WorldWideScience

Sample records for astronomy including observations

  1. Observing Projects in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.

  2. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  3. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can

  4. Optical, infrared and radio astronomy from techniques to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

  5. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  6. Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Seymour, Percy

    2014-01-01

    With a blend of exciting discoveries and important scientific theory,this innovative and readable introduction to astronomy is ideal for anyone who wants to understand what we know about the universe,and how we know it. Each chapter starts with details of a method of jow astronomers over time have observed the world,and then uses this as a springboard to discuss what they discovered,and why this was important for understanding the cosmos. The last chapter,on dark matter,also focuses on the many things we don''t yet know - reminding us that astronomy,like this book,is a fast-paced and fascinati

  7. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  8. First Light Observations from the International Study of Astronomy Reasoning (ISTAR) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Bretones, Paulo S.; McKinnon, David; Schleigh, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    During the period between Fall 2014 and Summer 2015, the International Astronomical Union reorganized its structure to include the IAU Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The initial goals of that working group are 1) promoting Astronomy Education Research (AER) by adopting the international collaboration model used by astronomy researchers, 2) fostering international astronomy education and AER capacity through the development of networks, training and shared resources, and 3) improving astronomy education by describing research based approaches to the teaching and learning of astronomy. In support of those efforts, the working group began a collaboration with the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to develop the International Study of Astronomy Reasoning (ISTAR) Database, an online, searchable research tool, intended to catalog, characterize, and provide access to all known astronomy education research production, world-wide. Beginning in the Summer of 2015, a test of ISTAR's functionality began with a survey of a previously uncatalogued set of test objects: U.S.-based doctoral dissertations and masters. This target population was selected for its familiarity to the ISTAR developers, and for its small expected sample size (50-75 objects). First light observations indicated that the sample exceeded 300 dissertation objects. These objects were characterized across multiple variables, including: year of production, document source, type of resource, empirical methodology, context, informal setting type, research construct, type of research subject, scientific content, language, and nation of production. These initial observations provide motivation to extend this project to observe masters levels thesis, which are anticipated to be ten times more numerous as doctoral dissertations, other peer-reviewed contributions, contributions from the larger international community.

  9. A Proposed Astronomy Learning Progression for Remote Telescope Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Burrows, Andrea C.; French, Debbie A.; Sanchez, Richard A.; Tatge, Coty B.

    2014-01-01

    Providing meaningful telescope observing experiences for students who are deeply urban or distantly rural place-bound--or even daylight time-bound--has consistently presented a formidable challenge for astronomy educators. For nearly 2 decades, the Internet has promised unfettered access for large numbers of students to conduct remote telescope…

  10. Observing photons in space a guide to experimental space astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Culhane, J; Timothy, J; Wilhelm, Klaus; Zehnder, Alex

    2013-01-01

    An ideal resource for lecturers, this book provides a comprehensive review of experimental space astronomy. The number of astronomers whose knowledge and interest is concentrated on interpreting observations has grown substantially in the past decades; yet, the number of scientists who are familiar with and capable of dealing with instrumentation has dwindled.  All of the authors of this work are leading and experienced experts and practitioners who have designed, built, tested, calibrated, launched and operated advanced observing equipment for space astronomy. This book also contains concise information on the history of the field, supported by appropriate references. Moreover, scientists working in other fields will be able to get a quick overview of the salient issues of observing photons in any one of the various energy, wavelength and frequency ranges accessible in space. This book was written with the intention to make it accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

  11. Astronomy with a Budget Telescope An Introduction to Practical Observing

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    If you had purchased an inexpensive astronomical telescope a few years ago, disappointment would have been almost guaranteed. In current Internet age, times have changed and most (but not quite all) telescopes have been used to favorable results. Sir Patrick Moore, working with John Watson, has surveyed and tested the best and the worst of today's budget-priced astronomical telescopes. This new edition of Astronomy with a Budget Telescope is the result of their efforts. This book will show you how to recognize the good from the bad in observational ware with essential hints and tips on what to look for when buying both new and used telescopes. Updated and expanded, this latest edition includes budgeting tips for the new generation of digital cameras and 'go-to' telescopes. It provides a step-by-step guide to setting up your telescope, and how to observe the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Inside you'll find full-page finder charts and full-color images showing you what each object should loo...

  12. Astronomy Exercises for the Artist: van Gogh the Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of exercises designed to be used in a survey astronomy course, an introductory astronomy laboratory course, or in secondary education. The exercises use the great works of Vincent van Gogh but could

  13. ASTRONOMY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON ASTRONOMY ESTABLISHES (1) UNDERSTANDINGS AND ATTITUDES, (2) SKILLS, AND (3) CONCEPTS TO BE GAINED IN THE STUDY. THE OVERVIEW EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT. TOPICAL DIVISIONS ARE (1) THE EARTH, (2) THE MOON, (3) THE SUN, (4) THE SOLAR SYSTEM, (5) THE STARS, (6) THE UNIVERSE, AND (7) SPACE…

  14. Rotational spectroscopy and observational astronomy of prebiotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna Leigh

    It is now widely believed that prebiotic molecules were delivered to the early Earth by planetesimals and their associated interplanetary dust particles. Yet the formation pathways for these molecules are not clear. Amino acids and sugars have been found in carbonaceous chondrites, but only much simpler species have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Prebiotic organics could have formed in the ISM and been directly incorporated into planetesimals, or simpler species could have: formed in the ISM and then been incorporated into planetesimals, undergone further processing, and been delivered to Earth. Limits on interstellar chemistry must therefore be established through observational astronomy before potential prebiotic formation pathways can be assessed. These observations require laboratory spectroscopic investigation of the species of interest. This thesis is an interdisciplinary study involving laboratory rotational spectroscopy and astronomical observations of several key prebiotic molecules. The laboratory work has focused on obtaining the rotational spectra of the simplest three-carbon ketose sugar, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and its structural isomers methyl glycolate and dimethyl carbonate, as well as aminoethanol, the predicted interstellar precursor to alanine. The pure rotational spectral analysis of the low-lying torsional states of the simplest a-hydroxy aldehyde, glycolaldehyde, has also been completed. The original Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was used to obtain the microwave spectra, while both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Caltech direct absorption flow cell spectrometers were used for additional direct absorption millimeter and submillimeter studies. The results of these laboratory experiments were used to guide observational searches with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the Owens Valley Millimeter Array; and the Green Bank Telascope toward the hot core sources Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion Hot Core

  15. Astronomy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  16. Astronomy at the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature an interdisciplinary activity: it involves mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and often develop) the latest technology, the fastest computers and the most refined software.  In this book twenty-two leading scientists from nine countries talk about how astronomy interacts with these other sciences. They describe modern instruments used in astronomy and the relations between astronomy and technology, industry, politics and philosophy. They also discuss what it means to be an astronomer, the history of astronomy, and the place of astronomy in society today.   The book contains twenty chapters grouped in four parts: ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS discusses the place of astronomy among various branches of (mostly high-energy) physics. ASTRONOMY IN SOCIETY describes not only the historical context of astronomy, but issues facing astronomers today, including funding, planning, worldwide collaboration and links with industry. THE TOOLS OF OBSERVATION AND THE PROFESSION OF AS...

  17. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  18. US and Turkish Preschoolers' Observational Knowledge of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Smith, Mandy McCormick; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to describe and compare US and Turkish children's observational knowledge of the day and night cycle and to identify similarities predicted by framework theory. Fifty-six (27 US and 29 Turkish) young children (ages 48-60 months) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were individually…

  19. Astronomical Observations Astronomy and the Study of Deep Space

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Our Search for knowledge about the universe has been remarkable, heartbreaking, fantastical, and inspiring, and this search is just beginning. Astronomical Observations is part of a 7 book series that takes readers through a virtual time warp of our discovery. From the nascent space programs of the 1960's to today's space tourism and the promise of distant planet colonization, readers will be transfixed. Throughout this journey of the mind, Earth-bound explorers gain keen insight into the celestial phenomena that have fascinated humans for centuries. Thrilling narratives about indefatigable sc

  20. The Universe Observing Center a modern center to teach and communicate astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Salvador J.

    2011-06-01

    The Universe Observing Center is one of the parts of the Parc Astronòmic Montsec (PAM). PAM is an initiative of the Catalan government, through the Consorci del Montsec (Montsec Consortium), to take advantage of the capabilities and potential of the Montsec region to develop scientific research, training and outreach activities, particularly in the field of Astronomy. The choice of the Montsec mountains to install the PAM was motivated by the magnificent conditions for observing the sky at night; the sky above Montsec is the best (natural sky free of light pollution) in Catalonia for astronomical observations. The PAM has two main parts: the Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM) and the Universe Observing Center (COU). The OAdM is a professional observatory with an 80-cm catadioptric telescope (Joan Oró Telescope). This telescope is a robotic telescope that can be controlled from anywhere in the world via the Internet. The COU is a large multipurpose center which is intended to become an educational benchmark for teaching and communicate astronomy and other sciences in Catalonia. The management of the COU has three main goals: 1) Teach primary and secondary school students in our Educational Training Camp. 2) Teach university students housing the practical astronomy lectures of the universities. 3) Communicate astronomy to the general public. The COU comprises special areas for these purposes: the Telescopes Park with more than 20 telescopes, a coelostat for solar observations and two dome containing full-automated telescopes. The most special equipment is ``The Eye of Montsec'', with its 12m dome containing a multimedia digital planetarium and a platform for direct observation of the sky and the environment. During 2009 we expect around 10000 visitors in Montsec area to enjoy science with Montsec dark skies and an special natural environment.

  1. Astronomy 101 Students Learning How Science Works by Writing Credible Observing Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.

    2003-12-01

    Teachers of general-audience science courses, astronomy department chairs, and K-12 standards-writing committees all agree that student understanding of the scientific habits of mind is one important goal of any science course. This paper reports the successful use of a problem-based learning approach where students asked to choose the next step in an observational astronomy research program. The course, "Black Holes and Cosmic Evolution," is a rather unusual version of Astronomy 101 which spends the first three weeks on the ways that astronomers search for black holes. The 136 students were given a list of black hole candidates (from Bailyn et al., ApJ 499, 368) and asked to work in groups of 4-5 to choose and justify one for further observations. They learned and used error analysis. They determined the X-ray properties of these objects with an on-line x-ray survey (http://skyview.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The group product was a paper that was, essentially, a standard NOAO observing proposal. The University of Delaware's access to telescopes through its newly-acquired membership in the SMARTS consortium (http://phoenix.astro.yale.edu/smarts/) provided some motivation. In short, these students, none of whom are science majors, were challenged to act like real observational astronomers. Some guidance was provided by the instructor and two undergraduate TA's. Did they rise to the challenge or did they flounder? They succeeded. All 30 groups presented credible papers. Several A-plus papers were so good that they could make up most of an actual observing proposal. A follow-up exam tested students' understanding of underlying concepts (e.g., using Kepler's Laws to analyze binary stars). The average score on these test questions was 89.2 (n=133). We plan to use some SMARTS time to observe student-selected targets. This research has been supported by the Distinguished Teaching Scholars program of the National Science Foundation (DUE-0308557).

  2. Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

  3. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  4. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  5. Planck's High Temperature Catastrophe in Observational Astronomy:- (NASA proves Planck wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-03-01

    Planck's black body radiation law ( IP=c1 λ^51e^c2λT -1) predicts that a hotter body (higher T) should always emit more intensely than a colder body (lower T) throughout the entire EMR spectrum. However, space age infrared astronomy contradicts this prediction! It is now known that as observation moves from the visible to the near-, mid- and far infrared; increasingly cold celestial objects come into view while hotter ones fade and disappear (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmicclassroom/irtutori al/irregions.html). Were Planck's law valid, the hottest stars would never disappear; and colder objects would not be detected. This can only be described as a high temperature catastrophe (BAPS, April Meeting 2008, H12.3, St Louis, MO) for Planck's law! On the other hand, Gall's black body radiation law ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb) (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) predicts that as wavelength increases, there is a crossover point above which a colder object will emit more intensely than a hotter one. Hence colder objects will appear and hotter ones will eventually disappear from view. The crossover point for black bodies at 6000K and 100K is 12.066 microns. These calculations with Gall's law are in overall agreement with observational infrared astronomy.

  6. Visual astronomy under dark skies a new approach to observing deep space

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Modern astronomical telescopes, along with other advances in technology, have brought the deep sky - star clusters, nebulae and the galaxies - within reach of amateur astronomers. And it isn't even necessary to image many of these deep-sky objects in order to see them; they are within reach of visual observers using modern techniques and enhancement technology. The first requirement is truly dark skies; if you are observing from a light-polluted environment you need Tony Cooke's book, Visual Astronomy in the Suburbs. Given a site with clear, dark night skies everything else follows… this book will provide the reader with everything he needs to know about what to observe, and using some of today's state-of-the-art technique and commercial equipment, how to get superb views of faint and distant astronomical objects.

  7. Observations of an indigenous Hawaiian planetarium operator: Astronomy content knowledge of Hawaiian school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children’s understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu’s, or teacher’s questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.

  8. Astronomy Behind Enemy Lines in Colonial North America: John Winthrop's Observations of the Transits of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    In May 1761, John Winthrop packed up two students, an excellent clock, an octant, and two telescopes, and embarked for Newfoundland to observe the Transit of Venus. Winthrop's departure was hasty. Only days before had the President and Fellows of Harvard College approved Professor Winthrop's request to take the college apparatus behind enemy lines to serve the cause of science, and Winthrop knew he had no time to waste if he were to reach Newfoundland and properly calibrate his equipment before the Transit. Winthrop's expedition to St. John's, Newfoundland was nothing short of remarkable. His goal was to help determine the distance from the Earth to the Sun, and he was the only North American astronomer fit for this project. His expedition was financed by the General Court of Massachusetts, which also secured him safe passage across enemy lines during the French and Indian War. Winthrop's trip to St. John's was a major achievement for colonial astronomy, but he was unhappy with his observations and so looked forward to a second chance to observe a transit in 1769. Benjamin Franklin urged him to go to Lake Superior. Planning for that transit was thwarted, however, by two events: (1) the loss of nearly all of Harvard's apparatus in a fire of 1764; and (2) pre-Revolutionary politics in the American colonies. In the end, Winthrop was forced to content himself with first-class observations with new instruments in Cambridge.

  9. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North

  10. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  11. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  12. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy

  13. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  14. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  15. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  16. Astronomy for older eyes a guide for aging backyard astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2017-01-01

    This book is for the aging amateur astronomy population, including newcomers to astronomy in their retirement and hobbyists who loved peering through a telescope as a child. Whether a novice or an experienced observer, the practice of astronomy differs over the years. This guide will extend the enjoyment of astronomy well into the Golden Years by addressing topics such as eye and overall health issues, recommendations on telescope equipment, and astronomy-related social activities especially suited for seniors. Many Baby-Boomers reaching retirement age are seeking new activities, and amateur astronomy is a perfect fit as a leisure time activity. Established backyard astronomers who began their love of astronomy in their youth , meanwhile, may face many physical and mental challenges in continuing their lifelong hobby as they age beyond their 55th birthdays. That perfect telescope purchased when they were thirty years old now suddenly at sixty years old feels like an immovable object in the living room. The 20...

  17. Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy With Comprehensive Development of the Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This book presents experiments which will teach physics relevant to astronomy. The astronomer, as instructor, frequently faces this need when his college or university has no astronomy department and any astronomy course is taught in the physics department. The physicist, as instructor, will find this intellectually appealing when faced with teaching an introductory astronomy course. From these experiments, the student will acquire important analytical tools, learn physics appropriate to astronomy, and experience instrument calibration and the direct gathering and analysis of data. Experiments that can be performed in one laboratory session as well as semester-long observation projects are included. This textbook is aimed at undergraduate astronomy students.

  18. UC Berkeley's Celebration of the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. E.; Croft, S.; Silverman, J. M.; Klein, C.; Modjaz, M.

    2010-08-01

    We present the astronomy outreach efforts undertaken for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 at the University of California, Berkeley. Our department-wide endeavors included a monthly public lecture series by UC Berkeley astronomers and a major astronomy outreach event during a campus-wide university "open house," which included solar observing and a Starlab Planetarium. In addition to sharing our outreach techniques and outcomes, we discuss some of our unique strategies for advertising our events to the local community.

  19. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

  20. Recent results and observational status of TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnle, A

    2001-01-01

    TeV gamma-ray astronomy has come of age in the last ten years: there are several well-established and well-studied sources in the TeV sky; presently there are nine imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope (IACT) facilities and several next-generation instruments coming online 2001 to 2004 with an order of magnitude improved sensitivity and lower energy threshold. Solar farm experiments have already demonstrated energy thresholds of 50 GeV, and large field-of-view and high duty cycle detectors exist to monitor bright transients and search for gamma-ray burst emission.

  1. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  2. Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunli

    Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

  3. Light Pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia: An Observational Project for Introductory Astronomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.; VSU Astronomy Students Team

    2000-12-01

    A long-term study of light pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia has been initiated as a collaborative project among students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses at Valdosta State University. A single honors student began the project in Spring 2000; during the Fall 2000 semester all students enrolled in ASTR 1020K (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students were provided with charts showing the appearance of the constellations Cygnus, Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Orion (as appropriate) at limiting magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 in 0.5-magnitude steps. On clear, moonless nights students compared the visual appearance of these constellations to the charts, allowing them to determine a limiting magnitude for their location. Preliminary results suggest that, even on the clearest nights, stars fainter than magnitude 5.0 are not visible from any location within Lowndes County. This limitation results largely from ambient light from Valdosta, the only urban area within the county, and also from atmospheric extinction in a region of high humidity. By participating in this exercise, students in a class traditionally populated by non-science majors gain an appreciation for the collaborative nature of modern science. They also become familiar more familiar with the night sky than they might were their exposure limited to the traditional two-hour weekly laboratory session. Most importantly, as young adults they experience first-hand the deleterious effects of light intrusion upon their enjoyment of the night sky!

  4. Syllabus Computer in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important and actual subjects and training courses in the curricula for undergraduate level students at the National university of Uzbekistan is ‘Computer Methods in Astronomy’. It covers two semesters and includes both lecture and practice classes. Based on the long term experience we prepared the tutorial for students which contain the description of modern computer applications in astronomy.The main directions of computer application in field of astronomy briefly as follows:1) Automating the process of observation, data acquisition and processing2) Create and store databases (the results of observations, experiments and theoretical calculations) their generalization, classification and cataloging, working with large databases3) The decisions of the theoretical problems (physical modeling, mathematical modeling of astronomical objects and phenomena, derivation of model parameters to obtain a solution of the corresponding equations, numerical simulations), appropriate software creation4) The utilization in the educational process (e-text books, presentations, virtual labs, remote education, testing), amateur astronomy and popularization of the science5) The use as a means of communication and data transfer, research result presenting and dissemination (web-journals), the creation of a virtual information system (local and global computer networks).During the classes the special attention is drawn on the practical training and individual work of students including the independent one.

  5. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  6. Handbook of Practical Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Günter D

    2009-01-01

    With amateurs, students, and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges particularly in mind, the Handbook of Practical Astronomy is an essential source to demonstrate trends and variety of astronomical observations. The book presents the substance of celestial bodies for the amateur observer: the planets, the stars, and the galaxies. The sun is the local link to the other stars, the nexus of cosmic evolution. The solar system is made up by the sun and all the celestial bodies orbit it. This system is of special interest for the observing amateur. The Handbook of Practial Astronomy spans astronomy, education and computing. Like many other fields of science, astronomy has become digitized and data rich in recent years. Besides the references at the end of each chapter, there are the notes in the margins with astronomical news and observing highlights on the web.

  7. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  8. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  9. Astronomy, space science and geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.-L.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy has played a major part in the development of civilisations, not only through conceptual developments, but most importantly through the very practical gains obtained through the observation of Sun, Moon planets and stars. Space sciences, including astronomy, have also played a major rôle in the development of modern societies, as an engine for most subsequent space technology developments. Present trends tend to decrease the rôle of science in space development. This trend should be reversed to give modern ``societies'' their independence in space-related matters that permeate the lives of all inhabitants of the Earth.

  10. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  11. EDITORIAL: `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mario; Jenet, Fredrick; Mohanty, Soumya

    2009-10-01

    The 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico on the 19-22 January 2009. This annual event has become the established venue for presenting and discussing new results and techniques in this crucial subfield of gravitational wave astronomy. A major attraction of the event is that scientists working with all possible instruments gather to discuss their projects and report on the status of their observations. The Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the University of Texas at Brownsville, USA (a National Aeronautics and Space Administration University Research Center and a National Science Foundation Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology) jointly with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (which operates the Arecibo Observatory) were the proud sponsors of the gathering this time. As in previous years, GWDAW13 was well attended by more than 100 participants from over 10 countries worldwide As this issue is going to press GEO, LIGO and VIRGO are undergoing new scientific runs of their instruments with the LIGO detectors holding the promise of increasing their operational sensitivity twofold as compared with the observations finished a couple of years ago. This new cycle of observations is a major milestone compared to the previous observations which have been accomplished. Gravitational waves have not been observed yet, but the instrumental sensitivity achieved has started producing relevant astrophysical results. In particular, very recently (Nature, 20 August 2009) a letter from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration http://www.ligo.org and the VIRGO Collaboration http://www.virgo.infn.it has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where current gravitational wave detectors can observe. These results have put new constraints on the physical characteristics of the early universe. The proximity

  12. Estimate of the Chinese astronomy development through the descriptions of nova observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickiforov, Mihael G.

    More than a hundred descriptions of guest stars observations made by Chinese, Korean and Japanese astronomers from 6th till 17th centuries are examined in this work. The comparison of the distribution of star outbursts on galactic latitudes from the Chinese sources with the modern data casts doubt on the reliability of the ancient observations. The text analysis shows that the technique of the descriptions of the places of outbursts of new stars does not change from the first ancient observations till the 16th century. This is a sign of a lack of precise instrumental measurements until the arrival of the Jesuits, in 16th century, and of a lack of Chinese star catalog in the medieval China.

  13. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

  14. Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916). 100 Years of Observational Astronomy and Astrophysics - A collection of papers on the history of Observational Astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Hearnshaw, J. B.

    2001-10-01

    This book results from presentations and discussions by a group of astronomers and historians during a three-day workshop held at Tihany (Hungary), on 13-15 August 1999. This meeting - the second forum dedicated to the rise of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century - coincided with the centenary of Hungary's national observatory. The basic principle of this series of meetings is to reflect on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. The series focuses on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working, that has in turn formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today. Hence the evocation of the scientific spirit of the era under consideration is attempted. Such a leading key person undoubtedly was Miklós Konkoly Thege. A superb instrumentalist and observer, Konkoly became the founding father of Hungarian astronomy through the establishment of his private observatory that later became the Royal Hungarian Ógyalla Observatory, the precursor of the modern Konkoly Observatory. The workshop was organized at the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Konkoly Observatory. The book outlines five major themes. The first part describes the birth of observational astrophysics in Hungary and focuses on historical aspects of 19th century Hungarian astronomy from three different viewpoints: the historical narrative based on historical facts, the perspective as seen by an expert in historical instrumentation, and a discussion of the socio-political consequences of nineteenth-century developments for our present times. The second part analyses the birth of observational astrophysics in countries with which Konkoly and his collaborators had close contacts: Japan, South Africa and France. The third part of the book discusses the establishment of the discipline of photometry worldwide. An important aspect of 19th

  15. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  16. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  17. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  18. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  19. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  20. Weird Astronomy Tales of Unusual, Bizarre, and Other Hard to Explain Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A.J

    2011-01-01

    You go out for a night’s observing and look up at the sky. There are all the usual suspects—a splattering of stars, the Moon, Venus, maybe Mercury and Mars. Perhaps you can identify some of the constellations. If you are using binoculars or a small telescope, you can see many wonders not revealed to the naked eye but still well known to telescope users for centuries. But what if you look up and see something completely new, something unexplainable. Do your eyes deceive you? Are you really seeing what you think you are seeing? What should you do? In this fascinating account of the many oddball things people – from novice astronomers to certified experts – have observed over the years, you will be introduced to a number of unusual – and sometimes still unexplainable – phenomena occurring in our usually familiar and reassuring skies. What exactly did they see? What discoveries followed these unusual sightings? What remains unexplained? In addition to the accounts, you will find scattered throughout t...

  1. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  2. ZTF Undergraduate Astronomy Institute at Caltech and Pomona College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Bryan Edward; Bellm, Eric Christopher

    2017-01-01

    From the new Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), an NSF funded project based at Caltech, comes a new initiative for undergraduate research known as the Summer Undergraduate Astronomy Institute. The Institute brings together 15-20 students from across the world for an immersive experience in astronomy techniques before they begin their summer research projects. The students are primarly based at Caltech in their SURF program but also includes a large cohort of students enrolled in research internships at Pomona College in nearby Claremont CA. The program is intended to introduce students to research techniques in astronomy, laboratory and computational technologies, and to observational astronomy. Since many of the students are previously computer science or physics majors with little astronomy experience, this immersive experience has been extremely helpful for enabling students to learn about the terminologies, techniques and technologies of astronomy. The field trips to the Mount Wilson and Palomar telescopes deepen their knowledge and excitement about astronomy. Lectures about astronomical research from Caltech staff scientists and graduate students also provide context for the student research. Perhaps more importantly, the creation of a cohort of like-minded students, and the chance to reflect about careers in astronomy and research, give these students opportunities to consider themselves as future research scientists and help them immensely as they move forward in their careers. We discuss some of the social and intercultural aspects of the experience as well, as our cohorts typically include international students from many countries and several students from under-represented groups in science.

  3. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  4. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...

  5. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  6. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  7. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  8. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  9. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  10. ACDA Thirty Years of Popularization of Astronomy in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, W.; Higuera-G., Mario A.

    2017-07-01

    The Colombian Association of Astronomical Studies (ACDA) is a Non Profit Organization with thirty years of permanent efforts for the popularization of astronomy and related sciences in Colombia. ACDA put together amateur and profesional astronomers, as well as interested people. We surely had left a footprint on uncountable number of attending people to our activities, members and former members, and have supported the process of building a new society, with more awareness on the importance of science. We devote our efforts to our members and general people, to keep them motivated, support them and follow each member own interests in order to expand and spread their knowledge. In order to achieve our goals we have develop several strategies as: acquire of didactic material and optical instruments, video projections and discussion, astronomical observations, visits to observatories and planetariums, attending conferences and events, and mainly a weekly Saturday morning talk at the Bogotá Planetarium. ACDA has had different study teams on several fields including: Planetary Systems, Astrobiology, Space Exploration, Cosmology, History of Astronomy and Radioastronomy. ACDA has a national brandname on Astronomy due to seriousness and quality of its projects. A good list of members have become profesional astronomers. From our experience we can say: astronomy is a fertile field to teach science, in general there is an absence of astronomy culture in the public, our best communication experience are astronomical observations, explained astronomy movies and colloquiums, our best public are kids and aged people and finally, social networks gave dynamics to our astronomy spreading initiative.

  11. A dictionary of Astronomy for the French Sign Language (LSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Dominique; Abbou, Daniel; Chab, Nasro

    2011-06-01

    Since a few years, the french deaf communauty have access to astronomy at Paris-Meudon observatory through a specific teaching adapted from the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Françcaise, LSF) including direct observations with the observatory telescopes. From this experience, an encyclopedic dictionary of astronomy The Hands in the Stars is now available, containing more than 200 astronomical concepts. Many of them did not existed in Sign Language and can be now fully expressed and explained.

  12. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  13. Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2015-08-01

    We review the expanding, internet-enabled, and rapidly evolving field of citizen astronomy, focusing on research projects in stellar, extragalactic, and planetary science that have benefited from the participation of members of the public. These volunteers contribute in various ways: making and analyzing new observations, visually classifying features in images and light curves, exploring models constrained by astronomical data sets, and initiating new scientific enquiries. The most productive citizen astronomy projects involve close collaboration between the professionals and amateurs involved and occupy scientific niches not easily filled by great observatories or machine learning methods: Citizen astronomers are motivated by being of service to science, as well as by their interest in the subject. We expect participation and productivity in citizen astronomy to increase, as data sets get larger and citizen science platforms become more efficient. Opportunities include engaging citizens in ever-more advanced analyses and facilitating citizen-led enquiry through professional tools designed with citizens in mind.

  14. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars - 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded outreach program at parks during and after concerts and family events - a Halloween Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience - music lovers who attend summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500 - 16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of NY assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS club assisted at Tanglewood. 1500 people looked through telescopes at the Halloween program (6000 saw the posters). In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in these astronomy activities which were attended by

  15. Astronomy Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  16. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  17. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  18. Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

  19. Python in Astronomy 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Tim; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik; Mumford, Stuart; Cruz, Kelle

    2016-04-01

    The second Python in Astronomy conference will be held from 21-25 March 2016 at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle, WA, USA. Similarly to the 2015 meeting (which was held at the Lorentz Center), we are aiming to bring together researchers, Python developers, users, and educators. The conference will include presentations, tutorials, unconference sessions, and coding sprints. In addition to sharing information about state-of-the art Python Astronomy packages, the workshop will focus on improving interoperability between astronomical Python packages, providing training for new open-source contributors, and developing educational materials for Python in Astronomy. The meeting is therefore not only aimed at current developers, but also users and educators who are interested in being involved in these efforts.

