WorldWideScience

Sample records for asthmatic rats treated

  1. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  2. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  3. Evaluation of anti-asthmatic and antioxidant potential of Boerhavia procumbens in toluene diisocyanate (TDI) treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2015-08-22

    Asthma is an ailment of airways characterized by activation of the T helper (Th) 2 lymphocytes and subsequent movement of inflammatory cells. Boerhavia procumbens of family Nyctaginaceae is locally used for the treatment of asthma, cough, hemorrhoids, dropsy, cardiac, eyes and kidney problems. We have evaluated its methanol extract (BPM) as a therapeutic candidate for asthma against toluene diisocyanate (TDI) allergic model in rat. The BPM extract was obtained from the whole plant of B. procumbens in methanol. Sprague-Dawley male 36 rats (200-250 g) were categorized into 6 groups having six rats in each category. The animals were provoked (10%) and sensitized (5%) by TDI. Animals of groups I-III were vehicle control (ethyl acetate), diseased control (TDI) and reference control (TDI+dexamethasone {2.5mg/kg bw}), respectively. Animals of group IV (TDI+200mg/kg bw) and group V (TDI+400mg/kg bw) were administered with BPM whereas group VI was administered with 400mg/kg bw alone of BPM. Protective effects of BPM were determined by counting the number of leucocytes and estimation of interleukines in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in in vitro culture of spleen cells. Estimation of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxides and H2O2 and histopathology of lungs were carried out for antioxidant potential of plant extract used. Methanol extract of B. procumbens suppressed the asthmatic symptoms and inhibited the infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes in lungs of TDI provoked rats. Administration of BPM to TDI provoked rats, dose dependently, inhibited the release of interleukins (IL)-2 in serum and IL-4, IL-6 interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in in vitro culture of spleen cells, and ameliorated the oxidative stress in lung tissues. Quantitative scoring of the lung histopathology exhibited protective effects of BPM and the inflammation, mucus, thickening of peribronchial smooth muscle layer and subepithelial deposition of collagen induced

  4. DENTAL HEALTH IN ASTHMATICS TREATED WITH INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS AND LONG-ACTING SYMPATHICOMIMETICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Karova; George Christoff

    2012-01-01

    There is no enough evidence in literature for the effect of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health in asthmatics. The aim of the study is to follow up the changes in dental plaque pH and dental health in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma, treated with different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics. Seventy patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Changes in plaque pH and dental st...

  5. DENTAL HEALTH IN ASTHMATICS TREATED WITH INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS AND LONG-ACTING SYMPATHICOMIMETICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Karova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no enough evidence in literature for the effect of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health in asthmatics. The aim of the study is to follow up the changes in dental plaque pH and dental health in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma, treated with different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics. Seventy patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Changes in plaque pH and dental status are evaluated in two visits, in six months interval.There are no significant differences between asthmatics and controls when plaque pH values are compared. Substantially lower pH values are determined for maxillary teeth in both groups.DMFT index is significantly higher in asthmatics than in the controls. It increases substantially at their second visit. Significantly higher mean levels of DMFT index for each jaw are found out in asthmatic group.

  6. Dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin increases pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Luis A; Zanatta, Ana L; Farias, Carolina L A; Bieberbach, Eloyse W; Mazzonetto, Ana C; Michellotto, Pedro V; Fernandes, Luiz C; Nishiyama, Anita

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of asthma has risen over the last few decades, and some studies correlate this with the greater consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Dietary PUFAs are known to increase the susceptibility of biological structures to lipid peroxidation, a process by which platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipids can be generated. These lipids functionally mimic the bioactivity of PAF, a potent proinflammatory mediator that exerts several deleterious effects on asthma. Thus, this work aimed to investigate if dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin (SL), a source of PUFAs, increases lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic Wistar rats. Animals were separated into groups: control, supplemented, asthmatic, asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight), asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight) and DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body weight). Asthmatic inflammation increased pulmonary lipid peroxidation, PAF bioactivity, alveolar-capillary barrier permeability and production of nitric oxide. In asthmatics, dietary supplementation with SL promoted an increase in pulmonary lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity, and an increase in the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Moreover, the treatment of asthmatic rats with DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate inhibited the lipid peroxidation and decreased the PAF bioactivity. Therefore, the increase in pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic individuals elicited by the dietary supplementation with SL probably involves the generation of PAF-like lipids. This finding suggests that PAF-like lipids may account for the deleterious effects of dietary PUFAs on asthma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Elevated expression of endothelin 2 in lung tissues of asthmatic rats after exposed to cigarette smoke and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangfang; Zhu, Shuyang; Chen, Bi; Li, Jingjing

    2017-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the expression of endothelin 2 (ET-2) in bronchial epithelium of asthmatic rats. Methods Asthma models were established through intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL chicken ovalbumin (OVA)/Al(OH)3 mixture (asthma model group, n=6); based on the asthma models, exposure to smoking gas lasted four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day (smoke-exposed asthma group, n=6); based on the smoke-exposed asthma models, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone 2 mg/(kg.d), intragastric administration of ET receptor inhibitor bosentan 100 mg/(kg.d) and combined use, respectively named dexamethasone treated group, bosentan treated group, and dexamethasone-bosentan treated group, 6 rats in every group. What's more, other 6 rats were only subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL normal saline as normal controls; in addition to the injection of saline, cigarette smoke control group (n=6) was set up by the exposure to smoking gas for four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the upper lobe of the left lung for cell counting and classification. Pathological changes of the right upper lung lobe tissues were observed by HE staining. In other lung tissues, the expression of JNK1/2 was detected by Western blotting; ET-2 was tested by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and trace enzyme standard method were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Results Compared with normal control group, the number of airway inflammation cells increased in the BALF, and the expressions of ET-2, JNK1/2, MDA and GSH increased in the lung tissues of cigarette smoke control group, asthma model group and cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group. Compared with cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group, the number of airway inflammation cells decreased in the BALF, and the expressions of

  8. [Social media monitoring of asthmatic children treated in a specialized program: Parents and caregivers expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Ávila, Jennifer Bg; Cherrez-Ojeda, Ivan; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Solé, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been used in support of patients with asthma. However, it remains unclear what are the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic patients. To evaluate the expectations of parents or caregivers of asthmatic children treated at Children's Asthma Prevention Program (PIPA), Uruguaiana, RS, in relation to the use of social media. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional survey of parents or caregivers of children seen at Children's Asthma Prevention Program through responses to a written questionnaire on the use of new technologies and different applications to enhance information about asthma. 210 parents or caregivers (median age: 25 years; age range: 18-42 years of patients were enrolled. The mean age of their children was 7.3 years (age range: 2 to 18 years), the mean duration of asthma was 4.7 years and 65% of parents/caregivers of these children had less than eight years of schooling. Most of them (72%) had no access to the Internet via cell/mobile phones and only 18% actively used to gathered information about asthma by internet. There was high interest (87%) in receiving information via social media. Parents or caregivers of children attending the PIPA program expressed high interest in using social media. However, few use it to control their children's disease. While providing a great benefit to use social media as a mean of communication in health, the content needs to be monitored for reliability and quality. The privacy of users (doctors and patients) must be preserved and it is very important to facilitate the access to Internet.

  9. [Effect of montelukast on the expression of neurokinin-1 receptor in young asthmatic rats with airway remodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Shang, Yun-Xiao; Li, Miao; Zhang, Han

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effect of montelukast on the expression of sensory neuropeptide (neurokinin-1) receptor (NK1R) in young asthmatic rats with airway remodeling. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8), asthma (n=8), and montelukast groups (n=8). A rat model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. Normal saline was used instead of sensitizing solution and 1% OVA in the control group. Each rat in the montelukast group was given montelukast (15 mg/kg) by gavage 2 h before OVA inhalation. All rats received their respective treatments for 8 weeks. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of NK1R in asthmatic airway remolding and to evaluate the effect of montelukast on NK1R expression. The asthma group showed significantly higher mRNA and protein expression levels of NK1R than the control group (Pmontelukast group were significantly lower than in the asthma group (Pmontelukast can downregulate NK1R expression during airway remodeling.

  10. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  11. Acidity of unstimulated saliva and dental plaque in asthmatics, treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Karova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of asthmatics is continuously increasing all over the world. The aim of the study is to study the effect of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on salivary and plaque pH in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma. The effect of different quantities of lactose, as gustatory corrector in the inhalers, is traced out.Thirty patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Salivary and plaque pH values are traced out in 30 minutes period after drug inhalation, at 6-months interval. It is found out that inhaled drugs cause significant decrease of initial salivary pH values, the lowest ones reported on first and fifth minute after the inhalation. The average salivary pH levels on the 30th minute remain significantly lower than initial ones.Most considerable changes in pH values are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol.

  12. [Effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing shen and strengthening qi on some indexes of neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fu-dong; Dong, Jing-cheng; Xie, Jin-yu

    2007-08-01

    To study changes of several related indexes of neuro-endocrino-immune (NEI) network in rat asthma model, and to observe effects of epimedium herb (EH, a Chinese herb for replenishing Shen) and milkvetch root (MR, a Chinese herb for strengthening qi) on these indexes. One hundred and twenty male healthy Brown Norway rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 11 groups. Their mRNA expression of corticoid release hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus was tested by Realtime-PCR, serum ACTH and CORT, IL-6, IL-4, IFN-gamma were detected with radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively and pathological changes of lung tissue were observed with hematoxylin and eosin stain. As compared with the normal group, mRNA expression of CRH in hypothalamic tissue, plasma ACTH and serum concentration of IFN-gamma not changed significantly, but serum level of CORT raised significantly and the pre-inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-4 showed an increasing trend in the model rats. As compared with the model group, level of CRH mRNA expression in groups treated with low dose and moderate dose of both EH and the formula (HE and MR), IFN-gamma in group treated with moderate dose of EH and serum CORT in group treated with low dose of MR were higher, and serum levels of IL-4 and IL-6 in groups treated with high dose of MR were lower. Rats suffered from repeated asthmatic attack for three weeks had some disorders in indexes of NEI network. Chinese herbs for replenish Shen and strengthening qi could improve the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adjust the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, which might be one of the mechanisms of Chinese herbs for treatment of repeated asthma attack.

  13. Saliva composition and caries development in asthmatic patients treated with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists: a 4-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, M; Möller, C; Ericson, T

    1991-06-01

    In an earlier study, we found that chronic treatment with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists in asthmatic subjects gave an impaired saliva secretion and a higher caries prevalence than in healthy controls. Twenty-one of the asthmatics and their matched controls were examined 4 yr later in a follow-up study. Samples of whole saliva stimulated by chewing and parotid saliva stimulated by citric acid were collected and dental caries was scored. In the asthmatic group the secretory rates of stimulated whole and parotid saliva decreased by 20% and 35%, respectively, compared to the control group. The number of lactobacilli increased. The asthmatic subjects had a decreased output per minute of total protein, amylase, hexosamine, salivary peroxidase, lysozyme, secretory IgA, a bacteria-aggregating glycoprotein, potassium, and calcium in stimulated parotid saliva. Initial and manifest caries lesions as well as the number of DFS were significantly increased in the asthma group. We conclude that asthmatic patients treated with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists have an increased caries susceptibility due to an impaired saliva secretion caused by the use of beta-adrenergic agonists.

  14. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  15. Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron on hematological parameters of experimental asthmatic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Vosooghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each: control, sensitized (asthma, and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX. After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC counts, red blood cells (RBC, and platelet counts in blood were examined. Results: Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (pConclusion: Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  16. Investigation of anti-asthmatic potential of Kanakasava in ovalbumin-induced bronchial asthma and airway inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Poonam; Ansari, S H; Anjum, Varisha; Mathur, Rajani; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2017-02-02

    Kanakasava is an Indian traditional Ayurvedic formulation containing Datura (Datura metel), Vasaca (Adhatoda vasica), Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) and Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts as major constituents and used to treat pulmonary diseases including coughing, breathing difficulty and asthma. The present study was designed to assess the safety and therapeutic efficacy of Kanakasava against ovalbumin-induced bronchial asthma and related airway inflammation in rats due to lack of evidence based therapeutic efficacy data. Male wistar rats were sensitized with allergen (ovalbumin, 40mg/rat+aluminum hydroxide, 2.0mg/rat) and treated orally with standard dexamethasone (2.5mg/kg, b.w.) or Kanakasava (1.23 and 2.46ml/kg, b.w.) from day 1 to day 28. Inflammatory markers, including cell counts and cytokines such as interleukins (IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), leukotriene (LTD-4), immunoglobulin (IgE), nitric oxide and nitrite levels in both blood and broncheo alveolar lavaged fluid (BALF) were analyzed. Abdominal mesentery was studied histologically for mast cell degranulation, whereas lung functions were investigated by spirometer. Method was also developed to quantify gallic acid and ethyl gallate content in Kanakasava by HPTLC for its quality control. None of the rats exhibited mortality and Kanakasava was found to be safe at the tested doses. Treatment with Kanakasava significantly (Pasthma providing scientific basis for its traditional use in Ayurveda, since long time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracerebroventricular injection of leukotriene B4 attenuates antigen-induced asthmatic response via BLT1 receptor stimulating HPA-axis in sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jun-Xia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basic and clinical studies suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is the neuroendocrine-immnue pathway that functionally regulates the chronic inflammatory disease including asthma. Our previous studies showed corresponding changes of cytokines and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 between brain and lung tissues in antigen-challenged asthmatic rats. Here, we investigated how the increased LTB4 level in brain interacts with HPA axis in regulating antigen-induced asthmatic response in sensitized rats. Methods Ovalbumin-sensitized rats were challenged by inhalation of antigen. Rats received vehicle, LTB4 or U75302 (a selective LTB4 BLT1 receptor inhibitor was given via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v 30 min before challenge. Lung resistance (RL and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn were measured before and after antigen challenge. Inflammatory response in lung tissue was assessed 24 h after challenge. Expression of CRH mRNA and protein in hypothalamus were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western Blot, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT were measured using the ELISA kits. Results Antigen challenge decreased pulmonary function and induced airway inflammation, evoked HPA axis response in sensitized rats. Administration of LTB4 via i.c.v markedly attenuated airway contraction and inflammation. Meanwhile, LTB4 via i.c.v markedly increased CORT and ACTH level in plasma before antigen challenge, and followed by further increases in CORT and ACTH levels in plasma after antigen challenge in sensitized rats. Expression of CRH mRNA and protein in hypothalamus were also significantly increased by LTB4 via i.c.v in sensitized rats after antigen challenge. These effect were completely blocked by pre-treatment with BLT1 receptor antagonist U75302 (10 ng, but not by BLT2 antagonist LY255283. Conclusions LTB4 administered via i.c.v down-regulates the airway contraction response and inflammation through

  18. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because cardiovascular disease remains a serious problem in modern human society, the aim of this study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion operation. A 20-minute thoracotomy was performed ...

  19. Hyperlipoproteinemia in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, H; Roheim, P S; Eder, H A

    1976-06-01

    In order to study hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus, rats were made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin and the optimal conditions for production of severe and persistent hyperlipoprotenemia determined. Two groups of rats were compared: rats fed sucrose-rich diets and rats fed laboratory chow. The optimal dose of streptozotocin was 45 mg/kg body weight for the sucrose-fed rats. With this dose, plasma glucose reached a maximum of over 600 mg/100 ml., and plasma insulin was reduced by 60 per cent. Plasma triglycerides rose in the sucrose-fed rats to over 1,000 mg/100 ml. two days after the streptozotocin was given and then decreased to over 770 mg./100 ml. 12 days after treatment and then to 585 mg./100 ml. 10 weeks after induction of diabetes. With this dose, ketonuria did not occur nor did any of the animals die, as occurred with higher doses. In the chow-fed rats, plasma triglyceride levels were elevated with the induction of diabetes to levels of approximately 300 mg./100 ml. The concentration of all the plasma lipoproteins increased with the induction of diabetes. The concentration of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) protein in the sucrose-fed diabetic increased fivefold, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) protein increased, and especially striking was the increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) protein concentration, which became more pronounced with the duration of the diabetes. The diabetes produced by streptozotocin administration to sucrose-fed rats, thus, provides a useful model for the study of the hyperlipoproteinemia of diabetes.

  20. Can asthmatic subjects dive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yochai Adir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recreational diving with self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba has grown in popularity. Asthma is a common disease with a similar prevalence in divers as in the general population. Due to theoretical concern about an increased risk for pulmonary barotrauma and decompression sickness in asthmatic divers, in the past the approach to asthmatic diver candidates was very conservative, with scuba disallowed. However, experience in the field and data in the current literature do not support this dogmatic approach. In this review the theoretical risk factors of diving with asthma, the epidemiological data and the recommended approach to the asthmatic diver candidate will be described.

  1. Reproductive activities of female albino rats treated with quassin, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups V, VI and VII rats were also treated orally with 0.1 mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg body weight of quassin for 60 days but were left untreated for another 30 days, to serve as the recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, blood samples were collected from each rat. Fertility study was done by cohabiting ...

  2. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarim Neto, Arthur; Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Biophysics and Biometry

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. Methods: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium) group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control) group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1 ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25 {mu} Ci. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI / g) was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland). Results: On the ninth day after the administration of the second chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50 +- 22.09 g) compared (p<0.5) to pre-treatment weight (353.66 {+-} 22.8). The % ATI/g in the samples of rats treated with samarium-153-EDTMP had a significant reduction in the right femur, left femur, kidney, liver and lungs of animals treated with docetaxel, compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and samarium-153-EDTMP was associated with a lower response rate in the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical to targeted tissues. Further investigation into the impact of docetaxel on biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP would complement the findings of this study. (author)

  3. Prevention of red cell lysis in artesunate-treated rats: A role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -phosphate dehydrogenase activity in male rats. Twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats were control rats which received normal saline while group 2 rats were treated with artesunate orally for five ...

