumulative residual entropy(CCRE is proposed. Firstly, the waveform data and digital surface model(DSM data are projected to the statistics domain, according to the terrain structure information of the waveform, where statistics signal vectors of the two data are in the same dimension. Then, the waveform data and DSM image are matched in the statistics domain with CCRE. Experiments show that the algorithm proposed is effective in waveform and terrain matching, and the matching accuracy is within 1 pixel.

  10. Estimation of fracture parameters using elastic full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Current methodologies to characterize fractures at the reservoir scale have serious limitations in spatial resolution and suffer from uncertainties in the inverted parameters. Here, we propose to estimate the spatial distribution and physical properties of fractures using full-waveform inversion (FWI) of multicomponent surface seismic data. An effective orthorhombic medium with five clusters of vertical fractures distributed in a checkboard fashion is used to test the algorithm. A shape regularization term is added to the objective function to improve the estimation of the fracture azimuth, which is otherwise poorly constrained. The cracks are assumed to be penny-shaped to reduce the nonuniqueness in the inverted fracture weaknesses and achieve a faster convergence. To better understand the inversion results, we analyze the radiation patterns induced by the perturbations in the fracture weaknesses and orientation. Due to the high-resolution potential of elastic FWI, the developed algorithm can recover the spatial fracture distribution and identify localized “sweet spots” of intense fracturing. However, the fracture azimuth can be resolved only using long-offset data.

  11. Monofrequency waveform acquisition and inversion: A new paradigm

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    In seismic inversion, we tend to use the geometrical behavior of the wavefield (the kinematics), extracted from the data, to constrain the long wavelength model components and use the recorded reections to invert for the short wavelength features in a process referred to as full waveform inversion (FWI). For such a recipe, single frequency (the right frequency) data are capable of providing the ingredients for both model components. A frequency that provides model wavelengths (through the transmission components) low enough to update the background and high enough (reections) to map the scattering may render the other frequencies almost obsolete, especially large offset data are available to provide the transition from background to scattering components. Thus, I outline a scenario in which we acquire dedicated mono frequency data, allowing for more time to inject more of that single frequency energy at a reduced cost. The cost savings can be utilized to acquire larger offsets, which is an important for constraining the background model. Combing this single frequency data with a hierarchical scattering angle filter strategy in FWI, and potentially reection FWI, provides an opportunity to invert for complex models starting even with poor initial velocity models. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth to replace our focus on the image, which requires a band of frequencies.

  12. Comparison of weighting techniques for acoustic full waveform inversion (United States)

    Jeong, Gangwon; Hwang, Jongha; Min, Dong-Joo


    To reconstruct long-wavelength structures in full waveform inversion (FWI), the wavefield-damping and weighting techniques have been used to synthesize and emphasize low-frequency data components in frequency-domain FWI. However, these methods have some weak points. The application of wavefield-damping method on filtered data fails to synthesize reliable low-frequency data; the optimization formula obtained introducing the weighting technique is not theoretically complete, because it is not directly derived from the objective function. In this study, we address these weak points and present how to overcome them. We demonstrate that the source estimation in FWI using damped wavefields fails when the data used in the FWI process does not satisfy the causality condition. This phenomenon occurs when a non-causal filter is applied to data. We overcome this limitation by designing a causal filter. Also we modify the conventional weighting technique so that its optimization formula is directly derived from the objective function, retaining its original characteristic of emphasizing the low-frequency data components. Numerical results show that the newly designed causal filter enables to recover long-wavelength structures using low-frequency data components synthesized by damping wavefields in frequency-domain FWI, and the proposed weighting technique enhances the inversion results.

  13. Full waveform inversion with extrapolated low frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yunyue Elita


    The availability of low frequency data is an important factor in the success of full waveform inversion (FWI) in the acoustic regime. The low frequencies help determine the kinematically relevant, low-wavenumber components of the velocity model, which are in turn needed to avoid convergence of FWI to spurious local minima. However, acquiring data below 2 or 3 Hz from the field is a challenging and expensive task. In this paper we explore the possibility of synthesizing the low frequencies computationally from high-frequency data, and use the resulting prediction of the missing data to seed the frequency sweep of FWI. As a signal processing problem, bandwidth extension is a very nonlinear and delicate operation. It requires a high-level interpretation of bandlimited seismic records into individual events, each of which is extrapolable to a lower (or higher) frequency band from the non-dispersive nature of the wave propagation model. We propose to use the phase tracking method for the event separation task. The...

  14. Efficient scattering angle filtering for Full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Controlling the scattering angles between the state and the adjoint variables for the energy admitted into an inversion gradient or an image can help improve these functions for objectives in full waveform inversion (FWI) or seismic imaging. However, the access of the scattering angle information usually requires an axis extension that could be costly, especially in 3D. For the purpose of a scattering angle filter, I develop techniques that utilize the mapping nature (no domain extension) of the filter for constant-velocity background models to interpolate between such filtered gradients using the actual velocity. The concept has well known roots in the application of phase-shift-plus-interpolation utilized commonly in the downward continuation process. If the difference between the minimum and maximum velocity of the background medium is large, we obtain filtered gradients corresponding to more constant velocity backgrounds and use linear interpolation between such velocities. The accuracy of this approximation for the Marmousi model gradient demonstrates the e ectiveness of the approach.

  15. Velocity Building by Reflection Waveform Inversion without Cycle-skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang


    Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides estimation of low wavenumber model components using reflections generated from a migration/demigration process. The resulting model tends to be a good initial model for FWI. In fact, the optimization images to combine the migration velocity analysis (MVA) objectives (given here by RWI) and the FWI ones. However, RWI may still encounter cycle-skipping at far offsets if the velocity model is highly inaccurate. Similar to MVA, RWI is devoted to focusing reflection data to its true image positions, yet because of the cycle skipping potential we tend to initially use only near offsets. To make the inversion procedure more robust, we introduce the extended image into our RWI. Extending the model perturbations (or image) allows us to better fit the data at larger offsets even with an inaccurate velocity. Thus, we implement a nested approach to optimize the velocity and extended image simultaneously using the objective function of RWI. We slowly reduce the extension, as the image becomes focused, to allow wavepath updates from far offsets to near as a natural progression from long wavelength updates to shorter ones. Applications on synthetic data demonstrate the effectiveness of our method without much additional cost to RWI.