  20. Teaching Astronomy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, Mary L.; Bobrowsky, Matthew

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and equal access to college by such groups as the military, the handicapped, full-time employees, and rural and senior citizens. Teaching the sciences online--especially astronomy--gives students more time to think critically about new information. This article also includes tools, checklists, and resources helpful for introducing faculty to online course development in astronomy.

  1. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  2. From astronomy to Nature Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Leaving academia was hard, but becoming an editor for Nature Astronomy has been an unexpected delight. That is not to say it is a bed of roses; rather it is the variety and complexity of the challenges of the job that make it so enjoyable.

  3. Chinese Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomy has been a subject of interest to Chinese people since ancient times. As early as the sixteenth century BC, a supernova was recorded on an animal bone used in divination. In ancient China, the main mission for astronomers was to determine the farming seasons and to predict important events for the future according to the phenomena that appeared in the sky. In the minds of rulers in anci...

  4. Chaco astronomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  5. Astronomy Teacher Training: Towards Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddoli, Consuelo

    2008-05-01

    The Direccion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia is part of Mexico's National University; its purpose is science outreach. Most of its activities are dedicated to school level audiences; nevertheless due to the speed of science development, courses are given for teachers. The astronomy curricula includes: new results in astronomy research, general astrophysics and tools to teach astronomy. The courses offer twelve two hour long sessions. An astronomy researcher delivers a lecture and teachers are trained to use hands on activity. Beginning last in 2007 it has focused on Galileo. It addressed the way he was modern scientist, he observed and made experiments and wrote his results in common language. Year 2009 is a perfect incentive to carry out activities with teachers and keep them busy organizing telescope construction and observations during and after Galileo's commemoration. A book was written specially for them on the experiments Galileo made. In this book they can find interesting hand-on activities with materials that are readily available. (Los experimentos de Galileo, Silvia Torres y Consuelo Doddoli, Correo del Maestro, 2008, in press.) The magazine Correo del Maestro holds many articles written by the author on astronomical activities aimed to teachers.

  6. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar) Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of the Williams-MIT Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.; Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.; Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.

    2013-10-01

    The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather) unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4 July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts, 23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15 June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip; and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF

  8. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  9. Software systems for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Albert R

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the use and development of software for astronomy. It describes the control systems used to point the telescope and operate its cameras and spectrographs, as well as the web-based tools used to plan those observations. In addition, the book also covers the analysis and archiving of astronomical data once it has been acquired. Readers will learn about existing software tools and packages, develop their own software tools, and analyze real data sets.

  10. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...

  11. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  12. Training in Astronomy for Physics Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, we describe what we have done with regard to astronomy training for physics students. More and more students are interested in astronomy, they spend their summer holidays and spare time in observations and studying the observation data. Some students are familiar with using the ...

  13. Starship Asterisk: APOD and General Astronomy Discussion Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A main discussion venue for the popular Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website has been recently redesigned and upgraded. The online bulletin board is directly linked from the bottom of recent APODs served from http://apod.nasa.gov/ . Formerly known as "The Asterisk," the site's new design is called "Starship Asterisk" and now declares its forums to be places on a starship, with the current APOD considered as appearing on the main view screen on the Bridge. A central "mission" of Starship Asterisk is to support APOD in various ways. Toward this end, the Bridge forum exists primarily for the (archived) discussion of that day's APOD, the Observation Deck forum facilitates APOD image submissions, and the Library creates a forum where no student question about astronomy is considered to be too easy or too hard. Additionally, Starship Asterisk now includes an astronomy news-oriented links forum titled the Communications Center, a citizen science-oriented links collection called the Science Labs, and classrooms including a free online, textbook-free Astro 101 course, taught by the author, complete with video lectures and powerpoint slides. Typically, over 1,000 astronomy enthusiasts will browse Starship Asterisk on any given day. Although the vast majority of readers prefer to browse anonymously, the site has now garnered over 60,000 posts. A small but dedicated group of volunteer "officers" administer the bulletin board, answer questions about astronomy from curious APOD readers, and openly discuss various astronomy topics, frequently with intended humor. Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of volunteer officers tend NOT to be professional astronomers, but typically quite knowledgeable retirees exercising a lifelong interest in astronomy.

  14. Critical Issues in the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the philosophy of science and of specific sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology are well-developed fields with their own books and journals, the philosophy of astronomy and cosmology have received little systematic attention. At least six categories of problems may be identified in the astronomical context: 1) the nature of reasoning, including the roles of observation, theory, simulation, and analogy, as well as the limits of reasoning, starkly evident in the anthropic principle, fine-tuning, and multiverse controversies; 2) the often problematic nature of evidence and inference, especially since the objects of astronomical interest are for the most part beyond experiment and experience;3) the influence of metaphysical preconceptions and non-scientific worldviews on astronomy, evidenced, for example in the work of Arthur S. Eddington and many other astronomers; 4) the epistemological status of astronomy and its central concepts, including the process of discovery, the problems of classification, and the pitfalls of definition (as in planets); 5) the role of technology in shaping the discipline of astronomy and our view of the universe; and 6) the mutual interactions of astronomy and cosmology with society over time. Discussion of these issues should draw heavily on the history of astronomy as well as current research, and may reveal an evolution in approaches, techniques, and goals, perhaps with policy relevance. This endeavor should also utilize and synergize approaches and results from philosophy of science and of related sciences such as physics (e.g. discussions on the nature of space and time). Philosophers, historians and scientists should join this new endeavor. A Journal of the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology (JPAC) could help focus attention on their studies.

  15. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  16. Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

  17. Astronomy Outreach for Special Needs Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-06-01

    While there are many outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. I describe a NASA-STScI-IDEAS funded outreach program I created for children using a telescope (including remote and robotic observations), hands-on astronomy demonstrations (often with edible ingredients). The target audience is seriously ill children with special medical needs and their families who are staying at the Long Island Ronald McDonald House in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments at local hospitals. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. A related program for hospitalized children has been started at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital.

  18. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  19. Cassini VIMS observations of the Galilean satellites including the VIMS calibration procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Coradini, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Capaccioni, F.; Hansen, G.B.; Filacchione, G.; Clark, R.N.; Cerroni, P.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Bussoletti, E.; Combes, M.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observed the Galilean satellites during the Cassini spacecraft's 2000/2001 flyby of Jupiter, providing compositional and thermal information about their surfaces. The Cassini spacecraft approached the jovian system no closer than about 126 Jupiter radii, about 9 million kilometers, at a phase angle of Galilean satellites. Nevertheless, most of the spectral features discovered by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) aboard the Galileo spacecraft during more than four years of observations have been identified in the VIMS data analyzed so far, including a possible 13C absorption. In addition, VIMS made observations in the visible part of the spectrum and at several new phase angles for all the Galilean satellites and the calculated phase functions are presented. In the process of analyzing these data, the VIMS radiometric and spectral calibrations were better determined in preparation for entry into the Saturn system. Treatment of these data is presented as an example of the VIMS data reduction, calibration and analysis process and a detailed explanation is given of the calibration process applied to the Jupiter data. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  1. Contextualization of Physics and Astronomy Through Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.

  2. Microstructural observations of HFIR-irratiated austenitic stainless steels including welds from JP9-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, T.; Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1996-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels, including specimens taken from various electron beam (EB) welds, have been irradiated in HFIR Phase II capsules, JP9-16. Fifteen specimens irradiated at 300, 400, and 500{degrees}C up to 17 dpa are so far examined by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In 300{degrees}C irradiation, cavities were smaller than 2nm and different specimens showed little difference in cavity microstructure. At 400{degrees}C, cavity size was larger, but still very small (<8 nm). At 500{degrees}C, cavity size reached 30 nm in weld metal specimens of JPCA, while cold worked JPCA contained a small (<5 nm) cavities. Inhomogeneous microstructural evolution was clearly observed in weld-metal specimens irradiated at 500{degrees}C.

  3. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.

  4. Freshman Seminars: Interdisciplinary Engagements in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M. K.

    2006-08-01

    The Freshman Seminar program at the University of Texas is designed to allow groups of fifteen students an engaging introduction to the University. The seminars introduce students to the resources of the university and allow them to identify interesting subjects for further research or future careers. An emphasis on oral and written communication by the students provides these first-year students a transition to college-level writing and thinking. Seminar activities include field trips to an art museum, a research library, and the Humanities Research Center rare book collection. This paper will report on two seminars, each fifteen weeks in length. In "The Galileo Scandal" students examine Galileo's struggle with the church (including a mock trial). They perform activities that connect his use of the telescope and observations to astronomical concepts. In "Astronomy and the Humanities" students analyze various forms of human expression that have astronomical connections (art, drama, literature, music, poetry, and science fiction); they perform hands-on activities to reinforce the related astronomy concepts. Evaluation of the seminars indicates student engagement and improvement in communication skills. Many of the activities could be used independently to engage students enrolled in standard introductory astronomy classes.

  5. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian

    2007-12-01

    On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).

  6. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  7. NASE Training Courses in Astronomy for Teachers throughout the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Network for Astronomy School Education, NASE, is a project that is organizing courses for teachers throughout the entire world. The main objective of the project is to prepare secondary and primary school teachers in astronomy. Students love to know more about astronomy and teachers have the opportunity to observe the sky that every school has…

  8. How, precisely, can astronomy be of benefit to anyone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; VallsGabaud, D; Boksenberg, A

    Astronomy as an observational science is technology driven both from the point of view of data, acquisition and of data processing and visualisation. Astronomy exploits a very wide base of technologies which are developed, enhanced and extended by users. Consequently, astronomy can return new and

  9. Gamma-ray Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from ground-based gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova remnants this paper also covers theo...

  10. Multimessenger Astronomy with Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has opened a new window to the Universe. However, the sources of those neutrinos are still unknown. Among the plausible candidates are gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and supernovae. Combining neutrino data with electromagnetic measurements in a multimessenger approach will increase our ability to identify the neutrino sources and help to solve long-standing problems in astrophysics such as the origin of cosmic rays. Neutrino observations may also contribute to future detections of gravitational wave signals, and enable the study of their source progenitors. I will review the recent progress in multimessenger astronomy using neutrino data.

  11. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  12. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  13. The Venus Transit, the Mayan Calendar and Astronomy Education in Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Caretta, C. A.; Brito, E. M. S.; Campos, P.; Macias, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present two aspects of the Astronomy education activities carried out in 2012 by a multidisciplinary group at Universidad de Guanajuato, including specialists in Astronomy, Social Sciences and Environmental Engineering. The first program linked the Venus Transit, occurred in June 2012, with a national campaign of vulgarization of both modern and ancient (Mayan) Astronomy. Professional astronomers all around the country took advantage of the recent myth linked to the end of a large Mayan calendar cycle (13 baktuns, or some 5125 years) happening, after certain authors, in December 2012. In Guanajuato, the Astronomy Department organized live observations of the Venus Transit at two different locations, and complemented with conferences about astronomical events and the fake predictions of disasters linked to the ``end`` of the Mayan calendar. This program was very successful not only in Guanajuato but throughout the country, with several thousands of people attending live observations, conferences, expositions, etc.

  14. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  15. Astronomy Education Under Dark Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecylia Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    We have been providing professional support for the high school students and the astronomy teachers since 2007. Our efforts include organizing astronomy events that take from several hours, like, e.g., watching the transit of Venus, to several days, like the workshops organized in the framework of the projects 'School Workshops on Astronomy' (SWA) and 'Wygasz'.The SWA and Wygasz workshops include presentations by experts in astronomy and space science research, presentations prepared by students being supervised by those experts, hands-on interactive experience in the amateur astrophotography, various pencil-and-paper exercises, and other practical activities. We pay particular attention to familiarize the teachers and students with the idea and the necessity of protecting the dark sky. The format of these events allows also for some time for teachers to share ideas and best practices in teaching astronomy.All those activities are organized either in the Izera Dark-Sky Park in Poland or in other carefuly selected locations in which the beauty of the dark night sky can be appreciated.

  16. Physics and astronomy of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Physics and Astronomy of the Moon focuses on the application of principles of physics in the study of the moon, including perturbations, equations, light scattering, and photometry. The selection first offers information on the motion of the moon in space and libration of the moon. Topics include Hill's equations of motion, non-solar perturbations, improved lunar ephemeris, optical and physical libration of the moon, and adjustment of heliometric observations of the moon's libration. The text then elaborates on the dynamics of the earth-moon system, photometry of the moon, and polarization of

  17. Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…

  18. The cost of publishing in Danish astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    I investigate the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale, including all direct publication costs: The figures show how the annual number of publications with authors from Denmark in astronomy journals increased by a factor approximately four during 15 years (Elsevier’s Scopus...

  19. The Durability and Fragility of Knowledge Infrastructures: Lessons Learned from Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Borgman, Christine L; Sands, Ashley E; Golshan, Milena S

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructures are not inherently durable or fragile, yet all are fragile over the long term. Durability requires care and maintenance of individual components and the links between them. Astronomy is an ideal domain in which to study knowledge infrastructures, due to its long history, transparency, and accumulation of observational data over a period of centuries. Research reported here draws upon a long-term study of scientific data practices to ask questions about the durability and fragility of infrastructures for data in astronomy. Methods include interviews, ethnography, and document analysis. As astronomy has become a digital science, the community has invested in shared instruments, data standards, digital archives, metadata and discovery services, and other relatively durable infrastructure components. Several features of data practices in astronomy contribute to the fragility of that infrastructure. These include different archiving practices between ground- and space-based missions, between sky su...

  20. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Burril, Sean E.; St. Peters, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Jennifer D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  1. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch

  2. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1963-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i

  3. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 1 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This book is divided into five chapters and begins with an observational summary of the shock-wave theory of novae. The subsequent chapter provides the properties and problems of T tauri stars and related objects. These topics are followed by discussions on the structure and origin of meteorites and cosmic dust, as well as the models for evaluation of mass distribution in oblate stellar systems. The final chapter describes the methods of polarization mea

  4. Astronomy in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  5. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  6. A multimethod investigation including direct observation of 3751 patient visits to 120 dental offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wotman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Wotman1, Catherine A Demko1, Kristin Victoroff1, Joseph J Sudano2, James A Lalumandier11Department of Community Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Center of Health Care Research and Policy, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral categories. Dentist, hygienist, and patient characteristics were gathered by questionnaire. The most common nonprocedure behaviors observed for dentists were chatting, evaluation feedback, history taking, and answering patient questions. Hygienists added preventive counseling. We distinguish between preventive procedures and counseling in actual dental offices that are members of a practice-based research network. Almost a third of the dentist’s and half of the hygienist’s patient contact time is utilized for nonprocedure behaviors during patient encounters. These interactions may be linked to patient and practitioner satisfaction and effectiveness of self-care instruction.Keywords: dental practice, dental practice core activities, direct observation of dental practice, Dental Davis Observation Code, dentist, hygienist patient behaviors

  7. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    2003-10-01

    This book is the fourth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, society activities, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, environmental constraints, educational policies, public outreach, journal and magazine profiles, publication studies, electronic-media problematics, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national policies and specificities, expertise sharing, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1526-7

  8. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    CERN Document Server

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  9. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 9 covers reviews on the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the Roche model and its applications to close binary systems. The text then describes the part played by lunar eclipses in the evolution of astronomy; the classical theory of lunar eclipses; deviations from geometrical theory; and the methods of photometric observations of eclipses. The problems of other phenomena related in one way or another to lunar eclipses are also considered. The book further tackles the infrared observation on the eclipsed moon, as

  10. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  11. Astronomy all the time for everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextCommunicating astronomy with the public must be done all year and with all community members using all the available methods to promote the all aspects of astronomy: education, science, research, new technologies, dark-sky protection, astrophotography, mythology, astropoetry, astro arts and music.An annual calendarTwo aspect must be taken in consideration when create a calendar of activity:- astronomical events (eclipses, meteor showers, comets, etc.)- international and local astronomical events: Global Astronomy Months, Astronomy Day, Globe at Night, ISAN, public activitiesCommunicating astronomy with the whole communityA description of the experience of the author organizing over 500 events in 30 years of activity including all the community members: general public, students, teachers, artists, authorities, people with disabilities, minor and adult prisoners, etc.An experience of seven years as TV producer of the astronomy TV show “Ùs and the Sky” is presented.Promotion of the activityThe relation with the mass-media is an important aspect communicating astronomy with the public.Mass-media between rating and correct information of the public.The role of the cooperation with the community in astronomy projectsA successful model: EURONEAR project

  12. Service Learning in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is a method of instruction where the students in a course use the course's content in a service project. The service is included as a portion of the students' course grades. During the fall semester 2010, service learning was incorporated into the Introduction to Astronomy course at Misericordia University. The class had eight…

  13. A Community - Centered Astronomy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady

    2017-06-01

    The Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) is providing semester-long, hands-on, astronomy research experiences for students of all ages that results in their publishing peer-reviewed papers. The course in astronomy and double star research has evolved from a face-to-face learning experience with two instructors to an online - hybrid course that simultaneously supports classroom instruction at a variety of schools in the San Diego area. Currently, there are over 65 students enrolled in three community colleges, seven high schools, and one university as well as individual adult learners. Instructional experience, courseware, and supporting systems were developed and refined through experience gained in classroom settings from 2014 through 2016. Topics of instruction include Kepler's Laws, basic astrometry, properties of light, CCD imaging, use of filters for varying stellar spectral types, and how to perform research, scientific writing, and proposal preparation. Volunteer instructors were trained by taking the course and producing their own research papers. An expanded program was launched in the fall semester of 2016. Twelve papers from seven schools were produced; eight have been accepted for publication by the Journal of Double Observations (JDSO) and the remainder are in peer review. Three additional papers have been accepted by the JDSO and two more are in process papers. Three college professors and five advanced amateur astronomers are now qualified volunteer instructors. Supporting tools are provided by a BRIEF server and other online services. The server-based tools range from Microsoft Office and planetarium software to top-notch imaging programs and computational software for data reduction for each student team. Observations are performed by robotic telescopes worldwide supported by BRIEF. With this success, student demand has increased significantly. Many of the graduates of the first semester course wanted to expand their

  14. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  15. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  16. Astronomy research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu

    Decades of efforts made by Chinese astronomers have established some basic facilities for astronomy observations, such as the 2.16-m optical telescope, the solar magnetic-field telescope, the 13.7-m millimeter-wave radio telescope etc. One mega-science project, the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), intended for astronomical and astrophysical studies requiring wide fields and large samples, has been initiated and funded. To concentrate the efforts on mega-science projects, to operate and open the national astronomical facilities in a more effective way, and to foster the best astronomers and research groups, the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOs) has been coordinated and organizated. Four research centers, jointly sponsored by observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and universities, have been established. Nine principal research fields have received enhanced support at NAOs. They are: large-scale structure of universe, formation and evolution of galaxies, high-energy and cataclysmic processes in astrophysics, star formation and evolution, solar magnetic activity and heliogeospace environment, astrogeodynamics, dynamics of celestial bodies in the solar system and artificial bodies, space-astronomy technology, and new astronomical techniques and methods.

  17. Astronomy Education in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxa, M.

    Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

  18. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    This book contains everything an astronomer needs to know about binocular observing. The book takes an in-depth look at the instruments themselves. It has sections on evaluating and buying binoculars and binocular telescopes, their care, mounting, and accessories.

  19. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  20. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and

  1. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  2. The Teenager in an Online Game: Included Observation and Experience in Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlomov K.D.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the need to change the existing view of the development in adolescence. We provide the data of observations of the behavior of teenagers in the online game "DragonNest" conducted in 2013 by experts of the Center of social and psychological adaptation and development of adolescents "Crossroads" of MSUPE, which led to the assumption about the problems arising in adolescence. As a theoretical basis for the construction of this work was selected restorative approach, which is a practical application of the cultural-historical theory and of activity theory to social and psychological assistance to adolescents. The analysis of the activity of the teenager in the game, the structure of communication, observation on the adolescents in online gaming space allowed us to make assumptions about the role of communication with peers in a modern society in terms of identity formation and development of adolescents.

  3. Armenian Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Farmanyan, Sona V.

    2016-12-01

    A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley's comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi's (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section "Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture" has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007-2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.

  4. Astronomy a visual guide

    CERN Document Server

    Garlick, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Space has fascinated man and challenged scientists for centuries and astronomy is the oldest and one of the most dynamic of the sciences. Here is a book that will stimulate your curiosity and feed your imagination. Detailed and fascinating text is clearly and richly illustrated with fabulous, vibrant photographs and diagrams. This is a comprehensive guide to understanding and observing the night sky, from distant stars and galaxies to our neighbouring planets; from comets to shooting stars; from eclipses to black holes. With details of the latest space probes, a series of monthly sky maps to provide guidance for the amateur observer and the latest photos from space, this book brings the beauty and wonder of our universe into your living room and will have you reaching for the telescope!

  5. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  6. Introduction to methods of approximation in physics and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides students with a solid introduction to the techniques of approximation commonly used in data analysis across physics and astronomy. The choice of methods included is based on their usefulness and educational value, their applicability to a broad range of problems and their utility in highlighting key mathematical concepts. Modern astronomy reveals an evolving universe rife with transient sources, mostly discovered - few predicted - in multi-wavelength observations. Our window of observations now includes electromagnetic radiation, gravitational waves and neutrinos. For the practicing astronomer, these are highly interdisciplinary developments that pose a novel challenge to be well-versed in astroparticle physics and data-analysis. The book is organized to be largely self-contained, starting from basic concepts and techniques in the formulation of problems and methods of approximation commonly used in computation and numerical analysis. This includes root finding, integration, signal dete...

  7. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  8. Inspiring the Next Generation: Astronomy Catalyzes K12 STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Thaller, Michelle; Winglee, Robert; Borders, Kyla

    2017-06-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. NASA's Mission Science provides innovative and accessible opportunities for K-12 teachers. Science questions involve scale and distance, including Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers can gain an understanding of basic telescopes, the history of telescopes, ground and satellite based telescopes, and models of JWST Telescope. An in-depth explanation of JWST and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. During teacher training, we taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars.We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development.Funding was provided by Washington STEM, NASA, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  9. Mayan Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L. F.

    1985-03-01

    The maya concern for understanding the cycles of celestial bodies, particularly the Sun, the Moon and Venus, took them to accumulate a large set of highly accurate observations. An important aspect of their cosmology was the search for major cycles, in which the position of several objects repeated. We describe some examples of astronomical activity among the maya, obtained from the etnohistorical approach and from the study of their codices, buildings and monuments.

  10. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Gray, Norman; Erdmann, Chris; Biemesderfer, Chris; Frey, Katie; Soles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institu...

  11. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  12. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  13. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  14. I. S. Shklovsky and Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Proving of the high astrophysical significance of the low-frequency radio astronomy (decameter and adjacent hectometer and meter wavelengths), demonstration of the priority results of the Ukrainian low-frequency radio astronomy as well as significant contribution of I. S. Shklovsky to its development. Design/methodology/approach: The requirements to characteristics of high efficiency radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, GURT and to sensitive and interference immune observational methods at low frequencies are formulated by using the theoretical analysis and astrophysical predictions including those I. S. Shklovsky’s. Findings: New generation radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, GURT are created and modernized. New observational methods at low frequencies are introduced. Large-scale investigations of the Solar system, Galaxy and Methagalaxy are carried out. They have allowed to detect new objects and phenomena for the continuum, monochromatic, pulse and sporadic cosmic radio emission. The role of I. S. Shklovsky in the development of many low-frequency radio astronomy directions is noted, too. Conclusions: The unique possibilities of the low-frequency radio astronomy which gives new information about the Universe, inaccessible with the other astrophysical methods, are shown. The progress of the low-frequency radio astronomy opens the impressive possibilities for the future. It includes modernization of the largest radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN, NDA and creation of new instruments GURT, NenuFAR, LOFAR, LWA, MWA, SKA as well as making multi-antenna and ground-space experiments. The contribution of outstanding astrophysicist of the XX century I. S. Shklovsky to this part of actual astronomical science is evident, claiming for attention and will never be forgotten.

  15. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  16. Superconducting detectors in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.

    2006-08-01

    Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

  17. Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2010-01-01

    From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

  18. Astronomy in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, B.

    2006-08-01

    It is not easy to practice astronomical observation in a high school. It is difficult to teach authentic astronomy because real-world conditions cannot be reproduced in the classroom. However, the following ideas produce some interesting experiments. 1. The reappearance experiment of the meteor spectrum. We produced emission spectra by using a gas burner and welding. It can be understood that the luminosity of emission lines varies according to temperature. Furthermore, we mixed in liquid chlorides of Na, Ca, Fe, Sg, Si, etc., in different proportions tomimic different meteor spectra. We then observed the time changes of the luminosity using a video camcorder that we attached to a spectroscope. The spectrum in the experiment closely resembled that of a meteor. 2. The verification of the black-drop phenomenon.Long ago, the black-drop phenomenon became important in the case of Venus's passage between the Earth and the Sun, a transit of Venus. We tried to reproduce this phenomenon by using a small ball painted black, solar light, and an artificial illuminant. The profile of the reproduced image was then checked in detail. We found that this phenomenon depended on the influence of the limb darkening of the Sun, the scintillation of the Earth's atmosphere, and the optical performance of the telescope. Furthermore, we imitated Venus's atmosphere as an additional experiment by applying oil on the surface of the small ball. It resulted in an interesting profile but was not a sufficient experiment. Of course, these experiments are in conditions that are very different from the actual physical conditions. However, we think that they provide a very effective method for enhancing students' interest in astronomy. We are planning other experiments with similar themes.

  19. NASA Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program Evaluation Results To Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela K.; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral

    2015-08-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes, and inspires instrumention development.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches) reflecting telescope. The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program Office and Outreach Office is located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is one of the programs in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.SOFIA will be used to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death, formation of new solar systems, identification of complex molecules in space, planets, comets and asteroids in our solar system, nebulae and dust in galaxies, and ecosystems of galaxies.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to the elevation of public scientific and technical literacy.SOFIA’s Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; in three cohorts, Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Cycle 3 cohort of 28 educators will be completing their flight experience this fall. Evaluation has confirmed the program’s positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. Teachers have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given hundreds of presentations and

  20. The history of the International Astronomy Olympiad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Michael G.; Salnikov, Igor V.; Vaesterberg, Anders R.

    2011-06-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) was founded in the 1990s as an annual scientific educating event for students of the junior high school classes. Starting from 4 teams at the 1st event in 1996 the Olympiad includes more than 20 countries nowadays. The style of the problems of IAO is aimed at developing the imagination, creativity and independent thinking. They stimulate the students to recognize the problem independently, to choose a model, to make necessary suppositions, estimations, to conduct multiway calculations or logic operations. The Asian-Pacific Astronomy Olympiad was founded as a ``daughter'' (``affiliated'') olympiad in system of the International Astronomy Olympiad in 2005.

  1. The Lowell Observatory Navajo-Hopi Astronomy Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, K. A.; Hunter, D. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Johnson, M.; Schindler, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an overview of the Lowell Observatory Navajo-Hopi Astronomy Outreach Program, which is modeled after the ASP's Project ASTRO (Richter & Fraknoi 1994). Since 1996, our missions have been (1) to use the inherent excitement about the night sky to help teachers get Navajo and Hopi students excited about science and education, and (2) to help teachers of Navajo and Hopi students learn about astronomy and hands-on activities so that they will be better able to incorporate astronomy in their classrooms. Lowell astronomers pair up for a school year with an elementary or middle school (5th-8th grade) teacher and make numerous visits to their teachers' classes, partnering with the educators in leading discussions linked with hands-on activities. Lowell staff also work with educators and amateur astronomers to offer evening star parties that involve the family members of the students as well as the general community. Toward the end of the school year, teachers bring their classes to Lowell Observatory. The classes spend some time exploring the Steele Visitor Center and participating in tours and programs. They also voyage to Lowell's research facility in the evening to observe at two of Lowell's research telescopes. Furthermore, we offer biennial teacher workshops in Flagstaff to provide teachers with tools, curricula materials, and personalized training so that they are able to include astronomy in their classrooms. We also work with tribal educators to incorporate traditional astronomical knowledge. Funding for the program comes from many different sources.

  2. Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a

  3. Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

  4. Biographical Index of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

    This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

  5. Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

  6. Astronomy and astrophysics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1988-01-01

    ... for the Decades 1995 to 2015 Astronomy and Astrophysics Task Group on Astronomy and Astrophysics Space Science Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, author...

  7. High energy particle astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  8. Learning Exercises in Astronomy for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Suzanne H.

    1995-12-01

    Astronomers from the Tucson based National Optical Astronomy Observatories and students in grades K-3 at the Satori School are learning from each other about astronomy and science education. This project is partially funded by a NASA IDEA Grant (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy). NOAO astronomers are working with the students and teachers over a series of 12 weeks to present basic concepts in planetary and solar astronomy. Each presentation includes a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on active learning exercise. Topics presented include: The Living Solar System, Impacts and Hazards, Comets, Space Resources, The Natural Sun, The Sun as a Clock, Sunspots and Solar Rotation, and Solar Music - Helioseismology. Lessons learned, by students and astronomers, will be presented and printed lesson modules available for distribution.

  9. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  10. Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for the astonishing developments in the field of Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, this second edition has been updated and substantially expanded. Starting with the description of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution in the Universe. After an extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the focus turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early Universe. The basics of classical astronomy and stellar astrophysics needed for extragalactic astronomy are provided in the appendix. The new edition incorporates some of the most spectacular results from new observatories like the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Herschel, ALMA, WMAP and Planck, as well as new instruments and multi-wavelength campaigns which have expanded our understanding of the Universe and the objects populating it....