  4. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  5. Biomechanical properties of bones from rats treated with sevelamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draca, Natasa; Tikvica, Ana; Eljuga, Domagoj; Semenski, Damir; Brncić, Mladen; Vukicević, Slobodan

    2011-06-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride is used for ten years in patients on dialysis as a phosphate binder. We have previously shown that oral application of sevelamer prevents the bone loss and increases the bone volume in ovariectomized rats. In this study we further analysed the biomechanical properties of bones from rats treated with sevelamer utilizing a threepoint bending test to determine the mechanical properties of the cortical bone of the mid-shaft femur, while the indentation test was used to determine the mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the marrow cavity of the distal femoral metaphysis. Parameters analyzed included: maximum load (F(u)), stiffness (S), energy absorbed (W), toughness (T) and ultimate strength (sigma). The intrinsic properties, stress, elastic modulus and toughness were determined from measured maximum load, strains, stiffness, energy absorbed, outer and inner diameters, and calculated bone cross-sectional moment of inertia. Sevelamer was given to rats for 25 weeks with a content of 3% of sevelamer in a standard diet, starting immediately following ovariectomy (OVX). Animals were divided to the following groups: (1) Sham; (2) Sham + sevelamer 3%; (3) OVX; (4) OVX + sevelamer 3%. Our results showed that sevelamer particularly influenced the rat trabecular bone by increasing the maximum load for 26.2%, energy absorbed for 24.2% and the ultimate strength for 26.2% in sham animals treated with sevelamer 3%, as compared to sham rats. Sevelamer 3% in OVX rats also increased the maximum load for 71.4%, stiffness for 70.7%, energy absorbed for 55.9% and the ultimate strength for 71.3% as compared to OVX controls. In the three bending test sevelamer had a very little effect on preventing loss of bone strenght in the cortical bone. These results collectively suggest that sevelamer improves bone biomechanical properties, mainly affecting trabecular bone quality in both normal and ovariectomized rats.

  6. Precipitated and conditioned withdrawal in morphine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ginger L; Gerak, Lisa R; Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2010-03-01

    Stimuli that are paired with opioid withdrawal can themselves produce effects similar to withdrawal that might promote relapse. This study compared precipitated and conditioned withdrawal and tested whether withdrawal is modified by clonidine or morphine. Morphine-treated rats (10 mg/kg/12 h) received naloxone (3.2 mg/kg) in a novel environment (conditioned stimuli [CS]). Other rats received naloxone in the absence of the CS. Body weight and observable signs were used to measure withdrawal. Naloxone produced weight loss and withdrawal signs in morphine-treated rats. Following pairings of the CS and naloxone, the CS alone had effects similar to naloxone; conditioned withdrawal was greater after three naloxone/CS pairings, as compared to one, and with longer morphine treatment. Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal was greater in rats that previously were physically dependent on morphine, as compared to withdrawal in rats that were never dependent; however, conditioned withdrawal did not differ between groups. When administered concurrently with naloxone, clonidine (0.1 mg/kg) attenuated some precipitated withdrawal signs, although conditioned withdrawal was largely unchanged. Administration of 10 mg/kg of morphine before the CS alone attenuated all conditioned withdrawal signs, whereas 0.1 mg/kg of clonidine before the CS alone reduced some directly observable signs and not weight loss. Conditioned withdrawal occurs rapidly and is greater with longer periods of morphine treatment or more pairings of naloxone and the CS; however, a history of physical dependence does not increase conditioned withdrawal. Modification of conditioned withdrawal by drugs might be a useful approach for treating relapse.

  7. Frankincense improves memory retrieval in rats treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beheshti Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frankincense has been shown to possess anti-inf lammatory activity. In this studythe effect of pretreatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of frankincense on memory retrievalwas assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS treated rats.Methods: Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were distributed into 7 groups of 6 each. One groupreceived LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p pre-test. The control group received saline (1 ml/kg; i.p. 2 groups ofanimals received frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O or DMSO 5% (1 ml/kg; P.O and 30 minutes laterLPS (1 mg/kg; i.p. Two other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O or DMSO5% (1 ml/kg; P.O and 30 minutes later saline (1 ml/kg; i.p. Another group of rats received LPS(1 mg/kg; i.p and 30 minutes later Ibuprofen (100 mg/kg; P.O. In all the experimental groups,memory retrieval was assessed 4 hours following the last injection, using a passive avoidancetask (PAT. Hippocampal TNF-α levels were measured by ELISA as an index of LPS-inducedneuroinf lammation.Results: LPS impaired memory retrieval by decreasing step-through latency (STL, significantly.LPS also increased levels of TNF-α in the hippocampus as compared to the control group.Administration of frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O before LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p improved memoryretrieval as compared to the control group. Frankincense reduced hippocampal TNF-α level in theLPS treated rats, significantly, compared to the control group.Conclusion: The results indicate that the hydro-alcoholic extract of frankincense has the potentialto improve memory retrieval in LPS treated rats, possibly via an anti-neuroinf lammatory activity.

  8. Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood. PMID:23750695

  9. Evaluation of Chromosomal Instability in Diabetic Rats Treated with Naringin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the bone marrow DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formations, spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations, and sperm characteristic assays to investigate the chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells of diabetic rats treated with multiple doses of naringin. The obtained results revealed that naringin was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic for the rats at all tested doses. Moreover, naringin significantly reduced the diabetes-induced chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, diabetes induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of oxidative stress including enhanced lipid peroxidation, accumulation of oxidized glutathione, reduction in reduced glutathione, and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Treatment with naringin ameliorated these biochemical markers dose-dependently. In conclusion, naringin confers an appealing protective effect against diabetes-induced chromosomal instability towards rat somatic and germinal cells which might be explained partially via diminishing the de novo free radical generation induced by hyperglycemia. Thus, naringin might be a good candidate to reduce genotoxic risk associated with hyperglycemia and may provide decreases in the development of secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risks, which seems especially important for diabetic patients.

  10. [Evaluation of a program for asthmatic children treated in primary care outpatient units in Embu, São Paulo, 1988-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura; Naspitz; Puccini; Silva

    1998-04-30

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Program Targeting Children with 'Chest Wheezing' carried in the city of Embu, São Paulo. The study analyzed a total of 434 children aged zero to 14 years, admitted to the program from May 1988 to July 1993. Over 90% had never been treated for this medical problem in outpatient clinics. Only 6.2% had to be referred to other health care services during follow-up in this program. The program successfully performed clinical diagnosis of asthma in children over 2 years of age. The moderate and severe cases followed up for over a year showed the best clinical evolution, with the positive factor being better compliance with medication. The number of exacerbations decreased among the severe patients after a year of regular follow-up, although patients used bronchodilators during the 12 months of our analysis. Of the children enrolled, 53.2% gave up treatment principally in the first six months, most of them from the moderate group. We concluded that children with steadier compliance with the program benefited in spite of both the simplicity and the lack of some currently existing medications.

  11. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  12. Prevalence of sinusitis and efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid treatment on asthmatic symptoms in asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Noguchi, Shingo; Nishida, Chinatsu; Oda, Keishi; Akata, Kentarou; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence of sinusitis on sinus computed tomography (CT) in asthmatic patients and efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid treatment on asthmatic symptoms in asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis on sinus CT is unclear. Sinus CT of asthmatic patients were evaluated using the Lund-Mackay system (LMS). Intranasal corticosteroid treatment (mometasone furoate) was newly added to symptomatic asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis treated without intranasal corticosteroids, and the findings of the Asthma Control Test (ACT), Asthma Control Questionnaire in 5 items (ACQ5), spirometry, and sinus CT were evaluated before and 3 months after additional intranasal corticosteroid treatment. In a total of 160 asthmatic patients, rhinosinusitis and maxillary, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal sinusitis were observed in 75.0%, 70.0%, 53.1%, 33.1%, and 28.8%, respectively. Nasal symptoms and rhinophonia were observed in 81.9% and 72.5%, respectively, and patients with nasal symptoms and those with rhinophonia both showed significantly higher LMS scores in each sinus. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) was observed in 66.9%, and these patients had significantly more severe asthma than the patients without CRS. In patients with CRS, patients with rhinophonia showed significantly higher LMS scores than those without rhinophonia. ACT, ACQ5, and the value of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) all significantly improved 3 months after the additive intranasal corticosteroid treatment in 24 patients, despite the fact that their LMS scores remained unchanged. Additive intranasal corticosteroid treatment may be an effective treatment option for symptomatic asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  14. Use of Anti-Asthmatic Medications in Elderly Taiwanese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yu Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the use of anti-asthmatic medications in Taiwanese geriatric asthmatic patients. We used computerized prescription databases from the National Health Insurance Program, Taiwan, and classified drugs according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System to analyze the patterns and extent of medication use in people aged over 65 years, and the influence of physician specialty on the prescription of anti-asthmatics. A total of 708,624 prescriptions for 226,018 patients were analyzed. Oral medications were most often prescribed. Only 3.94% and 7.79% of patients were treated with inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled short-acting b-agonists, respectively. Pulmonologists prescribed significantly more inhaled anti-asthmatics, except for cromolyn, than other types of physicians. More males than females were prescribed each category of anti-asthmatic medications, except for ketotifen. In conclusion, physicians in Taiwan do not prescribe as many inhaled anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of asthma in the elderly as suggested in international treatment guidelines.

  15. Dengue 2 virus enhancement in asthmatic and non asthmatic individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Guzman

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1981 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS Cuban epidemic, bronchial asthma (BA was frequently found as a personal or family antecedent in dengue hemorragic fever patients. Considering that antibody dependent enhancement (ADE plays an important role in the etiopathogenic mechanism of DHF/DSS, we decide to study the Dengue 2 virus (D2V capability of replication in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from asthmatic patients and healthy persons. In 90% of asthmatic patients and 53.8% of control group it was obtained PBL with a significant D2V enhancing activity (X² p < 0.01. Power enhancement was higher in asthmatic group. This is the first in vitro study relating BA and the dengue 2 virus immuno enhancement. The results obtained support the role of BA as a risk factor for DHF/DSS as already described on epidemiological data.

  16. Oral manifestations of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghapanchi, Janan; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Kamali, Fereshte; Rezaee, Mostafa; Ghodrati, Maryam; Amanpour, Sara

    2015-11-01

    The effect of asthma on oral health is the subject of debate among dental practitioners. The current study was planned to investigate the oral manifestations of asthmatics compared to healthy subjects. The study group composed of 100 asthmatics and 100 age-matched healthy controls. The caries status based on Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth (DMFT) criteria and oral lesion were evaluated in all subjects. The mean age of the asthmatics group was 47.5±3.5 years and in the control group it was 43.5±3.0 years. Asthmatics included 45(45%) males and 55(55%) females. There was no statistical difference between caries prevalence in both groups. The most prevalent oral lesions in asthmatics group were geographic tongue 10(10%), fissured tongue 13(13%), chronic atrophic candidiasis13(13%), and in the control group were fissured tongue(11%) and lichenoid reaction(2%). The dental professional must be familiar with all signs and symptoms of this disease in order to offer effective and safe treatment.

  17. Gene expression profile analysis of genes in rat hippocampus from antidepressant treated rats using DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Minkyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular and biological mechanisms by which many antidepressants function are based on the monoamine depletion hypothesis. However, the entire cascade of mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants has not yet been elucidated. Results We used a genome-wide microarray system containing 30,000 clones to evaluate total RNA that had been isolated from the brains of treated rats to identify the genes involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of various antidepressants, a tricyclic antidepressant (imipramine. a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (phenelzine and psychoactive herbal extracts of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. To confirm the differential expression of the identified genes, we analyzed the amount of mRNA that was isolated from the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with antidepressants by real-time RT-PCR using primers specific for selected genes of interest. These data demonstrate that antidepressants interfere with the expression of a large array of genes involved in signaling, survival and protein metabolism, suggesting that the therapeutic effect of these antidepressants is very complex. Surprisingly, unlike other antidepressants, we found that the standardized herbal medicine, Nelumbinis Semen, is free of factors that can induce neurodegenerative diseases such as caspase 8, α-synuclein, and amyloid precursor protein. In addition, the production of the inflammatory cytokine, IFNγ, was significantly decreased in rat hippocampus in response to treatment with antidepressants, while the inhibitory cytokine, TGFβ, was significantly enhanced. Conclusions These results suggest that antidepressants function by regulating neurotransmission as well as suppressing immunoreactivity in the central nervous system.

  18. Obestatin and insulin in pancreas of newborn diabetic rats treated with exogenous ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Neslihan; Dağistanli, Fatma Kaya; Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sema

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin treatment on obestatin, insulin gene expression and biochemical parameters in the pancreas of newborn-streptozocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I: control rats treated with physiological saline; group II: control rats treated with 100 μg/kg/day ghrelin; group III: two days after birth rats that received 100mg/kg STZ injected as a single dose to induce neonatal diabetes; group IV: neonatal-STZ-diabetic rats treated with ghrelin for four weeks. Sections of the pancreas were examined with immunohistochemistry for the expression of obestatin and insulin and in situ hybridization for the expression of insulin mRNA. The blood glucose levels were measured. Tissue homogenates were used for protein, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic glycosylation levels and antioxidant enzyme analysis. There was a significant difference in blood glucose levels in newborn-STZ-diabetic rats compared to ghrelin treated diabetic rats at weeks 1, 2 and 4. In group IV, pancreatic non-enzymatic glycosylation and lipid peroxidation levels were decreased, however, glutathione levels and enzymatic activities were increased. Insulin peptide and mRNA (+) signals in islets of Langerhans and obestatin immunopositive cell numbers showed an increase in group IV compared to group III. These results suggest that administration of ghrelin to newborn rats may prevent effects of diabetes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Fertility potential of male albino rats (Wistar strain) treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    streptomycin combination. ... significant decrease (P<0.05) in the sperm motility of group B rats at 7 days post-treatment with hyper-dose of PSC and the total sperm abnormalities was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the same group of rats compared to A ...

  20. Glucose Homeostasis and Sympathoadrenal Activity in Mercaptoacetate-Treated Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Gertjan van; Scheurink, Anton; Ritter, Sue; Steffens, Anton

    The effect of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, sodium mercaptoacetate (MA, 600 µmol/kg) on peripheral energy substrate metabolism was investigated in rats with permanent heart catheters. Rats were either fed, 48-h food deprived, or exercising for 30 min. Before and after intravenous MA injection,

  1. Studies on periodontal conditions in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, T M; Koivikko, A; Paunio, K U

    1979-01-01

    The effect of extrinsic asthma on periodontal conditions was studied in a group of 30 asthmatic children. Clinical examination revealed that asthmatic children had more gingivitis than their healthy controls. The asthmatic children who received an inhaled corticosteroid as treatment had more severe gingivitis compared with asthmatic children on disodium cromoglycate treatment. The amount of plaque was not altered. The peroxidase activity was assessed from whole saliva. The results revealed that this defense mechanism was not altered in asthma. An enzyme group which is involved in inflammation, the arginine aminopeptidases, was found to be slightly elevated in the gingival fluid of asthmatic children. The results indicate that gingival inflammation is increased in asthma.

  2. TREATMENT OF STEROID DEPENDENT ASTHMATICS WITH LOW DOSES OF CYCLOSPORINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Šuškovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthmatics with glucocorticoid dependent asthma should be treated with systemic steroids. Cyclosporine is in many ways a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Cyclosporine is sometimes very effective in treating asthmatics and could allow us to lower the dose of oral steroid. In some randomized, double blind studies steroid dependent asthmatics were treated 12–36 weeks with cyclosporine in dose 5 mg/kg/day. We tried cyclosporine in steroid dependent asthmatics in shorter course and in lower dose.Methods. 13 steroid dependent asthmatics were in the first four weeks of the study treated by their own drugs (phase 1. Then they were for the next four weeks (phase 2 randomly and in double blind fashion treated with either cyclosporine (mean 1.7 mg/kg/day, SD 0.5, 6 patients – group 1 or by identical placebo (7 patients – group 2. To the patients in the group 2 serum concentration of cyclosporine was measured on the eight day of the study.Results. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF raised significantly in group 1 (200 L/sec to 247 L/sec or for 23%. Patients in group1 had significantly less episodes of nocturnal asthma (2.2 episodes/night to 1.5 episodes/night or for 32%. In group 2 were not found any changes between first phase and second phase of the study. Steroid consumption did not change in any group. Mean serum concentration of cyclosporine in patients of group1 was 35.7 µg/L. We did not find any adverse effects of cyclosporine or placebo.Conclusions. Cyclosporine could have dangerous side effects, which are dependent on its serum concentration. So it should be administered in the lowest possible dose and for the most possible short period. In our study it was found that it is possible to successfully treat steroid dependent asthmatics with lower daily dose and for shorter time, than was found in other similar studies.

  3. The Power of Classic Music to Reduce Anxiety in Rats Treated with Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was designed to investigate the effects of music in Wistar rats after sub-chronic treatment of simvastatin. The rats were orally administered with either simvastatin or saline (controls. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, the rats were selected for behavioral studies. The rats were exposed to music 24 hours before behavioral tests (Mozart’s piano sonata, KV361, Largo. Results: The experiments suggest that exposure to chronic treatment with simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day reduced anxiety levels in rats when associated with Mozart music in an elevated plus-maze. Discussion: These results indicate that music can serve as an effective adjuvant in rats treated with simvastatin, and that this species could potentially be used in other preclinical models utilizing musical interventions.

  4. Aphrodisiac and Male Sexual Characteristics in Albino Rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants and herbs to boost libido, induce erection, and as an aphrodisiac agent has been in existence for long. The root of Parquetina nigrescens is one of such acclaimed aphrodisiac but there is no scientific documentation to back this up, thus the need for this study. Eighty male rats were completely randomized ...

  5. Insulin resistance in SD rats chronically treated with ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously demonstrated that hepatic insulin signaling is disrupted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed EtOH-containing diets by total enteral nutrition (TEN). To determine if whole body insulin resistance could be demonstrated in the TEN model, we conducted euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp st...

  6. PIXE analysis of trace metals in aspirin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Sater, R.; Hurd, R.W.; Andres, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Aspirin is known to complex metals, yet its effect on trace metals of the body remains poorly characterized. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats for one week produced significant alterations of serum iron, zinc, and selenium, and liver selenium and copper. Implications of metal complexation on the mechanism of action of aspirin and the association with Reye's Syndrome are discussed.

  7. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD ..... Figure 4. The myocardial fibrosis formation after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion surgery. Pictures on the left were hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining results, pictures on the right were ...

  8. PIXE analysis of trace metals in aspirin-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Sater, R.; Hurd, R. W.; Andres, J. M.