  16. 700-MHz switched-capacitor analog waveform sampling circuit (United States)

    Haller, Gunther M.; Wooley, Bruce A.


    Analog switched-capacitor memory circuits are suitable for use in a wide range of applications where analog waveforms must be captured or delayed, such as the recording of pulse echo events and pulse shapes. Analog sampling systems based on switched-capacitor techniques offer performance superior to that of flash A/D converters and charge-coupled devices with respect to cost, density, dynamic range, sampling speed, and power consumption. This paper proposes an architecture with which sampling frequencies of several hundred megahertz can be achieved using conventional CMOS technology. Issues concerning the design and implementation of an analog memory circuit based on the proposed architecture are presented. An experimental two-channel memory with 32 sampling cells in each channel has been integrated in a 2-micron CMOS technology with poly-to-poly capacitors. The measured nonlinearity of this prototype is 0.03% for a 2.5 V input range, and the memory cell gain matching is 0.01% rms. The dynamic range of the memory exceeds 12 b for a sampling frequency of 700 MHz. The power dissipation for one channel operated from a single + 5 V supply is 2 mW.

  17. Graph-Laplacian features for neural waveform classification. (United States)

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Papamichalis, Panos E; Spence, Larry


    Analysis of extracellular recordings of neural action potentials (known as spikes) is highly dependent upon the accuracy of neural waveform classification, commonly referred to as spike sorting. Feature extraction is an important stage of this process because it can limit the quality of clustering that is performed in the feature space. Principal components analysis (PCA) is the most commonly used feature extraction method employed for neural spike recordings. To improve upon PCA's feature extraction performance for neural spike sorting, we revisit the PCA procedure to analyze its weaknesses and describe an improved feature extraction method. This paper proposes a linear feature extraction technique that we call graph-Laplacian features, which simultaneously minimizes the graph Laplacian and maximizes variance. The algorithm's performance is compared with PCA and a wavelet-coefficient-based feature extraction algorithm on simulated single-electrode neural data. A cluster-quality metric is proposed to quantitatively measure the algorithm performance. The results show that the proposed algorithm produces more compact and well-separated clusters compared to the other approaches. © 2011 IEEE

  18. Multi-parameter full waveform inversion using Poisson

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    In multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI), the success of recovering each parameter is dependent on characteristics of the partial derivative wavefields (or virtual sources), which differ according to parameterisation. Elastic FWIs based on the two conventional parameterisations (one uses Lame constants and density; the other employs P- and S-wave velocities and density) have low resolution of gradients for P-wave velocities (or ). Limitations occur because the virtual sources for P-wave velocity or (one of the Lame constants) are related only to P-P diffracted waves, and generate isotropic explosions, which reduce the spatial resolution of the FWI for these parameters. To increase the spatial resolution, we propose a new parameterisation using P-wave velocity, Poisson\\'s ratio, and density for frequency-domain multi-parameter FWI for isotropic elastic media. By introducing Poisson\\'s ratio instead of S-wave velocity, the virtual source for the P-wave velocity generates P-S and S-S diffracted waves as well as P-P diffracted waves in the partial derivative wavefields for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of the cross-triangle-square (CTS) model indicate that the new parameterisation provides highly resolved descent directions for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of noise-free and noisy data synthesised for the elastic Marmousi-II model support the fact that the new parameterisation is more robust for noise than the two conventional parameterisations.

  19. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong


    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration velocity analysis (MVA), which usually relies on extended images. However, RFWI requires a good image to represent the current reflectivity, as well as, some effort to obtain good smooth gradients. We develop a spectral implementation of RFWI where the wavefield extrapolations and gradient evaluation are performed in the wavenumber domain, obtaining clean dispersion free and fast extrapolations. The gradient, in this case, yields three terms, two of which provide us with each side of the rabbit ear kernel, and the third, often ignored, provides a normalization of the reflectivity within the kernel, which can be used to obtain a reflectivity free background update. Since the image is imperfect (it is an adjoint, not an inverse), an optimization process for the third term scaling is implemented to achieve the smoothest gradient update. A rare application of RFWI on the reflectivity infested Marmousi model shows some of the potential of the approach.

  20. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which small scattering-angles of the gradient update are initially muted out. The model update hierarchical filtering strategy include applying varying degrees of filtering to the different anisotropic parameter updates, a feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using FWI and reflection-based FWI, when the modeled data are obtained with the single-scattering theory, allows access to additional low model wavenumber components. Combining such access to wavenumbers with scattering-angle filters applied to the individual parameter gradients allows for multiple strategies to avoid complex FWI nonlinearity as well as the parameter trade-off.

  1. Notes on the integration of numerical relativity waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisswig, Christian [Theoretical Astrophysics Including Relativity, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pollney, Denis, E-mail: [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca E-07122 (Spain)


    The primary goal of numerical relativity is to provide estimates of the wave strain, h, from strong gravitational wave sources, to be used in detector templates. The simulations, however, typically measure waves in terms of the Weyl curvature component, {psi}{sub 4}. Assuming Bondi gauge, transforming to the strain h reduces to integration of {psi}{sub 4} twice in time. Integrations performed in either the time or frequency domain, however, lead to secular nonlinear drifts in the resulting strain h. These nonlinear drifts are not explained by the two unknown integration constants which can at most result in linear drifts. We identify a number of fundamental difficulties which can arise from integrating finite length, discretely sampled and noisy data streams. These issues are an artifact of post-processing data. They are independent of the characteristics of the original simulation, such as gauge or numerical method used. We suggest, however, a simple procedure for integrating numerical waveforms in the frequency domain, which is effective at strongly reducing spurious secular nonlinear drifts in the resulting strain.