  11. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the description of our home galaxy the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution. Then, from the extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the text turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early universe. In particular, Peter Schneider’s Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology has the goal of imparting the fundamental knowledge of this fascinating subfield of astronomy, while leading readers to the forefront of astronomical research. But it seeks to accomplish this not only with extensive textual information and insights. In addition, the author’s evident admiration for the workings of the universe that shines through the lines and the many supporting color illustrations will deeply inspire the reader. While this book has grown out of introductory university courses on astronomy and astrophys...

  12. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  13. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  14. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  15. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI sponsored astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and for children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center, Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY). These programs are designed for children of all ages and include STSCi's Tonight's Sky (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown. Edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are used to stimulate interest. The staff at the Ronald McDonald House and Children's Medical Center are being trained to use the telescope and to do demonstrations. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time.

  16. Managing Astronomy Research Data: Case Studies of Big and Small Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy data management refers to all actions taken upon data over the course of the entire research process. It includes activities involving the collection, organization, analysis, release, storage, archiving, preservation, and curation of research data. Astronomers have cultivated data management tools, infrastructures, and local practices to ensure the use and future reuse of their data. However, new sky surveys will soon amass petabytes of data requiring new data management strategies.The goal of this dissertation, to be completed in 2015, is to identify and understand data management practices and the infrastructure and expertise required to support best practices. This will benefit the astronomy community in efforts toward an integrated scholarly communication framework.This dissertation employs qualitative, social science research methods (including interviews, observations, and document analysis) to conduct case studies of data management practices, covering the entire data lifecycle, amongst three populations: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) collaboration team members; Individual and small-group users of SDSS data; and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) collaboration team members. I have been observing the collection, release, and archiving of data by the SDSS collaboration, the data practices of individuals and small groups using SDSS data in journal articles, and the LSST collaboration's planning and building of infrastructure to produce data.Preliminary results demonstrate that current data management practices in astronomy are complex, situational, and heterogeneous. Astronomers often have different management repertoires for working on sky surveys and for their own data collections, varying their data practices as they move between projects. The multitude of practices complicates coordinated efforts to maintain data.While astronomy expertise proves critical to managing astronomy data in the short, medium, and long term, the larger astronomy

  17. Dispelling superstitions in Nepalese society with astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rishi

    2011-06-01

    Throughout human history, astronomy has played crucial rôle in the development of our civilization, culture and daily chores of lives that have been influenced by observations of Sun, moon, planets, stars and other cosmic entities. Our ancestors who were hunting and gathering and foraging food while living in caves learned to think logically by gazing at the twinkling stars in the heavens. Seasons for crops plantation were determined, time concept was introduced, entire sky was charted and the motions of celestial objects were meaningfully understood. With the advent of telescopes, the geocentric model of universe was replaced by the revolutionary heliocentric concept of our Solar System. Astronomy dispelled superstitious beliefs strongly prevailing in societies. Closely associated with numerous disciplines of science astronomy is still flourishing worldwide and is attempting to fly us away to those habitable cosmic bodies of our universe. By establishing well-equipped observational infrastructure local and international astronomy research and development could be enhanced. Introduction of astronomy in education system right from school would attract and encourage students to pursue higher studies for enabling them for participating in future international scientific and exploration programmes. Astronomy has helped our society to progress peacefully and efficiently.

  18. Grab 'n' go astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2014-01-01

      Like everyone else, most amateur astronomers live busy lives. After a long day, the last thing you want as an observer is to have to lug out a large telescope and spend an hour getting it ready before it can be used. Maybe you are going somewhere sure to have dark skies, but you don’t necessarily want astronomy to dominate the trip. Or you are not quite committed to owning a large telescope, but curious enough to see what a smaller, portable setup can accomplish. These are times when a small “grab ’n’ go” telescope, or even a pair of binoculars, is the ideal in­strument. And this book can guide you in choosing and best utilizing that equipment.   What makes a telescope fall into the “grab ’n’ go” category? That’s easy – speed of setting up, ease of use, and above all, portability. This ambitious text is dedicated to those who love to or – because of their limited time – must observe the sky at a moment’s notice. Whether observing from the comfort of a backyard or while on busi...

  19. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  20. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  1. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  2. Learner Centered Introductory Astronomy Community College Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, C. J.; Grill, M. R.; Genet, C. L.; Genet, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the fall of 2001, learner centered education principles were applied to an introductory astronomy course at the Superstition Mountain Campus of Central Arizona College (CAC). The course was cooperatively designed and managed by the students themselves (especially Sprague and Grill), an assistant course facilitator (C. Genet), and the course instructor and developer (R. Genet). Although some time was devoted to lectures accompanied by photographic slides and open to the public, the bulk of the time was devoted to student projects. Students built telescopes, including solar, zenith, and Galileo, took measurements, made calculations, mapped stars, and determined the circumference of the earth via zenith observations at Apache Junction and at Mt. Hopkins, 120 miles away. A three-day field trip to Lowell Observatory included a tour, observations through the famous 24-inch Clark refractor, and a conference on `Undergraduate Astronomical Research' which included talks on stellar photometry by G. W. Lockwood and R. M. Genet. A second three-day field trip included a tour and observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory (0.4 m telescope), a tour of the observatories on Mt. Hopkins, and a conference on `Learner-Centered Astronomy Education.' The community college students were joined by doctoral students and alumni from the Union Institute and University, as well as by Campua Dean James Stuckey from CAC and his wife Beverly Santos of Northern Arizona University. By allowing students the freedom to explore and expand their knowledge at a rate appropriate to each individual, the students attained levels of confidence not found in traditional teaching styles. We are pleased to acknowledge Dean Stuckey who made this class possible. We also wish to thank Wesley Lockwood and Robert Bargoon at Lowell Observatory, Robert Wilson at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Daniel Brocious at the Smithsonian's Whipple Observatory for their invaluable assistance during our field trips.

  3. Young Astronomers and Astronomy teaching in Moldavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1998-09-01

    Curricular Astronomy is taught in Moldavia , except Transnistria and Gagauzia, in the final (11th class) of the secondary schools and gymnasiums, and in the 12th class of the lyceums. The program takes 35 academic hours. The basic book is by Vorontsov-Veliaminov, used in the former USSR, but the Romanian one is also used, in spite of many criticisms addressed to both by our astronomy teachers. In Transinstria (on the left of the Dniester river)astronomy is taught 17 hours. Extracurricular activities develop at the Real Lyceum, where students and amateur astronomers carry out regular observations. Particularly, photographs of the comet Hale-Bopp have been realized using a Cassegrain 450 mm telescope by young astronomers under supervision of S. Luca and D. Gorodetzky (Gorodetchi). Except the telescope from the Real Lyceum other few telescopes are in construction. Unfortunately, no planetarium exists now in Chisinau, since the old one was returned to church. Astronomy courses are taught at the physical and mathematical departments of the Pedagogical University, Transnistrian Moldavian University in Tiraspol and the State University of |Moldavia. Many efforts were made by the State University lecturers and scientists to popularize Astronomy and Astrophysics in the books and in the press, at the radio and TV. No astronomy is taught at the Gagauzian National University in Comrat. No astronomiucal departments exist in Universities of |Moldavia.

  4. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  5. Tangible Things of American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Sara Jane

    2018-01-01

    As a science that studies celestial objects situated at vast distances from us, astronomy deals with few things that can be touched directly. And yet, astronomy has many tangible things—scientific instruments, observatories, and log books, for example—which link the past to the present. There is little question about maintaining things still valuable for scientific research purposes, but why should we care about documenting and preserving the old and obsolete? One answer is that material things, when closely examined, enhance our knowledge of astronomy’s history in ways that written texts alone cannot do. A second answer is that learning about the past helps us live critically in the present. In brief case studies, this talk will find meaning in objects that are extraordinary or commonplace. These will include a sundial, an almanac, telescopes, clocks, a rotating desk, photographic plates, and fly spankers.

  6. The Early Astronomy Toolkit was Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2018-01-01

    From historical, anthropological, and archaeological records, we can reconstruct the general properties of the earliest astronomy for many cultures worldwide, and they all share many similar characteristics. The 'Early Astronomy Toolkit' (EAT) has the Earth being flat, and the heavens as a dome overhead populated by gods/heroes that rule Nature. The skies provided omens in a wide variety of manners, with eclipses, comets, and meteors always being evil and bad. Constellations were ubiquitous pictures of gods, heroes, animals, and everyday items; all for story telling. The calendars were all luni-solar, with no year counts and months only named by seasonal cues (including solstice observations and heliacal risings) with vague intercalation. Time of day came only from the sun's altitude/azimuth, while time at night came from star risings. Graves are oriented astronomically, and each culture has deep traditions of quartering the horizon. The most complicated astronomical tools were just a few sticks and stones. This is a higher level description and summary of the astronomy of all ancient cultures.This basic EAT was universal up until the Greeks, Mesopotamians, and Chinese broke out around 500 BC and afterwards. Outside the Eurasian milieu, with few exceptions (for example, planetary position measures in Mexico), this EAT represents astronomy for the rest of the world up until around 1600 AD. The EAT is present in these many cultures with virtually no variations or extensions. This universality must arise either from multiple independent inventions or by migration/diffusion. The probability of any culture independently inventing all 19 items in the EAT is low, but any such calculation has all the usual problems. Still, we realize that it is virtually impossible for many cultures to independently develop all 19 items in the EAT, so there must be a substantial fraction of migration of the early astronomical concepts. Further, the utter lack, as far as I know, of any

  7. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  8. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  9. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  10. Astronomy in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

  11. Astronomy in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Second Life (SL is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

  12. Music and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, José A.; González Sánchez, S.; Caballero, I.

    What do Brian May (Queen's lead guitarist), William Herschel and the Jupiter Symphony have in common? And a white dwarf, a piano and Lagartija Nick? At first glance, there is no connection between them, nor between the Music and the Astronomy. However, there are many revealing examples of musical Astronomy and astronomical Music. This four-page proceeding describes the sonorous poster that we showed during the VIII Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

  13. Massive Datasets in Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Robert J.; Djorgovski, S. George; Prince, Thomas A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2001-01-01

    Astronomy has a long history of acquiring, systematizing, and interpreting large quantities of data. Starting from the earliest sky atlases through the first major photographic sky surveys of the 20th century, this tradition is continuing today, and at an ever increasing rate. Like many other fields, astronomy has become a very data-rich science, driven by the advances in telescope, detector, and computer technology. Numerous large digital sky surveys and archives already exist, with informat...

  14. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  15. Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto

    The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  16. Astronomy at the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, Robert; Constantin, A.; Christensen, E.; Dick, E.; Lapolla, J.; Nutter, A.; Corcoran, J.; DiDomenico, N.; Eskridge, B.; Saikin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present here an energetic grass-roots outreach program run entirely by undergraduate physics and astronomy majors at James Madison University. Our "Team Awestronomy" takes Astronomy out to the Market, literally. Once a month, for eight months during the academic year, the group sets up a “scientific corner” at the Harrisonburg Farmers Market, offering people the chance to meet with astrophysicists (in the making) and discuss science. Our group members wear t-shirts with simple messages like “Ask me about the Sun,” “...about Black Holes and Mega-Masers” or “...about Big Bang” that initiate the dialog. We help our audience with observations of solar activity through our department’s Coronado telescope equipped with a safe H-alpha filter, sunspotters, and the incredibly simple yet durable and accurate handheld (Project Star) spectrometers, and invite them to the free Saturday Planetarium shows and the star parties hosted by our department on the JMU campus. The team is also prepared with a suite of fun activities aimed particularly at K-5 kids, e.g., building (and eating, after investigating out-gassing properties of) ”dirty comets,” making craters (in pans with flour or sand) and testing how different types of impactors (pebbles, ping-pong balls or even crumpled aluminum foil) affect crater formation, and demonstrations of shock wave created in supernova explosions. The main goals of this outreach program are: 1) to illustrate to people of all ages that science is a fun, creative, and exciting process; 2) to empower people to be curious and to ask questions; 3) to demonstrate that science is a viable career path chosen by many diverse individuals; and 4) to nurture a sense of wonder and awe for the Universe. While this outreach program is aimed at a very general audience, of an extremely wide range, we expect to produce a significant impact on K-12 students in general and in particular on the home-schooled kids. There is a relatively high

  17. Astronomy from the chair - the application of the Internet in promoting of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    Internet and modern communication technologies are an indispensable part of modern life. The use of the Internet makes it possible to enhance the education and expand opportunities for acquiring new knowledge. One example is Astronomy, where today thanks to the Internet, we can control telescopes that are distant from us and listen to lectures from Universities in other countries. "Astronomy from the chair" is the name for a concept where amateur astronomers can deal with astronomy from their homes using the Internet. The concept can be divided into four sections depending on the content being offered: Robotic Observatory, Virtual Observatory, Online astronomy broadcasting and Online courses. Robotic observatory is defined as an astronomical instrument and detection system that enables efficient observation without the need of a person's physical intervention. Virtual Observatory is defined as a collection of databases and software tools that use the Internet as a platform for scientific research. Online astronomy broadcasting is part of concept "Astronomy from the chair" which gives users the opportunity to get directly involved in astronomical observation organized by an amateur astronomer from somewhere in the world. Online courses are groups of sites and organizations that provide the opportunity to amateur astronomers to attend lectures, save and watch video materials from lectures, do homework, communicate with other seminar participants and in that way become familiar with the various areas of Astronomy. This paper discusses a new concept that describes how the Internet can be applied in modern education. In this paper will be described projects that allows a large number of astronomy lovers to do their own research without the need to own a large and expensive set of astronomical equipment (Virtual Telescope from Italy, Observatory "Night Hawk" from Serbia and project "Astronomy from an armchair" at Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics in Nis), to help

  18. Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature, this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  19. The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

    Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

  20. Astronomy adventures and vacations how to get the most out of astronomy in your leisure time

    CERN Document Server

    Treadwell, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This astronomy travel guide examines the many wonderful opportunities for experiencing the observing hobby. Amateur astronomy is often consigned to observing from home or from a local park, yet it can be much more. Tim Treadwell explores all the possibilities of astronomical and space-related activities that are available on day trips and longer vacations. These activities range from observatory visits and other simple ways to build an astronomy event into a holiday, to full blown specialized astronomy travel. Many trips give the opportunity to visit some of the world’s famous attractions. On most vacations it can be a matter of just taking a day (or night) out of your schedule to fit in an astronomy event, but larger, dedicated pilgrimages are also possible. How to make the most of astronomy potential on a holiday, whether observing on the beach in Hawaii with the Telescope Guy or visiting Star City in Russia, is covered in detail. Go to a star party, explore the national parks or see the northern lights! ...

  1. The Society of Astronomy Students: From the Ground Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Shannon; Maldonado, M.; Beasley, D.; Campos, A.; Medina, A.; Chanover, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Society of Astronomy Students (SAS) at New Mexico State University (NMSU) was founded in October of 2012 and chartered in January 2013. New Mexico State University is located in Las Cruces, New Mexico, which is a small city with a population of just over 100,000. The main campus at NMSU has an enrollment of approximately 14,300 undergraduate students and 3,375 graduate students. The NMSU Astronomy Department is a vibrant research environment that offers Ph.D. and M.S. Graduate degrees and serves the undergraduate population through a large number of general education courses. Although there is no undergraduate major in Astronomy at NMSU, students can earn an undergraduate Astronomy Minor. The SAS was conceived as a way to provide undergraduates with an interest in astronomy a way to communicate, network, and provide mutual support. Currently, the SAS is in its second year of being a chartered organization and has about 18 active members, about half of whom are planning on pursuing an Astronomy Minor. The SAS is striving to become one of the most active clubs on the NMSU campus in order to raise awareness about Astronomy and encourage the option of pursuing the Astronomy Minor. One of the main focus areas of the SAS is to be involved in both astronomy-related and non-astronomy-related public outreach and community service events. Since the clubs inception, the SAS members have contributed a total of over 120 volunteer hours. We do many outreach events with the elementary and middle schools around the community; these events are done jointly with the Astronomy Graduate Student Organization at NMSU. In the near future, the SAS is also planning a wide range of activities, including a guest speaker series at weekly club meetings, tours of the Apache Point Observatory, full moon outings, and participation in amateur astronomy events such as the Messier Marathon. This presentation will include an overview of the club's history, accomplishments, and future activities.

  2. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Sagar Sethi. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 41 Review. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using ...

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. J. Tao. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 1-2 March-June 2011 pp 67-71 Part 2. Blazar Observations in Infrared and Optical. Variability of Blazars · J. H. Fan Y. Liu Y. Li Q. F. Zhang J. Tao O. Kurtanidze.

  4. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. G. C. Anupama. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 175-192. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations · Smitha Subramanian Annapurni Subramaniam Luc ...

  5. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Ashok Ambastha. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 233-236 Session V – Vector Magnetic Fields, Prominences, CMEs & Flares. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on ...

  6. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Annapurni Subramaniam. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 175-192. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations · Smitha Subramanian Annapurni ...

  7. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. A. N. Ramaprakash. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 175-192. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations · Smitha Subramanian Annapurni Subramaniam ...

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. T. Roy Choudhury. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 27 Review. Probing Individual Sources during Reionization and Cosmic Dawn using Square Kilometre Array HI 21-cm Observations · Kanan K. Datta ...

  9. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. H. Poon. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 1-2 March-June 2011 pp 97-103 Part 2. Blazar Observations in Infrared and Optical. The Optical Microvariability and Spectral Changes of the BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714.

  10. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. G. Srinivasan. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 25 Issue 3-4 September-December 2004 pp 143-183. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the GMRT: I. Observations and Spectra · Rekhesh Mohan K. S. ...

  11. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Abhirup Datta. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 27 Review. Probing Individual Sources during Reionization and Cosmic Dawn using Square Kilometre Array HI 21-cm Observations · Kanan K. Datta ...

  12. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  13. AstroCloud, a Cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research: Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Yu, C.; Cui, C.; He, B.; Li, C.; Fan, D.; Hong, Z.; Yin, S.; Wang, C.; Cao, Z.; Fan, Y.; Li, S.; Mi, L.; Wan, W.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-09-01

    AstroCloud is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a comprehensive end-to-end astronomy research environment where several independent systems seamlessly collaborate to support the full lifecycle of the modern observational astronomy based on big data, from proposal submission, to data archiving, data release, and to in-situ data analysis and processing. In this paper, the architecture and key designs of the AstroCloud platform are introduced, including data access middleware, access control and security framework, extendible proposal workflow, and system integration mechanism.

  14. Integration of the digital technologies in the teaching of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potential uses of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. Despite being part of official documents, proposals included in the curriculum of several states, and having contributed to human and technological development, astronomy is rarely taught adequately in the Brazilian basic education. When it is taught, it is with unsatisfactory results as presented by students and teachers as shown by several studies, such as those carried out by (Voelzke and Gonzaga, 2013). Digital technologies are commonly used by youth, but neglected by the majority of teachers. In this sense, a survey with the aim of pointing out the potential use of digital technologies in teaching astronomy was developed. An advanced course in astronomy was offered for participants with the goal to help them understand astronomical phenomena. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, with its Campus Januária as research locus; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test consisted of thirty-two students of physics, mathematics and biology and was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. Among other results, it was verified that: (i) In the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; (ii) the analysis of the initial questionnaire showed even that group

  15. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  16. Astronomy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Hadrava, Petr

    -, č. 128 (2007), s. 3-3 ISSN 0722-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomy * astropohysics * Czech republic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  18. Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

  19. Gravitation, Book 3. The University of Illinois Astronomy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book three in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. The causes of celestial motion are investigated and the laws that apply to all moving things in the universe are examined in detail. Topics discussed include: the basic…

  20. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy publishes papers on all aspects of Astrophysics and Astronomy, including instrumentation. The submission of a paper will be held to imply that it represents the results of original research not previously published; that it is not under consideration for publication, elsewhere; and ...

  1. Astronomy and Poetry (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samvelyan, David

    2016-12-01

    Through this work we have tried to show how astronomy penetrates into the poetry of different periods in time and in various poets' works all over the world. The following work has significant cognitive value, demonstrates and reveals the general nature of certain poets' astronomical ideas and provides a brief analysis in some cases. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that astronomy with all its components such as the sky, our solar system and phenomena such as these have always been a source of inspiration for those who create works of art, moreover some of them have even gained actual astronomical knowledge.

  2. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  3. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    Astronomy has been transformed in the last two decades by a series of dramatic discoveries that have left most reference books completely out of date. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy presents a broadly based survey of the whole of astronomy which places emphasis on these critical new findings.

  4. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  5. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  6. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  7. Astronomy Education for Physics Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Astronomy is a very interesting subject for undergraduate students studying physics. In this paper, we report astronomy education for undergraduate students in the Physics Department of Guangzhou University, and how we are teaching astronomy to the students. Astrophysics has been rapidly developing ...

  8. ESASky: a new Astronomy Multi-Mission Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, D.; Merin, B.; Salgado, J.; Giordano, F.; Sarmiento, M.; Lopez Marti, B.; Racero, E.; Gutierrez, R.; De Teodoro, P.; Nieto, S.

    2016-06-01

    ESA is working on a science-driven discovery portal for all its astronomy missions at ESAC called ESASky. The first public release of this service will be shown, featuring interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple targets. It requires no operational knowledge of any of the missions involved. A first public beta release took place in October 2015 and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from ESA Astronomy missions plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues. XMM-Newton data, metadata and products were some of the first to be accessible through ESASky. In the next decade, ESASky aims to include not only ESA missions but also access to data from other space and ground-based astronomy missions and observatories. From a technical point of view, ESASky is a web application that offers all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new-generation HEALPix projection called HiPS; detailed geometrical footprints to connect all-sky mosaics to individual observations; direct access to the underlying mission-specific science archives and catalogues. The poster will be accompanied by a demo booth at the conference.

  9. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  10. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  11. Astronomy Map of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.

    2017-09-01

    I have created an online clickable and zoom-enabled world map - now viewed over 5,400 times - that contains weblinks to institutions where astronomy is either researched professionally and / or and taught in classrooms at the university level. Not included are stand-alone museums, planetariums, amateur astronomical societies, virtual institutes, nor observatories which do not fulfill this criteria. One can click on a marker to access the relevant institute. The map currently contains 697 institutes, and has multiple potential uses for undergraduate students, graduate students, postdocs, faculty and journal editors.

  12. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  13. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  14. Summary: Special Session SpS15: Data Intensive Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    A new paradigm in astronomical research has been emerging - ``Data Intensive Astronomy'' that utilizes large amounts of data combined with statistical data analyses. The first research method in astronomy was observations by our eyes. It is well known that the invention of telescope impacted the human view on our Universe (although it was almost limited to the solar system), and lead to Keplerfs law that was later used by Newton to derive his mechanics. Newtonian mechanics then enabled astronomers to provide the theoretical explanation to the motion of the planets. Thus astronomers obtained the second paradigm, theoretical astronomy. Astronomers succeeded to apply various laws of physics to reconcile phenomena in the Universe; e.g., nuclear fusion was found to be the energy source of a star. Theoretical astronomy has been paired with observational astronomy to better understand the background physics in observed phenomena in the Universe. Although theoretical astronomy succeeded to provide good physical explanations qualitatively, it was not easy to have quantitative agreements with observations in the Universe. Since the invention of high-performance computers, however, astronomers succeeded to have the third research method, simulations, to get better agreements with observations. Simulation astronomy developed so rapidly along with the development of computer hardware (CPUs, GPUs, memories, storage systems, networks, and others) and simulation codes.

  15. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  16. Orbiting low frequency array for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Rai Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Engelen, Steven; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Verhoeven, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection

  17. Organizations and strategies in astronomy. Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, André

    This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, public outreach, journal and magazine profiles, publication studies, sociology of large collaborations, research communication, evaluation procedures, quality assurance, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on.

  18. Astronomy on the Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santascoy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are interested in increasing youth and minority involvement in the sciences. Using art that integrates images of space exploration with ethnic astronomical mythology may increase participation in astronomy in general, while also forming a bridge to underrepresented communities. This paper describes a freely available presentation of Carlos Callejo's Discover the Secrets of the Universe Through the Library for outreach.

  19. Astronomy Video Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  20. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  1. Physics and astronomy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moraal, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chapter is about physics and astronomy. The chapter gives a background about the origins of physics in South Africa. After the CSIR was founded in 1945, physics emerged as a nationwide and unified discipline. The authors show how physics...

  2. IYA2009USA: Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita; IYA2009

    2009-01-01

    Cultural astronomy focuses on human's relationship with the sky using the disciplinary tools of anthropology, archeology, folklore, history, and folklore - not all at the same time. The USA is one of the few nations that include cultural astronomy and storytelling under its International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) activities. The working group focuses on indigenous sky knowledge; celestial stories, activities to explore the links between astronomy and culture; and on astronomers: their achievements and their academic culture. This presentation is an overview of the IYA2009USA Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling working group. Included will be our website, our goals, our projects, our outreach and dissemination strategies, and how we uniquely contribute to IYA2009.

  3. Copernican Astronomy and Oceanic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the century long development of the “New Astronomy” (Copernicus’ axially rotating and solar orbiting earth, governed by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion) of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and the emerging astronomical navigation technologies of the fifteenth and sixteenth century Iberian oceanic explorers and their sixteenth and seventeenth century Protestant competitors. Since the first breakthroughs in Portuguese astronomical navigation in ascertaining latitude at sea were based upon the theories and observations of classically trained Ptolemaic astronomers and cosmographers, it can be argued that the new heliocentric astronomy was not necessary for future developments in early modern navigation. By examining the history of the concurrent revolutions in early modern navigation and astronomy and focusing upon commonalities, we can identify the period during which the old astronomy provided navigators with insufficient results - perhaps hastening the acceptance of the new epistemology championed by Galileo and rejected by Bellarmine. Even though this happened during the period of northern protestant ascendancy in exploration, its roots can be seen during pre-Copernican acceptance in both Lutheran and Catholic Europe. Copernican mathematics was used to calculate Reinhold’s Prutenic Tables despite the author’s ontological rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. These tables became essential for ascertaining latitude at sea. Kepler’s Rudophine Tables gained even more widespread currency across Europe. His theories were influenced by Gilbert’s work on magnetism - a work partially driven by the requirements of English polar exploration. Sailors themselves never needed to accept a heliocentric cosmography, but the data they brought back to the metropolis undermined Ptolemy, as better data kept them alive at sea. This exchange between theoretician and user in the early modern period drove both

  4. The General History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taton, René; Wilson, Curtis; Hoskin, editor Michael, , General

    2009-09-01

    Part V. Early Phases in the Reception of Newton's Theory: 14. The vortex theory in competition with Newtonian celestial dynamics Eric J. Aiton; 15. The shape of the Earth Seymour L. Chapin; 16. Clairaut and the motion of the lunar apse: The inverse-square law undergoes a test Craig B. Waff; 17. The precession of the equinoxes from Newton to d'Alembert and Euler Curtis Wilson; 18. The solar tables of Lacaille and the lunar tables of Mayer Eric G. Forbes and Curtis Wilson; 19. Predicting the mid-eighteenth-century return of Halley's Comet Craig B. Waff; Part VI. Celestial Mechanics During the Eighteenth Century: 20. The problem of perturbation analytically treated: Euler, Clairaut, d'Alembert Curtis Wilson; 21. The work of Lagrange in celestial mechanics Curtis Wilson; 22. Laplace Bruno Morando; Part VII. Observational Astronomy and the Application of Theory in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century: 23. Measuring solar parallax: The Venus transits of 1761 and 1769 and their nineteenth-century sequels Albert Van Helden; 24. The discovery of Uranus, the Titius-Bode and the asteroids Michael Hoskin; 25. Eighteenth-and nineteenth century developments in the theory and practice of orbit determination Brian G. Marsden; 26. The introduction of statistical reasoning into astronomy: from Newton to Poincaré Oscar Sheynin; 27. Astronomy and the theory of errors: from the method of averages to the method of least squares F. Schmeidler; Part VIII. The Development of Theory During the Nineteenth Century: 28. The golden age of celestial mechanics Bruno Morando; Part IX. The Application of Celestial Mechanics to the Solar System to the End of the Nineteenth Century: 29. Three centuries of lunar and planetary ephemerides and tables Bruno Morando; 30. Satellite ephemerides to 1900 Yoshihide Kozai; Illustrations; Combined index for Parts 2A and 2B.

  5. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  6. Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey; Croft, Steven; McGee, Steven

    1998-04-01

    The Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System is a new product aimed at astronomy instructional materials for middle school audiences. This multimedia development, funded by the NSF, will be suitable for curriculum supplement, presentations, and public outreach in Earth and planetary science. The presentation will highlight one of the research paths from the Village: Is there life on Mars? Students using this curriculum will solve problems in a rich environment that includes images, hands on labs, simulations, presentations, articles, and web pages. The research questions will be presented using multiple working hypothesis format.