    1985-05-01

    Aspirin is known to complex metals, yet its effect on trace metals of the body remains poorly characterized. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats for one week produced significant alterations of serum iron, zinc, and selenium, and liver selenium and copper. Implications of metal complexation on the mechanism of action of aspirin and the association with Reye's Syndrome are discussed.

  9. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO2, NO3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls (Plonga and curcumin compared to asthmatic group (Plonga and curcumin (Plonga extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  10. The effect of eurycoma longifolia jack on spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhazlina Abdul Wahab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2 (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight, and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment.

  11. Effect of mancozeb-treated lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) on wistar rat liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because mancozeb, ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate, is mainly used, more than five times, during the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), the aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the potential effect of mancozeb-treated lettuce on the rat liver physiology. Mancozeb-treated lettuce and two doses of mancozeb were ...

  12. Methylmercury chloride induces learning deficits in prenatally treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesch, H.R.; Bornhausen, M.; Kriegel, H.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MMC) was given to pregnant rats on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day after conception in doses of 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg/day. The female offspring of these animals were tested 90 days after birth for learning ability using operant conditioning procedures. The rats were kept at 90% of their normal body weight and trained in a lever-box to press a bar in order to obtain a food pellet. Significant differences in the acquisition speed became apparent when the ratio of bar presses to reward was increased in a classical contingency of differential reinforcement of high rates even at MMC-doses of 4 x 0.05 mg/kg. These differences were not found in the general motility level nor in motor coordination.

  13. Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Grossi-Oliveira, Gustavo Augusto; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis were examined. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups according to the induction of osteoporosis and drugs administered: OG, osteoporotic rats without treatment (negative control); SG, rats which underwent sham surgery ovariectomy (SHAM); alendronate (AG), osteoporotic rats treated with alendronate; and RG, osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene (RG). On the 8th day after ovariectomy and SHAM surgeries, drug therapy was started with AG or RG. On the 52nd day, 20 mg/kg calcein was administered to all of the rats, and on the 80th day, 20 mg/kg alizarin red was administered. Euthanasia was performed on the 98th day. The bone area marked by fluorochromes was calculated and data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Tukey's post-hoc test (pinduced osteoporosis groups showed no statistically significant differences in bone turnover only between RG and SG (p=0.074) and AG and OG (p=0.138). All other comparisons showed significant differences (pinduced osteoporosis, resembling that of healthy rats.

  14. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staini...

  15. Mass spectrometric imaging of metabolites in kidney tissues from rats treated with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Mi Suk; Choi, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Sunhee; Lee, Yu-Jung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    In the kidney, metabolic processes are different among the cortex (COR), outer medulla (OM), and inner medulla (IM). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we examined the change of metabolites in the COR, OM, and IM of the rat kidney after furosemide treatment compared with vehicle-treated controls. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats to deliver 12 mg·day(-1)·rat(-1) of furosemide. Vehicle-treated (n = 14) and furosemide-treated (furosemide rats, n = 15) rats in metabolic cages received a fixed amount of rat chow (15 g·220 g body wt(-1)·day(-1) for each rat) with free access to water intake for 6 days. At day 6, higher urine output (32 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 1 ml/day) and lower urine osmolality (546 ± 44 vs. 1,677 ± 104 mosmol/kgH2O) were observed in furosemide rats. Extracts of COR, OM, and IM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, where multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several metabolites, including acetylcarnitine, betaine, carnitine, choline, and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), were significantly changed. The changes of metabolites were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS. Their spatial distribution and relative quantitation in the kidneys were analyzed by IMS. Carnitine compounds were increased in COR and IM, whereas carnitine and acetylcarnitine were decreased in OM. Choline compounds were increased in COR and OM but decreased in IM from furosemide rats. Betaine and GPC were decreased in OM and IM. Taken together, MALDI-TOF/TOF and IMS successfully provide the spatial distribution and relative quantitation of metabolites in the kidney. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  17. THE SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THYMOQUINONE TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Güllü; S, Dede

    2016-01-01

    TQ has been used as treatment and preventive agent for many diseases over the years. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of TQ supplement on fractions of serum proteins. Fourteen male Wistar-Albino rats (200-250 g weight) were used as material for two groups; (control (C) and thymoquinone (TQ) respectively. Each group contained seven rats. The control group had only corn oil, while the TQ group was dissolved in corn oil. 30 mg/kg/day were given by oral gavage for four weeks. The serum protein fractions were identified using cellulose acetate technique. The total protein level and albumin, α-1, α-2 fractions and A/G ratio have showed no difference between groups (p>0.05). β-globulin fractions of TQ group were higher than control's (p<0.05). In addition, it was observed that the γ-globulin levels of TQ group were lower than that of the control group's (p<0.05). From the results, it was observed that the changes of these fractions may have originated from elevation or decline synthesis, or activities of containing proteins.

  18. cerebellar parameters in developing 15 day old rat pups treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in the mean neuron/neuroglia ratio in the intracerebellar nuclei, mean numerical density and mean total number of granule cells and reduction in the mean ratio of total number of granule/Purkinje cells in the treated group compared with control. The linear regression comparison for ...

  19. Cortical and hippocampal EEG effects of neurotransmitter agonists in spontaneously hypertensive vs. kainate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Schibaev, Nikolai; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgii; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-04-06

    To analyze mediatory mechanisms underlying attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their association with epilepsy, the electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to various centrally applied neurotransmitter agonists were studied in spontaneously hypertensive (SH), kainate-treated (KA), and normotensive (control) rats, with chronically implanted electrodes into the frontal cortex and hippocampus and a cannula into the lateral cerebral ventricle. In SH rats, the baseline EEG showed increased delta and beta2 activity in the hippocampus and decreased alpha/beta1 activity in both brain areas. In KA rats, these delta and alpha/beta1 effects were observed 2 weeks post-kainate, while the beta2 activity increase occurred after 5 weeks in the hippocampus and, to a greater extent, 9 weeks post-injection in both brain areas. In SH rats, NMDA increased delta and decreased alpha/beta1 activity, similar to KA rats 5 weeks post-injection. In SH rats, clonidine augmented theta/beta2 increase in the cortex and alpha suppression in both brain areas, in parallel with induction of beta2 activity in the hippocampus. These beta2 effects were observed 5 and 9 weeks post-kainate. In SH rats, baclofen produced robust delta/theta enhancement and alpha/beta1 suppression in both brain areas, with additional beta2 activity increase in the hippocampus, while muscimol was ineffective in both groups of rats. In KA rats, EEG responses to GABA agonists were similar to those in control. Our results demonstrate sensitization of NMDA receptors and α2-adrenoceptors both in SH and KA rats and that of GABAb receptors specifically in SH rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone repair in rats treated with sodic diclofenac and calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassioto, Maria Cristina Pita; Inouye, Celso Massaschi; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Figueiredo, Arthur Silveira de

    2006-01-01

    To investigate clinical and histologically the bone repair in treated animals with calcitonin and sodic diclofenac. Ninety-six femoral defects were created in forty-eight animals distributed in four groups (n=24): either left untreated, treated with the sodic diclofenac or calcitonin or both. Follow-up was 7, 14 and 21 days. Histological sections stained by haematoxylin-eosin was observed under light microscopy (100X) and quantitatively scored for their trabecular formation. The groups and subgroups were compared being used the Kruskall-Wallis test. Smaller trabecular formation was observed in the animals of the group II and larger trabecular formation in the animals of the group III. Was found significant differences in the comparison between all the groups (Kruskall-Wallis, p sodic diclofenac and accelerated by the calcitonina, when used separately. The associated use of calcitonina and sodic diclofenac didn't show to be the best therapeutic option in the treatment of bone defects surgically created.

  1. DRUG THERAPY IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN: SURVEY IN MASHHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Karimi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For future health planning of our country, the type and amount of drugs used for treatment of chronic diseases should be known. Therefore, in the present study the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad was studied. Methods. To study the different types of drugs in the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad, we evaluated the treatment regimen of 366 primary school children with asthma disease. Starting, maximum and duration of action of three different bronchodilators (salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup were compared. Findings. The results of the first part of this study showed that only 31.6 percent of asthmatic children had history of treatment and only 10.6 percent had current medication. In addition, most of the treated children (38.8 percent had only bronchodilator (salbutamol syrup in their treatment regimen. The effect of salbutamol inhaler on lung function tests starts in 5 min, salbutamol syrup in 15 min and theophylline syrup at 30 min after administration. The maximum response to salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup occurred 15 min, 4 hr and 3 hr after administration, respectively. The reduction of response to salbutamol inhaler occurs after 3 hr, but there was no any reduction in response to salbutamol and theophylline syrup during study period. Conclusion. The prevalence of asthma among children in the city of Mashhad is relatively high, but most of asthmatic children are not treated. Although the oral bronchodilator in mild asthma is effective, salbutamol inhaler is needed for emergency use.

  2. Glycolytic and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Pancreatic Islets from MSG-Treated Obese Rats Subjected to Swimming Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara de Carvalho Leite

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Aims: Obese rats obtained by neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG administration present insulin hypersecretion. The metabolic mechanism by which glucose catabolism is coupled to insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cells from MSG-treated rats is understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets from MSG-treated rats subjected to swimming training. Methods: MSG-treated and control (CON rats swam for 30 minutes (3 times/week over a period of 10 weeks. Pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with glucose in the presence of glycolytic or mitochondrial inhibitors. Results: Swimming training attenuated fat pad accumulation, avoiding changes in the plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin in MSG-treated rats. Adipocyte and islet hypertrophy observed in MSG-treated rats were attenuated by exercise. Pancreatic islets from MSG-treated obese rats also showed insulin hypersecretion, greater glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 expression, increased glycolytic flux and reduced mitochondrial complex III activity. Conclusion: Swimming training attenuated islet hypertrophy and normalised GLUT2 expression, contributing to a reduction in the glucose responsiveness of pancreatic islets from MSG-treated rats without altering glycolytic flux. However, physical training increased the activity of mitochondrial complex III in pancreatic islets from MSG-treated rats without a subsequent increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  3. [Ultrastructural alterations in colonic mucosa of nifurtimox treated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto de Mecca, M; Rodríguez de Castro, C; Díaz, E G; Castro, J A

    2001-01-01

    Nifurtimox (Nfx) is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of acute Chagas' disease. Clinical and experimental studies with this nitroheterocyclic compound evidenced serious undesirable side effects. These were correlated with Nfx nitroreduction to a nitroanion radical followed by superoxide anion generation through a redox cycling process. The aim of this study was to verify whether the oral administration of Nfx to Sprague Dawley male rats (100 mg.kg-1, p.o.) produced any observable ultrastructural alteration in the cells of the colonic mucosa. Results showed that 24 h after Nfx administration there were observable alterations in this type of cells. They essentially consisted of moderate dilatation of their endoplasmic reticulum and intense dilatation of their Golgi complex. Already 1 and 3 h after Nfx administration, the original compound reached a concentration of 9.7 +/- 2.9 and 7.0 +/- 1.7 nmol.g-1 respectively in the colonic tissue. Studies on Nfx nitroreductase activity of colonic mucosa as determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC methods showed that the microsomal fraction (from 0.72 +/- 0.29 to 0.26 +/- 0.04 nmol Nfx.min-1.mg-1 protein) but not the cytosol had the ability to nitroreduce Nfx. The results obtained show a correlation between the ultrastructural localization of injury and that of nitroreductase activity. The intense deleterious effects of Nfx in the Golgi apparatus suggest the potential occurrence of alterations in the synthesis/storage of secretory products of the colonic mucosa.

  4. The Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotective Effects of Vernonia calvoana Ethanol Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Eneji Egbung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were randomly assigned into five groups of seven rats each. Groups 2–5 received high doses of paracetamol to induce liver damage, while group 1 was used as normal control. Afterwards, they were allowed to receive varying doses of VC (group 3 and 4 or vitamin E (group 5, whilst groups 1 and 2 were left untreated. The treatment period lasted for twenty one days after which sera were harvested and assayed for serum lipid indices using standard methods. Results: Groups 3 to 5 treated animals indicated significant decrease (p < 0.001 in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol (TG levels relative to the normal and acetaminophen-treated controls, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in all treated groups compared with normal and acetaminophen-treated controls. However, the VC- and vitamin E-treated groups showed significant (p < 0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C relative to the controls. Conclusions: Data from our study suggest that ethanol leaf extract of VC possesses probable hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects.

  5. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  6. [Effects of AST and ASI on metabolism of free radical in senescent rats treated by HC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Wei-Ping; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2007-12-01

    To study the effects of Astragaloside (AST) and Astragalus Saponin I (ASI) on metabolism of free radical and immune function in senescent rats treated by HC. Hydrocorisone (HC) was used to estabilsh the aging model in rats. The content of molondialdehyde (MDA), glutathoine (GSH) and oxidized glutathoine (GSSG) in liver and brain was detected according to kit. The activity of Mn superoride dismulase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also surveyed by kit. Concanavalin (ConA) was used to detect the proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of splenocytes. Compared with HC control, AST and ASI could decrease the content of MDA, GSH and GSSG in liver and brain, increase the activity of Mn-SOD and CAT, and promote the proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) activity of splenocytes. AST and ASI could delay the aging effect in rats treated by HC, and its mechanism maybe the antioxidant and regulating immunity.

  7. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  8. Evaluation of postpartum behaviour in rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius A. Vieira

    Full Text Available Gestational depression is detrimental to the health of the mother and the offspring and contributes to the appearance of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the postnatal period. Traditional antidepressants have undesirable side effects when utilised during gestation, but Hypericum perforatum has been characterised as an efficient and safe antidepressant that prevents the recurrence of symptoms. This study verified the effects of Hypericum perforatumon the behaviour of Wistar rats that were treated during gestation and evaluated 10 and 60 days post-treatment. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each: one control group that received distilled water and three treatment groups that were treated orally with 36, 72 or 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumextract. At 10 and 60 days after parturition and post-treatment, the rats were submitted to the holeboard, the tail suspension, and the forced swim tests. The animals treated with 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumexhibited greater head-dipping activity in the hole-board test and reduced immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, suggesting less anxiety and depression 10 and 60 days post-treatment.The results indicated that treating rats with Hypericum perforatumduring the gestational period decreased depressive behaviour and anxiety 10 and 60 days post-treatment.

  9. Cellular fibronectin and von Willebrand factor concentrations in plasma of rats treated with monocrotaline pyrrole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, A.E.; Emeis, J.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-treated rat is a useful model for the study of certain chronic pulmonary vascular diseases. A single, i.v. administration of a low dose of MCTP causes pneumotoxicity, pulmonary vascular remodeling, sustained increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, and right

  10. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  11. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  12. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Ian D.; Somsen, Govert W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  13. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Rats with Allergic Bronchial Asthma Treated with Recuperating Lung Decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan Hua; Shi, Qi; Han, Na; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Gao, Tong Xin; Chen, Chen; Li, You Lin

    2016-08-01

    To investigate whether recuperating lung decoction (RLD) can modulate the composition of gut microbiota in rats during asthma treatment. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly and equally into control group, model group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, RLD medium-dose group, and RLD high-dose group. The asthma model was established in all groups, except for the control group. The rats in the DEX and RLD groups were treated orally with DEX and RLD, respectively. The rats in the control and model groups were treated orally with 0.9% saline. The intestinal bacterial communities were compared among groups using 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing. The microbial flora differed between the control and model groups, but the flora in the RLD groups was similar to that in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the RLD high-dose and medium-dose groups. RLD treatment resulted in an increase in the level beneficial bacteria in the gut, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. Oral administration of RLD increased the number of intestinal lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in asthma model rats. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral heart rate variability in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Ciesielczyk, Katarzyna; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (CP-HC) is complex, involving the im- pact of many systemically and locally released agents on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, that affects bladder functioning. The purpose of our study was to provide an indirect evaluation of ANS functional status in experimental CP-HC model, involving prostaglandin synthesis block resulting from administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The ANS activity was estimated through the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in CP-HC rats divided into three study groups: 1-control, 2-treated with meloxicam (MLX) that preferentially blocks COX-2, and 3-treated with piroxicam (PRX) that inhibits COX1 and 2 activity. In animals treated either with MLX or PRX, the percent distribution of the spectrum in relation to components of very low (VLF) and low (LF) frequency was not different from the control group. PRX-treated group displayed nearly two times lower percent share of the high frequency (HF) component compared to the control. Moreover, an increase of the normalized LF (nLF) value with simultaneous reduction of the normalized HF (nHF) value were noted in PRX-treated rat with no change of these parameters for MLX-treated rats. The HRV analysis in CP-HC rats receiving PRX, indicated a functional reorganization manifested by reduced parasym- pathetic activity and increased sympathetic tonus. A partial prostaglandin synthesis block caused by COX-2 inhibitor (meloxicam) caused no significant changes of evaluated HRV parameters compared to the control. Assessing functional changes of the ANS caused by prostaglandin synthesis block it should be stated that prostaglandins synthesized by the constitutive COX-1 isoform seem to maintain the parasympathetic activity, which may be associated with the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and resolution of inflammation in course of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.

  15. Role of HGF-loaded nanoparticles in treating rat acute hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ren-An; Chen, Zhong; Li, Zhi-Feng

    2013-10-01

    To explore the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-loaded polylactic acid-O-carboxymethylated chitosan (PLA-O-CMC) nanoparticles in hepatocyte transplantation (HCT) for treating rat acute liver failure (ALF). Five milliliters of hepatocytes respectively treated with conventional culture (group I), PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles (group II) and HGF-loaded PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles (group III) were transplanted into the abdominal cavities of rat with ALF. In group IV, rats were treated as group II except intravenous 10 pg of HGF daily for 7 days, and in group V, rats were given intraperitoneal RPMI-1640. The survival rate on the 14th day after HCT was higher in groups III IV, and II than in group V (pimproved 24 h after HCT (precovery of hepatic function was the best in group III. In group III, mitotic index was 10.20% on the 5th day after HCT (pnanoparticles can steadily release HGF, and exhibits better tendencies in liver regeneration, survival rate and hepatic function compared with intravenous HGF.