  2. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  3. Density reconstruction in multiparameter elastic full-waveform inversion (United States)

    Sun, Min’ao; Yang, Jizhong; Dong, Liangguo; Liu, Yuzhu; Huang, Chao


    Elastic full-waveform inversion (EFWI) is a quantitative data fitting procedure that recovers multiple subsurface parameters from multicomponent seismic data. As density is involved in addition to P- and S-wave velocities, the multiparameter EFWI suffers from more serious tradeoffs. In addition, compared with P- and S-wave velocities, the misfit function is less sensitive to density perturbation. Thus, a robust density reconstruction remains a difficult problem in multiparameter EFWI. In this paper, we develop an improved scattering-integral-based truncated Gauss–Newton method to simultaneously recover P- and S-wave velocities and density in EFWI. In this method, the inverse Gauss–Newton Hessian has been estimated by iteratively solving the Gauss–Newton equation with a matrix-free conjugate gradient algorithm. Therefore, it is able to properly handle the parameter tradeoffs. To give a detailed illustration of the tradeoffs between P- and S-wave velocities and density in EFWI, wavefield-separated sensitivity kernels and the Gauss–Newton Hessian are numerically computed, and their distribution characteristics are analyzed. Numerical experiments on a canonical inclusion model and a modified SEG/EAGE Overthrust model have demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively mitigate the tradeoff effects, and improve multiparameter gradients. Thus, a high convergence rate and an accurate density reconstruction can be achieved.

  4. Development MFER (Medical waveform Format Encoding Rules) parser. (United States)

    Kimura, Eizen; Norihiko, Tataishi; Ishihara, Ken


    The union of the diagnosis and treatment document and the accompanied inspection data is indispensable for the success of community health cooperation. Especially in the perinatal medicine we require the standardization of diagnosis document and the fetal cardiotocograph data. For diagnosis document, HL7CDA will be the leading solution, but for the fetal cardiotocograph, it does not show enough activity in the standardization. Moreover, the development of the tools and the application utilizes the standard is the key component to expand use of the standard. We have the idea that we describe the CTG data with MFER (Medical wave form Format Encoding Rule). MFER is the specialized in the description of medical waveform and it's generic design enables to apply to any medical wave pattern. There is a degree of freedom in the composition and the interpretation of the data structure in MFER. So we have developed MFER parser to ease the handling with MFER. In this paper, we introduce the implementation of the MFER parser and application to the CTG description with MFER format.

  5. Uterine artery blood flow velocity waveforms during uterine contractions. (United States)

    Li, H; Gudmundsson, S; Olofsson, P


    No quantitative or qualitative Doppler velocimetry classification of vascular flow resistance covering all stages of forward and reversed flows exists. The objective of this study was to characterize uterine artery (UtA) flow velocity waveforms (FVWs) obtained during an oxytocin challenge test (OCT) and compare them to FVWs in spontaneous normal labor. Uterine artery Doppler velocimetry was performed during and between uterine contractions in 61 high-risk pregnancies subjected to an OCT and in 20 normal pregnancies undergoing spontaneous labor. FVWs were classified relative to the presence of forward/absent/reversed flow during systole and diastole, and the time-averaged flow velocity over the heart cycle. Eleven different FVW classes were identified. No relationship between FVWs recorded during uterine inertia and contractions was found (P >/= 0.2). In both groups, only forward FVWs were recorded between contractions, whereas during contractions flow reversal was more common in the OCT group (P uterine contractions were not predicted by flow patterns recorded during uterine inertia. Reversal of flow direction was more common during oxytocin-induced uterine contractions than during spontaneous contractions. In cases of predominantly reversed flow, domains of the uterus may be supplied by blood from the contralateral UtA. These observations give new insights into the circulatory dynamics of the uterus during labor, and also point to a possible vasoconstrictory effect in the UtAs of oxytocin at high concentrations. Copyright 2003 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen


    Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...... to the same controller without LIDAR data. The results showed that the MPC with LIDAR was able to reduce the asymmetric loads compared to the MPC without LIDAR while still maintaining the power reference....

  7. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting


    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  8. Combined shear/compression structural testing of asymmetric sandwich structures


    Castanié, Bruno; Barrau, Jean-Jacques; Jaouen, Jean-Pierre; Rivallant, Samuel


    Asymmetric sandwich technology can be applied in the design of lightweight, non-pressurized aeronautical structures such as those of helicopters. A test rig of asymmetric sandwich structures subjected to compression/shear loads was designed, validated, and set up. It conforms to the standard certification procedure for composite aeronautical structures set out in the “test pyramid”, a multiscale approach. The static tests until failure showed asymmetric sandwich structures to be extremely res...

  9. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)


    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  10. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  11. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  12. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada


    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  13. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  14. Aqueous based asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor with a 2.4 V operating voltage (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn


    A novel asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor system leveraging the contributions of a Zn-CNT asymmetrical electrode and a KOH-H2SO4 dual-pH electrolyte was developed. The positive and negative electrodes operated in electrolytes with different pH, exploiting the maximum potential of both electrodes, which led to a cell voltage of 2.4 V. The potential tracking of both electrodes revealed that the Zn negative electrode could maintain a potential at -1.2 V, while the CNT positive electrode can be charged to +1.2 V without significant irreversible reactions. A bipolar ion exchange membrane has effectively separated the acid and alkaline from neutralization, which resulted in stable performance of the device with capacitance retention of 94% and coulombic efficiency of 99% over 10,000 cycles. This asymmetrical-bipolar design overcomes the thermodynamic limit of water decomposition, opening a new avenue towards high energy and high power density aqueous-based ECs.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — added ARCHIVE_STATUS, ,This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during the second Earth encounter. These...