  7. Achieving consensus on minimum data items (including core outcome domains) for a longitudinal observational cohort study in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Mackie, Sarah L; Kirwan, John; Boers, Martin; Isaacs, John; Morgan, Ann W; Young, Adam

    2017-04-01

    To obtain consensus on the minimum data items for an observational cohort study in RA in the UK and to make available the process for similar studies and other rheumatic conditions. Individuals with a diverse range of expertise and backgrounds were invited to participate in a process of proposing a minimum core dataset (MCD) for research studies, commissioned by Arthritis Research UK as part of the larger INBANK project. The group included patients and representatives from clinical and academic rheumatology, outcomes science, stratified medicine, health economics, and national professional and academic bodies/committees. A process was devised based on OMERACT principles for reviewing aims/objectives, defining the scope, identifying the important research questions and selecting key domains. Following the initial multistakeholder meeting, subsequent teleconferences and email communications: consensus was obtained on the most important and relevant research questions; agreement on how the OMERACT Core Areas (life impact, pathophysiological manifestations, resource use and death) could form the basis of a MCD; and consensus on 22 items for inclusion into a MCD. Workshops were undertaken for two essential items that required further exploration: work/social participation and co-morbidity. Reaching a consensus for the proposed minimal data items for long-term observational cohort studies of RA in the UK posed novel challenges and opportunities, and was largely successful. Further work is needed for selecting instruments for two important items and for achieving compatibility with other UK national initiatives, and more widely across Europe.

  8. Introducing astronomy into high school physics curriculum through the use of the University of North Dakota Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolby, Caitlin Marie

    Astronomy education is currently lacking in the secondary level classroom. Many programs have been created to remedy this, including research opportunities for students and training workshops for educators. These reach only a small fraction of the population however, while remaining students still lack the opportunity to learn astronomy at the secondary level. This research addresses the creation of a program that will make astronomy education a recurring option for students across North Dakota through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS) in a class of 19 physics students. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and in-class activities. Original lesson plans also included a group research project on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public "star party" where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and research equipment. Students also took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND on April 25, 2012. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two weeks. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the course. The research also identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners and the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy. This analysis has been used to make improvements in future installments of the course and it is now available online to educators for use in the classroom.

  9. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    time. Phase 2 will take place on Monday, November 18 and Tuesday, November 19, 1996. On these and the three following days ( Phase 3 : November 20--22), the `active period' will be in the six-hour interval from 15h to 21h UT [2]. Various events are planned to happen at certain times and in certain places on the WWW, keeping the programme lively and enhancing the interaction by ensuring continued attention and expectation by the participants. During Phases 2 and 3, nine or more `shops' will be available in the Astronomy On-Line WWW `marketplaces' for consultation by the participants. They will display a variety of `goods' (activities) at different levels of complexity in order to attract participants of different age groups, among others: General information; Collaborative projects which require observations by many groups all over the continent; Real astronomical observations to be submitted and executed with telescopes at participating, professional observatories; Prepared exercises which may include guided searches on the WWW; Opportunities to talk to professional astronomers, etc. More details are available at the above mentioned WWW sites. Ideas for further activities are now being actively solicited by the Steering Committees. At the end, the various results will be presented on the WWW in the form of short reports which may be commented upon, as far as possible in real time. A `final event' which will `unite' participants from all over Europe will be planned on the last day. Notes: [1] The EAAE was founded in November 1994 (cf. ESO Press Release 17/94 of 2 December 1994) and now has several hundred members located in virtually all European countries; most are secondary school physics teachers with a particular interest in astronomy. [2] This period of the day has been chosen to allow students to participate outside the the normal school hours, and by taking into account the time zones across Europe (from UT in the West to UT+2h in East). How to obtain ESO Press

  10. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  11. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rod

    2016-04-01

    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  12. Developing Astronomy Research and Education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sese, R. M. D.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. Thijs

    2015-03-01

    In the past few years, the Philippines has been gradually developing its research and educational capabilities in astronomy and astrophysics. In terms of astronomy development, it is still lagging behind several neighboring Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia, while it is advanced with respect to several others. One of the main issues hampering progress is the scarcity of trained professional Filipino astronomers, as well as long-term visions for astronomy development. Here, we will be presenting an overview of astronomy education and research in the country. We will discuss the history and current status of astronomy in the Philippines, including all levels of education, outreach and awareness activities, as well as potential areas for research and collaborations. We also discuss issues that need to be addressed to ensure sustainable astronomy development in the Philippines. Finally, we discuss several ongoing and future programs aimed at promoting astronomy research and education. In essence, the work is a precursor of a possible white paper which we envision to submit to the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) in the near future, with which we aim to further convince the authorities of the importance of astrophysics. With the support of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), this may eventually lead to the creation of a separate astronomy agency in the Philippines.

  13. History of Astronomy in Portugal: Theories, Institutions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, throughout its history, astronomy was developed in the context of the mathematical sciences. During the times of Portugal's Maritime Discoveries, astronomical navigation was based on spherical trigonometry, and therefore it was the mathematicians who taught astronomy to the pilots. During the 17th century, basic notions of astronomy were taught in mathematical courses in the University and in the main Jesuit colleges. This tradition continued in the 18th century, so it is no wonder that one of the most influent Portuguese astronomers during this period was the mathematician José Monteiro da Rocha. During the 19th century the new centres of science teaching, as the Polytechnic School in Lisbon, or the Polytechnic Academy in Oporto, developed astronomy teaching and research in the context of the mathematics subjects. The inheritors of these 19th century institutions, respectively the Faculties of Sciences of Lisbon and Oporto, upheld this tradition until the final decades of 20th century and continued to consider astronomy as a subject to be taught in their mathematics departments. This Meeting aims at outlining several perspectives on the history of astronomy in Portugal, particularly analysing its ties with mathematical sciences and astronomy applications. The Meeting is organised by the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon (MCUL) with CMAF, CMUC, CMUP and the CIUHCT, and is included in CIM events. It is integrated in the commemorations of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009).

  14. What types of astronomy images are most popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Connelly, Paul; Haring, Ralf; Lowe, Stuart R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Stunning imagery helps make astronomy one of the most popular sciences -- but what types of astronomy images are most popular? To help answer this question, public response to images posted to various public venues of the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) are investigated. APOD portals queried included the main NASA website and the social media mirrors on Facebook, Google Plus, and Twitter. Popularity measures include polls, downloads, page views, likes, shares, and retweets; these measures are used to assess how image popularity varies in relation to various image attributes including topic and topicality.

  15. What's New in Astronomy for 2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    There's always something new happening in the field of Astronomy. This includes the immediate environment surrounding Earth, the Solar system and the universe. This article looks at some of the recent research astronomers have been undertaking this year. Each article has reference to a web site so teachers can find out more information or ask…

  16. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  17. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  18. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  19. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Astronomy and Shakespeare's Hamlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    Payne-Gaposchkin and others have suggested that Hamlet shows evidence of the Bard's awareness of the astronomical revolutions of the sixteenth century. I summarize major arguments and note that the play's themes recur in modern astronomy teaching and research: (1) The play amounts to a redefinition of universal order and humankind's position in it. (2) There is interplay between appearance and reality. Such a contrast is commonplace wherever superficial celestial appearances obscure underlying physical realities, the nature of which emerge as the tale unfolds. (3) The outermost sphere of the Ptolemaic and Copernican models seems to encase humanity, who are liberated by the reality of Digges' model and the implications advanced by Bruno. Similarly the oppressiveness of the castle interior is relieved by the observing platform which enables the heavens to be viewed in their true light. (4) Hamlet could be bounded in a nut-shell and count himself a king of infinite space, were it not that he has bad dreams. These concern the subversiveness of the new doctrine, for Hamlet refers to the infinite universe only hypothetically and in the presence of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are named for relatives of the Danish astronomer Brahe. (5) Hamlet, and Brahe and Bruno, have connections to the university at Wittenberg, as does the Copernican champion Rheticus. (6) Ways are needed to reveal both the truths of nature, and the true nature of Danish royalty. Those unaccustomed to science think that there is madness in Hamlet's method. In particular, `doubt' is advanced as a methodological principle of inquiry. (7) The impression of normalcy and propriety in the upper reaches of society is like the false impression of an encapsulating universe. In Hamlet this duality is dramatized tragically, whereas in King John (cf. BAAS 27, 1325, 1995) it is not; for by 1601 when the writing of Hamlet was probably completed, Shakespeare would have known of the martyrdom of Bruno the previous

  1. Computational spherical astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Laurence G.

    The subject of the considered volume is the applied mathematics of spherical astronomy. The book is intended to aid those scientists and engineers, not trained in astrometry, to rapidly master the computational aspects of positional astronomy. Celestial coordinate systems are considered, taking into account the celestial sphere, the horizon system, the equatorial systems, the ecliptic system, the rotational transformations of celestial coordinates, position angle and distance, and special star positions. Other subjects discussed are related to general precession and proper motion, the parallax, the computation of the topocentric place, time systems, photographic astrometry, celestial mechanics, and astronomical catalogs. Attention is given to the power series method for the combined effects of general precession and proper motion, atomic time, the gravitational force, perturbation theory, solar system objects, stars, nonstellar objects, and the linear plate model.

  2. Astronomy and astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  3. Archaeology and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  4. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  5. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    includes the visiting Scientists and Professors from various Research Organizations located in and around Bangalore as well as the in-house Scientific staff. It is gratifying to note that several students, after going through one or more of these courses, have indeed made commitments to pursue Astronomy as their career, some of them even obtaining admissions in to the institutes and universities in India and abroad for further studies in this field.

  6. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  7. Radio Astronomy in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J. E.; Brown, J. L.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-12-01

    We summarize the results of a three year program to incorporate radio astronomy into undergraduate research and coursework at South Carolina State University (SCSU). A series of small and inexpensive radio telescopes have been constructed by faculty members with undergraduate student assistance. The telescopes range from a Radio Jove dipole antenna, to a dual frequency alt-az mount solar antenna to a 4.6 meter commercially-built radio telescope operated at 1.42 GHz. SCSU students and faculty have access to larger radio telescopes through a partnership with the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) near Rosman, North Carolina. Projects to date include three years of monitoring solar activity, participation in coordinated observing sessions of Jovian radio bursts and mapping the distribution of galactic neutral hydrogen. Future work will include combined optical and radio observations of stellar radio sources such as RS CVn stars and Algol-type binaries. Support for this work has been provided to SCSU through NASA's PAIR program under NCC 5-454.

  8. ITEMS Project: An online sequence for teaching mathematics and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Bernat; Pérez, Josep

    2010-10-01

    This work describes an elearning sequence for teaching geometry and astronomy in lower secondary school created inside the ITEMS (Improving Teacher Education in Mathematics and Science) project. It is based on results from the astronomy education research about studentsŠ difficulties in understanding elementary astronomical observations and models. The sequence consists of a set of computer animations embedded in an elearning environment aimed at supporting students in learning about astronomy ideas that require the use of geometrical concepts and visual-spatial reasoning.

  9. A superconducting tunnel junction receiver for submillimeter astronomy, and analysis of observations of post-AGB star molecular envelopes. [AGB (asymptotic giant branch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaminet, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A heterodyne receiver designed for astronomical use between 450 and 520 GHz has been constructed. Very low capacitance (C [approximately] 5-10 fF) Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated as the detectors; these junctions lie on the edges of niobium thin films and form Nb-Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al-Nb sandwiches. The double sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature is between 400 K and 800 K throughout the 70 GHz band. In addition, detailed modelling and analysis of astronomical observations of two post-AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars was performed. The observations were made with an SIS receiver designed for 345 GHz. CO observations and modelling of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 provided the best determination yet of its AGB mass loss rate, the first direct evidence for bipolarity in its AGB mass loss, evidence for close hydrodynamic coupling between the planetary nebula and the relic AGB wind, and evidence for evolution in the metallicity of the stellar wind. Observations of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 2688 found evidence for spatially extended fast wind emission with a non-bipolar morphology, and evidence for evolution is elemental abundances in the stellar wind.

  10. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  11. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  12. Instrumental technique in X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed review of the development of instruments for X-ray astronomy is given with major emphasis on nonfocusing high-sensitivity counter techniques used to detect cosmic photons in the energy range between 0.20 and 300 keV. The present status of X-ray astronomy is summarized together with significant results of the Uhuru observations, and photon interactions of importance for the detection of X-rays in space are noted. The three principal devices used in X-ray astronomy (proportional, scintillation, and solid-state counters) are described in detail, data-processing systems for these devices are briefly discussed, and the statistics of nuclear counting as applied to X-ray astronomy is outlined analytically. Effects of the near-earth X-ray environment and atmospheric gamma-ray production on X-ray detection by low-orbit satellites are considered. Several contemporary instruments are described (proportional-counter systems, scintillation-counter telescopes, modulation collimators), and X-ray astronomical satellite missions are tabulated.

  13. The International Year of Astronomy in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-06-01

    The central institution in Serbia involved in the preparations for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" (ASRB) Belgrade, the oldest astronomical society in Serbia and one of the oldest in the Balkans (founded in 1934). ASRB has published the astronomical magazine VASIONA (Universe) since 1953. This is the oldest magazine in Serbia for the popularisation of astronomy and science in general. The most important activities in the ASRB public outreach programme are based on ongoing programmes and projects at the Public Observatory (founded in 1964) and the Planetarium (founded in 1969). The National Node has been working on a detailed plan to enrich ongoing projects and organise special IYA2009 events (public observations and lectures, 100 hours of astronomy, special TV shows and broadcasting programmes, concerts and exhibitions) all over the country, coordinating more than 20 amateur astronomical societies. It also should be noticed that in 2009, the year of celebrating astronomy, the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" celebrates three important anniversaries - 75 years since its foundation, 45 years of the Public Observatory and 40 years of the Planetarium.

  14. Astronomy Education for Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhang, J. Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H. G.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is a very interesting subject for undergraduate students studying physics. In this paper, we report astronomy education for undergraduate students in the Physics Department of Guangzhou University, and how we are teaching astronomy to the students. Astrophysics has been rapidly developing since 1994, when the center for astrophysics was founded. Now, astrophysics has become a key subject in Guangdong Province, and the Astronomy Science and Technology Research Laboratory one of the key laboratories of the Department of Education of the Guangdong Province. Many undergraduate students, working under the tutorship of faculty members completed their thesis at the Center for Astrophysics in Guangzhou.

  15. Handling Qualities Flight Testing of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy has a long successful history, albeit relatively unknown outside of the astronomy community. A major problem with ground based infrared astronomy is the absorption and scatter of infrared energy by water in the atmosphere. Observing the universe from above 40,000 ft puts the observation platform above 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere, thereby addressing this problem at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft is the most ambitious foray into the field of airborne infrared astronomy in history. Using a 747SP (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft modified with a 2.5m telescope located in the aft section of the fuselage, the SOFIA endeavors to provide views of the universe never before possible and at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The modification to the airplane includes moveable doors and aperture that expose the telescope assembly. The telescope assembly is aimed and stabilized using a multitude of on board systems. This modification has the potential to cause aerodynamic anomalies that could induce undesired forces either at the cavity itself or indirectly due to interference with the empennage, both of which could cause handling qualities issues. As a result, an extensive analysis and flight test program was conducted from December 2009 through March 2011. Several methods, including a Lower Order Equivalent Systems analysis and pilot assessment, were used to ascertain the effects of the modification. The SOFIA modification was found to cause no adverse handling qualities effects and the aircraft was cleared for operational use. This paper discusses the history and modification to the aircraft, development of test procedures and analysis, results of testing and analysis, lessons learned for future projects and justification for operational certification.

  16. The Astronomy Genealogy Project: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is not yet visible, much progress has been made on the Astronomy Genealogy Project (AstroGen) since it was accepted as a project of the Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) three years ago. AstroGen will list the world's astronomers with information about their highest degrees and advisors. (In academic genealogy, your thesis advisor is your parent.) A small group (the AstroGen Team) has compiled a database of approximately 12,000 individuals who have earned doctorates with theses (dissertations) on topics in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, or planetary science. These include nearly all those submitted in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and New Zealand, and most of those in the United States (all through 2014 for most universities and all through 1990 for all). We are compiling more information than is maintained by the Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP). In addition to name, degree, university, year of degree, and thesis advisor(s), all provided by MGP as well, we are including years of birth and death when available, mentors in addition to advisors, and links to the thesis when it is online and to the person's web page or obituary, when we can find it. We are still struggling with some questions, such as the boundaries of inclusion and whether or not to include subfields of astronomy. We believe that AstroGen will be a valuable resource for historians of science as well as a source of entertainment for those who like to look up their academic family trees. A dedicated researcher following links from AstroGen will be able to learn quite a lot about the careers of astronomy graduates of a particular university, country, or era. We are still seeking volunteers to enter the graduates of one or more universities.

  17. Astronomie spatiale infrarouge, aujourd’hui et demain = Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the lectures given at the Les Houches summer school "Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow". It gives a wide overview of infrared astronomy, a wavelength domain crucial for studies of the solar system, stars at the beginning and end of their lives, interstellar matter and galaxies at all distances. Recent developments in observational techniques have been tremendous. The first contributions give an introduction to the basic physical processes and methods of detection and data processing. They are followed by a series of lectures dealing with the wide variety of astronomical objects that can be seen in the infrared.

  18. Astronomy and Art Merged: Targeting Other Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A. F.

    1999-05-01

    One of the fundamental concerns of museum exhibition is to reach as broad an audience as possible. One way to open up the history of astronomy to a wider audience is to create an exhibit with an interdisciplinary theme and to select a venue outside of a science institution. Here I discuss ``Awestruck by the Majesty of the Heavens: Artistic Perspectives from the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum History of Astronomy Collection," which took place at the Chicago Cultural Center from January to March of 1997. ``Awestruck" featured a selection of celestial charts, portrait prints of famous astronomers, plates from books on astronomical topics, and other works on paper. It focused on the connections between art and science during the period 1500-1800. Scientific content and place within the history of astronomy were discussed in addition to the artistic merit of the objects. The Chicago Cultural Center is an institution that is home to a wide variety of cultural programming including art, music, film, theater, and dance. In addition to providing a different audience for this material than that which typically visits the Adler, ``Awestruck" also represented an expansion of material for the Cultural Center's audience to view, as their exhibition spaces primarily show only 20th-century art. Programming such as gallery talks and the production of an art-museum-type exhibition catalog will also be discussed.

  19. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  20. Multiwavelength Astronomy Modules for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christie; Brazas, J.; Lane, S.; York, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Chicago Multiwavelength Astronomy modules are web-based lessons covering the history, science, tools, and impact of astronomy across the wavebands, from gamma ray to infrared. Each waveband includes four lessons addressing one aspect of its development. The lessons are narrated by a historical docent or practicing scientist who contributed to a scientific discovery or instrument design significant to astronomical progress. The process of building each lesson began with an interview conducted with the scientist, or the consultation of a memoir or oral history transcript for historical docents. The source was then excerpted to develop a lesson and supplemented by archival material from the University of Chicago Library and other archives; NASA media; and participant contributed photographs, light curves, and spectra. Practicing educators also participated in the lesson development and evaluation. In July 2013, the University of Chicago sponsored 9 teachers and 15 students to participate in a STEM education program designed to engage participants as co-learners as they used the Multiwavelength Astronomy lessons in conjunction with talks given by the participating scientists. Teachers also practiced implementation of the resources with students and designed authentic research activities that make use of NASA mission data, which were undertaken as mini-research projects by student teams during the course of the program. This poster will introduce the Multiwavelength Astronomy web modules; highlight educator experiences in their use with high school audiences; and analyze the module development process, framing the benefits to and contributions of each of the stakeholders including practicing astronomers in research and space centers, high school science educators, high school students, University libraries and archives, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The development of these resources, and the summer professional development workshops were

  1. Using Group Research Projects to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C. W.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Austin, C. L.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2012-05-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar planet project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting exoplanets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kupier Telescope in near-UV and optical filters in order to detect any asymmetries between filters. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12m telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. The projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. As of January 2012 the extrasolar planet project became an official independent study class. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects creating a learner-centered environment.

  2. Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2013-04-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

  3. Dyslexia and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

  4. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D. E.; Harman, P. K.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) is a three-part professional development (PD) program for high school physics and astronomy teachers. The AAA experience consists of: (1) blended-learning professional development composed of webinars, asynchronous content learning, and a series of hands-on workshops (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing participation in the AAA community of practice (CoP) connecting participants with astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SETI Institute (SI) is partnering with school districts in Santa Clara and Los Angeles Counties during the AAA program's "incubation" period, calendar years 2016 through 2018. AAAs will be selected by the school districts based on criteria developed during spring 2016 focus group meetings led by the program's external evaluator, WestEd.. Teachers with 3+ years teaching experience who are assigned to teach at least 2 sections in any combination of the high school courses Physics (non-AP), Physics of the Universe (California integrated model), Astronomy, or Earth & Space Sciences are eligible. Partner districts will select at least 48 eligible applicants with SI oversight. WestEd will randomly assign selected AAAs to group A or group B. Group A will complete PD in January - June of 2017 and then participate in SOFIA science flights during fall 2017 (SOFIA Cycle 5). Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year. Group B will then complete PD in January - June of 2018 and participate in SOFIA science flights in fall 2018 (Cycle 6). Under the current plan, opportunities for additional districts to seek AAA partnerships with SI will be offered in 2018 or 2019. A nominal two-week AAA curriculum component will be developed by SI for classroom delivery that will be aligned with selected California Draft Science Framework Disciplinary Core Ideas

  5. Protection of SAAO observing site against light and dust pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefako, Ramotholo; Vaisanen, Petri

    2015-08-01

    South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing station near Sutherland, Northern Cape, is one of the darkest sites for optical and IR astronomy in the world. The SAAO hosts and operates several optical and IR telescopes, including the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and a number of international robotic telescopes, most of which were attracted by the good night sky conditions for optical astronomy at SAAO. To ensure that the conditions remain optimal for astronomy and our night skies are protected against light and dust pollution, a legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act, of 2007, was enacted. The Act empowers the South African minister of Science and Technology to regulate things that could pose a threat to both radio and/or optical astronomy in areas that are declared Astronomy Advantage Areas (or AAAs) in South Africa. For optical astronomy, the main challenges are those that are likely to be posed by light and dust pollution as result of wind energy developments, and petroleum gas and oil exploration and exploitation in the area. We give an update and current status of possible threats to the quality of the night skies at SAAO and the challenges relating to the AGA Act implementation and enforcement. We discuss measures that are put in place to protect the Observatory, including relevant studies using a planned wind energy facility to quantify the severity of the threats posed by light pollution from these and similar facilities.

  6. Superluminal motion in astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla, D.F.; Floyd, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Several examples of 'intrinsic-type' superluminal motion in astronomy are taken. A simple signal-delay transformation is devised and shown to be sufficient to explain the superluminal effect as resulting from differential signal delay across an expanding source. The distinction between relativistic motion and relativistic kinematics is made. The key kinematical equation used to describe superluminal motion is an alternative statement of the Doppler effect. Relativistic transformations, which are relevant when intervals in different reference frames are compared, then lead to the relativistic Doppler factor ({delta}), which is applicable to measurements on a photographic image, for example that of a relativistic quasar jet with superluminal components. (author)

  7. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  8. Citizen Astronomy in China: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Citizen astronomers have benefited from technological advancements in the recent decades as they fill the scientific gaps left by professional astronomers, in the areas such as time domain observations, visual classification and data mining. Here I present an overview of the current status of citizen astronomy in China. Chinese citizen astronomers have made a visible contribution in the discoveries of new objects; however, comparing to their counterparts in the western world, they appear to be less interested in researches that do not involve making new discovery, such as visual classification, long-term monitoring of objects, and data mining. From a questionnaire survey that aimed to investigate the motivation of Chinese citizen astronomers, we find that this population is predominantly male (92%) who mostly reside in economically developed provinces. A large fraction (69%) of the respondents are students and young professionals younger than the age of 25, which differs significantly from the occupation and age distribution of typical Chinese Internet users as well as the user distribution of large international citizen science projects such as the Galaxy Zoo. This suggests that youth generation in China is more willing to participate citizen astronomy research than average generation. Additionally, we find that interests in astronomy, desire to learn new knowledges, have a fun experience and meet new friends in the community are all important driving factors for Chinese citizen astronomers to participate research. This also differs from their counterparts in western countries. With a large youth population that is interested in astronomy as well as a number of large astronomical facilities that are being planned or built, we believe that citizen astronomy in China has a vast potential. Timely and proper guidance from the professionals will be essential to help citizen astronomers to fulfill this potential.

  9. Using television for astronomy teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Julieta

    The full potential of television for education has not been used in developing nations. It is relatively inexpensive to produce astronomy programs that can be broadcast taking advantage of satellite transmissions. We suggest that these programs should have the following elements in order to be efficient: 1. Be in the local language. 2. Be short enough so that the teacher has a chance to comment on them during a one-hour lecture. 3. Show experiments specially if they are meant for schools that do not have laboratory facitilies. 4. Be produced for several educational levels, including programs aimed for teacher training. Inexpensive books should be edited in the local language in order to serve as an educational complement to the television series.

  10. Academic Training: Astronomy from Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16, 18 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Astronomy from Space by T. Courvoisier / Observatoire de Genève In the very wide field of High Energy astrophysics we will select a number of topics that range from the source of radiative energy in the deep potential well around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and the basics of accretion disks around compact objects to the description and (where possible) the understanding of binary systems including a compact object (neutron star or black hole), of Active Galactic Nuclei and of gamma ray bursts. The approach that is chosen aims at giving an understanding of the most important phenomenologies encountered in high energy astrophysics rather than a detailed knowledge of one specific topic. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  11. Tides in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, Stéphane; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Based on the lecture notes of a school titled ‘Tides in Astronomy and Astrophysics’ that brought together students and researchers, this book focuses on the fundamental theories of tides at different scales of the universe—from tiny satellites to whole galaxies—and on the most recent developments. It also attempts to place the study of tides in a historical perspective. Starting with a general tutorial on tides, the theme of tides is approached in 9 chapters from many directions. They allow non-experts to pick up a physical intuition and a sense of orders of magnitude in the theory of tides. These carefully prepared lecture notes by leaders in the field include many illustrative figures and drawings. Some even offer a variety of simple back-of the-envelope problems.

  12. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. A. R. Rao. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 21 Issue 1-2 June 2000 pp 29-38. X-ray Observation of XTE J2012+381 during the 1998 Outburst · S. Naik P. C. Agrawal B. Paul A. R. Rao S. Seetha Κ. Kasturirangan · More Details Abstract ...

  13. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand gender differences in persistence and attrition from astronomy and physics, the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13, when many of the respondents had left graduate school and were working. For respondents who had completed PhDs and were not postdocs, we tested the effects of four major concepts on attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included: the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, work-family balance, and being female. We hypothesized that women would be more likely than men to work outside of astronomy and physics. However, results from the study show that there is no direct independent effect of being female on attrition. Rather, women are more likely to leave astronomy because they are more likely than men to (1) experience difficulties related to the need to find a job for a spouse or partner in the same geographical area, and (2) report less than satisfactory advising during graduate school. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people, but especially women, in astronomy, physics, and related fields. Funded by National Science Foundation AST-1347723.

  14. Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.

  15. Under Connecticut Skies: Exploring 100 Years of Astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory in Middletown, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Williams, Amrys; Erickson, Paul; Herbst, William; Redfield, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Under Connecticut Skies examines the history of astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory, located on the campus of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Since its dedication in June of 1916, Van Vleck has been an important site of astronomical research, teaching, and public outreach. Over a thousand visitors pass through the observatory each year, and regular public observing nights happen year-round in cooperation with the Astronomical Society of Greater Hartford. Our project explores the place-based nature of astronomical research, the scientific instruments, labor, and individuals that have connected places around the world in networks of observation, and the broader history of how observational astronomy has linked local people, amateur observers, professional astronomers, and the tools and objects that have facilitated their work under Connecticut’s skies over the past 100 years. Our research team has produced a historical exhibition to help commemorate the observatory’s centennial that opened to the public in May of 2016. Our work included collecting, documenting, and interpretting this history through objects, archival documents, oral histories, photographs, and more. The result is both a museum and a working history "laboratory" for use by student and professional researchers. In addition to the exhibit itself, we have engaged in new interpretive programs to help bring the history of astronomy to life. Future work will include digitization of documents and teaching slides, further collection of oral histories, and expanding the collection to the web for use by off-site researches.

  16. Fifty-four Years of Adventures in Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Eric Eric

    2018-01-01

    My adventures in infrared astronomy started when I was a grad student in 1965 with the discovery of an infrared-bright object (now known as the Becklin-Neugebauer Object) in the Orion Nebula. In 1966, I made the first measurements of the infrared radiation from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. I was fortunate enough to be able to take advantage of the 2.2 micron sky survey carried out by Neugebauer and Leighton (1969), which produced many remarkable discoveries, the most spectacular being the heavily dust-embedded carbon star IRC+10216, thebrightest object in the sky at 5 microns outside the solar system. In the 1970’s there was a growth in Infrared astronomy with the availability of many new facilities such as the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, (KAO) which I used extensively with Mike Werner and Ian Gatley for many unique observations. In 1977, I moved to Hawaii to work on the NASA IRTF 3- meter telescope. Many discoveries were made, including the first direct measurements of the rings of Jupiter at 2.2 microns (with Gareth Wynn-Williams) and the discovery of the first L dwarf star around a white dwarf (with Ben Zuckerman). In the 1980’s the introduction of large format arrays changed the way we did infrared astronomy. With Ian McLean, I moved to UCLA in 1990 to start the IR lab and get involved in Keck development and science. In 1995, Andrea, Ghez, Mark Morris and I started looking for evidence of a possible massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Spectacular observations using the Keck10 meter telescopes with large format near-infrared arrays and adaptive optics led to the confirmation of the presence of such a black hole and an estimate of its mass (4xE6 M (Sun)). In 1996, I began working on the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and I will finish my talk by discussing SOFIA observations of the ring of dust and gas orbiting the massive black hole in the center

  17. Astronomy Courses which Emphasize Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, H. L.

    1998-12-01

    The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).