  16. Osteogenic potential of osteoblasts from neonatal rats born to mothers treated with caffeine throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Amanda Maria Sena; Ribeiro, Lorena Gabriela Rocha; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Serakides, Rogéria

    2015-02-04

    Caffeine is an active alkaloid that can cause damage to bones in formation during prenatal life into adulthood. This compound can pass across the placenta and into the mother's milk, causing a reduction in bone formation, growth and mass. The objective of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of osteoblasts extracted from neonatal rats born to mothers treated with caffeine throughout pregnancy. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of one control group and three groups that were treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine by an oral-gastric probe throughout the duration of the experimental period (pregnancy). At birth, three puppies from each dam in each group were euthanized, and osteoblasts were extracted from the calvaria of these pups for in vitro testing. The osteoblasts extracted from the pups of rats that received 50 mg/kg caffeine during pregnancy exhibited increased expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, sialoprotein, runx-2, alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen transcripts, resulting in increased synthesis of mineralization nodules. Neonates from rats treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine during pregnancy contained osteoblasts with a higher osteogenic potential characterized by increased expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, sialoprotein, runx-2, alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen and increased synthesis of mineralization nodules.

  17. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  18. Impaired GABAergic Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex of Early Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP)-Treated Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl...... in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction...

  19. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling Reveals Neurochemical Alterations in the Brain of Rats Treated with Sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changman; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qian; Fu, Dengqi; Gu, Hui; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Deng, Pengchi; Wang, Huijuan; Hu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-11-01

    Sorafenib, an active multi-kinase inhibitor, has been widely used as a chemotherapy drug to treat advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma patients. In spite of the relative safety, sorafenib has been shown to exert a negative impact on cognitive functioning in cancer patients, specifically on learning and memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the neurochemical effects of sorafenib in rats. Male rats were once daily administrated with 120 mg/kg sorafenib by gavage for 3, 7, and 28 days, respectively. NMR-based metabolomics coupled with histopathology examinations for hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and striatum were performed. The (1)H NMR spectra data were analyzed by using multivariate pattern recognition techniques to show the time-dependent biochemical variations induced by sorafenib. Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed between sorafenib-treated and control rats. A total of 36 differential metabolites in hippocampus of rats treated with sorafenib were identified, some of which were significantly changed. Furthermore, these modified metabolites mainly reflected the disturbances in neurotransmitters, energy metabolism, membrane, and amino acids. However, only a few metabolites in PFC and striatum were altered by sorafenib. Additionally, no apparent histological changes in these three brain regions were observed in sorafenib-treated rats. Together, our findings demonstrate the disturbed metabonomics pathways, especially, in hippocampus, which may underlie the sorafenib-induced cognitive deficits in patients. This work also shows the advantage of NMR-based metabolomics over traditional approach on the study of biochemical effects of drugs.

  20. Ellagic Acid Increases Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphatase After Tooth Extraction in Nicotinic-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Al Batran, Rami; Ibrahim, Omar Emad; Daher, Aqil M

    2016-01-01

    -To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA) after tooth extraction in rat. Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers. Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (pextraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  2. Differential expression of parvalbumin in neonatal phencyclidine-treated rats and socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalund, Sanne S; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian V; Fabricius, Katrine; Karlsen, Anna S; Secher, Thomas; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2013-02-01

    Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study, we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical fractionator, we counted neurons, PV(+) interneurons, and glial cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC). In addition, we quantified the mRNA level of parvalbumin in the mPFC. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of PV(+) interneurons (p = 0.021) and glial cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats, but not in SI rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following phencyclidine (PCP) treatment, we suggest that the decreased number of counted PV(+) interneurons represents a reduced parvalbumin protein expression below immunohistochemical detection limit rather than a true cell loss. Furthermore, these results indicate that the effect of neonatal PCP treatment is not limited to neuronal populations. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Inhibition of NaCl appetite when DOCA-treated rats drink saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward M; Bushey, Michael A; Hoffmann, Myriam L; McGhee, Marilyn; Cason, Angela M; Smith, James C

    2007-01-01

    Marked increases in the consumption of concentrated NaCl solution were elicited in rats by daily injection of the synthetic mineralocorticoid, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). DOCA-treated rats drank different volumes of NaCl solution depending on its concentration (between 0.15 M and 0.50 M), with less consumed (in milliliters) the more concentrated the fluid was. In consequence, total Na(+) intake (in milliequivalents) was roughly similar in all groups. Gastric emptying of Na(+) also diminished as the concentration of the ingested NaCl solution increased, and the delivery of Na(+) to the small intestine was remarkably similar in all groups. Cumulative volume of ingested fluid in the stomach and small intestine was very closely related to intake (in milliliters) of the concentrated NaCl solutions. Systemic plasma Na(+) levels did not increase until after rats stopped consuming concentrated NaCl solution, although they were elevated at the onset of water ingestion. The situation appeared to be different when 0.15 M NaCl was consumed. This isotonic solution emptied and was absorbed relatively rapidly, and DOCA-treated rats drank larger amounts of it throughout a 1-h test period than when they drank concentrated NaCl solutions. Collectively, these findings suggest that saline consumption by DOCA-treated rats may be inhibited by two presystemic factors, one related to the volume of ingested fluid (i.e., distension of the stomach and small intestine) and one related to its concentration (i.e., elevated osmolality of fluid in the small intestine and/or in adjacent visceral tissue).

  4. Bladder carcinogenesis in rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida Dornelas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effect of L-lysine in the bladder and intestinal epithelia in rats submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy. Methods: we divided forty Wistar rats into four groups: group I - control group (Sham; group II - submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine 150mg/kg; group III - submitted only to vesicosigmoidostomy; and group IV - received L-lysine 150mg/kg. After eight weeks the animals were sacrificed. Results: in the bladders of all operated animals we observed simple, papillary and nodular hyperplasia of transitional cells, transitional cell papillomas and squamous metaplasia. As for the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of operated animals, we did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the distal, proximal and medium fragments, or in all fragments together (p=1.0000. Conclusion: Although statistically there was no promotion of carcinogenesis in the epithelia of rats treated with L-lysine in the observed time, it was clear the histogenesis of bladder carcinogenesis in its initial phase in all operated rats, this being probably associated with chronic infection and tiny bladder stones.

  5. Modulation of oxidative stress by enalapril and valsartan in adrenaline treated rats: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S; Akhter, N

    2014-04-01

    Angiotensin (Ang II) II is known to promote oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inhibition of renin angiotensin system (RAS) or blockade of Ang II receptors may therefore be effective in reducing oxidative stress during AMI. The study evaluates and compares the protective effect of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and AT1 receptor blocker in adrenaline induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were treated with two successive injections of adrenaline subcutaneously at a dose of 2 mg/kg administered 24 hours apart. In other two groups of rats enalapril (30 mg/kg) or valsartan (30 mg/kg) were given orally once daily through intragastric tube for 2 weeks and then two injections of adrenaline were administered 24 hours apart. Serum Aspertate Transaminase (AST), plasma Malonde Aldehyde (MDA), erythrocyte GSH and serum vitamin E levels were measured 24 hours after the 2nd injection of adrenaline in all the groups. Administration of adrenaline caused significant increase (p adrenaline treated rats. However, no significant difference was noted between the effect of enalapril and valsartan on serum AST, plasma MDA, erythrocyte GSH and serum vitamin E levels. It may be concluded that both enalapril and valsartan offered cardioprotection in adrenaline induced oxidative stress, but the protection afforded by valsartan was not superior to enalapril.

  6. Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with tribulus alatus extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. El-Tantawy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.

  7. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of plantain (musa paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V K; Baskar, R; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats.

  8. Protective effect of Aplysin on hepatic injury in ethanol-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Na; Liang, Hui; Liu, Ying; Ma, Ai-guo; Han, Lei

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Aplysin against ethanol-induced hepatic injury in rats and analyzed the associated mechanisms. Rats were administered orally with ethanol 8-12 ml/kg bw excluding the rats in the control group at 1h after rats were administered by gavage doses of Aplysin (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg bw) every day. After 6 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and liver injury was evaluated by biochemical and pathological examination. Hepatocyte apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Ethanol metabolic enzymes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 expressions were evaluated by western blot analysis. These results demonstrated that Aplysin exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. In the ethanol-treated group, cytochrome P4502E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase were increased significantly in liver tissue. Moreover, Aplysin not only significantly reversed the ratio of NAD(+)/NADH and mitochondrial glutathione depletion, but also reversed the decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Overexpression of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation was suppressed by Aplysin. These results suggest that Aplysin alleviates hepatocyte apoptosis by modulating the ethanol-metabolizing pathway, attenuating oxidative stress, ameliorating mitochondrial function, inhibiting mitochondrial damage-mediated apoptosis, which ultimately prevent and repair alcoholic liver injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation prevents memory impairment, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Eyup; Aydin, Emel; Ungureanu, Eugen; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-12-01

    Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0.7mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before the behavioral testing. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. As expected, the scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease the percentage of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze test, increase the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. However, dual scopolamine and Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil-treated rats showed significant improvement of memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. These results suggest that Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation can prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Erlotinib preserves renal function and prevents salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed N Bou Matar

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome is associated with up-regulation of the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF. Erlotinib blocks the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in response to HB-EGF. This study investigates the effect of Erlotinib on the progression of proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats. Male rats were divided into 3 pair-fed groups (n = 13/group as follows: Control rats (Ctrl; rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin (Dox; and rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin followed by daily oral Erlotinib (Dox + Erl. Upon establishment of high grade proteinuria, urine sodium and creatinine clearance were measured. Kidney tissue was dissected and analyzed for γ-epithelial sodium channel (γENaC, sodium-potassium -chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2, sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC, aquaporin 2 (AQP2, and EGFR abundances using western blot. Creatinine clearance was preserved in the Dox + Erl rats as compared to the Dox group (in ml/min: Ctrl: 5.2±.5, Dox: 1.9±0.3, Dox + Erl: 3.6±0.5. Despite a minimal effect on the degree of proteinuria, Erlotinib prevented salt retention (Urinary Na in mEq/d: Ctrl: 2.2±0.2, Dox: 1.8±0.3, Dox + Erl: 2.2±0.2. The cleaved/uncleaved γENaC ratio was increased by 41±16% in the Dox group but unchanged in the Dox + Erl group when compared to Ctrl. The phosphorylated EGFR/total EGFR ratio was reduced by 74±7% in the Dox group and by 77±4% in the Dox + Erl group. In conclusion, Erlotinib preserved renal function and prevented salt retention in nephrotic rats. The observed effects do not appear to be mediated by direct blockade of EGFR.

  11. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... characterized by macrocytic anemia and leucopenia. Our data show statistically significant decreases in total leukocytes count (TLC) in which, hemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc.), packed cell volume. (PCV), and red cell count (RCC), accompanied by significant increases in mean cell volume (MCV), red.

  12. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of pycnogenol(®) on rats treated with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Birsen; Unsal, Meftun; Sekeroglu, Zulal A; Gülbahar, Yavuz

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced toxicity. Pycnogenol® is known for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the possible protective effects of pycnogenol on kidney, bone marrow, and red blood cells in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. The rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control and groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally treated with pycnogenol (200 mg/kg bw, o.p) for 5 days, treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg bw, i.p.) on the fifth day and treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol, respectively. Antioxidative parameters in kidney and red blood cells were measured. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow and renal histopathology were also investigated. Activities of pro-oxidant enzymes (myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels significantly increased but antioxidant enzymes activities decreased in the kidneys and red blood cells after cisplatin treatment. Pycnogenol treatment prior to the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased cisplatin-induced injury, as evidenced by its normalizing these parameters. Chromosomal aberrations decreased and mitotic index frequencies increased in bone marrow treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol. These findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a useful protective agent against the toxicity associated with cisplatin therapy.

  13. Anaphylactic deaths in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipane, G A

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed seven documented deaths to peanuts and two near deaths. We excluded hearsay undocumented deaths to peanuts. Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and probably the most common cause of death by food anaphylaxis in the United States. About one-third of peanut-sensitive patients have severe reactions to peanuts. Asthmatics with peanut sensitivity appear more likely to develop fatal reactions probably because of the exquisite sensitivity that asthamatics have to chemical mediators of anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occur within a few minutes of ingestion and these patients must carry preloaded epinephrine syringes, antihistamines, and medic-alert bracelets. Treatment should include repeated doses of epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids as well as availability of oxygen, mechanical methods to open airways, vasopressors, and intravenous fluids. Hidden sources of peanuts such as chili, egg rolls, cookies, candy, and pastry should be recognized and identified. Scratch/prick test to peanuts are highly diagnostic. Peanut is one of the most sensitive food allergens known requiring only a few milligrams to cause a reaction. In some individuals, even contact of peanut with unbroken skin can cause an immediate local reaction. Unfortunately, peanut reaction is not outgrown and remains a life-long threat.

  14. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical......Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration...

  15. Tropisetron enhances recognition memory in rats chronically treated with risperidone or quetiapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Indrani; Callahan, Patrick M; Hernandez, Caterina M; Yang, Xiangkun; Bartlett, Michael G; Terry, Alvin V

    2017-11-23

    While impairments of cognition in schizophrenia have the greatest impact on long-term functional outcome, the currently prescribed treatments, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), do not effectively improve cognition. Moreover, while more than 20 years have been devoted to the development of new drugs to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, none have been approved to date. One area that has not been given proper attention at the preclinical or clinical stage of drug development is the chronic medication history of the test subject. Hence, very little is known about how chronic treatment with drugs that affect multiple receptors like APDs influence the response to a potential pro-cognitive agent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α 7 nAChR) partial agonist, tropisetron in rats chronically treated with APDs with distinct pharmacological profiles. Rats were treated orally with either risperidone (2.5 mg/kg/day) or quetiapine (25.0 mg/kg/day) for 30 or 90 days and then an acute injection of vehicle or tropisetron (3.0 mg/kg) was administered before training in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. After a 48 hr delay (when recollection of the familiar object was impaired in vehicle-treated animals) neither 30 nor 90 days of risperidone or quetiapine treatment improved NOR performance. In contrast, tropisetron markedly improved NOR performance in rats treated with either APD for 30 or 90 days. These animal data reinforce the argument that two commonly prescribed APDs are not pro-cognitive agents and that α 7 nAChR ligands like tropisetron have potential as adjunctive treatments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  17. Methylprednisolone protects cardiac pumping mechanics from deteriorating in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui eKo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a prolonged low-dose corticosteroid treatment attenuates the severity of inflammation and the intensity and duration of organ system failure. In the present study, we determined whether low-dose methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid can protect male Wistar rats against cardiac pumping defects caused by lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation. For the induction of chronic inflammation, a slow-release ALZET osmotic pump was subcutaneously implanted to infuse lipopolysaccharide (1 mg kg−1 d−1 for 2 wk. The lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats were treated on a daily basis with intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (5 mg kg−1 d−1 for 2 wk. Under conditions of anesthesia and open chest, we recorded left ventricular (LV pressure and ascending aortic flow signals to calculate the maximal systolic elastance (Emax and the theoretical maximum flow (Qmax, using the elastance-resistance model. Physically, Emax reflects the contractility of the myocardium as an intact heart, whereas Qmax has an inverse relationship with the LV internal resistance. Compared with the sham rats, the cardiodynamic condition was characterized by a decline in Emax associated with the increased Qmax in the lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Methylprednisolone therapy increased Emax, which suggests that the drug may have protected the contractile status from deteriorating in the inflamed heart. By contrast, methylprednisolone therapy considerably reduced Qmax, indicating that the drug may have normalized the LV internal resistance. In parallel, the benefits of methylprednisolone on the LV systolic pumping mechanics were associated with the reduced cardiac levels of negative inotropic molecules such as peroxynitrite, malondialdehyde, and high-mobility group box 1 protein. Based on these data, we suggested that low-dose methylprednisolone might prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced decline in cardiac intrinsic contractility and LV

  18. Assessment of Bone Status in Inhaled Corticosteroid User Asthmatic Patients with an Ultrasound Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sasagawa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The 6 month manegement of asthma in the actual clinical setting, including regular ICS use, might have a harmful influence on the bone status of female asthmatic patients. It may be necessary to manage and treat female patients for potent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, although further analyses of bone status in asthma patient ICS users will be required.

  19. A deep breath bronchoconstricts obese asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Cribbs, Sushma; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Ingram, Roland H; Jackson, Andrew C

    2010-02-01

    Asthma is characterized by the loss of a deep breath (DB)-induced bronchodilation and bronchoprotection. Obesity causes lung restriction and increases airway resistance, which may further worsen the capacity of a DB to induce bronchodilation; however, whether increasing BMI impairs the bronchodilatory response to a DB in asthmatics is unknown. The population consisted of 99 subjects, 87 with moderate to severe persistent asthma and 12 obese control subjects. Using transfer impedance we derived airway resistance (Raw). Participants breathed for 1 minute and took a slow DB followed by passive exhalation to functional residual capacity (FRC) and tidal breathing for another minute. After a DB, obese asthmatics had the largest percent increase in Raw (median 9.8% interquartile range [IQR] 3.1-15.1), compared with overweight (6.5% IQR -1.3, 12.1) and lean (0.7% IQR -3, 7.9) asthmatics and obese controls (2.5% IQR -.6, 11) (p for trend = 0.008). The association between the percent increase in Raw after a DB and BMI as a continuous variable was significant (p = 0.02). In obese, moderate to severe and poorly controlled asthmatics, a DB results in increased Raw. This phenomenon was not observed in leaner asthmatics of similar severity or in obese control subjects.

  20. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on the liver of epileptic female rats treated with lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Poorrostami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug, widely used in the treatment of epilepsy; long-term use of this drug can cause hepatotoxicity. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger possesses antioxidant properties. In present research, the effect ofhydroalcoholic extract of ginger (HEG on the liver of lamotrigine-treated epileptic rats was investigated Material and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were selected and allocated to 8 groups of 6 each.  Group 1: Negative controls were treated with normal saline. Group 2: Positive controls were treated with lamotrigine (LTG (10 mg/kg daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Epilepsy was induced in treatment groups by i.p. injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ (40 mg/kg. Group 3: Epileptic group received normal saline (10 ml/kg. Group 4: Epileptic group was treated with LTG (10 mg/kg. Groups 5 and 6: Epileptic groups received HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg. Groups 7 and 8: Epileptic groups received LTG and HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg. At the end of 28 days, blood samples were drawn and their livers were processed for light microscopy. Results: The mean values of TG, CHOL, AST, and ALT activity significantly rose (p

  1. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Artico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lonidamine (LND or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w. as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C, rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%, each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND. Neurotrophins (NTs appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF, that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat, neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75 in the seminiferous tubules of

  2. Depression, anxiety, distress and somatization in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mohamed Shalaby Samaha

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Asthmatic patients are at high risk of psychiatric problems, particularly depression, anxiety and somatization. Asthmatic patients need psychotherapy besides their medication of asthma to obtain better asthma out come and management.