  16. Full Waveform Modeling of Transient Electromagnetic Response Based on Temporal Interpolation and Convolution Method (United States)

    Qi, Youzheng; Huang, Ling; Wu, Xin; Zhu, Wanhua; Fang, Guangyou; Yu, Gang


    Quantitative modeling of the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response requires consideration of the full transmitter waveform, i.e., not only the specific current waveform in a half cycle but also the bipolar repetition. In this paper, we present a novel temporal interpolation and convolution (TIC) method to facilitate the accurate TEM modeling. We first calculate the temporal basis response on a logarithmic scale using the fast digital-filter-based methods. Then, we introduce a function named hamlogsinc in the framework of discrete signal processing theory to reconstruct the basis function and to make the convolution with the positive half of the waveform. Finally, a superposition procedure is used to take account of the effect of previous bipolar waveforms. Comparisons with the established fast Fourier transform method demonstrate that our TIC method can get the same accuracy with a shorter computing time.

  17. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for April, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002561) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  18. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for June, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002563) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  19. Robust constrained waveform design for MIMO radar with uncertain steering vectors (United States)

    Yu, Xianxiang; Cui, Guolong; Piezzo, Marco; Iommelli, Salvatore; Kong, Lingjiang


    This paper considers the robust waveform design of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to enhance targets detection in the presence of signal-dependent interferences assuming the knowledge of steering vectors is imprecise. Specifically, resorting to semidefinite programming (SDP)-related technique, we first maximize the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) over uncertain region to optimize waveform covariance matrix forcing a uniform elemental power requirement. Then, based on least square (LS) approach, we devise the waveform accounting for constant modulus and similarity constraints by the obtained waveform covariance matrix using cyclic algorithm (CA). Finally, we assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique through numerical simulations in terms of non-uniform point-like clutter and uniform clutter.

  20. Adaptive sparse-binary waveform design for all-spectrum channelization (United States)

    Sklivanitis, George; Markopoulos, Panos P.; Batalama, Stella N.; Pados, Dimitris A.


    We introduce maximum-SINR, sparse-binary waveforms that modulate data information symbols over the entire continuum of the available/device-accessible spectrum. We present an optimal algorithm that designs the proposed waveforms by maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the output of the maximum- SINR linear filter at the receiver. In addition, we propose a suboptimal, computationally-efficient algorithm. Simulation studies compare the proposed sparse-binary waveforms with their conventional non-sparse binary counterparts and demonstrate their superior SINR performance. The post-filtering SINR and bit-error rate (BER) improvements attained by the proposed waveforms are also experimentally verified in a software-defined radio testbed operating in multipath laboratory environment, in the presence of colored interference.

  1. Geosat Exact Repeat Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) (NODC Accession 0061150) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains waveform data records (WDRs) from the US Navy Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of November 08, 1986...

  2. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for May, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002365) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of May...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) edited full resolution data set includes all waveform data for the entire Cassini mission. This data set includes...

  4. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha


    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — added ARCHIVE_STATUS, ,This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during the first Earth encounter. These...

  6. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for January, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002558) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  7. Automatic blood pressure measurement: the oscillometric waveform shape is a potential contributor to differences between oscillometric and auscultatory pressure measurements. (United States)

    Amoore, John N; Lemesre, Yann; Murray, Ian C; Mieke, Stephan; King, Susan T; Smith, Fiona E; Murray, Alan


    To explore the differences between oscillometric and auscultatory measurements. From a simulator evaluation of a non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) device regenerating 242 oscillometric blood pressure waveforms from 124 subjects, 10 waveforms were selected based on the differences between the NIBP (oscillometric) and auscultatory pressure measurements. Two waveforms were selected for each of five criteria: systolic over and underestimation; diastolic over and underestimation; and close agreement for both systolic and diastolic pressures. The 10 waveforms were presented to seven different devices and the oscillometric-auscultatory pressure differences were compared between devices and with the oscillometric waveform shapes. Consistent patterns of waveform-dependent over and underestimation of systolic and diastolic pressures were shown for all seven devices. The mean and standard deviation, for all devices, of oscillometric-auscultatory pressure differences were: for the systolic overestimated waveforms, 36 +/- 28/-6 +/- 3 and 23 +/- 2/-1 +/- 3 mmHg (systolic/diastolic differences); for systolic underestimated waveforms, -21 +/- 5/-4 +/- 3 and -11 +/- 4/-3 +/- 3 mmHg; for diastolic overestimated waveforms, 3 +/- 4/12 +/- 5 and 17 +/- 6/10 +/- 2 mmHg; for diastolic underestimated waveforms, 1 +/- 4/-22 +/- 4 and -9 +/- 6/-29 +/- 4 mmHg; and for the two waveforms with good agreement, 0 +/- 6/0 +/- 3 and -2 +/- 4/-4 +/- 3 mmHg. Waveforms for which devices showed good oscillometric and auscultatory agreement had smooth envelopes with clearly defined peaks, compared with the broader plateau and complex shapes of those waveforms for which devices over or underestimated pressures. By increasing the understanding of the characteristics and limitations of the oscillometric method and the effects of waveform shape on pressure measurements, simulator evaluation should lead to improvements in NIBP devices.

  8. Full-waveform LiDAR echo decomposition based on wavelet decomposition and particle swarm optimization (United States)

    Li, Duan; Xu, Lijun; Li, Xiaolu


    To measure the distances and properties of the objects within a laser footprint, a decomposition method for full-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) echoes is proposed. In this method, firstly, wavelet decomposition is used to filter the noise and estimate the noise level in a full-waveform echo. Secondly, peak and inflection points of the filtered full-waveform echo are used to detect the echo components in the filtered full-waveform echo. Lastly, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to remove the noise-caused echo components and optimize the parameters of the most probable echo components. Simulation results show that the wavelet-decomposition-based filter is of the best improvement of SNR and decomposition success rates than Wiener and Gaussian smoothing filters. In addition, the noise level estimated using wavelet-decomposition-based filter is more accurate than those estimated using other two commonly used methods. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the proposed method that was compared with our previous method (called GS-LM for short). In experiments, a lab-build full-waveform LiDAR system was utilized to provide eight types of full-waveform echoes scattered from three objects at different distances. Experimental results show that the proposed method has higher success rates for decomposition of full-waveform echoes and more accurate parameters estimation for echo components than those of GS-LM. The proposed method based on wavelet decomposition and PSO is valid to decompose the more complicated full-waveform echoes for estimating the multi-level distances of the objects and measuring the properties of the objects in a laser footprint.