  18. Gravitational Wave Astronomy: Opening a New Window on the Universe for Students, Educators and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, M.; Ingram, D.; Milde, S.; Pandian, S. R.; Reitze, D.; Riles, K.; Schutz, B.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T.; Ugolini, D.; Thacker, J.; Vallisneri, M.; Zermeno, A.

    2008-05-01

    The nascent field of gravitational wave astronomy offers many opportunities for effective and inspirational astronomy outreach. Gravitational waves, the `ripples in spacetime' predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, are produced by some of the most energetic and dramatic phenomena in the cosmos, including black holes, neutron stars and supernovae - and their discovery should help to address a number of fundamental questions in physics, from the evolution of stars and galaxies to the origin of dark energy and the nature of spacetime itself. Moreover, the cutting-edge technology developed to search for gravitational waves is pushing back the frontiers of many fields, from lasers and materials science to high performance computing, and thus provides a powerful showcase for the attractions and challenges of a career in science and engineering. For several years a worldwide network of ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors, built and run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, has been fully operational. These detectors are already among the most sensitive scientific instruments on the planet but in the next few years their sensitivity will achieve further significant improvement. Those developments promise to open an exciting new window on the Universe, heralding the arrival of gravitational wave astronomy as a revolutionary, new observational field. In this poster we describe the extensive program of public outreach activities already undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, and a number of special events which we are planning for IYA2009. These activities include: * programs at Science Centers and Observatory Visitor Centers * programs on gravitational wave astronomy for the classroom, across the K-12 spectrum * interdisciplinary events linking gravitational wave astronomy to music and the visual arts * research experiences for schools and citizens through the highly successful `Einstein@Home' program.

  19. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  20. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    {\\bf The Astronomy Workshop} (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe a few of the available tools. {\\bf Solar Systems Visualizer}: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. {\\bf Solar System Calculators}: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed. {\\bf Stellar Evolution}: The "Life of the Sun" tool animates the history of the Sun as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve over billions of years. In "Star Race," the user selects two stars of different masses and watches their evolution in a split-screeen format that emphasizes the great differences in stellar lifetimes and fates.

  1. Making Astronomy Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  2. iSTAR: The International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the first steps taken in the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning (iSTAR). The iSTAR Project is an attempt to look beyond traditional wisdom and practices in astronomy education, to discover the ways in which cognitive abilities and human culture interact to impact individuals’ understanding of and relationship to astronomy content knowledge. In contrast to many international studies that seek to rank nations by student performance on standardized tests, the iSTAR Project seeks to find ways that culture may unexpectedly enhance performance in astronomy. Using the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) as a reasonable, initial proxy for the content knowledge a well educated person might know in astronomy, the iSTAR team then defined culture as a construct with five components: practices, traditional knowledge, historical and genealogical relationships, place-based knowledge, and language. Given the complexity of this construct, Stage 1 of the project focuses on the cultural component of language, and assumed that prior to the collection of data from students, the process of translating the TOAST could provide valuable expert-based information on the impact of language on astronomy knowledge. As such, the work began with a study of the translation process. For each of the languages used in the testing phase of the iSTAR protocol, a succession of translators and analysts were engaged, including two educated, non-astronomer native speakers, a native speaking astronomer, and a native speaking linguistics expert. Multiple translations were analyzed in order to make relevant meaning of differences in the translations, and provide commentary on the ways in which metaphor, idiom, cultural history are embedded in the language, providing potential advantages in the learning of astronomy. The first test languages were German, Hawaiian, and American Sign Language, and initial findings suggest that each of these languages provide specific advantages

  3. 2011 Astronomy Day at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sandra; Hemeway, M.; Wetzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Our philosophy is that everyday is Astronomy Day because the McDonald Observatory's Frank N. Bash Visitors Center is open 362 days a year. So, how did we create a special celebration for the "Astronomy Day” declared by the Astronomical League? During September 26-29 we conducted 20 videoconferences and served 12,559 students with "Astronomy Day” programming. Connect2Texas provides bridging for a network of Texas-based museums and cultural, historical, and scientific organizations that offer educational content to schools throughout the state via videoconferencing. Connect2Texas connected McDonald Observatory to 334 schools; most of these schools were in Texas, but schools in a dozen other states also participated. While most schools had a "view-only" connection, at least 20 of the schools had interactive connections, whereby the students could ask questions of the presenter. Connect2Texas also collects evaluation information from the participating schools that we will use to produce a report for our funders and make modifications to future programs as need be. The videoconferences were offered free of charge. The theme for the 2011 Astronomy Day program was the Year of the Solar System, which aligns with NASA's theme for 2011 and 2012. By aligning with this NASA theme, we could leverage NASA artwork and materials to both advertise and enrich the learning experience. Videoconference materials also included pre- and post-videoconference assessment sheets, an inquiry based activity, and pre- and post-videoconference activities, all of which were made available online. One of the lessons learned from past Astronomy Day videoconferences is that the days the Astronomical League declares as "Astronomy Day” are not always good days for Texas schools to participate. So, we choose an Astronomy Day that meets the needs of Texas schools and our schedule - so any day can be Astronomy Day. 2011 Astronomy Day was made possible by The Meyer-Levy Charitable Trust.

  4. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  5. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  6. Introduction. Progress in astronomy: from gravitational waves to space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-13

    This brief paper introduces and reviews the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by leading young scientists throughout the world for the first of two Christmas 2008 Triennial issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, devoted, respectively, to astronomy and Earth science. Contributions in astronomy include the very topical gamma-ray bursts, new ideas on stellar collapse and the unusual atmospheres of synchronized planets orbiting nearby stars.

  7. IYA2009 and Beyond - Update On "Music and Astronomy Under the Stars” To Bring Telescopes To Where the People Are!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2009-05-01

    This NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars outreach program brings telescopes and astronomy information (via a video display and outdoor exhibit) to community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family films attended by 500 to 50,000 people. This program will permit the entire community to participate with telescope observations and will enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. The telescopes will be accessible to those with physical disabilities. This program combines music, telescope observations, and astronomy information and targets people who may not attend star parties, planetariums, or science museums. I update this program and discus the lessons learned such as the importance of coordination with local governments, community park districts, and amateur astronomer clubs. This program can be expanded and modified for the local communities. I have expanded this program to large and small venues from New York Philharmonic concert at Heckscher State Park, the boardwalk and a "tail-gate” star party by at pop-music concerts at Jones Beach State Park, and at the Tanglewood Music Festival in Lenox, MA, summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (http://www.bso.org/bso/mods/perf_detail.jsp?pid=prod2880024). This program is expandable to include outdoor dance or theatre programs, festivals in parks or beaches or amusement parks. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond IYA-2009 beaches. Special events such as a Super Bowl Star Party and Halloween Stars will be presented as will the results form NASA-funded hands-on astronomy activities to children and their families receiving medical treatment at the Children's Medical Center at Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY) and the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY).

  8. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111 substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. The results indicated that: (1 more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2 the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  9. Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed

  10. A Community-Centered Astronomy Research Program (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.; Boyce, G.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) is providing semester-long, hands-on, astronomy research experiences for students of all ages that results in their publishing peer-reviewed papers. The course in astronomy and double star research has evolved from a face-to-face learning experience with two instructors to an online hybrid course that simultaneously supports classroom instruction at a variety of schools in the San Diego area. Currently, there are over 65 students enrolled in three community colleges, seven high schools, and one university as well as individual adult learners. Instructional experience, courseware, and supporting systems were developed and refined through experience gained in classroom settings from 2014 through 2016. Topics of instruction include Keplerís Laws, basic astrometry, properties of light, CCD imaging, use of filters for varying stellar spectral types, and how to perform research, scientific writing, and proposal preparation. Volunteer instructors were trained by taking the course and producing their own research papers. An expanded program was launched in the fall semester of 2016. Twelve papers from seven schools were produced; eight have been accepted for publication by the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO) and the remainder are in peer review. Three additional papers have been accepted by the JDSO and two more are in process papers. Three college professors and five advanced amateur astronomers are now qualified volunteer instructors. Supporting tools are provided by a BRIEF server and other online services. The server-based tools range from Microsoft Office and planetarium software to top-notch imaging programs and computational software for data reduction for each student team. Observations are performed by robotic telescopes worldwide supported by BRIEF. With this success, student demand has increased significantly. Many of the graduates of the first semester course wanted to

  11. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  12. Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, P.

    2006-08-01

    Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to be only good at fascinating people but not providing paid jobs. It is also due to the lack of trained instructors, teaching materials, and a clear vision of the role of astronomy and basic space science within the broader context of education in the physical and applied sciences. In this paper we survey some of the problems bedeviling the spread of astronomy in Africa and discuss some interdisciplinary traditional weather indicators. These indicators have been used over the years to monitor the appearance of constellations. For example, orions are closely intertwined with cultures of some ethnic African societies and could be incorporated in the standard astronomy curriculum as away of making the subject more `home grown' and to be able to reach out to the wider populace in popularizing astronomy and basic sciences. We also discuss some of the other measures that ought to be taken to effectively create an enabling environment for sustainable teaching and spread of astronomy through Africa.

  13. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  14. Education in Astronomy Through English Programs

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 右文

    2012-01-01

    The author is a member of an educational program funded by Kyushu University called “Developing a New Education Program in Studying Astronomy”. The program aims to promote basic knowledge of Science and Technology and refine the social interaction of students. His activities in the 2011 academic year included using a textbook on astrophysics with his English class, arranging a class meeting on astronomy in the Kyushu University summer program held at Pembroke College at the University of Camb...

  15. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  16. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  17. Astronomy Outreach Adventures in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, L.

    2015-03-01

    Astronomy can be an inspirational gateway to learning science and analytical reasoning, and to careers in STEM fields-particularly important in developing countries where educational opportunities can be scarce. Following this idea and my interest in learning about other cultures, I decided to spend 6 weeks in late 2011 (between Ph.D. and postdoc) doing astronomy public outreach in Guatemala. I volunteered through a Spanish language school embedded in a poor rural community (typical earning ~ $3/day), working mostly with children. My teaching goals were primarily attitudinal: to encourage people to observe and ask questions about the world around them, and to show them that phenomena have explanations that we can understand.

  18. A Sidewalk Astronomy Experience in Second Life (R) for IYA2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Huber, D.; I. New Media Task Group

    2009-01-01

    The NMTG has created an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (R), where residents (or avatars) interact with content built by others in dynamic, innovative, and social ways. The IYA2009 virtual real estate (called an island) will open in early January 2009 with an initial set of exhibits and interactives. Through 2009, additional exhibits, live talks, and webstreamed content will be added.Our Sidewalk Astronomy experience will be premiered for the island opening. We have designed the interactive to replicate a real-life small telescope experience. Visitors to our Second Life telescopes will first see an image of the object "as the eye sees" and will hear/read a narrative about the object, as one would experience in real life. The narratives have been carefully crafted to take the observer on a journey and not just hear straight facts about the object. Diving further into astronomical imagery, avatars will explore visible, infrared, X-ray, and radio views of the object (if available), all wrapped in contextual information that ties the multiwavelength views together. The content of the telescopes will update every month to be equivalent to mid-latitude 9pm sky views for the Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere pending. Supplemental materials will include World Wide Telescope tours and Google Sky layers. We are hoping to add live star party events throughout the year, using real life video feeds from amateur telescopes. Additionally, we will have links to the Sidewalk Astronomy IYA webpage so virtual residents can find real life star parties to attend. The Sidewalk Astronomy Second Life experience will also have a traveling version that can be placed in multiple locations (stores, events, parks) in order to bring astronomy to the virtual masses in a true Sidewalk Astronomy way.

  19. Publishing in the Refereed International Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education JAESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education- JAESE was first published in 2014. JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest, and NASA SAO/ADS and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute in the United States, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and a Senior Scientist at the

  20. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  1. Enhancing the Teaching of Astronomy with Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Dozens of scientists and science educators with advanced degrees in science have been writing literate and scientifically reasonable science fiction stories in the last two decades, although these are often drowned out by the din of popular magic teenagers and space battle epics. The paper will give examples of stories and novels with good science, which can be used as a way of making astronomy concepts "come alive" for non-science majors. A list of science fiction authors with astronomy and physics degrees will be included. We will also have examples from a web-site devoted to astronomy in science fiction (see link) that has some 200 brief reviews of stories organized by 40 astronomy topics. We will discuss how instructors are using such stories for classroom and homework assignments.

  2. Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Sciences Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samuel; Euzébio, Geison João; Damasio, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Although astronomy is considered one of the older sciences of mankind, its teaching in basic education is facing problems. It is the school responsibility the dissemination of correct scientific concepts, including those related to Astronomy. This study was conducted at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed to help the formation of teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the teaching-learning of Astronomy. This paper presents the process and results of the evaluation of that training program. Analyses of the activity from the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training.

  3. Astronomy and political theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  4. The Interactive Astronomy Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.; Barnes, David G.

    We introduce the use of in situ interactive three-dimensional (3-d) figures in digital astronomy textbooks as a means of enhancing student learning. The recent 3-d extensions to the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), combined with simple JavaScript, provide new ways to present intrinsically 3-d models, data sets, and instructional diagrams in digital publications. This is an enhancement to the usual method of presenting static, two-dimensional views, or "comic strip" sequences, to indicate changes in viewpoint. Interactive figures provide opportunities for students to undertake active learning while reading a textbook: they are able to explore and uncover the connections between viewpoint, orientation, and the 3-d nature of models and data sets for themselves.

  5. Astronomy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Becan, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy For Beginners is a friendly and accessible guide to our universe, our galaxy, our solar system and the planet we call home. Each year as we cruise through space on this tiny blue-green wonder, a number of amazing and remarkable events occur. For example, like clockwork, we'll run head-on into asteroid and cometary debris that spreads shooting stars across our skies. On occasion, we'll get to watch the disk of the Moon passing the Sun, casting its shadow on the face of the Earth, and sometimes we'll get to watch our own shadow as it glides across the face of the Moon. The Sun's path w

  6. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  7. Astronomy and the limits of vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1993-01-01

    Celestial visibility is the study of the limits of observability of objects in the sky, with application to deducing the truth about historical events or to the derivation of astronomical information of modern utility. This study is based on what is seen by ordinary humans, either in their everyday lives or at times of historical events. The results of such studies have more relevance to non-scientists than does any other area of astronomy. Celestial visibility is a young discipline in the sense that the number of interesting applications with simple solutions outnumber the solved problems; it is a broad interdisciplinary field that involves work with astronomy, meteorology, optics, physics, physiology, history, and archeology. Each of these disciplines contribute specialized mathematical formulations which quantify the many processes that affect light as it leaves a source, traverses the atmosphere, and is detected by the human eye. These formulas can then be combined as appropriate to create mathematical models for the visibility of the source under the conditions of interest. These model results can then be applied a wide variety of problems arising in history, astronomy, archeology, meteorological optics, and archeoastronomy. This review also presents a dozen suggestions for observing projects, many of which can be directly taken for individual study, for classroom projects, or for professional research.

  8. Astronomy and the limits of vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    Celestial visibility is the study of the limits of observability of objects in the sky, with application to deducing the truth about historical events or to the derivation of astronomical information of modern utility. This study is based on what is seen by ordinary humans, either in their everyday lives or at times of historical events. The results of such studies have more relevance to non-scientists than does any other area of astronomy. Celestial visibility is a young discipline in the sense that the number of interesting applications with simple solutions outnumber the solved problems; it is a broad interdisciplinary field that involves work with astronomy, meteorology, optics, physics, physiology, history, and archeology. Each of these disciplines contribute specialized mathematical formulations which quantify the many processes that affect light as it leaves a source, traverses the atmosphere, and is detected by the human eye. These formulas can then be combined as appropriate to create mathematical models for the visibility of the source under the conditions of interest. These model results can then be applied a wide variety of problems arising in history, astronomy, archeology, meteorological optics, and archeoastronomy. This review also presents a dozen suggestions for observing projects, many of which can be directly taken for individual study, for classroom projects, or for professional research.

  9. Interferometry and synthesis in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, A Richard; Swenson Jr , George W

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signal-processing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics. With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferomete...

  10. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  11. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  12. The Profile of Astronomy Amateurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.

    Presentation of questionnaires carried out on Polish Astronomy Portal websites. There was over 80 questionnaires during 2 years period. As most part of users visiting this website are astronomy amateurs, we can assume questionnaires give a picture of astronomy amateurs community. Questionnaires can be divided into four main thematical groups: profile of users (age, sex, activities), what do they think about controversial astronomical problems (is Pluto a planet?), what are their likings (favorit star, most beatiful planet) and “business” questions (how did they find our website?, how many astronomical services do they visit regularly?).

  13. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  14. NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its

  15. Introducing Astronomy Related Research into Non-Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas

    The concern over the insufficient number of students choosing to enter the science and engineering fields has been discussed and documented for years. While historically addressed at the national level, many states are now recognizing that the lack of a highly-skilled technical workforce within their states' borders has a significant effect on their economic health. Astronomy, as a science field, is no exception. Articles appear periodically in the most popular astronomy magazines asking the question, "Where are the young astronomers?" Astronomy courses at the community college level are normally restricted to introductory astronomy I and II level classes that introduce the student to the basics of the night sky and astronomy. The vast majority of these courses is geared toward the non-science major and is considered by many students to be easy and watered down courses in comparison to typical physics and related science courses. A majority of students who enroll in these classes are not considering majors in science or astronomy since they believe that science is "boring and won't produce any type of career for them." Is there any way to attract students? This paper discusses an approach being undertaken at the Estrella Mountain Community College to introduce students in selected mathematics courses to aspects of astronomy related research to demonstrate that science is anything but boring. Basic statistical techniques and understanding of geometry are applied to a large virgin data set containing the magnitudes and phase characteristics of sets of variable stars. The students' work consisted of developing and presenting a project that explored analyzing selected aspects of the variable star data set. The description of the data set, the approach the students took for research projects, and results from a survey conducted at semester's end to determine if student's interest and appreciation of astronomy was affected are presented. Using the data set provided, the

  16. Capturing Public Interest in Astronomy through Art and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Sabraw, J.; Salgado, J. F.; Statler, T.; Summers, F.

    2008-11-01

    This is a summary of our 90-minute International Year of Astronomy (IYA) symposium workshop about engaging greater public interest in astronomy during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 through art and music. The session focused on: (i) plans for visually interesting and challenging astronomy presentations to connect with an audience at venues such as museums, concert halls, etc that might be apprehensive about science but open to creative experiences; (ii) the nuts-and-bolts of turning creative ideas into exhibits or visualizations; (iii) balancing scientific accuracy with artistic license; and (iv) how scientists, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) professionals, artists, musicians et al. can bridge the ``two cultures''---starting and sustaining multi-disciplinary collaborations, articulating expectations, and building synergy. The presenters shared with the EPO community some of the astronomy-art projects and resources that we have been developing for the IYA through a variety of collaborations. Our portfolios include state-of-the-art astronomy visualizations and tools, music videos and podcasts that highlight stunning images from NASA's Great Observatories; a video suite of astronomical images that can accompany live performances of Holst's The Planets and Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; and SCALE, a multicomponent traveling art installation including the largest pastel drawing of the Milky Way.

  17. Astronomy for a Better World”: IAU/OAD Task Force One Activities to Develop Astronomy Education and Research at Universities in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward Francis; Kolenberg, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    The Task Force (1) on Astronomy for Universities & Research (TF-1) was established in 2012 as part of the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD). This Task Force drives activities related to astronomy education and research at universities mainly in the developing world. Astronomy is used to stimulate research and education in STEM fields and to develop and promote astronomy in regions of the world where there is little or no astronomy. There is also potential for developing research in the historical and cultural aspects of astronomy which may prove important for stimulating an interest in the subject in communities where there is yet no established interest in the science.Since the establishment of the OAD, over 25 TF-1 programs have been funded (or partially funded) to support a wide variety of interesting and innovative astronomy programs in Africa, Asia, South-East Asia, Middle-East, and in South & Central America. Nearly every aspect of development has been supported. These programs include supporting: regional astronomy training schools, specialized workshops, research visits, university twinning programs, distance learning projects, university astronomy curriculum development, as well as small telescope and equipment grants. In addition, a large new program - Astrolab - was introduced (by J-P De Greve and Michele Gerbaldi) to bring starlight” into the class room. In the Astrolab program students carry out and reduce CCD photometry secured by them using remotely controlled telescopes. Results from pilot programs will be discussed.OAD TF-1 programs will be discussed along with future plans for improving and expanding these programs to bring astronomy education and research to a greater number of people and indeed to use Astronomy for a Better World. Information and advice will also be provided about applying for support in the future.

  18. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR A Collection of Scientific Essays

    CERN Document Server

    Salomonovich, A; Samanian, V; Shklovskii, I; Sorochenko, R; Troitskii, V; Kellermann, K; Dubinskii, B; Kaidanovskii, N; Kardashev, N; Kobrin, M; Kuzmin, A; Molchanov, A; Pariiskii, Yu; Rzhiga, O

    2012-01-01

    This translation from Russian makes the history of radio astronomy in the USSR available in the English language for the first time. The book includes descriptions of the antennas and instrumentation used in the USSR, the astronomical discoveries, as well as interesting personal backgrounds of many of the early key players in Soviet radio astronomy. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR is a collection of memoirs recounting an interesting but largely still dark era of Soviet astronomy. The arrangement of the essays is determined primarily by the time when radio astronomy studies began at the institutions involved. These include the Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Gorkii State University and the affiliated Physical-Technical Institute (GIFTI), Moscow State University Sternberg Astronomical institute (GAISH) and Space Research Institute (IKI), the Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Pulkovo (GAO), Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Byurakan Astrophysical Obse...

  19. Astronomy for Development: Path to Global Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, R.; Govender, K.; Grant, E.

    2017-07-01

    The IAU established its Office of Astronomy for Development in 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa, in partnership with the South African National Research Foundation, and hosted at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The primary purpose of the office has been to implement the IAU's decadal strategic plan which aims to use astronomy to stimulate education and development globally. Since its inception there have been nine regional offices established, including one in the Latin American region which focuses on Andean countries. Following a very positive external review in 2015, as well as a supportive resolution by the 2015 IAU General Assembly to continue the work of the office, the OAD is now in a position to move beyond the setting up of structures to a more intensive effort aimed at measuring and delivering programmes with broader global impact.

  20. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  1. From astronomy to data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Zaurín, Javier

    2018-01-01

    After almost ten years in academia I took one of the best decisions of my life: to leave it. This is my experience transitioning from astronomy to data science in search of a more open, fast-paced working environment.

  2. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities

  3. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboe, Asger

    uniformly around the empty focus of its orbit. Thus an eccentric circular orbit with the empty "focus" as the equant point gives a good approximation to Kepler motions. The result of combining two such motions is then shown to be close to Ptolemy's planetary model. This book provides a fascinating look at the night sky and the techniques that early civilizations, particularly Babylonian and Greek, used to model planetary motions¿Aaboe does a masterful job of covering a wide array of intriguing topics in a relatively short book, and any effort expended on reading it will be well rewarded¿ talented students at the high school age and college students who are interested in these topics would likely find this book very enjoyable and enriching¿Overall, the book is fascinating to read for several reasons, including its observational astronomical viewpoint, its rich historical and cultural content, and, of course, its exposition and explanation of ancient techniques of celestial predictions and modeling. ?MAA ONLINE

  4. The Sharjah Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences (SCASS 2015): Concept and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimiy, Hamid M. K. Al

    2015-08-01

    The Sharjah Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences (SCASS) was launched this year 2015 at the University of Sharjah in the UAE. The center will serve to enrich research in the fields of astronomy and space sciences, promote these fields at all educational levels, and encourage community involvement in these sciences. SCASS consists of:The Planetarium: Contains a semi-circle display screen (18 meters in diameter) installed at an angle of 10° which displays high-definition images using an advanced digital display system consisting of seven (7) high-performance light-display channels. The Planetarium Theatre offers a 200-seat capacity with seats placed at highly calculated angles. The Planetarium also contains an enormous star display (Star Ball - 10 million stars) located in the heart of the celestial dome theatre.The Sharjah Astronomy Observatory: A small optical observatory consisting of a reflector telescope 45 centimeters in diameter to observe the galaxies, stars and planets. Connected to it is a refractor telescope of 20 centimeters in diameter to observe the sun and moon with highly developed astronomical devices, including a digital camera (CCD) and a high-resolution Echelle Spectrograph with auto-giving and remote calibration ports.Astronomy, space and physics educational displays for various age groups include:An advanced space display that allows for viewing the universe during four (4) different time periods as seen by:1) The naked eye; 2) Galileo; 3) Spectrographic technology; and 4) The space technology of today.A space technology display that includes space discoveries since the launching of the first satellite in 1940s until now.The Design Concept for the Center (450,000 sq. meters) was originated by HH Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed Al Qasimi, Ruler of Sharjah, and depicts the dome as representing the sun in the middle of the center surrounded by planetary bodies in orbit to form the solar system as seen in the sky.

  5. Pondering astronomy's perplexingly preposterous propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Astronomy is one of those ideas that naturally makes one wonder. Questions of how big? how far? how many? and how long? are just a few ideas that naturally present themselves when one contemplates the night sky and the universe. Despite astronomy's inherent ability to captivate students' interest, even master teachers need an evolving toolkit of innovative strategies to intellectually engage students, particularly in the domain of critical thinking.

  6. Bibliometric Evaluation of Finnish Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, E.

    2007-10-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of refereed papers was collected and analyzed.

  7. Building a Successful Teachers' Workshop in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smecker-Hane, T. A.; Thornton, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the Teachers' Workshop in Astronomy & Astrophysics, a 2-day long summer workshop we designed to aid K-12 grade teachers in incorporating astronomy and astrophysics into their curricula. These workshops are part of a faculty-led outreach program entitled Outreach in Astronomy & Astrophysics with the UCI Observatory, funded by an NSF FOCUS grant to the University of California, Irvine. Approximately 20 teachers from the Compton, Newport/Mesa and Santa Ana Unified School Districts attend each workshop. Our teachers realize that astronomy captures the imagination of their students, and thus lessons in astronomy can very effectively convey a number of challenging math and science concepts. Our workshop is designed to give teachers the content and instruction needed to achieve that goal. Because only a small fraction of teachers have taken a college astronomy course, an important component of the workshop is lectures on: (1) the motion of objects in the night sky, moon phases and the seasons, (2) the solar system, (3) the physics of light, and (4) interesting applications such as searching for planets around other stars and charting the expansion history of the Universe. The second important component of the workshop is the kit of material each teacher receives, which includes a introductory astronomy textbook, planetarium software, and the ASP's "Universe at Your Fingertips" and "More Universe at Your Fingertips", etc.. The latter two books give teachers many examples of creative hands-on activities and experiments they can do with their classes and instruction on how to build a coherent curriculum for their particular grade level. We also introduce teachers to Contemporary Laboratory Exercises in Astronomy (CLEA), a suite of computer lab exercises that can be used effectively in high school physics classes. For more information, see http://www.physics.uci.edu/%7Eobservat/#e&o. Funding provided by NSF grant EHR-0227202 (PI: Ronald Stern).

  8. The ASTRO-H (Hitomi) X-Ray Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kokubun, Motohide; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard; Ohashi, Takaya; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E greater than 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. After a successful launch on 2016 February 17, the spacecraft lost its function on 2016 March 26, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the on-board instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.

  9. Astronomy in Primary and Secondary Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomboc, Andreja

    2015-08-01

    I will present the status of astronomy in educational system in Slovenia. In primary schools astronomy is offered as an optional course in the last 3 grades (12-15 yrs old), while in secondary schools a few astronomical topics are present only as part of other subjects (e.g. physics, geography). I will describe a pilot project of an astronomy course in secondary schools, which was carried out in the school year 2013/14. The main focus of my presentation will be the experience gained with organisation of the Slovenian National Astronomy Competition. It is organised by the Slovenian Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers since 2009, building on an extensive network of over 200 primary and secondary school teachers who participated in IYA2009 activities, and who now represent majority of mentors for the competition. In 2013, only 5 years after the start of competition, our pupils attended the International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics for the first time and with great success. Supporting activities include the Slovenian version of the Portal to the Universe (www.portalvvesolje.si) and translation of Space Scoop astronomy news for children.

  10. SkyServer Voyages Website - Using Big Data to Explore Astronomy Concepts in Formal Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Kate K.; Masters, Karen; Raddick, Jordan; Lundgren, Britt

    2015-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) web interface “SkyServer” has long included online educational materials designed to help students and the public discover the fundamentals of modern astronomy using real observations from the SDSS database. The newly launched SDSS Voyages website updates and expands these activities to reflect new data from subsequent generations of the survey, advances in web technology, and evolving practices in science education. Voyages provides access to quality astronomy, astrophysics, and engineering materials to educators seeking an inquiry approach to fundamental concepts. During this session we will provide an overview of the design and development of Skyserver Voyages and discuss ways to apply this resource at K-12 and university levels.

  11. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  12. Astronomy in India a historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    India has a strong and ancient tradition of astronomy, which seamlessly merges with the current activities in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the country. While the younger generation of astronomers and students are reasonably familiar with the current facilities and the astronomical research, they might not have an equally good knowledge of the rich history of Indian astronomy. This particular volume, brought out as a part of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Indian National Science Academy, concentrates on selected aspects of historical development of Indian astronomy in the form of six invited chapters. Two of the chapters – by Balachandra Rao and M.S. Sriram – cover ancient astronomy and the development of calculus in the ancient Kerela text Yuktibhasa. The other four chapters by B.V. Sreekantan, Siraj Hasan, Govind Swarup and Jayant Narlikar deal with the contemporary history of Indian astronomy covering space astronomy, optical astronomy, radio astronomy and developments in relativistic astrophysic...