  3. Impaired GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2014-09-01

    A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups.It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  5. Mediation of oxidative stress in hypothalamic ghrelin-associated appetite control in rats treated with phenylpropanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-H; Chu, S-C; Chen, P-N; Hsieh, Y-S; Kuo, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-induced appetite control is associated with oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether hypothalamic antioxidants participated in hypothalamic ghrelin system-associated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. Rats were given PPA daily for 4 days, and changes in food intake and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), superoxide dismutase, catalase, ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Results showed that both food intake and the expression of NPY and ghrelin/AG/GOAT/GHSR1a decreased in response to PPA treatment with maximum decrease on Day 2 of the treatment. In contrast, the expression of antioxidants and CART increased, with the maximum increase on Day 2, with the expression opposite to that of NPY and ghrelin. A cerebral infusion of either a GHSR1a antagonist or reactive oxygen species scavenger modulated feeding behavior and NPY, CART, antioxidants and ghrelin system expression, showing the involvement of ghrelin signaling and oxidative stress in regulating PPA-mediated appetite control. We suggest that hypothalamic ghrelin signaling system, with the help of antioxidants, may participate in NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of zinc on antioxidant defense system in lithium treated rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Punita; Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Dhar, Rakesh; Dhawan, D K

    2007-11-01

    With a view to find out whether zinc affords protection against lithium toxicity the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation profile were determined in the cerebrum and cerebellum of lithium treated female Sprague Dawley rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in both the cerebrum and the cerebellum of animals administered with lithium for a total duration of 4 months as compared to the normal control group. On the contrary, the activities of catalase and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were significantly reduced after 4 months of lithium treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased in the cerebrum after 4 months lithium administration, whereas in the cerebellum the enzyme activity was unaffected. No significant change in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in either cerebrum or cerebellum after 2 months of lithium treatment. However, 4 months lithium treatment did produce significant changes in GSH levels in the cerebrum and in the cerebellum. Zinc supplementation for 4 months in lithium-treated rats significantly increased the activities of catalase and GST in the cerebellum, showing that the treatment with zinc reversed the lithium induced depression in these enzyme activities. Though, zinc treatment tended to normalize the SOD activity in the cerebrum yet it was still significantly higher in comparison to normal levels. From the present study, it can be concluded that the antiperoxidative property of zinc is effective in reversing the oxidative stress induced by lithium toxicity in the rat brain.

  7. Distribution of glutathione peroxidase 1 in liver tissues of healthy and diabetic rats treated with capsaisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprem, T; Yıldız, S E; Sari, E K; Bingol, S A; Tasci, S K; Aslan, S; Sozmen, M; Nur, G

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the immunohistochemical localization of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx 1) and the structural changes that occur in the livers of healthy and diabetic rats that were treated with capsaisin (CAP). Fifty female rats were divided into five groups: group 1, sham; group 2, untreated control; group 3, CAP-treated; group 4, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic; group 5, STZ diabetic + CAP-treated. STZ was administered to groups 4 and 5; after verifying diabetes, CAP was administered daily for 2 weeks to groups 3 and 5. Diffuse, microvesicular and some macrovesicular fatty degeneration were observed in the cytoplasms of hepatocytes in the livers of the diabetic group. In the CAP-treated diabetic group, fat degeneration in the livers decreased slightly by day 7. Irregularity of the external contours of nuclei of the hepatocytes, swelling of the nuclei, and slight anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were observed in the hepatocytes of the diabetic group. In the CAP-treated diabetic groups, the severity of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis decreased slightly by day 7. In all groups, GPx 1 showed similar immunolocalization, but in the diabetic and diabetic + CAP groups, GPx 1 immunoreactivity was less than in the other groups. GPx 1 immunoreactivity in the CAP-treated diabetic group was weaker than in the diabetic group. In all groups, GPx 1 immunoreactivity was diffusely cytoplasmic in some of the hepatocytes, and diffusely cytoplasmic and diffusely nuclear in other hepatocytes. Also, GPx 1 immunoreactivity in the liver was more intense in the hepatocytes around Kiernan's space. We found that CAP caused a decrease in GPx 1.

  8. Gender differences in objectively assessed physical activity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Economou, Mary; Kolokotroni, Ourania; Savva, Savvas C; Gavatha, Marina; Ioannou, Phivos; Karpathios, Themistoclis; Middleton, Nicos

    2015-04-01

    To compare objectively assessed physical activity levels, between asthmatic children and non-asthmatic controls. From a random community sample of 794 children aged 8-9 years, in a case-control design, 104 children with ever doctor's diagnosis of asthma and 99 non-asthmatic controls were recruited and had assessment of physical activity with biaxial accelerometers for 7 days. Children with active (also reporting at least one episode of wheezing in the last 12 months) and inactive (no wheezing in past 12 months) asthma appeared to have similar physical activity and sedentary activity levels compared to non-asthmatic children. However, girls with active asthma had significantly lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels than their peers with adjusted geometric mean ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.369, 0.929, P-value = 0.024). No difference in physical and sedentary activity levels was observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic boys. The difference between genders in the comparison of MVPA levels in asthmatics and controls was statistically significant (P-value of likelihood ratio test [LRT] for effect modification by gender = 0.034). Unlike boys, girls with active asthma appear to be less active than their healthy peers, and this gender difference might explain the inconsistent evidence from previous reports on physical activity levels in asthmatic children. Further studies are needed to confirm the gender interaction in the childhood asthma-physical activity relation and the implications on current guidelines for physical exercise prescriptions in asthmatic children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Perception of wheezing in the elderly asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J H; Lim, G I; Seo, M J; Park, S J; Lee, J H; Uh, S T; Kim, Y H; Park, C S

    2001-12-01

    In elderly asthmatics, underdiagnosis is one of the important features. The main reason for underdiagnosis is thought to be a low frequency in complaining of symptoms due to the reduction of intellectual recognition and physical activity. Among the various symptoms, wheezing is the principal clue in diagnosing bronchial asthma, and decreased complaints for wheezing are also noted in elderly asthmatics. The objective of this study is to determine if less complaints of wheezing in elderly asthmatic is due to decrease in the development of wheezing. 61 young (20-39 years old), 68 middle-aged (40-59 years old) and 65 elderly (older than 60 years old) stable asthmatic subjects were studied (each group shall be called, hereafter, Young Group, Middle-aged Group and Old Group, respectively). During the methacholine induced airway narrowing, lung auscultation and questionnaire survey about presence and perception of wheezing were conducted in 194 asthmatics. One hundred and sixty-nine patients (87%) developed wheezing during the methacholine induced airway obstruction. The frequency of wheezing during the methacholine challenge was found to be comparable among the groups. The methacholine concentration, % fall in FEV1, and FEV1 levels of the initial detection of wheezing were not different among the groups. Among the patients who developed wheezing, 47 patients (77%), 42 patients (61.8%) and 26 patients (40%) complained of wheezing in Young, Middle and Old Group, respectively. In conclusion, the decreased perception of wheezing is a main factor for the low frequency of complaints of wheezing in elderly asthmatics.

  10. Increased cytokine/chemokines in serum from asthmatic and non‐asthmatic patients with viral respiratory infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuffrida, María J; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Alvarez de Mon, Melchor; Chacín, Betulio; Espina, Luz Marina; Gotera, Jennifer; Bermudez, John; Mavarez, Alibeth

    2014-01-01

    ...: regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in patients with an asthmatic versus a non-asthmatic background with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus or adenovirus respiratory infection...

  11. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  12. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and oral procaterol in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Backer, Vibeke; Rzeppa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of procaterol in asthmatics and non-asthmatics after nebulized and oral administration in relation to doping. Ten asthmatic and ten non-asthmatic subjects underwent two pharmacokinetic trials. At first trial, 4 μg procaterol was...... after nebulized administration. For doping control purposes, our observations indicate that it is possible to differentiate therapeutic nebulized administration of procaterol from proh ib ited use of oral procaterol....

  14. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  15. [Protective effects of AST and ASI on memory impairment and its mechanism in senescent rats treated by GC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weizu; Li, Weiping; Yin, Yanyan; Gong, Huiling; Wu, Guocui; Zhu, Fenfang

    2009-01-01

    To study the protective effects and mechanisms of astragaloside (AST) and astragalus saponin I (ASI) on the memory impairment in senescent rats treated by glucocorticoid (GC). Y maze test was performed to determine the effects of AST and ASI on memory impairment of hydrocortisone(HC)-induced senescent rats. Using Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent indicator (Furo-2), free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by double wavelength fluorescence sepectrophotometer in thymocytes and hippocampal neurons induced dexamethasone (DEX). And apoptosis was detected by DNA gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Compared with HC control, AST and ASI can improve the memory of the senescent rats treated by HC, lower [Ca2+]i and suppress apoptosis of thymocytes and hippocampal neurons induced by DEX. AST and ASI can delay the aging in rats treated by HC, and its mechanism may includ lowering[Ca2+]i and suppressing the apoptosis of thymocytes and hippocampal neurons.

  16. Prolactin released in vitro from the pituitary of lactating, pregnant, and steroid-treated female or male rats stimulates prolactin secretion from pituitary lactotropes of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Flavio; Navarro, Nilda; Castilla, Alejandra; Morales, Teresa; Fiordelisio, Tatiana; Cárabez, Alfonso; Aguilar, Manuel B; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that soluble factor(s) in conditioned media (CM) from the central and peripheral regions of the anterior pituitary (AP) gland of lactating rats promoted the in vitro dose-related release of prolactin (PRL) from pituitary glands of male rats. In the present experiments we sought to determine whether CM from rats in different physiological states provoked similar effects (like those of lactating rats), and the nature of the factors, whether 23K PRL or other variants of the hormone, were responsible for these effects. Stimulatory effects were induced by CM from pregnant females and steroid-treated castrated males or females, but not from untreated castrated rats, intact males, or by a PRL standard. More potent effects occurred with CM from APs of early- than from mid- or late-lactating rats, and from rats unsuckled for 8 or 16 h than from those unsuckled for 32 h. With respect to the nature of factor(s) responsible for these effects, immunoprecipitation of PRL from the CM of lactating females and of steroid-treated, castrated males eliminated, whereas dephosphorylation or deglycosylation of CM of lactating rats greatly increased its effects upon PRL release. Also, electrophoretic analysis and Western blotting of the CM proteins under native and denaturing conditions revealed a variety of PRL variants, ranging from 14 to <90 kDa, in CM from lactating rats, and the main effects on PRL release were provoked by the 23- to 46-kDa PRL variants. These results indicate that specific effects upon male rat lactotropes may be exerted by PRL variants released from APs of lactating and non-lactating rats. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05 the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05 as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05 in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

  18. Clinical characteristics of black asthmatic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of 455 black asthmatic children (277 boys) attending ... In black children in South Africa, in whom both pneumonia and tuberculosis remain significant problems,3,4 failure to recognise asthma may not only result in continued ..... Gie R, Klein M. Wesley A. Death from pneumonia in young children - time for.

  19. Impact of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health of asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christoff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on dental health in asthmatics. Thirty patients, from 20 to 55 years old, participate in the study. D-, M-, F- and DMFT indexes are determined in a 6 months period. All participants fill in a questionnaire. Asthmatics complain most frequently from oral dryness, take frequently sugar and soft drinks and visit irregularly dental practitioners. A significant increase in M-index is found out at the second visit. F-index increases considerably for patients treated with Beclometasone and Formoterol and D-index decreases significantly when treated with Budesonide and Formoterol. DMFT index increases considerably for all patients. Highest values of DMFT index are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol. Prolonged use of inhaled drugs with greater quantities of lactose leads to more impaired dental status in asthmatics and higher values of DMFT index.

  20. Study on acute ulcerous pain in rats treated with aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception, same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6% of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/ kg showed significant (P < 0.05 decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.

  1. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaxia; Bao, Lei; Wang, Nan; Xu, Meihong; Mao, Ruixue; Li, Yong

    2016-03-31

    Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water), alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v)), dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose), and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg(-1) respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v)). The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid), as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, L-leucine, alanyl-leucine and L-phenylalanine. These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  2. Effect of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on saliva proteins and dental caries in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, M; Möller, C; Ericson, T

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-four children, from 10 to 20 years old, with asthma treated with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists were matched with healthy controls of the same age, sex, and social background. Stimulated whole and parotid saliva was collected, and decayed and filled tooth surfaces as well as oral hygiene habits were recorded. The dietary and sugar intake was carefully checked by a four-day dietary record. The asthmatic children had a 26% lower (p less than 0.05) value for secretion rate of whole saliva. Seventy percent of the children with Streptococcus mutans counts greater than 2 X 10(5) colony-forming units/mL of whole saliva belonged to the asthmatic group (p less than 0.05). The concentrations of total protein and amylase in parotid saliva were significantly lower for the asthmatic children. The concentrations of potassium, salivary peroxidase, bacteria-aggregating glycoproteins, and secretory IgA were not affected, but the secretion rate of parotid saliva was 36% lower in the asthma group (p less than 0.05). Oral hygiene and dietary habits did not differ between the groups. The asthmatic children had higher DFS scores, but these were not significantly different from those of the healthy controls (p = 0.07). We suggest that subjects with asthma treated with beta 2-receptor agonists should receive special prophylactic attention.

  3. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  4. [The asthmatic patient and his/her family dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Nava, Francisco; Santos Díaz, Aidee del Pilar; Martínez Burnes, Julio; Caballero Rico, Frida; Morales González, Francisco; Prado Lobato, Simón Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disorder of the airways that modify behavior response of persons and affect family function. To determine if there is a disorder of the familial dynamics in asthmatic patients of Tamaulipas. An observational, comparative, open and cross-sectional study was performed to determine: family categorization, family function and evaluation of conjugal subsystem. We included 300 persons who were 30 to 50 years old, male and female: 100 subjects with asthma diagnosis, 100 with diabetes type 2 and 100 healthy people. The asthmatic subjects' age average was of 45.67 years, complete nuclear family was documented in 15% of sick persons, women were the family head in 50% of the cases, we appreciated great family dysfunction in relation to: adaptability function (50%), participation (63%), family grow-up (61%) and feeling manifestations (64%). In 53% of the conjugal couple cases of the patients, do not carry out her family functions like: communication 59%, share out functions 59%, sexual satisfaction 60%, and making decision 59%. It is only feasible to treat these patients when there is an active participation of the family members.

  5. Partial recovery of erythrocyte glycogen in diabetic rats treated with phenobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Silva C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes may play a role in glucose homeostasis during the postprandial period. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients are defective in glucose transport and metabolism, functions that may affect glycogen storage. Phenobarbital, a hepatic enzyme inducer, has been used in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, increasing the insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We studied the effects of phenobarbital treatment in vivo on glycemia and erythrocyte glycogen content in control and alloxan-diabetic rats during the postprandial period. In control rats (blood glucose, 73 to 111 mg/dl in femoral and suprahepatic veins the erythrocyte glycogen content was 45.4 ± 1.1 and 39.1 ± 0.8 µg/g Hb (mean ± SEM, N = 4-6 in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 37.9 ± 1.1 in the portal vein and 47.5 ± 0.9 in the suprahepatic vein. Diabetic rats (blood glucose, 300-350 mg/dl presented low (P<0.05 erythrocyte glycogen content, i.e., 9.6 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.7 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 10.0 ± 0.7 and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the portal and suprahepatic veins, respectively. After 10 days of treatment, phenobarbital (0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water did not change blood glucose or erythrocyte glycogen content in control rats. In diabetic rats, however, it lowered (P<0.05 blood glucose in the femoral artery (from 305 ± 18 to 204 ± 45 mg/dl and femoral vein (from 300 ± 11 to 174 ± 48 mg/dl and suprahepatic vein (from 350 ± 10 to 174 ± 42 mg/dl, but the reduction was not sufficient for complete recovery. Phenobarbital also stimulated the glycogen synthesis, leading to a partial recovery of glycogen stores in erythrocytes. In treated rats, erythrocyte glycogen content increased to 20.7 ± 3.8 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and 30.9 ± 0.9 µg/g Hb in the suprahepatic vein (P<0.05. These data indicate that phenobarbital activated some of the insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism steps which were

  6. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  7. Zinc improves antioxidative enzymes in red blood cells and hematology in lithium-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Anshoo; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of zinc in attenuating the adverse effects induced by lithium in blood of female Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats received lithium in the form of lithium carbonate in diet at a dose level of 1.1 g/kg diet, zinc alone in the form of zinc sulfate in drinking water at a dose level of 227 mg/L drinking water, or lithium plus zinc treatments in the combined group for a total duration of 2 months. Effects of the treatments were studied on antioxidant defense system, various hematologic parameters, and percentage of (65)Zn-specific activity. Lithium treatment resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels but caused a significant decrease in reduced glutathione levels and the activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. Lithium treatment also caused a significant decrease in the activities of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and Na(+) K(+) adenosine triphosphatase. However, it resulted in a significant increase in total leukocyte counts, neutrophils, and lymphocyte counts as well as zinc protoporphyrin levels, whereas a significant decrease in counts of monocytes, eosinophils, and percentage specific activity of (65)Zn in blood and its various fractions was noticed. Furthermore, lithium treatment caused a significant decrease in serum zinc levels. However, zinc supplementation to lithium-treated rats effectively raised the reduced glutathione levels and also normalized lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidative enzymes, which included catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, zinc supplementation could raise the activities of the enzymes aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and Na(+) K(+) adenosine triphosphatase as well as the percentage uptake values of (65)Zn in blood and its fractions. The study suggests that zinc, as a nutritional supplement, has the potential in attenuating most of the adverse effects induced by lithium