  9. Super-Resolution of Complex Exponentials from Modulations with Unknown Waveforms


    Yang, Dehui; Tang, Gongguo; Wakin, Michael B.


    Super-resolution is generally referred to as the task of recovering fine details from coarse information. Motivated by applications such as single-molecule imaging, radar imaging, etc., we consider parameter estimation of complex exponentials from their modulations with unknown waveforms, allowing for non-stationary blind super-resolution. This problem, however, is ill-posed since both the parameters associated with the complex exponentials and the modulating waveforms are unknown. To allevia...

  10. Revealing time-unlocked brain activity from MEG measurements by common waveform estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takeda

    Full Text Available Brain activities related to cognitive functions, such as attention, occur with unknown and variable delays after stimulus onsets. Recently, we proposed a method (Common Waveform Estimation, CWE that could extract such brain activities from magnetoencephalography (MEG or electroencephalography (EEG measurements. CWE estimates spatiotemporal MEG/EEG patterns occurring with unknown and variable delays, referred to here as unlocked waveforms, without hypotheses about their shapes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of CWE for cognitive neuroscience. For this purpose, we show procedures to estimate unlocked waveforms using CWE and to examine their role. We applied CWE to the MEG epochs during Go trials of a visual Go/NoGo task. This revealed unlocked waveforms with interesting properties, specifically large alpha oscillations around the temporal areas. To examine the role of the unlocked waveform, we attempted to estimate the strength of the brain activity of the unlocked waveform in various conditions. We made a spatial filter to extract the component reflecting the brain activity of the unlocked waveform, applied this spatial filter to MEG data under different conditions (a passive viewing, a simple reaction time, and Go/NoGo tasks, and calculated the powers of the extracted components. Comparing the powers across these conditions suggests that the unlocked waveforms may reflect the inhibition of the task-irrelevant activities in the temporal regions while the subject attends to the visual stimulus. Our results demonstrate that CWE is a potential tool for revealing new findings of cognitive brain functions without any hypothesis in advance.

  11. Investigation of Leakage Current Waveforms Recorded in a Coastal High Voltage Substation


    E. Thalassinakis; Pyrgioti, E.; K. Siderakis; D. Pylarinos; I. Vitellas


    Leakage current monitoring is a widely employed technique to monitor the performance of outdoor insulation. The evaluation of leakage current waveforms recorded in the field, offers significant information since insulation’s performance is strongly linked with local conditions, and the waveforms’ shape correlate to different types of surface activity. In this paper, an investigation of leakage current waveforms recorded in a 150 kV coastal Substations suffering which suffers inten...

  12. A comparison of DDS and DRFM techniques in the generation of "smart noise" jamming waveforms


    Watson, Charles Joffery


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a comparison of the effectiveness of 'smart noise' jamming waveforms against advanced threat radars, which are generated using either Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) or Digital RF Memory (DRFM) based support jamming. The challenge lies in the fact the modern radar employs advanced waveforms, ultralow sidelobe antennas, coherent sidelobe cancelers, and sidelobe blankers to inhibit signals entering through its sidelob...

  13. Design of an advanced intelligent instrument with waveform recognition based on the ITMS platform


    Arcas Castro, Guillermo de; López Navarro, Juan Manuel; Ruiz González, Mariano; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo; Vega, Jesús; Rattà, G.A.; Murari, Andrea


    Searching for similar behavior in previous data plays a key role in fusion research, but can be quite challenging to implement from a practical point of view. This paper describes the design of an intelligent measurement instrument that uses similar waveform recognition systems (SWRS) to extract knowledge from the signals it acquires. The system is perceived as an Ethernet measurement instrument that permits to acquire several waveforms simultaneously and to identity similar behaviors by sear...

  14. Stepwise compensation waveform generation by using Josephson voltage standards for joule balance (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua


    Flux linkage difference in the new joule balance can be obtained by the time integration of the induced voltage u(t) from the suspended coil relative to a moving magnet driven by a dc motor translation platform. Due to the finite acceleration of the dc motor, the transition and waveform of u(t) are finite and not regular. To accurately measure the time integration of u(t), a compensation waveform with precision time integration should be synthesized. In this paper, a stepwise compensation waveform is synthesized by a programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) according to u(t). The accuracy of measuring the stepwise waveform with multiple transitions can be improved by reducing the ratio of the time integrated value of the total transitions to the total waveform less than one part in 102 in the joule balance. The time integration of the rise/fall transition is measured by a synchronized reference square wave generated by another PJVS system. With the total time integration more than 20 Vs, the uncertainty of the generated stepwise waveform is within 5.2  ×  10-8 VsV-1s-1. The result confirms that the PJVS has the capability to generate a stepwise compensation voltage for flux linkage difference measurement.

  15. Utilization of multiple spinal cord stimulation (SCS) waveforms in chronic pain patients. (United States)

    Berg, Anthony P; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Goldberg, Edward; Huynh, Dat; Jain, Roshini


    Advances in spinal cord stimulation (SCS) have improved patient outcomes, leading to its increased utilization for chronic pain. Chronic pain is dynamic showing exacerbations, variable severity, and evolving pain patterns. Given this complexity, SCS systems that provide a broad range of stimulation waveforms may be valuable. The aim of this research was to characterize the usage pattern of stimulation waveforms and field shapes in chronic pain patients implanted with the Spectra System. A review of daily device usage in a cohort of 250 patients implanted for a minimum duration of one month was conducted. With follow-ups ranging between 1 month and 1 year post-implant, 72.8% of patients used Standard Rate, 34.8% Anode Intensification, 23.2% Higher Rate, and 8.4% Burst stimulation waveforms. Collectively, 60% used 1 or more advanced waveforms, either exclusively or along with Standard Rate. A trend showed patients continuing to use up to 3 programs one year post-implant. When given a choice, SCS patients often utilize a variety of waveforms, suggesting that patients may benefit from a single system that provides multiple waveforms and field shapes to customize therapy and improve efficacy.