  13. Astronomy in the Bulgarian Neolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Alexey; Maglova, Penka

    Bulgaria is famous for the richness of its Neolithic culture, with its large variety of artistic representations having deep semantic meaning. Here, we consider several types of monument which yield evidence for the astronomical practices and beliefs of Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) peoples. We begin by considering the emergence and development of Neolithic and Eneolithic societies in Bulgaria and the chronological development of material and spiritual culture. By discussing specific monuments it is shown how astronomy was woven into everyday and spiritual life, revealing insights into people's concepts of space and time. The monuments concerned are Karanovo, the largest and one of the oldest tells in Europe; Topchika cave, with the earliest rock pictures; Magura cave, one of the largest and most beautiful caves in Bulgaria, famous for its unique paintings; Bailovo cave complex, with its lunar images and calendar frieze composed of monochrome paintings; and the Tangarduk Kaya cave sanctuary, from which observations could have been made of the culmination of the sun on the meridian at the solstices.

  14. Large Databases in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Gray, Jim; Kunszt, Peter; Thakar, Anirudha; Slutz, Don

    The next-generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The archives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. The intensive use of advanced data archives will enable astronomers to explore their data interactively. Data access will be aided by multidimensional spatial and attribute indices. The data will be partitioned in many ways. Small tag indices consisting of the most popular attributes will accelerate frequent searches. Splitting the data among multiple servers will allow parallel, scalable I/O and parallel data analysis. Hashing techniques will allow efficient clustering, and pair-wise comparison algorithms that should parallelize nicely. Randomly sampled subsets will allow debugging otherwise large queries at the desktop. Central servers will operate a data pump to support sweep searches touching most of the data. The anticipated queries will require special operators related to angular distances and complex similarity tests of object properties, like shapes, colors, velocity vectors, or temporal behaviors. These issues pose interesting data management challenges.

  15. Teaching Astronomy at SRTM University, Nanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Madhav Khushalrao

    School of Physical Sciences of SRTM University, Nanded, Maharashtra offers Astronomy & Astrophysics as one of the specializations at postgraduate (M. Sc) level. With a view to provide training in astronomical observations, data analysis and interpretation of the data; the school has incorporated a set of observational as well as data analysis exercises as a part of this course. The school at present is having observing facilities like, two 8 inch aperture Meade optical telescopes equipped with SSP-3 and SSP-3A photometers, 416-XT CCD camera and is in the process of procurement of Advanced Coma Free 16 inch (40cm) aperture Meade LX-200 optical telescope along with ST-10XME CCD camera and SBIG spectrograph. In addition to these facilities, with an objective of spreading the joy and excitement of radio astronomy among the postgraduate and research students, the school is procuring one 10-feet diameter dish antenna and 1420 MHz Hydrogen Line Spectrometer (radio observation setup). For the solar irradiance measurement, the school is also procuring one StellarNetUV-VIS-NIR Spectro-Radiometer. These facilities are quite suitable for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, carrying out spectroscopic observations of a variety of objects, 21-cm observations of star-forming regions, solar irradiance measurement etc. This presentation is aimed to give a brief summary of various activities that are conducted at M Sc. level using the facilities available in our university department.

  16. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  17. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 26; Issue 1. Volume 26, Issue 1. March 2005, pages 1-115. pp 1-70. GMRT Hv Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies · A. Omar K. S. Dwarakanath · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The GMRT HI 21cm-line observations of galaxies in the Eridanus ...

  18. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, multiwaveband observational efforts with wide fields of view will be the key to progress of transients astronomy from the middle 2020s offering unprecedented deep images and high spatial and spectral resolutions. Radio observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with SKA will uncover not only much fainter ...

  19. Gamma-ray astronomy by the air shower technique: performance and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, J.W. [Chicago, Univ. of Chicago (United States). Dept. of Phisycs and Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1996-11-01

    The techniques for {gamma}-ray astronomy at energies {>=}10 TeV using air shower detectors are discussed. The results, based on a number of large arrays, are negative, with no point sources being identified. While the contributions to {gamma}-ray astronomy so far have been only upper limits, these arrays in the future will make significant progress in the understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range 10{sup 13} eV to 10{sup 16} eV. Also, contributions to solar physics are being made by observations of shape and time dependence of the shadow of the Sun as observed in cosmic rays. For the advancement of {gamma}-ray astronomy a greater sensitivity is required in the energy region of 10 TeV. A number of promising techniques to accomplish a greater sensitivity are discussed. They include the enlargement of the Tibet array at 4300 meters altitude, the array of open photomultipliers at La Palma (AIROBICC), which views the shower by the Cherenkov photons produced in the atmosphere, and the instrumentation of a pond at Los Alamos with photomultipliers (Milagro).

  20. Astronomy Teaching in Europe's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    EU/ESO Workshop for European Physics Teachers A joint Workshop of the European Union (EU) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) will take place on November 25 - 30, 1994 under the auspices of the European Week for Scientific Culture. The Workshop is entitled "Astronomy: Science, Culture and Technology". It will bring together at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) more than 100 secondary school teachers and ministerial representatives from 17 European countries to discuss all aspects of this broad subject. It is the first and very visible part of a new, sustained effort to stimulate and modernize the teaching of the subjects of Astronomy and Astrophysics in European secondary schools. During the Workshop, the participants will experience the present state of this multi-disciplinary science in its most general context, that is as a human, long-term scientific and technological endeavour with great cultural implications. They will exchange views on how the various elements of Astronomy can best be utilized within the educational schemes of the individual countries, both as subjects in their own rights, and especially in support of many other items on the present teaching agenda. Why This Workshop ? Astronomy is probably the oldest science. Since innumerable millenia, it has continued to have a great influence on mankind's perception of itself and its surroundings. In our days, Astronomy and Astrophysics have become a central area of the natural sciences with many direct links to other sciences (e.g., many aspects of physics, mathematics, chemistry, the geo-sciences, etc.); it has an important cultural content (including our distant origins, the recognition of the location and restricted extent of our niche in space and time, cosmological considerations as well as philosophy in general); its recent successes are to a large amount dependent on advanced technologies and methodologies (e.g., optics, electronics, detector techniques at all wavelengths

  1. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  2. Spatial Thinking as the Dimension of Progress in an Astronomy Learning Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.

    2014-01-01

    The big idea of "celestial motion", observational astronomy phenomena explained by the relative position and motion of objects in the solar system and beyond, is central to astronomy in primary and secondary education. In this paper, I argue that students' progress in developing productive, scientific explanations for this class of…

  3. Extragalactic radio continuum surveys and the transformation of radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2017-10-01

    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide fresh insights for understanding the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected phenomena. This Review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.

  4. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  5. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  6. Extragalactic astronomy. Book 1. Galaxies: the basic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrya, Yu. M.; Vavilova, I. B.

    2016-09-01

    This book on extragalaxy astronomy deals with the morphology and basic physical and photometric properties of normal galaxies, namely, their linear sizes, kinematics, luminosity, and mass. Separate sections are devoted to our Galaxy, methods of determination of the distances to galaxies, modern observational galaxy surveys and catalogues. The book introduces both the newest observational and theoretical results as well as classical data about properties of galaxies in the optical spectral range. For students and high school teachers, graduate students and researchers in the field of astrophysics and physics, as well as all those who are interested in extragalactic astronomy.

  7. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

    1995-12-01

    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  8. The Art of Astronomy: A New General Education Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, Liese

    2017-01-01

    The Art of Astronomy is a new general education course developed at Indiana University. The topic appeals to a broad range of undergraduates and the course gives students the tools to understand and appreciate astronomical images in a new way. The course explores the science of imaging the universe and the technology that makes the images possible. Topics include the night sky, telescopes and cameras, light and color, and the science behind the images. Coloring the Universe: An Insider's Look at Making Spectacular Images of Space" by T. A. Rector, K. Arcand, and M. Watzke serves as the basic text for the course, supplemented by readings from the web. Through the course, students participate in exploration activities designed to help them first to understand astronomy images, and then to create them. Learning goals include an understanding of scientific inquiry, an understanding of the basics of imaging science as applied in astronomy, a knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and how observations at different wavelengths inform us about different environments in the universe, and an ability to interpret astronomical images to learn about the universe and to model and understand the physical world.

  9. Williamstown Observatory and the Development of Professional Astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny; Orchiston, W.; Clark, B.

    2011-01-01

    During the early 1850s the colony of Victoria was enjoying a succession of gold rushes, and as the population of the fledgling settlement of Melbourne rapidly grew, an urgent need arose for an accurate local time service. Thus, Williamstown Observatory was founded at the port of Williamstown in 1853. Under the dynamic direction of Robert Ellery, the Williamstown Observatory quickly added meteorological and tidal observations, geodetic surveying and non-meridian astronomical observations to its portfolio, and by the time it closed in 1863 it had already played a key role in the early development of professional astronomy in Australia. Ellery went on to direct Melbourne Observatory_Williamstown's successor_and in the process build an international reputation in astronomy, meteorology and scientific entrepeneurship. In this paper we will discuss the founding and chequered history of the Williamstown Observatory, its scientific instruments and the ways in which they were used to contribute to Australian and international astronomy.

  10. Planetary Science with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Dana E.; Reach, William T.

    2015-11-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is currently conducting the third annual Cycle of guest investigator observing programs. Programs selected for the fourth Cycle (2016) were announced in October. The planetary science community has made a significant showing in all proposal Cycles, comprising approximately 15% of the time awarded in Cycles 1-3. SOFIA offers observers access to the complete infrared spectrum, with much less atmospheric absorption than from even the finest ground-based telescope sites. New capabilities include high-resolution spectroscopy in the mid-infrared with the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) that allows spectroscopy of molecules from narrow stratospheric lines of planetary atmospheres, plus imaging spectroscopy with the Field Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI-LS) capable, for example, of simultaneous observations in 9 spatial pixels in each of two far-infrared spectral lines. Also, the FLITECAM near-IR and FORCAST mid-IR cameras include grisms that allow moderate-resolution spectral imaging at wavelengths inaccessible from the ground, and HIPO and FPI+ high-speed photometric imagers are capable of high-S/N measurements of stellar occultations and exoplanet transits. Planetary science targets observed to date include comets ISON and PanSTARRS, main belt asteroids, Mars, Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Europa, exoplanets, and debris disks. This poster will showcase science highlights, give details regarding the SOFIA observatory and instrument capabilities, and present observing program statistics.

  11. Astronomy cool women in space

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Head outside and look up. What do you see? At night you might see stars, the moon, the Milky Way, and planets! During the day all these things will still be there, but they'll be hidden by the bright light of the sun. Astronomy is the study of celestial objects and what's beyond the nebulous boundaries of space. In Astronomy: Cool Women in Space, young readers will be inspired by stories of women who have made great strides in a field that takes courage, persistence, and creativity to pursue. Most people have heard of Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, but have you heard of Maria Mitchell or Caroline Herschel? For many decades, female astronomers have been defining the field by making discoveries that changed the human relationship with space. Astronomy: Cool Women in Space will introduce young readers to three women who are bringing the science of astronomy forward and inspiring the next generation of astronomers. The primary sources, essentials questions, and knowledge connections within Astronomy: Cool Women ...

  12. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Chu, Raymond Y.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS) arose from the 2003 Women in Astronomy Conference, where it was noted that a majority of young members of the American Astronomical Society were women. The astronomy community wishes to make every effort to retain young women in astronomy, so they commissioned a longitudinal study to be conducted that would pinpoint the factors that contribute to retention in general, with a focus on differences between women and men. The LSAGS follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13. The analysis presented in this paper used a subset of the respondents, all of whom had Ph.D.s in astronomy, astrophysics, or a related field at the time of the second survey. We tested the effects of four major concepts on two measures of attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, the "two-body problem" that occurs when a couple needs to find two jobs in the same geographic area, and the sex of the respondent. While the imposter syndrome and mentoring affected the likelihood of respondents' thinking about leaving the field, they did not directly contribute to actually working in a field that was not physics or astronomy. Relationship with graduate advisors and the two-body problem both had significant effects on working in physics or astronomy, as did completing a postdoc. The sex of the respondent had no direct effect on our measures of attrition, but indirectly affected attrition because women were less likely to report positive relationships with graduate advisors and more likely to report two-body problems. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people

  13. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  14. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy-but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  15. Astronomy in the Service of Christianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    Medieval European scholars drew on ancient traditions of astronomical knowledge to develop astronomical practices that served the needs of religious institutions by defining the sacred time and sacred space of religious ritual. Techniques employing the luni-solar calendar to determine the date of Easter, observations of the stars and Sun to determine the time of prayer, and orienting churches astronomically to face the symbolically important direction, east, were widely practiced. These varieties of religious astronomy were employed by persons of varying levels of education, working within a variety of contexts.

  16. International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)

  17. Scientific literacy: astronomy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, A.; Iglesias, M.; Quinteros, C.

    Models constructed by scientists to explain the world often incorporate their actual individual conceptions about different physical phenomena. Likewise, prospective teachers reach general science courses with preconstructed and consistent models of the universe surrounding them. In this project we present a series of basic questionings that make us reflect on the present situation of the teaching-learning relationship in astronomy within the framework of formal education for elementary school teachers. Our project main aims are: 1) to contribute to finding out the real learning situation of preservice elementary teachers, and 2) from these studies, to try and develop didactic tools that can contribute to improve their formal education in topics of astronomy. In spite of being of chief importance within the science teaching topics, mainly due to its interdisciplinarity and cultural relevance, researches in didactics of astronomy are not well represented in our research institutes. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Astronomy Teaching Problems in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    Astronomy, like any science, constantly develops unlimitedly approaching absolute objective truth; every moment of its accomplishments are due to the level of public welfare demands and culture. Armenia for centuries had a major contributor to the ancient as well as to the modern astronomy development. But it has been already a couple of years that the "Astronomy" course is not present at the schools of Armenia. Despite that fact, several schools put an effort to stress the importance of that subject by extracurricular groups trying to fill that gap. How this work is carried out and what results do we have? What can be done to increase the level of astronomical education as well as for its expansion?

  19. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  20. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    This work is an outreach approach to an ubiquitous recent problem in secondary-school education: how to face back the decreasing interest in natural sciences shown by students under 'pressure' of convenient resources in digital devices/applications. The approach rests on two features. First, empowering of teen-age students to understand regular natural events around, as very few educated people they meet could do. Secondly, an understanding that rests on personal capability to test and verify experimental results from the oldest science, astronomy, with simple instruments as used from antiquity down to the Renaissance (a capability restricted to just solar and lunar motions). Because lengths in astronomy and daily life are so disparate, astronomy basically involved observing and registering values of angles (along with times), measurements being of two types, of angles on the ground and of angles in space, from the ground. First, the gnomon, a simple vertical stick introduced in Babylonia and Egypt, and then in Greece, is used to understand solar motion. The gnomon shadow turns around during any given day, varying in length and thus angle between solar ray and vertical as it turns, going through a minimum (noon time, at a meridian direction) while sweeping some angular range from sunrise to sunset. Further, the shadow minimum length varies through the year, with times when shortest and sun closest to vertical, at summer solstice, and times when longest, at winter solstice six months later. The extreme directions at sunset and sunrise correspond to the solstices, swept angular range greatest at summer, over 180 degrees, and the opposite at winter, with less daytime hours; in between, spring and fall equinoxes occur, marked by collinear shadow directions at sunrise and sunset. The gnomon allows students to determine, in addition to latitude (about 40.4° North at Madrid, say), the inclination of earth equator to plane of its orbit around the sun (ecliptic), this

  1. Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXI %t Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy, both domestic and international astronomy. Its basic headlines are: astronomy and cosmology of the 20th century; researches and findings; history of observatories and astronomical organisations; amateur astronomy in Russia. Among the most interesting problems investigated in this issue: the history of the observed structure and stability of planetary rings explanation, the history of prediction of giant vortexes in galaxies; the newest history of planetary cartography; the Old Russian calendars; the Russian observations of the 1874 Venus transit; the history of the Pulkovo Observatory for the last 50 years; the autobiography of the distinguished Russian astronomer academician V. G. Fesenkov; Byelorussian folk astronomy; and many others.

  2. Calibration of the cameras of the H.E.S.S. {gamma}-ray astronomy experiment and observations of the Galactic Centre above 100 GeV; Etalonnage des cameras de l'experience d'astronomie {gamma} H.E.S.S. et observations du centre galactique au-dela de 100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, L

    2005-05-15

    The H.E.S.S. experiment (High Energy Stereoscopic System) consists of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to study the southern astrophysical sources above 100 GeV. This thesis presents the detector as well as the analysis chain. The calibration methods are described in details and the systematic errors on the image amplitude are derived. Then, an analysis based on a semi-analytical model of the electromagnetic shower development in the atmosphere is presented. Tools to reconstruct the energy spectrum and the morphology of the very high energy {gamma}-ray sources are presented and applied to the Crab Nebula. Systematic errors associated to the spectrum analysis are estimated. All these techniques were applied to study the Galactic Centre emission above 100 GeV. The nature of the source detected in 2003 and 2004 observations is still unknown and its spectrum, variability and morphology are studied. Various candidates are proposed, among them the supermassive black hole Sgr A* located at the dynamical centre of the Milky Way, the supernova remnant Sgr A Est or interactions of accelerated particles with the dense medium of this region. In this thesis, the signal was interpreted in terms of dark matter annihilation (neutralinos or Kaluza-Klein bosons) in a dense halo located at the Galactic Centre. This analysis showed that, in the framework of these models, dark matter annihilation alone can not explain the H.E.S.S. signal. The main component would thus come from astrophysical sources. (author)

  3. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  4. Urban Middle-School Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Learner Characteristics: Implications for Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the link between urban teachers' beliefs about their students' ability to succeed in astronomy and their instructional decisions and practices in response to those beliefs. The findings suggest that teachers believe that the student characteristics that are necessary for high achievement in astronomy include specific cognitive…

  5. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  6. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 6 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with the description of improved methods for analyzing and classifying families of periodic orbits in a conservative dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. The next chapter describes the variation of fractional luminosity of distorted components of close binary systems in the course of their revolution, or the accompanying changes in radial velocity. This topic is followed by discussions on vari

  7. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  8. Get the Picture: The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Wyatt, R.; Berriman, B.

    2007-05-01

    High quality astronomical images, accompanied by rich caption and background information, abound on the web and yet are notoriously difficult to locate efficiently using common search engines. "Flat" searches can return dozens of hits for a single popular image but miss equally important related images from other observatories. The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) is developing the architecture for an online index of astronomical imagery and video that will simplify access and provide a service around which innovative applications can be developed (e.g. digital planetariums). Current progress includes design prototyping around existing Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standards. Growing VAMP partnerships include a cross section of observatories, data centers, and planetariums.

  9. Indian Astronomy: The Missing Link in Eurocentric History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shirin; Sharma, Deva

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive history of Astronomy should show in reasonable chronological order, the contributions from wherever they arise in the world, once they are reliably documented. However, the authors note that consistently, the extremely rich contributions from Ancient Indian scholars like Aryabatha and Bhramagupta are omitted in Eurocentric…

  10. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  11. Blazing the Trail for Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Education research has long considered student learning of topics in astronomy and the space sciences, but astronomy education research as a sub-field of discipline-based education research is relatively new. Driven by a growing interest among higher education astronomy educators in improving the general education, introductory science survey…

  12. Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Guangdong province is an active area in China for astronomy education and popularization. The current status and problems of astronomy education in high schools are reviewed. To tackle these problems, an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated by Guangzhou ...

  13. Evolution of Scholarly Publishing and Library Services in Astronomy Its Impact, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Hema; Sheshadri, Geetha

    2016-10-01

    Scholarly publishing and its procedures have evolved rapidly, forcefully, and incredibly. Technical advances in the production and promotion of science content have dramatically augmented the visibility and reach, deepened the impact and intensified the thrust of science journal content. These changes range from checking text on perforated tapes to pit stop; from hot metal types to CTP; and from Gutenberg to colour digital printers. Intrinsic and inextricable to this revolutionary aspect of evolution in scholarly publishing is the evolution of library services in astronomy which catapulted library resources from preprints on shelves to customised digital repositories and from communicating observational data through postal telegrams to Tablets. What impact does this unique blend of revolutionary advances have on science and society, what are the consequent challenges, and what are the opportunities that can metamorphose from challenges inherent in the power and potential of the `published word'? The perspectives expressed in this paper stem from learning experiences of the authors at the Indian Academy of Sciences, publishers of ten science journals including the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, and at the Raman Research Institute Library (in which Astronomy is one of the core subjects for research)

  14. Next-Generation X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    The future timing capabilities in X-ray astronomy will be reviewed. This will include reviewing the missions in implementation: Astro-H, GEMS, SRG, and ASTROSAT; those under study: currently ATHENA and LOFT; and new technologies that may enable future missions e.g. Lobster eye optics. These missions and technologies will bring exciting new capabilities across the entire time spectrum from micro-seconds to years that e.g. will allow us to probe close to the event horizon of black holes and constrain the equation of state of neutron stars.

  15. Large Area Field of View for Fast Temporal Resolution Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ricardo A.

    2018-01-01

    Scientific CMOS (sCMOS) technology is especially relevant for high temporal resolution astronomy combining high resolution, large field of view with very fast frame rates, without sacrificing ultra-low noise performance. Solar Astronomy, Near Earth Object detections, Space Debris Tracking, Transient Observations or Wavefront Sensing are among the many applications this technology can be utilized. Andor Technology is currently developing the next-generation, very large area sCMOS camera with an extremely low noise, rapid frame rates, high resolution and wide dynamic range.

  16. Southern African Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutondo, Moola S.; Simpemba, Prospery

    2016-10-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realizing the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU (International Astronomical Union) capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilization of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia (some supported by funds from IAU Annual Call for proposals).

  17. Linking Visualization and Understanding in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1610, when Galileo pointed his small telescope at Jupiter, he drew sketches to record what he saw. After just a few nights of observing, he understood his sketches to be showing moons orbiting Jupiter. It was the visualization of Galileo's observations that led to his understanding of a clearly Sun-centered solar system, and to the revolution this understanding then caused. Similar stories can be found throughout the history of Astronomy, but visualization has never been so essential as it is today, when we find ourselves blessed with a larger wealth and diversity of data, per astronomer, than ever in the past. In this talk, I will focus on how modern tools for interactive “linked-view” visualization can be used to gain insight. Linked views, which dynamically update all open graphical displays of a data set (e.g. multiple graphs, tables and/or images) in response to user selection, are particularly important in dealing with so-called “high-dimensional data.” These dimensions need not be spatial, even though, e.g. in the case of radio spectral-line cubes or optical IFU data), they often are. Instead, “dimensions” should be thought of as any measured attribute of an observation or a simulation (e.g. time, intensity, velocity, temperature, etc.). The best linked-view visualization tools allow users to explore relationships amongst all the dimensions of their data, and to weave statistical and algorithmic approaches into the visualization process in real time. Particular tools and services will be highlighted in this talk, including: Glue (glueviz.org), the ADS All Sky Survey (adsass.org), WorldWide Telescope (worldwidetelescope.org), yt (yt-project.org), d3po (d3po.org), and a host of tools that can be interconnected via the SAMP message-passing architecture. The talk will conclude with a discussion of future challenges, including the need to educate astronomers about the value of visualization and its relationship to astrostatistics, and the need for

  18. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  19. Astronomy education through hands-on photography workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M. G.; Holmberg, R.

    2013-12-01

    Athabasca University (AU), Athabasca University Geophysical and Geo-Space Observatories (AUGO / AUGSO), the Rotary Club of Athabasca and Science Outreach Athabasca has designed a three day science workshop entitled Photography and the Night Sky. This pilot workshop, aimed primarily at high-school aged students, serves as an introduction to observational astronomy as seen in the western Canadian night sky using digital astrophotography without the use of a telescope or tracking mount. Participants learn the layout of the night sky by proficiently photographing it using digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) kits including telephoto and wide-angle lenses, tripod and cable release. The kits are assembled with entry-level consumer-grade camera gear as to be affordable by the participants, if they so desire to purchase their own equipment after the workshop. Basic digital photo editing is covered using free photo editing software (IrfanView). Students are given an overview of observational astronomy using interactive planetarium software (Stellarium) before heading outdoors to shoot the night sky. Photography is conducted at AU's auroral observatories, both of which possess dark open sky that is ideal for night sky viewing. If space weather conditions are favorable, there are opportunities to photograph the aurora borealis, then compare results with imagery generated by the all-sky auroral imagers located at the Geo-Space observatory. The aim of this program is to develop awareness to the science and beauty of the night sky, while promoting photography as a rewarding, lifelong hobby. Moreover, emphasis is placed on western Canada's unique subauroral location that makes aurora watching highly accessible and rewarding in 2013, the maximum of the current solar cycle.

  20. Dictionary of astronomy, space, and atmospheric phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tver, D.F.; Motz, L.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    This concise and up-to-date compendium features descriptions and definitions of terms, techniques and equipment relating to celestial phenomena. It explains the latest concepts in space exploration, planetary research, stellar astronomy, and meteorological science. The authors explore the general configurations of star groups, galaxy types, stars, and other small bodies in the solar system, including such important facts as magnitude of each and distance from Earth. They describe the brightest stars one by one. Vital data provided by the Viking, Mariner, and Pioneer space probes, the Voyager flights past Jupiter and its moons, and the Apollo landings are clearly presented and explained. New concepts in stellar astronomy such as quasars, neutron stars (pulsars), and black holes are precisely defined. Also included are discussions of meteor showers and the important rock types found on each planet; definitions of meteorological terms, ad astronomical equipment including telescopes, eyepieces and their accessories, the Golay cell, canopus sensor, filar micrometer, and more. Charts aid in identifying and locating stars and planets, and helpful reference tables list the location of the major celestial bodies - asteroids, constellations, the nearest stars, the brightest stars, interesting double and variable stars and cluters. Also included is the Meisser catalog of the coordinates and magnitudes for more than 100 celestial objects.

  1. The Very Large Array: Pioneering New Directions in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The Very Large Array (VLA) started science operations in 1980 and was rechristened the Jansky VLA after a major upgrade to its electronics system was completed in 2012. The VLA plays a prominent role in scientific discovery through studies of the Solar System, star and planet formation, galaxy formation, and time domain astronomy. It has attained iconic status as one of the most scientifically productive telescopes on EarthIn 2017, three major initiatives were launched at the VLA with the goal of maintaining its leadership role and impact in radio astronomy in the near and long term future:1. In September, the VLA embarked upon the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), the highest resolution survey ever undertaken at radio wavelengths. The survey was planned in consultation with the astronomy community and will be used to search for transients, study the polarization properties of extragalactic radio sources, and study highly obscured sources in our Galaxy.2. Detailed planning for a next generation VLA (ngVLA) began in earnest in 2017. The ngVLA will open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broad-band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. A proposal for the instrument will be submitted to the 2020 Decadal Survey.3. A multi-year program to replace the 40+ year old infrastructure at the VLA site was initiated in 2017. The program includes the replacement of the VLA’s electrical infrastructure in 2018, improvements to the VLA rail system, and the replacement of heavy maintenance equipment.The VLA continued to play a major role in discovering and explaining the physics of transient phenomena in 2017, to include fast transients, such as fast radio bursts, and long time scale transients, such as novae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts.More thorough descriptions of the VLASS and ngVLA, along with the science that can be done with

  2. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  3. Incorporating Astronomy Research into the High School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Rachael; Zasowski, G.; Dirienzo, W.; Corby, J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three years, graduate students in the University of Virginia Astronomy Department (UVa) have partnered with the Central Virginia Governor's School for Science and Technology (CVGS) to advise high school juniors in individual astronomy research projects spanning eight months. CVGS, located 60 miles from UVa and servicing 14 schools in rural central VA, operates a daily, half-day program where talented high school juniors and seniors take courses in college-level science, mathematics, and technology, including research methods. UVa graduate students have mentored over a dozen students through astronomy research projects to fulfill their course requirements. The result of this unique partnership is the development of a full astronomy research curriculum that teaches the terminology, background concepts, analysis techniques and communication skills that are required for astronomy research, all designed for an off-site setting. The curriculum is organized into a set of "Tutorials,” which when combined with the standard CVGS Research and Statistics courses, result in an an effective, comprehensive, and productive research collaboration. In this poster, we will display our curriculum in a step by step basis as a model for potential collaborations with other institutions and comment on how these opportunities have benefited the high school students, CVGS and the graduate students involved.

  4. Creation and Maintenance of a Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Norman; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Soles, J.; McCann, G.; Cassar, M.; Biemesderfer, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort to update and unify the various vocabularies currently in use in Astronomy into a single thesaurus that can be further developed and updated through broad community participation. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) will be an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the Astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing and the American Institute of Physics. While the AAS has assumed formal ownership of the UAT, the work will be available under a Creative Commons License, ensuring its widest use while protecting the intellectual property of the contributors. We envision that development and maintenance will be stewarded by a broad group of parties having a direct stake in it. This includes professional associations (IVOA, IAU), learned societies (AAS, RAS), publishers (IOP, AIP), librarians and other curators working for major astronomy institutes and data archives. While the impetus behind the creation of a single thesaurus has been the wish to support semantic enrichment of the literature, we expect that use of the UAT (along with other vocabularies and ontologies currently being developed) will be much broader and will have a greater impact on discovery of both literatue and data products.