  8. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  9. Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Liver Damage with Cholestasis in Rats Treated with α-Naphthylisothiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Ohashi, Koji; Ikeno, Kumiko; Watanabe, Rie; Tokunaga, Kenji; Harada, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of Brazilian propolis against liver damage with cholestasis in rats treated with α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in comparison with that of vitamin E (VE). Rats orally received Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE) (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg), VE (250 mg/kg) or vehicle at 12 h after intraperitoneal injection of ANIT (75 mg/kg) and were killed 24 h after the injection. Vehicle-treated rats showed liver cell damage and cholestasis, judging from the levels of serum marker enzymes and components. The vehicle group had increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and lipid peroxide levels, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid levels and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. BPEE (50 mg/kg) administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage and cholestasis and attenuated these serum and hepatic biochemical changes except hepatic ascorbic acid, although administered BPEE (25 or 100 mg/kg) was less effective. VE administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage, but not cholestasis, and attenuated increased serum lipid peroxide level, increased hepatic lipid peroxide level and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. These results indicate that BPEE protects against ANIT-induced liver damage with cholestasis in rats more effectively than VE. PMID:23710219

  10. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  11. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Gustavo; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Perez, Geovanny F; Pancham, Krishna; Mubeen, Humaira; Abbasi, Aleeza; Wang, Justin; Eng, Stephen; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Pillai, Dinesh K; Rose, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from control (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate) or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) from normal (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20) vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20). Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Our data demonstrate that: 1) Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2) TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical) secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3) Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1. There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  12. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nino

    Full Text Available Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state.Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC from control (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC from normal (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20 vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20. Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay.Our data demonstrate that: 1 Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2 TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3 Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1.There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  13. Bladder carcinogenesis in rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Conceição Aparecida; Santos, Alessandra Marques Dos; Correia, Antonio Lucas Oliveira; Juanes, Camila de Carvalho; Coelho, João Paulo Ferreira; Cunha, Bianca Lopes; Maciel, André Vinicius Vieira; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of L-lysine in the bladder and intestinal epithelia in rats submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy. we divided forty Wistar rats into four groups: group I - control group (Sham); group II - submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine 150mg/kg; group III - submitted only to vesicosigmoidostomy; and group IV - received L-lysine 150mg/kg. After eight weeks the animals were sacrificed. in the bladders of all operated animals we observed simple, papillary and nodular hyperplasia of transitional cells, transitional cell papillomas and squamous metaplasia. As for the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of operated animals, we did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the distal, proximal and medium fragments, or in all fragments together (p=1.0000). Although statistically there was no promotion of carcinogenesis in the epithelia of rats treated with L-lysine in the observed time, it was clear the histogenesis of bladder carcinogenesis in its initial phase in all operated rats, this being probably associated with chronic infection and tiny bladder stones. o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da L-lisina nos epitélios vesical e intestinal de ratas submetidas à vesicossigmoidostomia. quarenta ratas Wistar, foram divididas em quatro grupos: grupo I- grupo controle (Sham); grupo II- submetido à vesicossigmoidostomia e tratado com L-lisina 150mg/kg; grupo III- submetido apenas à vesicossigmoidostomia; e grupo IV- recebeu L-lisina 150mg/kg. Após oito semanas os animais foram sacrificados. na bexiga de todos os animais operados observou-se hiperplasia simples, papilar e nodular de células transicionais, papiloma de células transicionais e metaplasia escamosa. Quanto à ocorrência de focos de criptas aberrantes nos colos dos animais operados, não foi evidenciado diferença estatística significante em nenhum dos fragmentos distal, proximal e médio, e todos juntos (P=1,0000). apesar de

  14. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  15. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Hua Wang; Bong-Soo Kim; Kyungsun Han; Hojun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via ora...

  16. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  17. Antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in diabetes mellitus rats treated with insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantin Ermawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues. Etiology of periodontal disease includes Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans which is the most predominant disease-causing bacteria found in the gingival sulcus. Periodontitis can be exacerbated by the systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus considered as a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency. Treatment of periodontitis is then required in patients with type I diabetes to avoid radical reaction that can not only cause bleeding, but can also prevent infection, as a result, topical antimicrobial therapy and blood glucose control are required. Topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide is a disinfectant that is effective in killing A. actinomycetemcomitans. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effects of topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide gel or rinse on the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans in DM rats treated with insulin. Methods: 20 three month old male Wistar rats with weight of 170–200 grams were divided into four groups. First, periodontitis and DM were manipulated into all groups through aloksan injection with dose of 170 mg/kg. Those rats in group I were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide gel, those in group II were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide rinse, those in group III were treated with insulin only, and those in group IV were without treatment. In the third and seventh weeks, the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans was measured. The data was tested by using One-Way ANOVA test followed by LSD test. Results: The study showed that chlorine dioxide gel has a greater ability in reducing the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse although both are antimicrobials. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of chlorine dioxide gel can more effective to decrease the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse in DM rats

  18. Effects of altered platelet number on pulmonary hypertension and platelet sequestration in monocrotaline pyrrole-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.M.; Wagner, J.G.; Roth, R.A.

    1989-06-15

    To study the role of platelets in monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-induced pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary sequestration of 111In-labeled platelets in rats treated with MCTP and anti-rat platelet serum (PAS) was examined. Lung injury from a single, intravenous injection of MCTP (3.5 mg/kg) at Day 8 was evident as elevated lung weight and lavage fluid protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Additionally, right ventricular hypertrophy and elevated pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) occurred. Treatment with PAS on Days 6-8 did not affect the lung injury but resulted in an attenuation of the pulmonary hypertensive response. Pulmonary platelet sequestration was also decreased in PAS-treated rats, yet the sequestration in the lungs of MCTP-treated rats that received PAS was significantly higher than that in the lungs of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) controls. MCTP-treated rats receiving control serum (CS) tended to sequester more 111In-labeled platelets than respective DMF controls, but this was not statistically significant. Blood platelet half-life was unaltered in rats receiving CS. When rats were treated similarly with MCTP and PAS and were killed at 18 days, the attenuation of the pulmonary hypertensive response previously described was not observed, and lung injury was more extensive than when CS was given. Apparently, platelet depletion delayed the development of the pulmonary hypertensive response. Supranormal platelet numbers produced by splenectomy did not affect MCTP-induced lung injury or the elevation in PAP. These results support the hypothesis that the development of MCTP-induced pulmonary hypertension is mediated in part by platelets.

  19. Rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during pregnancy generate offspring with behavioral changes in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro V. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Drugs used in the treatment of depression can cross the placenta giving rise to questions regarding the effects these drugs exert on the fetus. Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, is a natural product used to treat depression. However, information about its toxicity and the occurrence of alterations in the central nervous system development of the offspring is scarce. This work assessed the behavior of adult male rats born from mothers treated with Hypericum extract during gestation and analyzed the fluorescence of the extract in different organs of mothers and fetuses. Male pups were divided into three treated groups, corresponding to the administration of the Hypericum extract to mothers at the dose levels of 36 mg/kg, 72 mg/kg and 144 mg/kg, and one control group in which the mothers received distilled water. At 90 days of age, the offspring underwent the following tests: rotarod, pentobarbital-induced sleep time, elevated plus maze, hole-board and forced swimming test. The observed fluorescence indicated the presence of the extract in all tissues analyzed. The obtained results suggest lasting changes in the performances displayed in the CNS, depression and anxiety tests, indicating that the use of Hypericum during gestation could interfere with the behavioral development of the offspring reducing anxiety and depression when they become adults. We suggest that these alterations are associated with the reprogramming of the brain regions related to changes in emotional reactivity.

  20. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on mast cells tryptase in asthmatic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-He; Zhang, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Guo-Hong; Mai, Rui-Qin; Shen, Ling

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the mast cell tryptase (MCT) in asthmatic guinea pigs. A total of 60 male or female healthy guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group (group A), asthmatic group (group B), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 group (group C), with 20 cases in each group. To establish asthmatic guinea pig models, 1 mL peanut oil was filled into stomach in the morning in group A and group B, and 1 mL peanut oil with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was filled into stomach in group C. Airway resistance (Re) of asthmatic guinea pigs was detected, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells were counted. Lung tissue with HE and MCT immunohistochemical staining were used to observe the pathological changes in lung tissue and the distribution of MCT. After injection of different concentration of acetylcholine chloride, the Re in group B and group C were increased significantly compared with group A (P guinea pigs are treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, their BALF, Re, infiltration degree of inflammatory cells in the trachea and lung tissue and airway inflammatory reaction are reduced significantly. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 has a certain inhibiting effect on the activation of mast cells and the release of MCT granules. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxia Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water, alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v, dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose, and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg−1 respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v. The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Results: Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, l-leucine, alanyl-leucine and l-phenylalanine. Conclusion: These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  2. Allicin ameliorates kidney function and urinary bladder sensitivity in cyclosporine A-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, D H; El-Kenawi, A E; Suddek, G M; Salem, H A

    2017-07-01

    Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the modulator effect of allicin on the oxidative nephrotoxicity of CsA in rats was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of allicin on CsA-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated. Rats were divided into three groups, control, CsA (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and CsA/allicin (50 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were killed and then blood, urine samples, and kidneys were taken. CsA administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by elevated kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and urinary protein with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and Cr clearance as compared with control. A significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase activities, and nitric oxide (NOx) content was detected upon CsA administration. Exposure to CsA increased the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Histological analysis revealed that CsA caused tubular necrosis and moderate diffuse tubular atrophy. Allicin protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect of CsA and significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that allicin administration has the potential to protect against CsA-induced renal injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and restoring NOx level.

  3. Efficacy of gentamycin-impregnated resorbable hydroxyapatite cement in treating osteomyelitis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, B D; Gutow, A P; Baumgaertner, M R

    1999-02-01

    To test the effectiveness of a self-setting hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) as a carrier of gentamycin for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in a rat model by using a void-fill placement technique. Osteomyelitis of the tibia was created with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 49230) in sixty retired female breeder Sprague-Dawley rats by using the model by Korkusuz et al. (J Bone Joint Surg 1993;75B:111-114). At seven weeks after infection, all animals demonstrated clinical and radiographic signs of osteomyelitis and were debrided and divided into four treatment groups: A, debridement only; B, debridement and daily intraperitoneal gentamycin (0.2 milligram per kilogram per day); C, debridement and gentamycin-impregnated HAC in a void-fill model (1.0 milligram per kilogram of gentamycin); and D, debridement and gentamycin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads (1.0 milligram per kilogram of gentamycin). Tibiae were harvested at zero weeks (control, n = 6), three weeks (n = 3 per group), five weeks (n = 4 per group), and seven weeks (n = 4 per group) and analyzed with quantitative bacteriologic analysis. Qualitative bacteriologic analysis was performed by using serial dilution plating of homogenized tissue samples on standard soy trypticase agar plates. Reexamination by phage typing was performed to exclude contamination. The quantitative counts for Groups C (HAC) and D (PMMA) were significantly less (p gentamycin) at all time points after time zero. There was no difference between Groups C and D at any time point. HAC is an effective adjuvant in treating chronic osteomyelitis in a rat model when using a void-fill placement technique.

  4. Idiopathic bronchocentric granulomatosis in an asthmatic adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Umezawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchocentric granulomatosis in asthmatic patients has been generally considered to be associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and represent a histopathologic manifestation of fungal hypersensitivity. Here we report a case of an idiopathic bronchocentric granulomatosis in a 17-year-old man with a history of asthma. He was admitted to the hospital with a fever and cough, and a chest CT scan showed peribronchial consolidation in the pulmonary parenchyma, which was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. The pathological findings obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation centered on bronchi and bronchioles and there was no evidence of fungal colonization, resulting in a diagnosis of idiopathic bronchocentric granulomatosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy led to clinical and radiological recovery. Physicians should take into account the possibility of the idiopathic process in bronchocentric granulomatosis of asthmatic patients.

  5. Histomorphometric analysis of salivary gland in wistar rats treated chronically with two benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mariana; Johann, Aline C B R; Rocha, Fabio; Ignacio, Sergio A; Rosa, Edvaldo A R; Alanis, Luciana R A; Sari, Youssef; da Silva, Silvana; de Lima, Antonio A S; do Prado, Antonia M do Rocio Binder; Bettega, Patricia V C; Gregio, Ana M T

    2015-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs), the most commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs with anxiolytic action, may cause hyposalivation. Therefore, this study sought to quantify the acini (N) in parotid glands of Wistar rats treated chronically with two BZDs (Lorazepam and Midazolan) and to verify the action of the pilocarpine when administered with these drugs. Ninety male Wistar rats were distributed in 9 groups according to the administration of: a) S30 - saline solution for 30 days; b) S60 - saline solution for 60 days; c) P60 - pilocarpine for 60 days; d) L30 - Lorazepam for 30 days; e) M30 - Midozolam for 30 days; f) LS60 - Lorazepam for 60 days and, after this period, 30 more days of saline solution; g) MS60 - Midazolam for 30 days and, after this period, 30 more days of saline solution; h) LP60 - Lorazepam and Pilocarpine for 60 days; i) MP60 - Midazolam and Pilocarpine for 60 days. A surgery was performed on the animals to remove the glands. After this, histological cuts were stained by hematoxylin and eosin, from which the N was quantified. The ANOVA and Games-Howell tests were used for statistical analysis. The L30 and M30 groups presented less N than did the S30 group (psalivary flow previously verified. The association of Midazolam with Pilocarpine led to the reestablishment of acinar cells, which may have favored the restoration of the salivary flow formerly shown.

  6. Lipid peroxidation in rats treated with vincristine sulphate and nandrolone decanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B Martins

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain and serum lipid peroxidation was studied in rats treated with vincristine sulphate and different doses of nandrolone decanoate. Thirty rats were distributed into six groups (n=5. The treatments were applied once a week for two weeks. Sample collection was performed in the third week. Treatments during the first week were: G1 (control - physiologic solution, G2 - vincristine sulphate (4mg/m², G3 - physiologic solution, G4 - physiologic solution, G5- vincristine sulphate (4mg/m², and G6 - vincristine sulphate (4mg/m². In the second week, they were: G1 (control - physiologic solution, G2- physiologic solution, G3 - nandrolone decanoate (1.8mg/kg-1, G4 - nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg-1, G5 - nandrolone decanoate (1.8mg/kg-1, and G6 - nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg-1. Lipid peroxidation increased with the isolated use of vincristine and nandrolone decanoate, and with vincristine associated to the highest dose of the ester as well. These results suggest that vincristine sulphate and nandrolone decanoate increase free radical production. Therapeutic dose of nandrolone decanoate when associated with vincristine sulphate proved to be beneficial, as it was able to protect the organism from damaging processes involved in free radical production

  7. Effect of deuterium-depleted water on selected cardiometabolic parameters in fructose-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehakova, R; Klimentova, J; Cebova, M; Barta, A; Matuskova, Z; Labas, P; Pechanova, O

    2016-10-24

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) has a lower concentration of deuterium than occurs naturally (less than 145 ppm). While effects of DDW on cancer started to be intensively studied, the effects on cardiovascular system are completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to analyze the effects of DDW (55+/-5 ppm) administration to 12-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with 15 % fructose for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and selected biochemical parameters were measured together with determination of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and iNOS and eNOS protein expressions in the left ventricle (LV) and aorta. Neither DDW nor fructose had any significant effect on BP in both strains. DDW treatment decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in WKY, but it was not able to prevent increase in the same parameters elevated due to fructose treatment in SHR. Both fructose and DDW increased insulin level in WKY. Fructose did not affect NOS activity either in WKY or SHR. DDW increased NOS activity in LV of both WKY and SHR, while it decreased NOS activity and iNOS expression in the aorta of SHR with or without fructose treatment. In conclusion, DDW treatment significantly modified biochemical parameters in WKY together with NOS activity elevation in the heart. On the other hand, it did not affect biochemical parameters in SHR, but decreased NOS activity elevated due to iNOS upregulation in the aorta.

  8. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  9. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  10. Dental Erosion and Dentin Hypersensitivity among Adult Asthmatics and Non-asthmatics Hospital-based: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Zahra Hassan Abdelaziz; Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the airways leading to spasm and swelling of the airways. The medications taken for the treatment of asthma can result in dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. The aims of this study were to investigate the severity of dental erosion amongst adult asthmatics according to: gender, type and duration of medication taken and to compare dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Comparative, cross-sectional hospital based study among 40 asthmatics (M=15 & F=25) and 40 non-asthmatics (M=18 & F=22) in the age range of 18-60 year selected purposefully from Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital in Khartoum city. The Basic Erosive Wear Index was used for dental erosion assessment. Dentine hypersensitivity was determined by giving ice cold water and rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis with P value ≤.05. There was an association between severity of dental erosion and presence of asthma (P=0.03), where asthmatics had a higher degree of erosion (moderate and severe) and non-asthmatics a lower degree. No significant association was found between dental erosion and gender, type and duration of medication among asthmatics group. A statistically significant difference was revealed in the degree of dentin hypersensitivity (P=0.00) among asthmatics (35.13%) and non-asthmatics (14.13%). Asthmatic patients had a higher degree of dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity compared to non-asthmatics. Among asthmatic patients there was no association between severity of dental erosion and gender, type and duration medication was taken for.

  11. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  12. Respiratory load perception in overweight and asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, Victoria; Wheatley, Lorna; Lunt, Alan C; Rafferty, Gerrard F

    2017-05-01

    Overweight asthmatic children report greater symptoms than normal weight asthmatics, despite comparable airflow obstruction. This has been widely assumed to be due to heightened perception of respiratory effort. Three groups of children (healthy weight controls, healthy weight asthmatics, overweight asthmatics) rated perceived respiratory effort throughout an inspiratory resistive loading protocol. Parasternal intercostal electromyogram was used as an objective marker of respiratory load; this was expressed relative to tidal volume and reported as a ratio of the baseline value (neuroventilatory activity ratio (NVEAR)). Significant increases in perception scores (pperception scores, with no influence of asthma or BMI-for-age percentile on the resistance-perception relationships. These data, indicating elevated overall respiratory effort in overweight asthmatic children but comparable responses to dynamic changes in load, suggest that the greater disease burden in overweight asthmatic children may be due to altered respiratory mechanics associated with increased body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Anhøj, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying...... and non-asthmatics, FEV(1)% pred was inversely related to having asthmatic siblings (-7.9%; p... of AHR was higher by having asthmatic siblings (OR 2.7; ptherapy, smoking, and positive allergy skin prick...