  16. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)


    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  17. Unusual lightning electric field waveforms observed in Kathmandu, Nepal, and Uppsala, Sweden (United States)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath; Rakov, Vladimir A.


    Unusual lightning events have been observed in Uppsala, Sweden, and Kathmandu, Nepal, using essentially the same electric field measuring system developed at Uppsala University. They occurred in the storms that also generated ;normal; lightning events. The unusual events recorded in Uppsala occurred on one thunderstorm day. Similar events were observed in Kathmandu on multiple thunderstorm days. The unusual events were analyzed in this study assuming them to be positive ground flashes (+CGs), although we cannot rule out the possibility that some or most of them were actually cloud discharges (ICs). The unusual events were each characterized by a relatively slow, negative (atmospheric electricity sign convention) electric field waveform preceded by a pronounced opposite-polarity pulse whose duration was some tens of microseconds. To the best of our knowledge, such unusual events have not been reported in the literature. The average amplitudes of the opposite-polarity pulses with respect to those of the following main waveform were found to be about 33% in Uppsala (N = 31) and about 38% in Kathmandu (N = 327). The average durations of the main waveform and the preceding opposite-polarity pulse in Uppsala were 8.24 ms and 57.1 μs, respectively, and their counterparts in Kathmandu were 421 μs and 39.7 μs. Electric field waveforms characteristic of negative ground flashes (-CGs) were also observed, and none of them exhibited an opposite-polarity pulse prior to the main waveform. Possible origins of the unusual field waveforms are discussed.

  18. Effects of respiratory manoeuvres on hepatic vein Doppler waveform and flow velocities in a healthy population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinkaya, Naime, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Koc, Zafer, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Ulusan, Serife, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Demir, Senay, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Gurel, Kamil, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)


    Objective: This study was performed to determine the variations in Doppler waveforms and flow velocity during respiratory manoeuvres in healthy individuals with no liver disease. Materials and methods: In total, 100 individuals (75 women and 25 men) without known cardiac or liver disease were examined prospectively with duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US). We recorded the Doppler waveforms and peak systolic velocities (V{sub max}) of the middle hepatic vein during normal respiration, during breath-holding after quiet expiration and also during deep inspiration. Doppler waveforms are categorised as triphasic, biphasic or monophasic. Results: During normal respiration, hepatic venous waveforms were triphasic in 93% of subjects, monophasic in 6% and biphasic in 1%. During breath-holding after quiet expiration, the percentages were 91%, 6% and 3%, respectively. During deep inspiration, they were 80%, 18% and 2%, respectively. Although significant differences were noted between rates during deep inspiration and normal respiration, they were quite similar during normal respiration and breath-holding after quiet expiration (P < 0.05). The values of V{sub max} were significantly higher during normal respiration compared to quiet expiration and during quiet expiration compared to deep inspiration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The velocities and waveforms of hepatic veins varied during respiratory manoeuvres. The status of respiration must be taken into consideration whilst examining the hepatic vein waveforms and velocities with duplex Doppler US.

  19. A Custom-made MATLAB Based Software to Manage Leakage Current Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pylarinos


    Full Text Available Leakage current (LC monitoring is a widely employed tool for monitoring the performance of high voltage insulators. LC waveform monitoring is required to acquire a view of the phenomena experienced since the type of LC waveform’s shape is correlated with different types of electrical activity. In case of field monitoring, specially designed measuring systems, capable of operating under field conditions, have to be installed. The Greek Public Power Corporation (PPC has issued a large project for monitoring the performance of outdoor insulators. A commercially available LC measuring system, was purchased and installed by PPC. The system was able to monitor various outdoor insulators, record several statistical values and intermittently record a LC waveform. The provided software lacked some capabilities that were required for certain research areas and a custom made software had to be developed. In this paper, two stand-alone MATLAB based softwares, “Leakage Current Waveform File Converter” and “Leakage Current Waveform Viewer”, both equipped with a user friendly GUI, are presented. The first software was developed in order to automatically convert multiple files from the CSV format (as extracted from the measuring system to the MAT format in order to allow data compactness and further processing. The latter software was developed in order to offer a tool for collective viewing, printing and extraction to JPEG format, of LC waveforms in groups of user-defined numbers. The latter function gives the opportunity for easy and fast creation of waveform archives.

  20. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias


    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  1. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  2. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T


    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  3. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  4. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles]. (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B


    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  6. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  7. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis (United States)

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry


    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  8. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform. (United States)

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya


    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100-160ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160-200ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Koma


    Full Text Available Vegetation mapping in urban environments plays an important role in biological research and urban management. Airborne laser scanning provides detailed 3D geodata, which allows to classify single trees into different taxa. Until now, research dealing with tree classification focused on forest environments. This study investigates the object-based classification of urban trees at taxonomic family level, using full-waveform airborne laser scanning data captured in the city centre of Vienna (Austria. The data set is characterised by a variety of taxa, including deciduous trees (beeches, mallows, plane trees and soapberries and the coniferous pine species. A workflow for tree object classification is presented using geometric and radiometric features. The derived features are related to point density, crown shape and radiometric characteristics. For the derivation of crown features, a prior detection of the crown base is performed. The effects of interfering objects (e.g. fences and cars which are typical in urban areas on the feature characteristics and the subsequent classification accuracy are investigated. The applicability of the features is evaluated by Random Forest classification and exploratory analysis. The most reliable classification is achieved by using the combination of geometric and radiometric features, resulting in 87.5% overall accuracy. By using radiometric features only, a reliable classification with accuracy of 86.3% can be achieved. The influence of interfering objects on feature characteristics is identified, in particular for the radiometric features. The results indicate the potential of using radiometric features in urban tree classification and show its limitations due to anthropogenic influences at the same time.