  5. Astronomy Instruction at a Two-year Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, C. J.

    2000-12-01

    Over half of all students now begin their college careers at two-year institutions (technical colleges, junior colleges, vocational schools, etc.). This shift in student demographics has broad implications for college-level science instruction, including astronomy instruction. We compare astronomy instruction at two-year institutions to that at traditional four-year universities. A typical two-year school like Tri-County Technical College profers challenges not typically faced by research universities such as lack of research funding, little equipment or facilities, and a generally lower level of student ability. Conversely, a Tri-County Tech offers opportunities such as extensive training in teaching methodologies, a wide range of student demographics, and small classroom sizes. Our students are rarely interested in astronomy as a major, but instead take astronomy to fulfill other major requirements or to ensure the transfer of science credits to four-year universities. We present several examples of astronomy instruction at Tri-County Technical College and discuss our philosophy of teaching in a post-secondary environment whose enrollment is on the rise.

  6. The impact of collaborative groups versus individuals in undergraduate inquiry-based astronomy laboratory learning exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra J.

    One of the long-standing general undergraduate education requirements common to many colleges and universities is a science course with a laboratory experience component. One of the objectives frequently included in the description of most of these courses is that a student will understand the nature and processes of scientific inquiry. However, recent research has shown that learners in traditional undergraduate science laboratory environments are not developing a sufficiently meaningful understanding of scientific inquiry. Recently, astronomy laboratory activities have been developed that intentionally scaffold a student from guided activities to open inquiry ones and preliminary results show that these laboratories are successful for supporting students to understand the nature of scientific inquiry (Slater, S., Slater, T. F., & Shaner, 2008). This mixed-method quasi-experimental study was designed to determine how students in an undergraduate astronomy laboratory increase their understanding of inquiry working in relative isolation compared to working in small collaborative learning groups. The introductory astronomy laboratory students in the study generally increased their understanding of scientific inquiry over the course of the semester and this held true similarly for students working in groups and students working individually in the laboratories. This was determined by the examining the change in responses from the pretest to the posttest administration of the Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI) survey, the increase in scores on laboratory exercises, and observations from the instructor. Because the study was successful in determining that individuals in the astronomy laboratory do as well at understanding inquiry as those who complete their exercises in small groups, it would be appropriate to offer these inquiry-based exercises in an online format.

  7. Olfar: orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2009-01-01

    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 2. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 38, Issue 2. June 2017. Article ID 18 Research Article. Gulmarg, Kashmir, India: Potential Site for Optical Astronomical Observations · Ajaz Ahmad Dar Manzoor A. Malik · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  9. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  10. Python in Astronomy 2016 Unproceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Thomas; Cruz, Kelle; Greenfield, Perry; Jeschke, Eric; Juric, Mario; Mumford, Stuart; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Sosey, Megan; Tollerud, Erik; VanderPlas, Jake; Ford, Jes; Foreman-Mackey, Dan; Jenness, Tim; Aldcroft, Tom; Alexandersen, Mike; Bannister, Michele; Barbary, Kyle; Barentsen, Geert; Bennett, Samuel; Boquien, Médéric; Campos Rozo, Jose Ivan; Christe, Steven; Corrales, Lia; Craig, Matthew; Deil, Christoph; Dencheva, Nadia; Donath, Axel; Douglas, Stephanie; Ferreira, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Goldbaum, Nathan; Gordon, Karl; Hearin, Andrew; Hummels, Cameron; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Jennings, Elise; King, Johannes; Lawler, Samantha; Leonard, Andrew; Lim, Pey Lian; McBride, Lisa; Morris, Brett; Nunez, Carolina; Owen, Russell; Parejko, John; Patel, Ekta; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Ruggiero, Rafael; Sipocz, Brigitta; Stevens, Abigail; Turner, James; Tuttle, Sarah; Yanchulova Merica-Jones, Petia; Yoachim, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This document provides proceedings for unconference sessions as well as hacks/sprints which took place at the Python in Astronomy 2016 workshop, which was held at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle from March 21st to 25th 2016.

  11. Network for Astronomy School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Ros, R. M.; Garcia, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Network for Astronomy School Education Project (NASE) was developed in response to the IAU's most recent 10 Years Strategic Plan to increase the efforts of the IAU in schools. NASE's mission is to stimulate teaching astronomy in schools, through professional development of primary and secondary school science teachers in developing and emerging countries. NASE's organizational principle is to build capacity by providing courses for three years in cooperation with a Local Organizing Committee (Local NASE Group). The Local NASE Group consists of 6-8 local university professors and education professional who will promote astronomy activities and organize future courses in subsequent years in their region of their country. NASE philosophy is to introduce low-tech astronomy, and has thus developed an a suite of activities that can be carried out with inexpensive, quotidian materials. Supporting these activities is a text for teachers, plus a complete set of instructional materials for each topic. These materials are available in English and Spanish, with future editions available in Chinese and Portuguese. We describe and discuss NASE activities in Central and South America from 2009 to the present.

  12. Music to teach astronomy by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, Eberhard

    1999-03-01

    Author shares his technique of aligning music selections with his introductory astronomy syllabus. He begins class with a music selection as an introduction to the concepts covered in class. List of 40 music titles and composers used can be downloaded from http://www-ssg.sr.unh.edu/406/music.html.

  13. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  14. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  15. Astronomy and astronomers in Jules Verne's novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Almost all the Voyages Extraordinaires written by Jules Verne refer to astronomy. In some of them, astronomy is even the leading theme. However, Jules Verne was basically not learned in science. His knowledge of astronomy came from contemporaneous popular publications and discussions with specialists among his friends or his family. In this article, I examine, from the text and illustrations of his novels, how astronomy was perceived and conveyed by Jules Verne, with errors and limitations on the one hand, with great respect and enthusiasm on the other hand. This informs us on how astronomy was understood by an ``honnête homme'' in the late 19th century.

  16. Solar Astronomy as a Means to Promote Authentic Science Research in a Teacher Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Croft, S.; Pompea, S. M.; Plymate, C.; McCarthy, D.

    2003-12-01

    Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is an NSF-funded Teacher Enhancement Program hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson, AZ. Consistent with national priorities in education, TLRBSE seeks to retain and renew middle and high school science teachers. Within the exciting context of astronomy, TLRBSE integrates the best pedagogical practices of Research Based Science Education with the process of mentoring. One means by which participants are provided training in astronomy content, pedagogy, image processing, research and leadership skills is through a 15-week distance-learning course and an in-residence, two-week institute at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). Throughout the program, teachers work with professional astronomers and education specialists. At the in-situ, two-week institute, teachers are the researchers on one of four research projects, including solar astronomy. Preparation for the solar project dictates much of the design of the program (e.g., development and feasibility testing of the observing program, the reduction and analysis software, the preparatory documents for the teachers). The program design of the solar project is centered on teachers experiencing the scientific process. Initially through a staff-facilitated guided inquiry and then on their own as a team, the teachers propose a research question and discuss alternative hypotheses. They operate the solar telescope and take, calibrate, reduce and analyze the data. Teachers interpret and report results to their peers and pundits. Ultimately the observing experience and knowledge gained by the teachers is transferred to the classroom, where students learn science by doing science. Staff astronomers and education specialists provide continuing support with the goal of sustaining a professional learning community that outlives the research experience. Further observing experience is available during the

  17. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  18. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  19. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  20. Astronomy at school: present situation and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Maria; Gangui, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Both the basic educational contents for students and study programs for science teachers include several topics in physics and astronomy, from the simplest ones to others as advanced as nuclear fusion to explain stellar evolution and space-time geometry for an approach to modern cosmology. In all these subjects, and most often in the simplest ones, alternative conceptions emerge, as both groups reach science course with preconstructed and consistent models of the universe surrounding them. In this work we present a series of basic questionings that make us reflect on the present situation of the teaching-learning relationship in astronomy within the framework of formal education. We then briefly explain our project aiming at finding the real learning situation of both students and prospective primary-school teachers in astronomical topics and, from the expected results of it, we point towards the need to develop didactic tools that could contribute to improve formal education in astronomy issues.

  1. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  2. Research on teaching astronomy in the planetarium

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Timothy F

    2017-01-01

    From a noted specialist in astronomy education and outreach, this Brief provides an overview of the most influential discipline-based science education research literature now guiding contemporary astronomy teaching. In recent years, systematic studies of effective and efficient teaching strategies have provided a solid foundation for enhancing college-level students’ learning in astronomy. Teaching astronomy and planetary science at the college-level was once best characterized as professor-centered, information-download lectures. Today, astronomy faculty are striving to drastically improve the learning environment by using innovative teaching approaches.  Uniquely, the authors have organized this book around strands of commonly employed astronomy teaching strategies to help readers, professors, and scholars quickly access the most relevant work while, simultaneously, avoiding the highly specialized, technical vocabulary of constructivist educational pedagogies unfamiliar to most astronomy professors. F...

  3. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  4. Motivations and Participation in an Astronomy MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew; Buxner, Sanlyn; Formanek, Martin; Impey, Chris David

    2018-01-01

    Student motivation, engagement, and completion are important topics in the study of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Many science-focused Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) appeal to lifelong learners interested in general education as opposed to career development, yet little motivation-related research has been conducted with students in these courses. We present the results of a study that examined the motivations of MOOC students in our class, Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space. We examined trends in motivation and participation for these non-career-focused students. Although we have been able to show that the students in our class are similar, demographically, to other MOOC classes, our research has shown that they have very different motivations from undergraduate students, or MOOC students who are intere “average” MOOC user. Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space students are much more likely to be astronomy hobbyists, or taking the class to satisfy their curiosity and not attempting to change careers or achieve a credential. We were also able to correlate the results of the motivation survey instruments with student engagement with course materials and rates of course completion. We examined the motivations of students using both the validated Science Motivation Questionnaire II by Glynn et. al (2011) and a motivation instrument developed by John Falk for learners in free-choice settings. These allowed us to compare our results with other researchers who have used these instrument in other educational settings, including MOOCs. Students who reported high levels of self-determination were the most likely to complete the course, while high social motivation was a poor predictor of completion and performance.

  5. AstroJazz: Integrating Live Jazz and Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    AstroJazz is an innovative public education program in astronomy that blends stunning imagery with live jazz music and a touch of humor to awaken the cosmic curiosity of both adults and children. The program debuted in February 2005 at the Fiske Planetarium on the campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder with an astronomer-chanteuse (the author), a pianist, bassist, drummer, and technical assistant who created dome effects to compliment the PowerPoint slides associated with each song. This AstroJazz quartet played ten songs, five original tunes (Look Up!, Are We Alone? Andromeda Affaire, StarMan Blues, Star Kissed)), and five standard tunes with lyrical twists toward astronomy & astrobiology (e.g. Stormy Weather - Solar Style and Stardust a la SETI.) The hour-long program also includes educational interludes where the astronomy chanteuse interacts with the audience, providing insights and perspective into the wonders of our universe. The performance program that is handed to all audience members contains additional "gee-whiz" facts and provides leads to websites like Astronomy Picture of the Day and spaceweather.com that provide ongoing points of contact for public interest in astronomy. AstroJazz was very well received in its debut performance and now has several new opportunities to perform. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the AstroJazz program is engaging and educational for a very broad audience, including families with young children, world-class astronomers, and spouses of musicians who had never before been exposed to astronomy. This paper will describe the origins and intended evolution of AstroJazz, and offer a mini-sample of the music and slides used in the program. It will also discuss strategies for how the impact on audiences might be assessed.

  6. Paving the way to simultaneous multi-wavelength astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, M. J.; Casella, P.; Gandhi, P.; Bozzo, E.; Anderson, G.; Degenaar, N.; Donnarumma, I.; Israel, G.; Knigge, C.; Lohfink, A.; Markoff, S.; Marsh, T.; Rea, N.; Tingay, S.; Wiersema, K.; Altamirano, D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Brandt, W. N.; Carey, S.; Charles, P.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Done, C.; Kotze, M.; Eikenberry, S.; Fender, R.; Ferruit, P.; Fürst, F.; Greiner, J.; Ingram, A.; Heil, L.; Jonker, P.; Komossa, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Maccarone, T.; Malzac, J.; McBride, V.; Miller-Jones, J.; Page, M.; Rossi, E. M.; Russell, D. M.; Shahbaz, T.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tanaka, M.; Thompson, D. J.; Uemura, M.; Uttley, P.; van Moorsel, G.; van Doesburgh, M.; Warner, B.; Wilkes, B.; Wilms, J.; Woudt, P.

    2017-11-01

    Whilst astronomy as a science is historically founded on observations at optical wavelengths, studying the Universe in other bands has yielded remarkable discoveries, from pulsars in the radio, signatures of the Big Bang at submm wavelengths, through to high energy emission from accreting, gravitationally-compact objects and the discovery of gamma-ray bursts. Unsurprisingly, the result of combining multiple wavebands leads to an enormous increase in diagnostic power, but powerful insights can be lost when the sources studied vary on timescales shorter than the temporal separation between observations in different bands. In July 2015, the workshop ;Paving the way to simultaneous multi-wavelength astronomy; was held as a concerted effort to address this at the Lorentz Center, Leiden. It was attended by 50 astronomers from diverse fields as well as the directors and staff of observatories and spaced-based missions. This community white paper has been written with the goal of disseminating the findings of that workshop by providing a concise review of the field of multi-wavelength astronomy covering a wide range of important source classes, the problems associated with their study and the solutions we believe need to be implemented for the future of observational astronomy. We hope that this paper will both stimulate further discussion and raise overall awareness within the community of the issues faced in a developing, important field.

  7. Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Abbreviations for bibliographic references; 1. Observations; 2. Observatories; 3. Data; 4. Archiving of observations; 5. Presentation of astronomical data; 6. Designation of astronomical objects; 7. Catalogues; 8. The growth of data; 9. Data banks and data bases; 10. Data centres; 11. The publication of scientific information; 12. The growth of scientific information; 13. International data organizations; Index.

  8. Research amateur astronomy; Proceedings of the Symposium, La Paz, Mexico, July 7-12, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Stephen J.

    The present volume on amateur astronomy deals with solar observations; planet, asteroid, and comet studies; photometry; education and communication; and history and sociology. Particular attention is given to the observation of the 1984 annular eclipse in Mexico, amateur solar astronomy in Germany, the Ashen Light of Venus, dust clouds on Mars in 1990, and the importance of comets Encke and Machholz. Also discussed are a UBVRI and occultation photometry acquisition and reduction software package for PC-based observatories, a Skyweek weekly newsletter on astronomy and spaceflight, and the Hubble Space Telescope and the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph.

  9. Research amateur astronomy; Proceedings of the Symposium, La Paz, Mexico, July 7-12, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on amateur astronomy deals with solar observations; planet, asteroid, and comet studies; photometry; education and communication; and history and sociology. Particular attention is given to the observation of the 1984 annular eclipse in Mexico, amateur solar astronomy in Germany, the Ashen Light of Venus, dust clouds on Mars in 1990, and the importance of comets Encke and Machholz. Also discussed are a UBVRI and occultation photometry acquisition and reduction software package for PC-based observatories, a Skyweek weekly newsletter on astronomy and spaceflight, and the Hubble Space Telescope and the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph.

  10. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven

    2018-01-01

    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  11. High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Steven M; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  12. Astronomy, Visual Literacy, and Liberal Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    With the exponentially growing amount of visual content that twenty-first century students will face throughout their lives, teaching them to respond to it with visual and information literacy skills should be a clear priority for liberal arts education. While visual literacy is more commonly covered within humanities curricula, I will argue that because astronomy is inherently a visual science, it is a fertile academic discipline for the teaching and learning of visual literacy. Astronomers, like many scientists, rely on three basic types of visuals to convey information: images, qualitative diagrams, and quantitative plots. In this talk, I will highlight classroom methods that can be used to teach students to "read" and "write" these three separate visuals. Examples of "reading" exercises include questioning the authorship and veracity of images, confronting the distorted scales of many diagrams published in astronomy textbooks, and extracting quantitative information from published plots. Examples of "writing" exercises include capturing astronomical images with smartphones, re-sketching textbook diagrams on whiteboards, and plotting data with Google Motion Charts or iPython notebooks. Students can be further pushed to synthesize these skills with end-of-semester slide presentations that incorporate relevant images, diagrams, and plots rather than relying solely on bulleted lists.

  13. Cultural Astronomy in Elementary and Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafelice, Luiz Carlos

    2015-07-01

    This work is addressed to educators and geography, science, biology and physics teachers who deal with elementary, middle and high school education. It discusses the importance of adopting the anthropological perspective regarding issues that are considered within the astronomy area. It also presents practical proposals for those who intend to introduce cultural astronomy in elementary, middle and high school education - from the beginning of the 1st grade in Elementary school to the end of the 3rd grade in Secondary school, in formal as well as in informal education. This work is proposed within the context of the holistic and transdisciplinary environmental education. Our approach values above all the experience and aims at a humanistic education that includes epistemological and cultural diversities. The suggested practical proposals can be also beneficially used to address works that include contents related to Brazilian indigenous and Afro-descent cultures in the school curriculum, as the new law requires. The guidelines presented here were tested in real school situations.

  14. Astronomy Village: Innovative Uses of Planetary Astronomy Images and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2008-06-01

    Teaching and learning science is best done by hands-on experience with real scientific data and real scientific problems. Getting such experiences into public and home-schooling classrooms is a challenge. Here we describe two award-winning multimedia products that embody one successful solution to the problem: Astronomy Village: Investigating the Universe, and Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System. Each Village provides a virtual environment for inquiry-based scientific exploration of ten planetary and astronomical problems such as ``Mission to Pluto'' and ``Search for a Supernova.'' Both Villages are standards-based and classroom tested. Investigating the Solar System is designed for middle and early high school students, while Investigating the Universe is at the high school and introductory college level. The objective of both Villages is to engage students in scientific inquiry by having them acquire, explore, and analyze real scientific data and images drawn from real scientific problems.

  15. Active Galactic Videos: A YouTube Channel for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Calahan, Jenny; Resi Baucco, Alexandria; Bullivant, Christopher William; Eckley, Ross; Ekstrom, W. Haydon; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Genovese, Taylor Fay; Impey, Chris David; Libby, Kaitlin; McCaw, Galen; Olmedo, Alexander N.; Ritter, Joshua; Wenger, Matthew; Williams, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Active Galactic Videos is an astronomy-focused YouTube channel run by a team at the University of Arizona. The channel has two main purposes: to produce educational content for public audiences, and to learn about astronomy and to open a window into the world of professional astronomy by showcasing the work done at Steward Observatory and in Southern Arizona. Our team consists of faculty, staff, and students from a variety of backgrounds including: astronomy, education, film, music, english, and writing. In addition to providing educational content for public audiences, this project provides opportunities for undergraduate students to learn about astronomy content, educational practice, and science communication while developing the practical skills needed to write, film, score, direct, and edit videos that effectively engage and teach viewers about topics in astronomy. The team has produced various styles of video: presentational, interviews, musical/poetic, and documentaries. In addition to YouTube, the Active Galactic Videos team maintains a social media presence on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. These help to widely distribute the content as well as to publicize the main Youtube channel. In addition to providing an overview of our educational work, this poster will present a year's worth of online analytics that we are using to better understand our audience, to examine what videos have been popular and successful and how people are accessing our content. We will present our experience in order to help others learn about improving astronomy education online, and astronomy communication and outreach in general.

  16. Information Handling in Astronomy Beyond Technologies and Methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, A

    2001-01-01

    A few comments are offered in the light of about thirty years of activities linked to the information flow in astronomy and of about two decades of blossoming of electronic networks and tools including the World-Wide Web. Some points are emphasized (such as the changing sociology of data centres) and wrong expectations are pointed out (such as the all-electronic era).

  17. A Course Connecting Astronomy to Art, History, and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Don

    2015-01-01

    For the past 20 years the author has taught an Honors College course combining astronomy and the humanities. The purpose of this note is to give examples of methods that can be adapted to classroom use for topics including night sky paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and Claude Monet, historical events influenced by astronomical factors,…

  18. Our Place in the Universe. Session 1; History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2016-01-01

    This session includes a very broad overview of a couple of the major ideas of astronomy, along with demonstrations of Earth's motions that, give rise to the seasons, show us the "faces" of Venus (and the Moon), and result in retrograde motion of the outer planets.

  19. Student Understanding of Gravity in Introductory College Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four free-response questions were developed to explore introductory college astronomy students' understanding of gravity in a variety of contexts, including in and around Earth, throughout the solar system, and in hypothetical situations. Questions were separated into three questionnaires, each of which was given to a section of…

  20. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Resource Guide Organized by Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This annotated resource guide presents 133 pieces of music inspired by astronomical ideas, discoveries, or history, organized in 22 subject categories. Both classical and popular music are included, but only when a clear connection to astronomy could be established. Depending on your musical tastes, you are likely to find some pieces resonating…

  1. Bringing Live Astronomy into the Classroom and to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Slooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to explore and study the cosmos for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the public, schools and colleges. Slooh’s fully robotic observatories process FITS data in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006.Slooh members have taken over 6-million images of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in research with leading astronomical institutions, and made over 6,000 Near-Earth Object submissions to the Minor Planet Center. They were also the major contributor of ground based observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to the ESA Pro-Am campaign during the Rosetta mission.Slooh’s flagship observatories are located at the Observatorio del Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.Slooh’s free live broadcasts of celestial events and phenomena, including eclipses, solar activity, NEAs, comets, lunar cycles, etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Paul Cox and Bob Berman, and are syndicated to media outlets worldwide.Currently in beta, the new "Slooh Classroom" program is due to launch in Q1 2017. This pairs participating schools in the USA to schools in Africa to collaborate on lesson plans that incorporate the use of Slooh's telescopes live in-class.

  2. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  3. There and Back Again in the Classroom and in Outreach: Astronomy and The Hobbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.

    2013-04-01

    The upcoming three-film treatment of J.R.R. Tolkien's classic book The Hobbit affords astronomy educators a unique opportunity to interest the general public in trying to observe the newborn crescent moon.

  4. NASA International Year of Astronomy 2009 Programs: Impacts and Future Plans (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The opportunity offered by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 to increase the exposure of the public and students to NASA discoveries in astronomy resulted in several innovative programs which have reached audiences far and wide. Some examples of the impact of these programs and building on the success of these programs beyond 2009 will be discussed in this talk. The spectacular success of the traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country prompted NASA to extend it to include more libraries. As a part of the IYA Cornerstone project From Earth To The Universe, NASA images were displayed at non-traditional sites such as airports, parks, and music festivals, exposing them to an audience which would otherwise have been unaware of them. The NASA IYA Student Ambassadors engaged undergraduate and graduate students throughout the U.S. in outreach programs they created to spread NASA astronomy to their local communities. NASA’s Afterschool Universe provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions were designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, LCROSS. NASA’sIYA website and Go Observe! feature remain popular. The associated IYA Discovery Guides and Observing with NASA MicroObservatory activities have guided the public and students to perform their own observations of the night sky and to interpret them. NASA intends to work with its Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF) to develop a strategy to take forward the best of its IYA2009 plans forward so as to build on the momentum generated by IYA2009 and continue to keep the public and students engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.

  5. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    VLT First Light Successfully Achieved The European Southern Observatory announces that First Light has been achieved with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope at the Paranal Observatory. Scientifically useful images have been obtained as scheduled, on May 25 - 26, 1998. A first analysis of these images convincingly demonstrates the exceptional potential of the ESO Very Large Telescope. Just one month after the installation and provisional adjustment of the optics, the performance of this giant telescope meets or surpasses the design goals, in particular as concerns the achievable image quality. Exposures lasting up to 10 minutes confirm that the tracking, crucial for following the diurnal rotation of the sky, is very accurate and stable. It appears that the concept developed by ESO for the construction of the VLT, namely an actively controlled, single thin mirror, yields a very superior performance. In fact, the angular resolution achieved even at this early stage is unequalled by any large ground-based telescope . The combination of large area and fine angular resolution will ultimately result in a sensitivity for point sources (e.g. stars), which is superior to any yet achieved by existing telescopes on Earth. The present series of images demonstrate these qualities and include some impressive first views with Europe's new giant telescope. After further optimization of the optical, mechanical and electronic systems, and with increasing operational streamlining, this telescope will be able to deliver unique astronomical data of the highest quality. The commissioning and science verification phases of the complex facility including instruments will last until April 1, 1999, at which time the first visiting astronomers will be received. The full significance of this achievement for astronomy will take time to assess. For Europe, this is a triumph of the collaboration between nations, institutions and industries. For the first time in almost a century, European

  6. ASTRONET: Strategic Planning for European Astronomy 2005-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Johannes; Mourard, Denis

    2015-08-01

    European astronomy, with ESO and ESA, is supported by a wide variety of independent national agencies or similar bodies, which jointly provide ~98% of the total funding (with ~2% EU grants). In 2005 these agencies concluded that common strategic planning would be a more cost-effective approach, so they founded a consortium, ASTRONET (http://www.astronet-eu.org/), to prototype such an effort for all of Europe, with EU support. A bottom-up process resulted in a Science Vision (2007) and Infrastructure Roadmap (2008) for European astronomy, with recent updates (2014).These ASTRONET reports cover all branches of astronomy; infrastructures at all electromagnetic wavelengths as well as particles etc., on the ground and in space; laboratory work, software and archiving; and training, recruitment and public outreach. In short, they are agreed blueprints for what Europe plans to accomplish in the next 1-2 decades.Subsequently, a systematic and sustained pragmatic effort has been made to implement the strategy laid out in the Roadmap, including a common European participation in projects and facilities of global dimensions. Decisions on the organisation and construction of several major research facilities have been taken as foreseen (E-ELT, SKA, CTA,…), and they are on track for completion around 2025. The task for global astronomy is now to optimise the overall scientific returns and cost-effectiveness of these investments across wavelength domains, scientific disciplines, and political and financial borders. Accordingly, ASTRONET is currently transforming itself into a permanent, self-sustaining activity reaching out to the world.The ideal of a fully integrated global astronomy may not be reached until ~2050, but no science is better suited than astronomy to set such an example: One Universe surrounds us all, and one Earth is our platform. The IAU General Assembly is a springboard towards this goal.

  7. Distance Learning Materials for Elementary Astronomy with Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, K. G.

    2004-05-01

    I have developed a distance learning astronomy course with an integral lab. The materials for this course are available from the site below. Test and quiz contents can be obtained upon request In this distance-learning format, students take quizzes online, tests in person and meet with the instructor for assistance. Student activities include homework, laboratory exercises and observing projects using household and community resources. This course (Astro 128) has been approved to fulfill general education requirements for University of California and the California State University system. Materials include instructions and reference materials for measuring parallax, analyzing radial velocity and light curves, finding ages of star clusters, tracking planets, recording sunrise or sunset time, simulating lunar phases, assessing lunar feature ages, classifying stellar spectra from tracings, and classifying galaxy morphology. Students analyze actual astronomical data from the literature in many cases. A comparatively large number of observational examples allows each student to work with a unique assignment. Course management includes a calendar where students schedule meetings with the instructor and WebCT test, quiz and grade maintenance. Course materials are supplied with links to data sets in PDF. This class was developed with technical assistance from the Instructional Technology Department at Diablo Valley College.

  8. Scientific divulgation through the teaching of Astronomy and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alysson Wanderley Teixeira; de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an experience report of a workshop held at the State School Professor Plínio Ribeiro, who aimed to spread the use of interactive materials for teaching Astronomy and its relationship with Mathematics during the Forum Biotemas. Despite being part of the official documents, be present in the curricular proposals from several Brazilian states, and has contributed to the human and technological development, Astronomy is rarely taught adequately in basic education, with unsatisfactory results presented by students and teachers. In this sense was held a workshop planned for elementary education students called 'Astronomy and Mathematics: Learn to Observe the Sky With Other Eyes' involving several resources. The methodology consisted of awareness of those involved, presentation videos, using Stellarium software, application of Mathematics in Astronomy and discussions. Among the main results, can highlight students' interest in scientific matters, because when the study of the sciences takes place without interaction with natural and technological phenomena, a huge gap in the education of students occurs. In this sense, the use of different resources, as templates, observations, real and virtual experiments, animations, simulations, video lessons, can arouse the interest of students by conceptual content, differently from what happens when the study takes place using only conventional resources, with books and handouts.

  9. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  10. Astrology and Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA.

    One of a series of information packets, the document provides clear, specific information about the controversial subject of astrology. The packet includes six articles explaining the dozens of careful scientific tests which have concluded that there is no scientific evidence supporting astrology. The packet includes an interview with astronomer…

  11. Astronomy Education through the NSF GK-12 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's GK-12 program encourages graduate students in science to be active in public education at the middle school and high school levels. As a GK-12 fellow at the University of Colorado-Boulder (CU), I worked with a local 8th-grade science teacher and his students during the 2003-2004 school year. In the Boulder Valley School District, 8th-grade science covers Earth history, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. There are many special challenges for this school district and 8th-grade education in Colorado, including a large number of English as a second language (ESL) students and the administration of standardized tests during March, before students have completed much of the relevant material. As a GK-12 Fellow, my responsibilities included work with the Earth history Full Option Science System (FOSS) kit, guest lecturing, aid in hands-on exercises, and the creation of new activities and assignments. Astronomy activities accomplished through this program include sunspot viewing and a field trip to the Colorado Scale Model Solar System on the CU campus. The GK-12 program at CU will continue for at least two more years, possibly placing future GK-12 fellows who are astronomy grad students into classes that are astronomy- or physics-specific.