  14. Quercetin Improves Neurobehavioral Performance Through Restoration of Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Manganese-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ego, Valerie C; Subair, Temitayo I; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses. Results indicated that co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p manganese-induced locomotor and motor deficits specifically the decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle as well as the increase in time of immobility and grooming. The improvement in the neurobehavioral performance of manganese-treated rats following quercetin co-treatment was confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, quercetin assuaged manganese-induced decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation levels in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Taken together, quercetin mechanisms of ameliorating manganese-induced neurotoxicity is associated with restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity, augmentation of redox status and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain of rats.

  15. Tankyrase inhibition regulates corpus luteum development and luteal function in gonadotropin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accialini, Paula; Irusta, Griselda; Bechis, Andrés; Bas, Diana; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia; Tesone, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Tankyrases are physiological regulators of Axin, a protein involved in several cellular processes, including Wnt signaling. Here, we investigated the effect of a specific Tankyrase inhibitor (XAV939) in follicular-luteal dynamics, and its possible relationship with ovarian vascular development. Studies were designed to analyze the effect of intrabursa administration of XAV939 in gonadotropin-treated prepubertal rats. In particular, we examined follicle and corpus luteum development, steroidogenesis, angiogenic markers, and apoptotic parameters. We found that in vivo inhibition of Wnt signaling impaired corpus luteum development, with a decrease in the number of corpora lutea balanced by a high number of cysts; decreased circulating progesterone levels, likely due to a decrease in Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein content in the corpus luteum; and increased pro-apoptotic parameters. In addition, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, Vascular endothelium growth factor 120 content, and endothelial cell area were diminished in corpora lutea of inhibitor-treated ovaries. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling appears to participate in the regulation of corpus luteum development and luteal cell function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Praveen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat hyperalgesia. This study examined the morphological and functional effects of oxaliplatin treatment in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Results 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P Conclusions Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.

  17. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  18. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  19. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balamurugan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  20. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balamurugan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  1. Treating congenital megacolon by transplanting GDNF and GFRα-1 double genetically modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C B; Peng, C H; Pang, W B; Zhang, D; Chen, Y J

    2015-08-14

    We studied the survival and gene expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and GDNF receptor α-1 (GFRα-1) double-genetically modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted into the intestinal walls of the rat models with congenital megacolon and determine the feasibility of treatment by transplantation of double-genetically modified rat BMSCs. The rat colorectal intestinal wall nerve plexus was treated with the cationic surface active agent benzalkonium chloride to establish an experimental megacolon model. The rat target genes GDNF and GFRα-1 were extracted and ligated into pEGFP-N1. Eukaryotic fluorescent expression vectors carrying the GDNF and GFRα-1 genes were transfected into BMSCs by in vitro culture. We treated congenital megacolon by transplanting double-genetically modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The pEGFP-EGFP-GDNF-GFRα-1 double-gene co-expressing the eukaryotic expression plasmid vector was successfully established. Protein gene protein 9.5 and vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive ganglion cells showed no positive expression in the phosphate-buffered saline transplantation group based on an immunofluorescence test at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation of BMSCs. Additionally, compared with the phosphate-buffered saline transplantation group, the expression of rearranged during transfection, GDNF, and GFRα-1 mRNA in the stem cell transplantation group increased gradually. The double-genetically modified BMSCs colonized and survived in the intestinal wall of the experimental megacolon rat model and expressed related genes, partially recovering the colonic neuromuscular regulatory functions and thus providing an experimental basis for treating congenital megacolon by cellular transplantation.

  2. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  3. Downregulation of CREB expression in Alzheimer's brain and in Aβ-treated rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Serena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's brain. Previous studies have reported downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription by oxidative stress and Aβ. The promoter for CREB itself contains cyclic AMP response elements. Therefore, we examined the expression of CREB in the hippocampal neurons of Tg2576 mice, AD post-mortem brain and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Aβ aggregates. Results Laser Capture Microdissection of hippocampal neurons from Tg2576 mouse brain revealed decreases in the mRNA levels of CREB and its target, BDNF. Immunohistochemical analysis of Tg2576 mouse brain showed decreases in CREB levels in hippocampus and cortex. Markers of oxidative stress were detected in transgenic mouse brain and decreased CREB staining was observed in regions showing abundance of astrocytes. There was also an inverse correlation between SDS-extracted Aβ and CREB protein levels in Alzheimer's post-mortem hippocampal samples. The levels of CREB-regulated BDNF and BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor, decreased and the active cleaved form of caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, was elevated in these samples. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to Aβ fibrils decreased CREB promoter activity. Decrease in CREB mRNA levels in Aβ-treated neurons was reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Overexpression of CREB by adenoviral transduction led to significant protection against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chronic downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription results in decrease of CREB content in the hippocampal neurons of AD brain which may contribute to exacerbation of disease progression.

  4. Adrenal function in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Damkjaer Nielsen, M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the inhaled topical steroid budesonide on adrenal function was evaluated in 33 children (aged 7-15 years) with moderate bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective single-blind study of the effect of budesonide in daily doses of 200 microgram through 400 microgram to 8...

  5. Terbutaline nebulization and epinephrine injection in treating acute asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Z; Hsieh, K H; Chang, L F; Chu, C Y

    1996-05-01

    Ninety children with acute asthma, equally divided into two study groups, were studied to compare the efficacy and safety of nebulized terbutaline with injected epinephrine in the treatment of acute exacerbation. The terbutaline group received 2 ml (5,0 mg) terbutaline solution diluted with 2 ml 0.9% saline for inhalation over 10 minutes; the epinephrine group received 0.01 ml/kg of 1:1000 epinephrine (maximum 0,3 ml) through subcutaneous injection at deltoid area. Spirometry, pulse oximetry, and clinical severity scoring system were evaluated at baseline and again 15 minutes after treatment. The baseline data of the two groups were not significantly different. The clinical severity score and spirometry of both groups were significantly improved after treatment. Compared with the terbutaline group, the epinephrine group had better mean oxygen saturation (SaO2; p epinephrine treatment was more effective in the improvement of FEV1, FEF25-75%, and oxygen saturation (SaO2) (p = 0.011, 0.012, and 0.006, respectively). A Significantly higher rate of adverse effects occurred in patients given epinephrine (47% vs 11%, p = 0.0002); these included pallor, tremor, dizziness, headache, palpitation, soreness of legs, numbness of extremities, cold sweating, general weakness and nausea. Considering the general trend to noninvasive therapy in children and the more frequent adverse effects after epinephrine injection, such nebulized beta-2 agonists as terbutaline appear preferable for initial therapy of acute asthma if oxygen is supplemented to prevent possible hypoxemia. However, parenteral epinephrine still is worth trying, particularly in any severe, life-threatening attack.

  6. Dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. J.; Woutersen, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Groups of rats were maintained on a semipurified low-fat (LF; 5 wt%) diet or on semipurified high-fat (HF; 25 wt%) diets containing 5 wt% linoleic acid (LA) and including 0.0, 1.2, 2.4, 4.7, 7.1 or 9.4 wt% MaxEPA. Animals fed a HF diet developed significantly higher mean numbers of atypical acinar cell nodules (AACNs), adenomas and carcinomas than animals fed a LF diet. Dietary MaxEPA caused a significant (P < 0.01) dose-related increase in mean number of AACNs (0.5 < phi < 3.0 mm). The mean number of adenomas and carcinomas remained similar among the groups. Cell proliferation was significantly lower in AACNs from animals fed HF containing 9.4% MaxEPA in comparison with HF without MaxEPA and with LF. LA levels had increased and arachidonic acid (AA) levels had decreased in blood plasma and pancreas with increasing dietary MaxEPA. Feeding MaxEPA resulted in significant decreases in 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1 alpha (P < 0.05) and PGF2 alpha (P < 0.01) in non-tumorous pancreas, whereas PGE2, PGF2 alpha and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) levels were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in pancreatic tumour tissue than in non-tumorous pancreatic tissue. It is concluded that (i) dietary MaxEPA enhances dose-relatively growth of putative preneoplastic AACNs in the pancreas of azaserine-treated rats; (ii) dietary MaxEPA inhibits the conversion of LA to AA, as well as the conversion of AA to TXB2 or PGF2 alpha in non-tumorous pancreatic tissue; (iii) the high levels of PGE2, PGF2 alpha and TXB2 in pancreatic adenocarcinomas indicate a possible role for these eicosanoids in modulation of tumour growth. PMID:8554980

  7. The influence of inhalative corticosteroids on circulating Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurotrophin-3 in allergic asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, O; Hanf, G; Schäper, C; O'Connor, A; Kunkel, G

    2001-12-01

    The neurotrophins Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin (NT)-3 are produced, stored and released by various immunological cells. The influence of NTs upon the function of these cells is described. Elevated plasma levels were found in inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic diseases with the highest levels in allergic asthma. A connection between bronchial hyper-responsiveness and serum levels has been reported. Little is known about the influence of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on serum NT levels and their influence on the asthmatic state. Eighty-seven volunteers were studied. Thirty-eight were stable allergic asthmatics with constant ICS doses, 29 were asthmatics not receiving anti-asthmatic treatment and 20 were age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Demographic and lung function data were evaluated. NT serum levels were determined by ELISA. NGF and BDNF levels were significantly increased in untreated asthmatics compared to the control and the treated group, while NT-3 demonstrated significantly higher levels in treated asthmatics compared to healthy controls. After stabilization of untreated subjects with ICS, the NT levels decreased significantly. These results suggest that NTs participate in allergic inflammation and asthma. Effective treatment leads to a decrease of circulating neurotrophic factors.

  8. Alteration of serum and cardiac tissue adropin, copeptin, irisin and TRPM2 expressions in DOX treated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S; Eren, M N; Kuloglu, T; Aydin, S; Yilmaz, M; Gul, E; Kalayci, M; Yel, Y; Cakmak, T; Bico, S

    2015-04-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity is a significant side effect in cancer survivors. DOX and its metabolites alter cardiac gene expression and affect metabolic energy-related peptides. Adropin, copeptin, irisin and TRPM2 are produced locally in the heart and play a role in energy homeostasis. We investigated the fates of adropin, copeptin, irisin and TRPM2 in serum and cardiac tissues of DOX treated rats. Animals were divided into three groups of six: 1) untreated controls, 2) DOX treated and 3) saline treated. The rats were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 14 days then were sacrificed and heart and serum samples were taken. Adropin, copeptin, irisin levels in tissue homogenates and serum were measured using ELISA. Immunoreactivity of heart tissue adropin, copeptin, irisin and TRPM2 also were investigated. The peptides increased in both serum and cardiac tissue homogenates in animals treated with DOX compared to the other groups. DOX increased adropin in endocardial and myocardial cells, but it decreased expression of copeptin. DOX did not affect endocardial irisin and TRPM2 expressions, but myocardial irisin and TRPM2 expressions were increased. Serum adropin, irisin and copeptin were increased in DOX treated rats. Cardiac adropin, copeptin, irisin and TRPM2 are affected by DOX and may play a role in DOX cardiotoxicity.

  9. Is influenza vaccination in asthmatic children helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueving, H J

    2006-01-01

    The rationale for influenza vaccination in asthmatic children theoretically lies in prevention of exacerbations and serious complications like pneumonia. Solid evidence from randomized clinical trials of its preventive effects on these clinical endpoints is, however, lacking. Nevertheless, most Western guidelines advise to vaccinate these children. In the real life situation this advice isn't very well followed: vaccine coverage for this indication is low. To assess the usefulness of influenza vaccination in children with asthma a set of fundamental questions regarding this activity is presented and answered. This leads to the conclusion that, given the evidence, influenza vaccination in children with mild to moderate disease should be reconsidered.

  10. Androgen levels and apoptosis in the testis during postnatal development of finasteride-treated male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wolosiuk, Agnieszka; Misiakiewicz-Has, Kamila; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The hormone-dependent events that occur throughout the first wave of spermatogenesis, such as the establishment of the number of Sertoli cells (SCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) within the seminiferous cords and the setting up of the blood-testis barrier, are important for adult male fertility. Any changes in the T/DHT ratio can result in male subfertility or even infertility. In this study we aimed to evaluate effects of paternal exposure to 5-alpha reductase type 2 inhibitor, finasteride on litter size, androgen levels and germ cell apoptosis in male offspring during postnatal development. The subjects of the study were 7, 14, 21/22, 28, and 90-day-old Wistar male rats (F1:Fin) born from females fertilized by finasteride-treated rats. Offspring born from untreated parental animals were used as a control group (F1:Control). Animals and the collected testes were weighed, blood and intratesticular levels of T and DHT were measured by ELISA, and the apoptotic index of testicular cells was evaluated by TUNEL technique. We observed difficulties in obtaining male newborns from female rats fertilized by finasteride-treated male rats. In the F1:Fin rats, changes in the body and testes weights occurred, and a lower number of apoptotic cells was found during postnatal maturation of the seminiferous epithelium. Changes in androgen concentrations during the first spermatogenesis wave and adult life were also evident. Finasteride treatment of male adult rats may not only cause a decrease in the fertility of parental rats, but also could lead to incorrect, androgen-sensitive course of spermatogenesis in their offspring.

  11. HSP70 immune reactivity and TUNEL positivity in the liver of toluene-inhaled and melatonin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ufuk; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Sapmaz, Hilal Irmak; Kocaman, Nevin; Zararsiz, Ismail; Sarsilmaz, Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Toluene is a clear, colorless and volatile hydrocarbon that is metabolized in liver, produced free oxygen radicals and can mediate cellular damage. Melatonin which is a pineal gland hormone is a very potent antioxidant. It can make the cellular membrane more durable against oxidative attacks and protect nuclear DNA from oxidative damage. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein (HSP)70 immune reactivity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positivity (apoptotic activity) in the liver of toluene-inhaled and melatonin-treated rats. A total of 21 adult male Wistar albino rats were divided at random into 3 equal groups. Animals in group I were designated as control. The rats in group II were exposed to toluene (3000 ppm/1 h/day) for 30 days, while the rats in group III were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) plus toluene inhalation. At the end of the 30-day experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. Then the liver tissues of rats were removed and tissue specimens were embedded in paraffin blocks. The specimens were stained with periodic acid-schiff (PAS) following routine histological procedures. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were used for immune detection of TUNEL and HSP70. In light microscopic observations of tissues from toluene-inhaled rats, massive hepatocyte degeneration, ballooning degeneration and decreased PAS positivity were observed. Increased TUNEL positivity and HSP70 immune reactivity were determined in toluene-inhaled group and melatonin treatment decreased all these adverse effects.

  12. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karadeniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CDDP is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg-1 body weight i.p., single dose; group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day; group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA, elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity.

  13. Statin-induced myotoxicity is exacerbated by aging: A biophysical and molecular biology study in rats treated with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Liantonio, Antonella; Musaraj, Kejla; Cannone, Maria; Fonzino, Adriano; Giustino, Arcangela; De Luca, Annamaria; Romano, Rossella; Camerino, Claudia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced skeletal muscle damage in rats is associated to the reduction of the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) and ClC-1 chloride channel expression. These drugs also affect the ClC-1 regulation by increasing protein kinase C (PKC) activity, which phosphorylate and close the channel. Also the intracellular resting calcium (restCa) level is increased. Similar alterations are observed in skeletal muscles of aged rats, suggesting a higher risk of statin myotoxicity. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a 4-5-weeks atorvastatin treatment of 24-months-old rats to evaluate the ClC-1 channel function by the two-intracellular microelectrodes technique as well as transcript and protein expression of different genes sensitive to statins by quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. The restCa was measured using FURA-2 imaging, and histological analysis of muscle sections was performed. The results show a marked reduction of resting gCl, in agreement with the reduced ClC-1 mRNA and protein expression in atorvastatin-treated aged rats, with respect to treated adult animals. The observed changes in myocyte-enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression may be involved in ClC-1 expression changes. The activity of PKC was also increased and further modulate the gCl in treated aged rats. In parallel, a marked reduction of the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes demonstrates an impairment of muscle metabolism. No worsening of restCa or histological features was found in statin-treated aged animals. These findings suggest that a strong reduction of gCl and alteration of muscle metabolism coupled to muscle atrophy may contribute to the increased risk of statin-induced myopathy in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  15. Alteration of amino acid neurotransmitters in brain tissues of immature rats treated with realgar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Taoguang; Chang, Bei; Zhang, Yinghua; Chen, Zaixing; Li, Weikai; Jiang, Hong

    2012-01-05

    Realgar is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for thousands of years and are claimed to have therapeutic effects. The toxicity from realgar or realgar-containing traditional medicines has raised public concern. However, the neurotoxicity induced by realgar is less reported. Amino acid neurotransmitters are closely linked to the vulnerability of the immature brain to neuronal injury. The investigation of amino acid neurotransmitters is important to understand the evolution of developmental brain damage. An improved HPLC-UV method was developed and applied to analyzing amino acid neurotransmitters of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, homocysteine, serine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid and taurine in brain tissues of immature rats after the treatment of realgar. Significant changes of these amino acid neurotransmitters were observed in realgar treated groups. Negative correlations were found between the levels of some amino acids and the contents of arsenic in brain tissues. The result indicates that the neurotoxicity induced by realgar is associated with its effects on amino acid neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tung-Yin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE and the inner cell mass (ICM. hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  17. Exploratory study comparing dysautonomia between asthmatic and non-asthmatic elite swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysautonomia has been independently associated with training and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In addition, neurogenic airway inflammation was recently associated with swimmers-asthma. We aimed to assess the relation between autonomic nervous system and airway responsiveness of asthmatic elite swimmers. Methods: Twenty-seven elite swimmers, 11 of whom had asthma, were enrolled in this exploratory cross-sectional study. All performed spirometry with bronchodilation, skin prick tests and methacholine challenge according to the guidelines. Pupillometry was performed using PLR-200™ Pupillometer. One pupil light response curve for each eye was recorded and the mean values of pupil's maximal and minimal diameters, percentage of constriction, average and maximum constriction velocities (parasympathetic parameters, dilation velocity, and total time to recover 75% of the initial size (sympathetic parameters were used for analysis. Asthma was defined using IOC-MC criteria; subjects were divided into airway hyperesponsiveness (AHR severity according to methacholine PD20 in: no AHR, borderline, mild, moderate and severe AHR. Differences for pupillary parameters between groups and after categorization by AHR severity were assessed using SPSS 20.0 (p ≤ 0.05. In individuals with clinically relevant AHR, correlation between PD20 and pupillary parameters was investigated with Spearman's correlation test. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic swimmers regarding parasympathetic parameters. When stratified by AHR, maximal and minimal diameters and percentage of constriction were significantly lower among those with severe AHR. Among swimmers with clinically relevant AHR (n = 18, PD20 correlated with parasympathetic activity: maximal (r = 0.67, p = 0.002 and minimal diameters (r = 0.75, p < 0.001, percentage of constriction (r

  18. An oral formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) produces cardioprotective effects in infarcted and isoproterenol-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fúlvia D; Ferreira, Anderson J; Sinisterra, Rubén D M; Jacoby, Bruno A; Sousa, Frederico B; Caliari, Marcelo V; Silva, Gerluza A B; Melo, Marcos B; Nadu, Ana P; Souza, Leandro E; Irigoyen, Maria C C; Almeida, Alvair P; Santos, Robson A S

    2011-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the cardiac effects of a pharmaceutical formulation developed by including angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), in normal, infarcted, and isoproterenol-treated rats. Myocardial infarction was produced by left coronary artery occlusion. Isoproterenol (2 mg/kg, IP) was administered daily for 7 days. Oral administration of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) started immediately before infarction or associated with the first dose of isoproterenol. After 7 days of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function. In addition, heart function was chronically (15, 30, 50 days) analyzed by echocardiography. Cardiac sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome to evaluate cardiac hypertrophy and damage, respectively. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that oral HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) administration significantly increased Ang-(1-7) on plasma whereas with the free peptide it was without effect. Oral administration of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) (30 μg/kg) significantly reduced the deleterious effects induced by myocardial infarction on systolic and diastolic tension, ±dT/dt, perfusion pressure, and heart rate. Strikingly, a 50% reduction of the infarcted area was observed in HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. Furthermore, HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) attenuated the heart function impairment and cardiac remodeling induced by isoproterenol. In infarcted rats chronically treated with HPβCD/Ang-(1-7), the reduction of ejection fraction and fractional shorting and the increase in systolic and diastolic left ventricular volumes observed in infarcted rats were attenuated. Altogether, these findings further confirm the cardioprotective effects of Ang-(1-7). More importantly, our data indicate that the HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) is a feasible formulation for oral administration of Ang-(1-7), which can be used as a cardioprotective drug.