  10. Frequency domain full-waveform inversion with nonlinear descent directions (United States)

    Geng, Yu; Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear inverse problem, normally solved iteratively, with each iteration involving an update constructed through linear operations on the residuals. Incorporating a flexible degree of nonlinearity within each update may have important consequences for convergence rates, determination of low model wavenumbers, and discrimination of parameters. We examine one approach for doing so, wherein higher-order scattering terms are included within the sensitivity kernel during the construction of the descent direction, adjusting it away from that of the standard Gauss-Newton approach. These scattering terms are naturally admitted when we construct the sensitivity kernel by varying not the current but the to-be-updated model at each iteration. Linear and/or nonlinear inverse scattering methodologies allow these additional sensitivity contributions to be computed from the current data residuals within any given update. We show that in the presence of pre-critical reflection data, the error in a second-order nonlinear update to a background of s0 is, in our scheme, proportional to at most (Δs/s0)3 in the actual parameter jump Δs causing the reflection. In contrast, the error in a standard Gauss-Newton FWI update is proportional to (Δs/s0)2. For numerical implementation of more complex cases, we introduce a nonlinear frequency-domain scheme, with an inner and an outer loop. A perturbation is determined from the data residuals within the inner loop, and a descent direction based on the resulting nonlinear sensitivity kernel is computed in the outer loop. We examine the response of this nonlinear FWI using acoustic single-parameter synthetics derived from the Marmousi model. The inverted results vary depending on data frequency ranges and initial models, but we conclude that the nonlinear FWI has the capability to generate high resolution model estimates in both shallow and deep regions, and to converge rapidly, relative to a

  11. Waveform inversion of surface waves at geotechnical scale (United States)

    Billien, M.; Maupin, V.


    The depth profile of the shear modulus in the Earth is commonly measured by analysing the dispersion of surface waves, and this at very different scales, from a few meters in geotechnique, to a few hundred km in seismology. In geotechnique, inverting seismograms for the shear modulus of the structure is a challenging problem due to the very large span of possible model parameters and to the highly non-linear relation between model and wavefield. We present here an analysis of how a global search algorithm can be used to solve this problem. The technique is based on comparing the data with complete synthetic seismograms and using a so-called neighbourhood algorithm to search in an efficient way for models which best fit the data. The synthetic seismograms are made in plane layered structures with the discrete wavenumber integration method. Multimode surface waves can be treated without extracting the modal dispersion curves, and models with decreasing velocity with depth can be analysed. The performance of the method is of course strongly dependent on the misfit function which is used to compare data and synthetics. In most cases, misfits calculated in the frequency domain lead to better results than misfits calculated in the time domain. Since the surface layers have a much larger influence on the waveforms than the parameters of the deeper layers, we found necessary to use the search algorithm in an iterative way, searching first for the velocity in the first layer, and then refining iteratively the profile with depth. Although global search methods with computation of full synthetic seismograms can of course not compete with linearised inversions of dispersion curves in terms of computation time, we show that they are feasible on an ordinary workstation in a reasonable amount of time, and can therefore be an alternative inversion method for complex datasets.

  12. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fournier

    Full Text Available Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters, we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data, and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  13. Full-waveform inversion using a nonlinearly smoothed wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan


    Conventional full-waveform inversion (FWI) based on the least-squares misfit function faces problems in converging to the global minimum when using gradient methods because of the cycle-skipping phenomena. An initial model producing data that are at most a half-cycle away from the observed data is needed for convergence to the global minimum. Low frequencies are helpful in updating low-wavenumber components of the velocity model to avoid cycle skipping. However, low enough frequencies are usually unavailable in field cases. The multiplication of wavefields of slightly different frequencies adds artificial low-frequency components in the data, which can be used for FWI to generate a convergent result and avoid cycle skipping. We generalize this process by multiplying the wavefield with itself and then applying a smoothing operator to the multiplied wavefield or its square to derive the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield, which is rich in low frequencies. The global correlation-norm-based objective function can mitigate the dependence on the amplitude information of the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Therefore, we have evaluated the use of this objective function when using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. The proposed objective function has much larger convexity than the conventional objective functions. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to that of the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. We progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the nonlinear wavefield to naturally adopt the multiscale strategy. Using examples on the Marmousi 2 model, we determine that the proposed FWI helps to generate convergent results without the need for low-frequency information.

  14. A new parameterization for waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil


    Orthorhombic anisotropic model inversion is extra challenging because of the multiple parameter nature of the inversion problem. The high number of parameters required to describe the medium exerts considerable trade-off and additional nonlinearity to a full-waveform inversion (FWI) application. Choosing a suitable set of parameters to describe the model and designing an effective inversion strategy can help in mitigating this problem. Using the Born approximation, which is the central ingredient of the FWI update process, we have derived radiation patterns for the different acoustic orthorhombic parameterizations. Analyzing the angular dependence of scattering (radiation patterns) of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the often used Thomsen-Tsvankin parameterization, we have assessed the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. The analysis led us to introduce new parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd, which have azimuthally dependent radiation patterns, but keep the scattering potential of the transversely isotropic parameters stationary with azimuth (azimuth independent). The novel parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, these deviation parameters offer a new parameterization style for an acoustic orthorhombic medium described by six parameters: three vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters, two deviation parameters, and one parameter describing the anisotropy in the horizontal symmetry plane. The main feature of any parameterization based on the deviation parameters, is the azimuthal independency of the modeled data with respect to the VTI parameters, which allowed us to propose practical inversion strategies based on our experience with the VTI parameters. This feature of the new parameterization style holds for even the long-wavelength components of

  15. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Model for Solute Activities of Asymmetric Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions. (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Dutcher, Cari S


    Adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic models can be used to determine solute concentration and solute and solvent activities in aqueous solutions. Recently, the number of adjustable parameters in the isotherm model of Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. A/C 2011, 2012, 2013 were reduced for neutral solutes as well as symmetric 1:1 electrolytes by using a Coulombic model to describe the solute-solvent energy interactions (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, Nandy et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2016). Here, the Coulombic treatment for symmetric electrolytes is extended to establish improved isotherm model equations for asymmetric 1-2 and 1-3 electrolyte systems. The Coulombic model developed here results in prediction of activities and other thermodynamic properties in multicomponent systems containing ions of arbitrary charge. The model is found to accurately calculate the osmotic coefficient over the entire solute concentration range with two model parameters, related to intermolecular solute-solute and solute-solvent spacing. The inorganic salts and acids treated here are generally considered to be fully dissociated. However, there are certain weak acids that do not dissociate completely, such as the bisulfate ion. In this work, partial dissociation of the bisulfate ion from sulfuric acid is treated as a mixture, with an additional model parameter that accounts for the dissociation ratio of the dissociated ions to nondissociated ions.