  12. Inca Astronomy and Calendrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    Half a millennium ago in the central Andes of Peru, the movements of the sun, moon, and stars were watched and interpreted by the Inca. The astronomical observations made in and near the former capital, Cuzco, formed the nuclei of the most important public rituals of the empire. As the regulator of time, the ruling Inca scheduled the rituals that bound this society together. In this article, we review the major astronomical observations that were made by the Inca and discuss their importance in defining the ritual calendar.

  13. First Results from the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Our best efforts in the United States to dramatically improve teaching and learning in astronomy courses has been less than satisfactory despite Herculean efforts. A possible solution is to expand our view beyond our own culture's borders and presumptions in order to bring our shortcomings in discipline-based astronomy education research to light. Before we can begin the process of international comparisons of student conceptual understanding, we need to better understand how different citizens of different countries position astronomy culturally. Under the banner of the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, iSTAR, we are now carefully observing how foreign experts in teaching astronomy and the science of astronomy translate the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument to look for subtle clues revealed during the translation process. The TOAST is the widely used standard to evaluate students' gains in the United States' Astronomy classrooms. We hope that the process of translation itself will help us comprehend how other cultures think differently about astronomical concepts and eventually we are looking to obtain useful data of how other cultures develop their society's understanding of particular astronomy aspects where we may fall short. Several of the iSTAR Project's bilingual speakers are documenting their thoughts and insights as they translate the TOAST. The end-goal is to collect a comprehensible, well-defined, and logical translation in various languages that are culturally sensitive and linguistically accurate. This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research at CAPERTeam.com in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  14. Laying the Foundations of Contemporary Romanian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sorin

    2017-11-01

    This article describes the first stage in the history of Romanian astronomy represented by the events, processes and evolution which led to the formation of great scientific personalities, development drives and the creation of the material base for the contemporary Romanian astronomy, having a focus point on the activity of Bucharest Observatory. The article discusses the roots of an evolution pathway determined and inspired by the activity of several scientific personalities of Romania such as Stefan Hepites, Spiru Haret, Nicolae Coculescu and others. It also underlines that a great importance for the astronomical research in Romania was given by the outstanding technical value of the main instruments used at the Observatory in the first decades of activity and, consequentially, by their longevity in service: in the Equatorial Dome - the impressive 6 m. Prin-Mertz telescope and in the Meridian Hall - the GautierPrin telescope. This determined the formation of a powerful astrometry division and a research drive which led over time to important scientific works such as the ultraprecise stellar catalogues developed in Romania at Bucharest Observatory, which were appreciated and awarded nationally and internationally. Therefore, the article includes the moments and the people which determined the success of laying the foundations of the Observatory in 1908 and then having completed the initial scientific infrastructure in 1912 when the construction work was finished, and briefly presents the features, scientific utilisation and outputs of its telescopes, some of the best in the world in their golden years.

  15. Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Leech, Marcus [Shirleys Bay Radio Astronomy Consortium; Oxley, Paul [Retired; Flagg, Richard [Retired; Fields, David [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

  16. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  17. Evaluating Astronomy Literacy of the General Public

    CERN Document Server

    Love, C; Bonora, S

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically literate society is important for many different reasons, some of which include democratic and scientific topics. This study was performed in order to identify topics in astronomy and science in general that may not be well understood by the general public. Approximately 1,000 adults at a popular science museum in Philadelphia, PA completed True-False survey questions about basic astronomy concepts. The participants were also asked to provide their age, gender, and highest degree obtained. Although 93 +/- 0.8% of the participants correctly answered that scientists can calculate the age of the Earth, only 58 +/- 2% provided the correct response that scientists can calculate the age of the Universe. Some participants (30 +/- 1%) responded that scientists have found life on Mars. Females scored an average total score of 78 +/- 2%, whereas males scored an average 85 +/- 1%. Participants with an age of 56 and over had an average score of 78 +/- 4% compared to participants under the age of 56 that ...

  18. Pre-Inca Astronomy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Huacas (shrines) and ushnus (ceremonial platforms) are ever-present elements of millennia-old Andean cosmology extending backward to 3100 BCE. Major themes of Pan-Andean cosmology include sacred mountains, the power of water, the solstice sun, as well as shamanic-like movement across the three worlds of the cosmos. Common features of many pre-Inca sites are monumental platforms and sunken circular plazas, and stairways with axes established by bi-lateral symmetries oriented along solstice lines. This style of ritual architecture first appeared in Chupacigarro/Caral, other sites in the Norte Chico area, and Sechin Bajo in the Casma Valley. Ceremonial plazas provided opportunities for public viewing of ritual ceremonies on the tops of platforms, which may have been understood as sacred mountains. Mounds and temples of the Casma Valley, such as Sechin Alto, Sechin Bajo, and Chankillo, developed an explicit astronomy associated with June and December solstices. The ritualistic use of water, which is typically associated with visual astronomy at Inca sites, appeared at Chavin de Huantar and later in Tiwanaku.

  19. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  20. Astronomy in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tyler E.

    2009-01-01

    American national parks are fertile grounds for astronomy and planetary science outreach. They are some of the last remaining dark-sky sites the typical visitor (both U.S. and international) can still experience easily. An internal National Park Service (NPS) study shows a dark starry sky is an integral part of what visitors consider their park experience. As a result, the NPS Night Sky Team (a coordinated group of park rangers and astronomers) is measuring and monitoring the sky brightness over the parks in an attempt to promote within the park service protection of the night sky as a natural resource. A number of parks (e.g. Grand Canyon National Park) are currently expanding their night sky related visitor programs in order to take advantage of this resource and visitor interest. The national parks and their visitors are therefore an ideal audience fully "primed” to learn about aspects of astronomy or planetary science that can be, in any way, associated with the night sky. As one of the astronomers on the NPS Night Sky Team, I have been working with park service personnel on ways to target park visitors for astronomical outreach. The purpose of this outreach is twofold: 1) Strengthen popular investment in preserving dark skies, 2) Strengthen popular investment in current astronomical research. A number of avenues already being used to introduce astronomy outreach into the parks (beyond the simple "star party") will be presented.

  1. Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

  2. Innovative Technology for Teaching Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Mike

    The application of state-of-the-art technology (primarily Java and Flash MX Actionscript on the client side and Java PHP PERL XML and SQL databasing on the server side) to the teaching of introductory astronomy will be discussed. A completely online syllabus in introductory astronomy built around more than 350 interactive animations called ""Online Journey through Astronomy"" and a new set of 20 online virtual laboratories in astronomy that we are currently developing will be used as illustration. In addition to demonstration of the technology our experience using these technologies to teach introductory astronomy to thousands of students in settings ranging from traditional classrooms to full distance learning will be summarized. Recent experiments using Java and vector graphics programming of handheld devices (Personal Digital Assistants and cell phones) with wireless wide-area connectivity for applications in astronomy education will also be described.

  3. Compressed Sensing in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, Jérôme; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ottensamer, Roland

    2008-11-01

    Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the well-known Shannon sampling theory. In this paper, we investigate how compressed sensing (CS) can provide new insights into astronomical data compression. We first give a brief overview of the compressed sensing theory which provides very simple coding process with low computational cost, thus favoring its use for real-time applications often found onboard space mission. In practical situations, owing to particular observation strategies (for instance, raster scans) astronomical data are often redundant; in that context, we point out that a CS-based compression scheme is flexible enough to account for particular observational strategies. Indeed, we show also that CS provides a new fantastic way to handle multiple observations of the same field view, allowing us to recover low level details, which is impossible with standard compression methods. This kind of CS data fusion concept could lead to an elegant and effective way to solve the problem ESA is faced with, for the transmission to the earth of the data collected by PACS, one of the instruments onboard the Herschel spacecraft which will launched in late 2008/early 2009. We show that CS enables to recover data with a spatial resolution enhanced up to 30% with similar sensitivity compared to the averaging technique proposed by ESA.

  4. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  5. The Evolution of Spacelab Ultraviolet Astronomy Missions from OSS-3 through -7 to Astro-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, NASA was building towards a robust program in space astronomy. An evolutionary step from ground-based astronomy to space astronomy was human operation of space telescopes as astronomy in general evolved from astronomers directly at the telescope to application of computers and long distance communications to control to operate remote telescopes. Today ground-based telescopes and space observatories from cubesats to the Hubble Space Telescope and soon the James Webb Space Telescope are routinely operated remotely.In response to the Spacelab Announcement of Opportunity in the early 1980s, three ultraviolet experiments – the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet PhotoPolarimetry Experiment -- all instruments derived from multiple sounding rocket flights--were selected to fly as an integrated payload attached to a space shuttle. The justification for professional astronomers, both as Mission Specialists from the astronaut cadre and Payload Specialists from the instrument teams, was built to ensure key technical skills both of the science and the instruments. Bundled together as OSS-3 through -7 flights focused on Comet Halley, the experiments went through many changes and delays as a pathfinder for an anticipated series of attached astronomy payloads.By 1986, the five-flight mission had evolved into two missions, Astro-1 dedicated primarily to observe Halley’s Comet in early March 1986 and Astro-2 to fly about one year later. Due to the Challenger disaster 35 days before scheduled launch of Astro-1, the mission went through an initial cancellation and then re-scheduling once the instrument complement of Astro-1 was expanded to include Broad Band X-ray Telescope with emphasis on studying SN1987A. Ultimately Astro-1 flew in December 1990 partnered with an X-ray experiment focused on SN1987A.The nine-day mission was mostly successful despite multiple technical issues overcome by the NASA

  6. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  7. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    On 16 April 2011 the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) was launched jointly by the President of the IAU and the South African Minister of Science and Technology, at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town. This OAD was set up to realise the IAU's strategic plan which aims to use astronomy as a tool for development. Communicating astronomy with the public is one of the OAD's focus areas.

  8. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Katagiri

    Full Text Available Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported.We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081.50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27 and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62 in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies.Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

  9. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

  10. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  11. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  12. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 - the global programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pedro; Lindberg Christensen, L.

    2008-05-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has launched 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) under the theme "The Universe, yours to discover". IYA2009 marks the four hundredth anniversary of Galileo Galilei's first astronomical observation through a telescope. It will be a global celebration of astronomy and its contribution to society and culture, with a strong emphasis on education, public engagement and the involvement of young people, with events at national, regional, and global levels throughout the whole of 2009. IYA2009 has been endorsed by UNESCO and the UN General Assembly. As today, the International Year of Astronomy 2009 is supported by 108 National Nodes, 18 Organisational nodes, 9 IYA2009 Task Groups, 11 Organisational Associates and 11 Global Cornerstone projects. The IYA2009 Global Cornerstone projects are global programmes of activities centred on a specific theme and represent the means to achieve the IYA2009's main goals; whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven cornerstones will be the key facets of the success of the IYA2009. The authors will present a snapshot of the current global status of the IYA2009 programme.

  13. The International Year of Astronomy 2009: The Global Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Barrosa, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has launched 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) under the theme ``The Universe, Yours to Discover.'' IYA2009 marks the four hundredth anniversary of Galileo Galilei's first astronomical observation through a telescope. It will be a global celebration of astronomy and its contribution to society and culture, with a strong emphasis on education, public engagement and the involvement of young people, with events at national, regional, and global levels throughout the whole of 2009. IYA2009 has been endorsed by UNESCO and the UN General Assembly. As of today, the International Year of Astronomy 2009 is supported by 118 National Nodes, 21 Organisational nodes, 11 IYA2009 Special Task Groups, 17 Organisational Associates, 11 Global Cornerstone projects. And two special projects the IYA2009 Global Cornerstone projects are global programmes of activities centred on a specific theme and represent the means to achieve the IYA2009's main goals; whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the universe to millions, the Cornerstones will be the key facets of the success of the IYA2009. The authors will present a snapshot of the current global status of the IYA2009 programme.

  14. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  15. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  16. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  17. SPHEREx: Science Opportunities for Solar System Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey Michael; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A study in August 2017, will perform an all-sky near-infrared spectral survey between 0.75 - 5.0 µm in R = 41 filters, and with R = 135 coverage from 4.2 - 5.0 µm, reaching L ~ 19 (5-sigma).SPHEREx has high potential for solar system science. The 96-band survey will cover the entire sky 4 times over the course of 2 years, including thousands of foreground solar system asteroids, comets, Trojans, and KBOs. By canvassing the entire solar system for 2 years, SPHEREx has the potential not only to achieve a relatively complete sensitivity limited survey of the solar system's bodies, but also some capability to search for variation in these bodies over time.For example, the large legacy dataset of SPHEREx will update the WISE catalogue of asteroid sizes and albedos by providing a spectral survey of tens of thousands of bodies. It will provide spectral classification of hundreds of Trojan asteroids, allowing for direct comparison to the asteroid results. It will extend optical surveys of comet composition by dynamical type to hundreds of objects in the NIR, while determining water/dust/CO/CO2 activity vs distance. SPHEREx will also map in great temporal and spatial detail the zodiacal dust debris disk cloud that these bodies produce, providing an unprecedented level of information concerning the sources and sinks of this material.In this paper, we discuss the data release schedule and some example science studies the planetary astronomy community will be able to access using the SPHEREx database. We also outline existing plans within the SPHEREx team to develop software tools to enable easy access to the data and to conduct catalog searches, and ways in which the community can provide input to the SPHEREx Science Team on scientific studies and data/software requirements for those studies, enabling a large number of scientific studies while finding interesting targets for follow

  18. Some historical crossroads between astronomy and visual neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, G.

    The histories of astronomy and visual neuroscience share some important events. Observation of the sky provided early basic information about visual acuity and sensitivity to light and their variations at different retinal locations. Some of the early tests of visual functions were inspired by astronomical knowledge existing since antiquity and possibly since human prehistory. After science became a hallmark of human civilization, astronomy played a crucial part in the discovery of the laws of nature. At the turn of the 19th century, astronomers discovered interindividual variability in detecting the time of stellar transit and tried to measure the so-called personal equation, a supposedly inherent individual bias in making observations, judgements and measurements. Convinced that the reliability of scientific observations depended on the reliability of the observer, they were the first scientists to realize that studying man and human psychophysiology was essential for achieving accuracy and objectivity in astronomy and other sciences alike. There is general consensus that the science of experimental psychology grew out of astronomy and physiology in connection with the development of the reaction time method and the so-called mental chronometry. The crucial role of the observer in astronomical observations appears to have been neglected by astronomers in the second half of the 19th century after Giovanni Schiaparelli described ``canals" on the surface of the planet Mars. Percival Lowell and others thought that these canals had been constructed by a Martian intelligent population in order to distribute water from the polar regions to the equatorial deserts on the planet. Since it has been ascertained that the Mars canals seen by Schiaparelli do not exist, some speculations are offered from a neuroscientific viewpoint as to why he and others were mistaken in their observations of Mars.

  19. The Radio Sky and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Lashley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Radio astronomy is far from being beyond the scope of amateurs astronomers, and this practical, self-contained guide for the newcomer to practical radio astronomy is an ideal introduction. This guide is a must for anyone who wants to join the growing ranks of 21st Century backyard radio astronomers. The first part of the book provides background material and explains (in a non-mathematical way) our present knowledge of the stronger radio sources - those observable by amateurs - including the Sun, Jupiter, Meteors, Galactic and extra-galactic sources. The second part of the book deals not only

  20. Senses and Hands to the Same Degree as Thought – Ole Rømer’s Mechanical Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The astronomer Ole Rømer emphasized the mechanical nature of the practice of astronomy and this paper attempts to unravel what Rømer meant by the close association between mechanics and astronomy. The point of departure is Rømer's work with Tycho Brahe's observations and his stay at the Royal...

  1. A New Online Astronomy Resource for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Patikkal, A.; Srinathan, A.; Austin, C. L.; Ganesan, N. K.; Guvenen, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new web site called "Teach Astronomy" (http://www.teachastronomy.com) has been created to serve astronomy instructors and their students, amateur astronomers, and members of the public interested in astronomy. The

  2. A dictionary of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This revised edition contains 4,000 up-to-date entries written by an expert team of contributors, under the editorship of Ian Ridpath, renowned author and broadcaster. Covering the most recent space exploration missions and latest technological development, this authoritative dictionary covers everything from astrophysics to galaxies and time. World-wide coverage of observatories and telescopes, and major entries on supernova, Big Bang theory, and stellar evolution, make this an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, and amateur astronomers. Appendices include tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations. The entries are supported by numerous tables and diagrams, and the dictionary also features biographical entries on eminent astronomers.

  3. Introduction to Methods of Approximation in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2017-04-01

    Modern astronomy reveals an evolving Universe rife with transient sources, mostly discovered - few predicted - in multi-wavelength observations. Our window of observations now includes electromagnetic radiation, gravitational waves and neutrinos. For the practicing astronomer, these are highly interdisciplinary developments that pose a novel challenge to be well-versed in astroparticle physics and data analysis. In realizing the full discovery potential of these multimessenger approaches, the latter increasingly involves high-performance supercomputing. These lecture notes developed out of lectures on mathematical-physics in astronomy to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. They are organised to be largely self-contained, starting from basic concepts and techniques in the formulation of problems and methods of approximation commonly used in computation and numerical analysis. This includes root finding, integration, signal detection algorithms involving the Fourier transform and examples of numerical integration of ordinary differential equations and some illustrative aspects of modern computational implementation. In the applications, considerable emphasis is put on fluid dynamical problems associated with accretion flows, as these are responsible for a wealth of high energy emission phenomena in astronomy. The topics chosen are largely aimed at phenomenological approaches, to capture main features of interest by effective methods of approximation at a desired level of accuracy and resolution. Formulated in terms of a system of algebraic, ordinary or partial differential equations, this may be pursued by perturbation theory through expansions in a small parameter or by direct numerical computation. Successful application of these methods requires a robust understanding of asymptotic behavior, errors and convergence. In some cases, the number of degrees of freedom may be reduced, e.g., for the purpose of (numerical) continuation or to identify

  4. Teacher Professional Development for Teaching Astronomy at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, S. S.; Harris, W. M.; Sanders, W. T.; Wachtel, L.

    2002-09-01

    In most Wisconsin High Schools, Astronomy has not been offered as a course, and only a few have after-school Astronomy clubs. With the recent publication of the National and Wisconsin Science Education Standards, many school districts are adopting their own detailed standards and modifying curricula by introducing Space Science content. Such districts face several challenges, the major hurdle being finding teachers who are able to teach the new content. At the high school level, there is thus a growing need in Wisconsin for developing a cadre of teachers who have at least some content background in basic Astronomy and Space Science concepts and themes. This need was further highlighted by the relative lack of use of a recently constructed remotely operable observatory by the Madison Metropolitan School District (MMSD), despite having held training workshops in the use of the facility. Simply creating the observatory was not enough as the teachers struggled with its incorporation in the curriculum for lack of adequate background knowledge. With a view towards providing professional development in space science, we have begun a new effort that includes a summer workshop as well as hands-on experiencing astronomical observing for a select group of teachers. The workshop included presentations by scientists on topics relevant to a candidate high school space science curriculum and opportunities for teachers to share their ideas and proposed plans for implementing the space science content by developing curriculum units. The teachers toured several professional and amateur observatories in the vicinity of Madison, including MMSD's remote observatory, which they are likely to use in the coming academic year. The effort will continue for the next two years with periodic group meetings as well as another workshop next summer. This effort has been supported by NASA/IDEAS Grant HSD-ED-90244.01 and by WINNERSS, a Wisconsin Idea Program funded by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  5. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  6. Integrating Astronomy with Elementary Non-Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowsky, M.

    1996-05-01

    A workshop was developed for elementary school teachers to enhance students' understanding of astronomy during the formative years of elementary school by incorporating astronomy into various non-science curricula. Educational material was compiled for teachers and students and training was provided for the teachers in the form of a workshop where both information and hands-on activities were disseminated. In addition, we are producing a video tape from the workshop which will be available not only to those who attended the workshop but to other teachers as well. A useful ``multiplier effect" in this project came from our focus on a school that was hosting a group of teachers in training. After these teachers receive certification, they will end up working in all different schools, thereby reaching large numbers of students for many years. The non-scientific subjects that we will connect to astronomy include history, music, art, language arts, social studies, and mathematics, as well as incidental subjects such as health and public safety. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number ED90024.01-94A from the Space Telescope Science Institute which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  7. Astronomy: A Self-Teaching Guide, 6th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moché, Dinah L.

    2004-02-01

    "A lively, up-to-date account of the basic principles of astronomy and exciting current field of research."-Science Digest For a quarter of a century, Astronomy: A Self-Teaching Guide has been making students and amateur stargazers alike feel at home among the stars. From stars, planets and galaxies, to black holes, the Big Bang and life in space, this title has been making it easy for beginners to quickly grasp the basic concepts of astronomy for over 25 years. Updated with the latest discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics, this newest edition of Dinah Moché's classic guide now includes many Web site addresses for spectacular images and news. And like all previous editions, it is packed with valuable tables, charts, star and moon maps and features simple activities that reinforce readers' grasp of basic concepts at their own pace, as well as objectives, reviews, and self-tests to monitor their progress. Dinah L. Moché, PhD (Rye, NY), is an award-winning author, educator, and lecturer. Her books have sold over nine million copies in seven languages.

  8. Professional Development Through The University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Nieberding, Megan N.; Austin, Carmen; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club creates a unique environment for undergraduates to accomplish goals early in their academic career. The club provides research opportunities with advisors, graduate students, and projects organized by fellow undergraduates. Undergraduates that work side-by-side develop strong working relationships which keeps students interested in astronomy and enables them to thrive in their studies and research. Club members are encouraged to attend and present their research at professional conferences where they are exposed early to the scientific research community, learn about internship and REU opportunities, and get information about graduate programs. In addition to preparing undergraduates to thrive in their academic career, the club also offers outreach opportunities for members to actively educate the southern Arizona community. Members of the club design and create many of their outreach materials including 3D models of our local stellar neighborhood and astronomical objects. Astronomy Club has had a positive impact on its members, the Department of Astronomy, and the southern Arizona community for the past seven years. The club continues to strive to improve undergraduate retention and prepare students for their future careers.

  9. Testing The Scale-up Approach To Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregenow, Julia M.; Keller, L.; Rogers, M.; Romero, D.

    2008-09-01

    Ithaca College physics department has begun transforming our general education astronomy courses into hands-on, active-learning courses from the previous lecture-based format. We are using the SCALE-UP model (Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Programs) pioneered at North Carolina State University. Expanding on the successes of Studio Physics (developed at RPI), which exchanges traditionally separate lecture/recitation/ laboratory sessions for one dynamic, active-learning environment for approximately 40 students, SCALE-UP extends this model to accommodate 100+ students by using large round tables creating naturally smaller groups of students. Classes meet three times per week with each class blending lecture, hands-on activities, group problem solving, and the use of student polling devices. We are testing whether this mode of teaching astronomy will lead to a better understanding of astronomy and the nature of science. Applying this approach in both the SCALE-UP classroom (90 students) and a traditional lecture classroom (45 students) in spring 2008, we report on our early results and lessons learned after one semester. We also discuss some of our lingering implementation questions and issues, such as: whether to use the same or different instructor in two parallel sections, requiring textbook reading, reading quizzes, on-line homework and activities, how much math to include, development of hands-on activities, and culling the typically overpacked intro astronomy syllabus.

  10. The East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-08-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  11. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  12. Dealing with Creationism in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, the battle to force some form of pseudo-science into American science classrooms has intensified. In court cases and Boards of Education, the sides have formed between religious groups claiming to desire a `balanced' treatment and scientific groups insisting on a total ban on the topics. But there is a third option which has not been explored. Many claims of `Creation Science' and other pseudosciences can be explored and refuted at the level of introductory physics and astronomy classes. I will present a few claims of Young-Earth Creationists (YECs) pertaining to cosmology and illustrate some methods for refuting them.

  13. Astronomy of the vedic altars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kak, Subhash C.

    In this paper, two ancient Indian texts, the Śatapatha Brāhmana and the Rigveda, are examined for their astronomical content. It is argued that the 95 year ritual of agnicayana had an astronomical basis, which implies a knowledge of the length of the tropical year being equal to 365.24675 days. An astronomical code has been discovered in the structure of the Rigveda, which has been partially deciphered. This code expressed the knowledge that the sun and the moon are about 108 times their respective diameters away from the earth. This analysis leads to a major revision of our understanding of the history of ancient astronomy.

  14. Teaching of Science Through the Seedbed of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pedraza, L. A.; Salinas Barreto, L. F.

    2017-07-01

    This astronomy seedbed seeks for different methodologies for the development of lifelong learning; this seedbed works through three lines of field that are: rocketry (work different models to reach an advanced machinery), paper models of probes and space vehicles (looking for the representation of the mechanism and its operation), comets (the study of movement in our solar system). In light of the above this seedbed will achieve a breakthrough in science thanks to this learning based on field projects, with different methodologies of study. For this reason we took into account the design and modeling of structures for the explanation of astronomical trends. Taking into account a school curriculum with research activities in astronomy, astrophysics and aerospace science-oriented from the basic knowledge of astronomy, such as the modeling of the motion of the planets, the model of an immediately propulsion rocket and the representation of the functioning of a black hole. The advances were: in rocketry on February 18 2012, in the municipality of "Villa de Leyva", in honor of the 100th anniversary of the founder of the Dominicans of St Catherine of Siena, was launched a pilot of solid fuel rocket with a payload that reached a height of a thousand meters. The modeling on paper in 2015, in the seedbed of astronomy were different models of rockets, spacecraft and satellites. In order to be able to explain in a simple and didactic way the advances in astronomy of these technological mechanism. Since 2015 the observation camp has taken place using telescopes Smith Cassegrain type. This equipment allow investigators to get photos using color filters, which demonstrate the process of this great event.

  15. Is Amateur Astronomers’ Astronomy Knowledge a Barrier to Successful Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S. J.; Price, C. A.; CenterAstronomy, CAPER; Education Research, Physics

    2012-01-01

    Considerable effort in astronomy education research has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important for establishing the initial knowledge state of students and measure impacts of innovative instructional interventions over a universe of topics. Unfortunately, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives that span an entire introductory survey course. Moving beyond the 10-year old Astronomy Diagnostics Test, scholars at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research developed and validated criterion referenced assessment tool, which is tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the AAS Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the NRC National Science Education Standards, called the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). This multiple-choice instrument has a high degree of reliability and validity and is being deployed in a number of formal and informal learning environments. A collaborative research endeavor between the CAPER Team and the American Association of Variable Star Observers measured the astronomy content knowledge amateur astronomers, relative to widely agreed upon learning targets. We uncovered that our sample of 300 amateurs have higher than expected scores on the TOAST, significantly higher than students leaving our top-tier ASTRO 101 survey courses. Given recent learning sciences research demonstrating the potential of highly specialized languages that exist within some communities and rapidly declining membership rolls of formal amateur organizations, these scores could be interpreted as a potential communication barrier existing for engaging novices who are potential future club members. These results suggest that organizations may need to strategically clarify the nature of educational

  16. Planetary Science with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, William T.; SOFIA Science Mission Operations

    2017-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is executing observations as part of its 5th annual proposal cycle. This poster compiles some scientific highlights from observations to date, lists pending observations, and statistically summarizes guest observer participation in SOFIA. We have observed comets, asteroids, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Kuiper Belt Objects, and extrasolar planets. Infrared obsrvations from our observatory have been used to characterize surfaces, atmospheres, and dust. We describe the observatory capabilities, highlighting our scientific instrument in development. We describe future capabilities of the observatory, to encourage new proposals that can utilize this unique facility for planetary science.

  17. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  18. Milliarcsecond Astronomy with the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gail; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Gies, Douglas; Jones, Jeremy; Farrington, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy offers 50 nights per year of open access time at the CHARA Array. The Array consists of six telescopes linked together as an interferometer, providing sub-milliarcsecond resolution in the optical and near-infrared. The Array enables a variety of scientific studies, including measuring stellar angular diameters, imaging stellar shapes and surface features, mapping the orbits of close binary companions, and resolving circumstellar environments. The open access time is part of an NSF/MSIP funded program to open the CHARA Array to the broader astronomical community. As part of the program, we will build a searchable database for the CHARA data archive and run a series of one-day community workshops at different locations across the country to expand the user base for stellar interferometry and encourage new scientific investigations with the CHARA Array.

  19. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  20. From the West Wing to Pink Floyd to Einstein Advertising: Astronomy in Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    In what popular movie does Darryl Hannah play an astronomer? What Japanese car company is named after a well-known star cluster? Can you name at least two murder mysteries that take place at an observatory? What national astronomy education project was mentioned on The West Wing television show (which had several "stealth astronomy” episodes)? What piece of classical music begins with a Big Bang and has the players expanding on stage and into the concert hall? Can you recite the most famous neutrino poem and name the poet? What science fiction story, written by an astronomer under a pseudonym, features an H-R diagram? What rock group had its members’ names included in a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, unbeknownst to the editor? How many astronomy related operas can you name? How many astronomers does it take to screw in a light bulb? Join in on an exploration of astronomy in popular culture, from stamp collecting to advertising, from science fiction (with accurate astronomy) to rock music, from Broadway musicals to modern poetry. Learn which astronomy colleagues have been writing fiction and poetry while you were busy publishing in the research literature. Bring your favorite example of astronomy in popular culture and we'll take the time at the end to share ideas and have some fun. A resource guide for exploring astronomy and popular culture will be available.