  16. Proposal of a general scheme to obtain room-temperature spin polarization in asymmetric antiferromagnetic semiconductors (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong


    Exploring magnetic semiconductors is one of the most important questions for spintronic applications. Although various solutions, such as dilute magnetic semiconductors, have been proposed, a practical spintronic device working at room temperature has not been realized. The key to address this issue is to find magnetic materials with both room-temperature magnetic ordering and large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level. Here, we predict a new concept of asymmetric antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (AAFMSs) with both features. The high temperature magnetic ordering originates from the AFM coupling between different transition metal ions with strong super-exchange interaction, whereas the large spin polarization around the Fermi energy level owes to d orbital mismatch among these ions. Through first-principles calculations, a family of double perovskites A2Cr M O6 (A =Ca ,Sr ,Ba , and M =Ru ,Os ) are predicted to be AAFMSs. This paper provides a way for developing spintronic devices working at room temperature.

  17. Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kee Sung; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Vijayakumar, M.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jian Z.; Persson, Kristin A.; Mueller, Karl T.


    The fundamental correlations between inter-molecular interactions, solvation structure and functionality of electrolytes are in many cases unknown, particularly for multi-component liquid systems. In this work, we explore such correlations by investigating the complex interplay between solubility and solvation structure for the electrolyte system comprising N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonimide (Fc1N112-TFSI) dissolved in a ternary carbonate solvent mixture using combined NMR relaxation and computational analyses. Probing the evolution of the solvent-solvent, ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions with an increase in solute concentration provides a molecular level understanding of the solubility limit of the Fc1N112-TFSI system. An increase in solute con-centration leads to pronounced Fc1N112-TFSI contact-ion pair formation by diminishing solvent-solvent and ion-solvent type interactions. At the solubility limit, the precipitation of solute is initiated through agglomeration of contact-ion pairs due to overlapping solvation shells.

  18. Gaussian Mixture Model with Variable Components for Full Waveform LiDAR Data Decomposition and RJMCMC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Quanhua


    Full Text Available Full waveform LiDAR data record the signal of the backscattered laser pulse. The elevation and the energy information of ground targets can be effectively obtained by decomposition of the full waveform LiDAR data. Therefore, waveform decomposition is the key to full waveform LiDAR data processing. However, in waveform decomposition, determining the number of the components is a focus and difficult problem. To this end, this paper presents a method which can automatically determine the number. First of all, a given full waveform LiDAR data is modeled on the assumption that energy recorded at elevation points satisfy Gaussian mixture distribution. The constraint function is defined to steer the model fitting the waveform. Correspondingly, a probability distribution based on the function is constructed by Gibbs. The Bayesian paradigm is followed to build waveform decomposition model. Then a RJMCMC (reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme is used to simulate the decomposition model, which determines the number of the components and decomposes the waveform into a group of Gaussian distributions. In the RJMCMC algorithm, the move types are designed, including updating parameter vector, splitting or merging Gaussian components, birth or death Gaussian component. The results obtained from the ICESat-GLAS waveform data of different areas show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and promising.

  19. Application of Iterative Noise-adding Procedures for Evaluation of Moment Distance Index for LiDAR Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas


    Full Text Available The new Moment Distance (MD framework uses the backscattering profile captured in waveform LiDAR data to characterize the complicated waveform shape and highlight specific regions within the waveform extent. To assess the strength of the new metric for LiDAR application, we use the full-waveform LVIS data acquired over La Selva, Costa Rica in 1998 and 2005. We illustrate how the Moment Distance Index (MDI responds to waveform shape changes due to variations in signal noise levels. Our results show that the MDI is robust in the face of three different types of noise—additive, uniform additive, and impulse. In effect, the correspondence of the MDI with canopy quasi-height was maintained, as quantified by the coefficient of determination, when comparing original to noise-affected waveforms. We also compare MDIs from noise-affected waveforms to MDIs from smoothed waveforms and found that windows of 1% to 3% of the total wave counts can effectively smooth irregularities on the waveform without risking of the omission of small but important peaks, especially those located in the waveform extremities. Finally, we find a stronger positive relationship of MDI with canopy quasi-height than with the conventional area under curve (AUC metric, e.g., r2 = 0.62 vs. r2 = 0.35 for the 1998 data and r2 = 0.38 vs. r2 = 0.002 for the 2005 data.

  20. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Hoseuk


    Although waveform inversion has been intensively studied in an effort to properly delineate the Earth\\'s structures since the early 1980s, most of the time- and frequency-domain waveform inversion algorithms still have critical limitations in their applications to field data. This may be attributed to the highly non-linear objective function and the unreliable low-frequency components. To overcome the weaknesses of conventional waveform inversion algorithms, the acoustic Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been proposed. The Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been known to provide a long-wavelength velocity model even for field data, which may be because it employs the zero-frequency component of the damped wavefield and a well-behaved logarithmic objective function. However, its applications have been confined to 2D acoustic media.We extend the Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm to a 2D acoustic-elastic coupled medium, which is encountered in marine exploration environments. In 2D acoustic-elastic coupled media, the Laplace-domain pressures behave differently from those of 2D acoustic media, although the overall features are similar to each other. The main differences are that the pressure wavefields for acoustic-elastic coupled media show negative values even for simple geological structures unlike in acoustic media, when the Laplace damping constant is small and the water depth is shallow. The negative values may result from more complicated wave propagation in elastic media and at fluid-solid interfaces.Our Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm is also based on the finite-element method and logarithmic wavefields. To compute gradient direction, we apply the back-propagation technique. Under the assumption that density is fixed, P- and S-wave velocity models are inverted from the pressure data. We applied our inversion algorithm to the SEG/EAGE salt model and the numerical results showed that the Laplace-domain waveform inversion