  19. Probenecid, an inhibitor of transmembrane organic anion transporters, alters tissue distribution of DNA adducts in 1-hydroxymethylpyrene-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monien, Bernhard H; Müller, Carolin; Bakhiya, Nadiya; Donath, Claudia; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-07-28

    1-Methylpyrene (1-MP), an abundant alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is activated by side-chain hydroxylation to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (1-HMP) and subsequent sulfo-conjugation to electrophilic 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (1-SMP). In rats, this activation mainly occurs in liver. 1-SMP may react with hepatic DNA or be exported into the blood circulation to reach other tissues, in particular kidneys. Findings with recombinant cell lines suggest that renal 1-SMP uptake proceeds via organic anion transporters (OATs). Here, we tested the hypothesis that probenecid, a characteristic OAT inhibitor, interferes with kidney damage brought about by 1-SMP formed in rats. 1-HMP was administered intraperitoneally to 30 rats, half of which were co-treated with probenecid. The tissue distribution of DNA adducts was analyzed using (32)P-postlabeling and isotope dilution LC-MS/MS for the detection of the adducts N(2)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine and N(6)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine. In rats treated solely with 1-HMP, adduct levels in kidney tissue were about 3-fold and 8-fold higher than those in liver and lung, respectively. After co-treatment with probenecid, hepatic and pulmonary adduct levels were 12-fold and 4-fold elevated, respectively, whereas renal adduct levels were slightly lower compared to those of rats receiving 1-HMP alone. Moreover, serum levels of 1-SMP were increased 23-fold in animals pre-treated with probenecid. The differential effects on hepatic and pulmonary adduct levels suggest that not only renal OATs, but also additional anion transporters, e.g. those mediating the hepatic export of 1-SMP into the bile, were inhibited. Thus, transmembrane transport proteins play a crucial role in the distribution of reactive phase II metabolites, and thereby in tissue allocation of DNA adducts.

  20. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gut microbiota (GM are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es, have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks. High-fat-diet (HFD-induced obese rats transplanted with EsM lost significant body weight, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat weight, but no remarkable changes were observed in abdominal fat, liver, cecum weight and food efficiency ratio. In addition, treatment with EsM also significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index. Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Rats treated with EsM also showed changed GM composition, especially blautia, roseburia and clostridium, significantly reduced the level of endotoxin and markedly increased the acetic acid in feces. Overall, our results demonstrated that EsM ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and is strongly associated with modulating the distribution of GM, enterogenous endotoxin and enteral acetic acid.

  1. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Kim, Bong-Soo; Han, Kyungsun; Kim, Hojun

    2017-01-01

    Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks. High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese rats transplanted with EsM lost significant body weight, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat weight, but no remarkable changes were observed in abdominal fat, liver, cecum weight and food efficiency ratio. In addition, treatment with EsM also significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index. Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Rats treated with EsM also showed changed GM composition, especially blautia, roseburia and clostridium, significantly reduced the level of endotoxin and markedly increased the acetic acid in feces. Overall, our results demonstrated that EsM ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and is strongly associated with modulating the distribution of GM, enterogenous endotoxin and enteral acetic acid. PMID:28545248

  2. Increase in oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rat: Antioxidative effect of Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, P; Shetty, R; Ghafourifar, P; Parihar, M S

    2016-01-22

    Hypothalamus, the primary brain region for glucose sensing, is severely affected by oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress in this region of brain may cause severe impairment in neuronal metabolic functions. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative stress and the combination of increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions may further decline hypothalamic neuronal functions. In the present study we examined the oxidative damage response, antioxidative responses and mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in hypothalamus of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Our results show that streptozotocin significantly increases hypothalamic lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content while glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were declined. Mitochondrial impairment marked by an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was seen following streptozotocin treatment in the hypothalamus. The oral administration of Withania somnifera root extract stabilized mitochondrial functions and prevented oxidative damage in the hypothalamus of diabetic rat. These findings suggest an increase in the oxidative stress and decline in antioxidative responses in the hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rats. Withania somnifera root extract was found useful in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of diabetic rat.

  3. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Kim, Bong-Soo; Han, Kyungsun; Kim, Hojun

    2017-05-23

    Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks. High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese rats transplanted with EsM lost significant body weight, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat weight, but no remarkable changes were observed in abdominal fat, liver, cecum weight and food efficiency ratio. In addition, treatment with EsM also significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index. Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Rats treated with EsM also showed changed GM composition, especially blautia, roseburia and clostridium, significantly reduced the level of endotoxin and markedly increased the acetic acid in feces. Overall, our results demonstrated that EsM ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and is strongly associated with modulating the distribution of GM, enterogenous endotoxin and enteral acetic acid.

  4. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the oral microbiota of healthy and alcohol-treated rats using whole-genome DNA probes from human bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Zaher; do Nascimento, Cássio; Kotake, Bruna Gabriela Dos Santos; El-Hakim, Michel; Henderson, Janet E; de Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of whole-genome DNA probes prepared from human oral bacteria to cross-react with bacteria from the oral cavity of rats, and to assess the influence of alcohol ingestion on the animals' oral biofilm. Twenty four mature Wistar rats were equally divided in two groups. One group (control) was fed balanced diet of rat pellets and water. The alcohol-treated group (AT) received the same diet and 20% ethanol solution. Upon euthanasia after 30 days, bacterial samples from the oral biofilm covering the animals' teeth were collected using microbrushes. Bacteria identification and quantification were performed using the DNA checkerboard hybridization method with 33 probes prepared from human oral bacteria. Signals corresponding to bacterial genome counts and percentages were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test with a significance level genome DNA probes prepared from human oral bacteria can cross-react with rats' oral bacterial species. Alcohol consumption is associated with lower levels and diversity of bacterial species in the oral cavity of rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunocytochemical study of amelogenin deposition during the early odontogenesis of molars in alendronate-treated newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Luciana F; Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2006-06-01

    Newborn rats were treated with sodium alendronate to study how enamel is formed and the effect of alendronate during early odontogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis combined with high-resolution immunocytochemistry for amelogenin was carried out. Twelve rats were subjected to daily SC injections of sodium alendronate (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 days on their dorsal region, whereas three rats were daily injected with saline solution as a control. Molar tooth germs from 3-day-old rats were fixed under microwave irradiation in 0.1% glutaraldehyde + 4% formaldehyde buffered at pH 7.2 with 0.1 M sodium cacodylate. The specimens were left undecalcified, postfixed with osmium tetroxide, dehydrated, and embedded in LR White resin. Ultrathin sections were incubated with a chicken anti-24-kDa rat amelogenin antibody, a secondary antibody, and finally with a protein A-gold complex. Large patches of amelogenin were present over the unmineralized mantle dentin and at early secretory ameloblasts. At more advanced stages, they were also detected at the enamel matrix, as well as in the mineralized dentin, at the periodontoblastic space of the dentinal tubules, and at the predentin. It is likely that the main effect of alendronate at early stages of odontogenesis is the increase of synthesis/secretion of amelogenin, promoting its deposition within the forming dentin and enamel.

  7. Effect of nutritional status on mutagenicity of urine excreted by rats treated with standard/experimental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammigan, N; Nagabhushan, M; Nair, U J; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1990-08-01

    Urine samples, collected from Sprague Dawley rats treated with extracts of tobacco/masheri, benzo (a) pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine, N'-nitrosodiethylamine and maintained on semi-synthetic diets sufficient or deficient in Vitamin A, B and protein were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella/microsome assay. The mutagenic activity of urine or various treated groups was in the order deficient diet greater than standard laboratory diet greater than nutritionally sufficient diet. Present results confirmed the earlier observations that nutritionally deficient animals are likely to have more exposure to mutagenic metabolites that are generated by increased phase I enzymes and decreased detoxification system.

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic children on inhaled and nasal corticosteroids--more common than expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Lombard, Carl; Galal, Ushma; Hough, Stephen; Irusen, Elvis; Weinberg, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) when treating asthmatic children with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is thought to be rare. To determine the prevalence of HPAS in asthmatic children treated with ICS and nasal steroids (NS). Twenty-six asthmatic children were recruited. Clinical features of HPAS, height, weight, height and weight velocity, steroid dose, adherence, symptom control and lung functions were documented. Metyrapone test was performed if the serum cortisol was > 83 nmol/L (> 3 microg/dL). No child had a serum cortisol < 83 nmol/L (< 3 microg/dL). Prevalence of HPAS was 35 (CI = 17%-56%). Daily NS dose/ m2 and cumulative NS dose/m2 were significantly (p = 0.03) inversely correlated with the post-metyrapone ACTH (r = -0.42 for both). Current ICS dose was not associated with the post-metyrapone ACTH (r = 0). There was a weak correlation with the daily ICS dose/m2 (r = -0.12) and cumulative ICS dose/m2 (r = -0.26). A third of asthmatic children on ICS and NS develop HPAS. Contributing factors are the use of NS, body size and cumulative dose of ICS.

  9. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  10. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  11. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  12. Improved ovulation rate and implantation in rats treated with royal jelly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ovaries and uteris of 12 mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were examined to determine the effect of commercial royal jelly on ovulation, ovarian weight and implantation rates. Rats were split in two groups of 6 each. Group one served as the treatment and group two the control. A daily dose of 25mg of royal jelly ...

  13. Alterations of p75 neurotrophin receptor and Myelin transcription factor 1 in the hippocampus of perinatal phencyclidine treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica L; Newell, Kelly A; Matosin, Natalie; Huang, Xu-Feng; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2015-12-03

    Postnatal administration of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents causes major disturbances to neurological processes resulting in severe modifications to normal behavioral traits into adulthood. It is routinely used to model psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, producing many of the dysfunctional processes in the brain that are present in this devastating disorder, including elevated levels of apoptosis during neurodevelopment and disruptions to myelin and plasticity processes. Lingo-1 (or Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein) is responsible for negatively regulating neurite outgrowth and the myelination of axons. Recent findings using a postmortem human brain cohort showed that Lingo-1 signaling partners in the Nogo receptor (NgR)/p75/TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY) signaling complex, and downstream signaling partners With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1), play a significant part in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here we have examined the implication of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia using PCP to determine if these pathways are altered in the hippocampus throughout different stages of neurodevelopment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with PCP (10mg/kg) or saline solution on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9, and 11. Rats (n=6/group) were sacrificed at PN12, 5weeks, or 14weeks. Relative expression levels of Lingo-1 signaling proteins were examined in the hippocampus of the treated rats. p75 and Myt1 were decreased (0.001≤p≤0.011) in the PCP treated rats at PN12. There were no significant changes in any of the tested proteins at 5weeks (p>0.05). At 14weeks, p75, TROY, and Myt1 were increased in the PCP treated rats (0.014≤p≤0.022). This is the first report of an alteration in Lingo-1 signaling proteins in the rat hippocampus, both directly after PCP treatment in early development and in adulthood. Based on our results, we propose that

  14. Analysis of transforming growth factor-beta and profibrogenic molecules in a rat cardiac allograft model treated with cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ashwani K; Hosenpud, Jessica S; Plummer, Matthew S; Hosenpud, Jeffrey D

    2002-05-27

    Long-term treatment of heart transplantation recipients with cyclosporine (CsA) results in chronic nephrotoxic effects, which frequently lead to progressive renal failure. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and other fibrogenic molecules are leading candidates for these effects, because CsA is known to induce TGF-beta. In this study we compared the expression of TGF-beta, collagen, fibronectin, metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in kidneys from recipients of heterotopic heart transplants treated with CsA for 30 and 180 days. Using a clinically relevant experimental rodent model (strain combination Wistar Furth [RT1u] into Lewis [RT1l]), heterotopic heart transplantation was performed, creating disparate cardiac allografts. The transplant study population was divided into three groups: controls and those receiving CsA immunosuppression therapy to maintain graft survival for 30-day and 180-day periods. Comparisons were made of intrarenal expression of TGF-beta, collagen, fibronectin, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-2, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Intrarenal expression of TGF-beta protein was also compared using immunochemical staining technique, and circulating levels of TGF-beta protein were quantified by ELISA. Intrarenal expression of TGF-beta, collagen, fibronectin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 was significantly increased in rats treated with CsA for 180 days compared with untreated rats and those treated for 30 days. Circulating levels and intrarenal expression of TGF-beta were also significantly increased in rats treated for 180 days. Posttransplantation nephrotoxicity in cardiac transplant recipients treated with CsA for a long term is related to increased expression of TGF-beta and other fibrogenic genes. Therapies designed to inhibit expression of TGF-beta could ameliorate CsA-associated nephrotoxicity in cardiac transplant recipients.

  15. Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Mazzone, Giovanna; Federico, Alessandro; Funaro, Annalisa; De Magistris, Laura; Grossi, Enzo; Callegari, Maria L; Chirico, Marilena; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco; Morelli, Lorenzo; Loguercio, Carmela

    2013-05-01

    Evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota may participate in both the induction and the progression of liver damage. The aim of our research was the detection and evaluation of the effects of chronic treatment with a symbiotic formulation on CCl4 -induced rat liver fibrosis. CCl4 significantly increased gastric permeability in respect to basal values, and the treatment with symbiotic significantly decreased it. CCl4 per se induced a decrease in intestinal permeability. This effect was also seen in fibrotic rats treated with symbiotic and was still evident when normal rats were treated with symbiotic alone (P symbiotic treatment normalized the plasma levels of TNF-α and significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL 10. TNF-α, TGF-β, TLR4, TLR2, iNOS and α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver were up-regulated in rats with CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis and down-regulated by symbiotic treatment. Moreover, IL-10 and eNOS mRNA levels were increased in the CCL4 (+) symbiotic group. Symbiotic treatment of fibrotic rats normalized serum ALT, AST and improved histology and liver collagen deposition. DGGE analysis of faecal samples revealed that CCl4 administration and symbiotic treatment either alone or in combination produced modifications in faecal profiles vs controls. Our results provide evidence that in CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis, significant changes in gastro-intestinal permeability and in faecal flora occur. Treatment with a specific symbiotic formulation significantly affects these changes, leading to improvement in both liver inflammation and fibrosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  17. Effects of noncatechol sympathomimetics on glucose output by hepatocytes from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, V D; Fletcher, H P

    1986-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from collagenase-perfused rat livers were used to study the hyperglycemic potential of various noncatechol sympathomimetics (NCSPM) commonly found in commercially available cough/cold preparations. The effect of various concentrations of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine on glucose output were compared in dexamethasone- or saline-pretreated rats. The NCSPM produced minimal or no glucose output at most of the concentrations tested in hepatocytes from normal saline pretreated rats. However, these same compounds were able to stimulate a significant increase in glucose output from hepatocytes pretreated with dexamethasone. The results indicate that corticosteroids can enhance the glycemic potential of characteristically weak, indirectly acting NCSPM.

  18. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  19. Unacylated ghrelin and obestatin increase islet cell mass and prevent diabetes in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Riccarda; Volante, Marco; Settanni, Fabio; Gauna, Carlotta; Ghé, Corrado; Annunziata, Marta; Deidda, Barbara; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Abribat, Thierry; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Muccioli, Giampiero; Ghigo, Ezio; Papotti, Mauro

    2010-07-01

    The ghrelin gene products, namely acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and obestatin (Ob), were shown to prevent pancreatic beta-cell death and to improve beta-cell function under treatment with cytokines, which are major cause of beta-cell destruction in diabetes. Moreover, AG had been described previously to prevent streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats; however, the effect of either UAG or Ob has never been examined in this context. In the present study, we investigated the potential of UAG and Ob to increase islet beta-cell mass and to reduce diabetes at adult age in STZ-treated neonatal rats. One-day-old rats were injected with STZ and subsequently administered with either AG, UAG or Ob for 7 days. On day 70, plasma glucose levels, plasma and pancreatic insulin levels, pancreatic islet area and number, insulin and pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene expression, and antiapoptotic BCL2 protein expression were determined. Similarly to AG, both UAG and Ob counteracted STZ-induced high glucose levels and improved plasma and pancreatic insulin levels, which were reduced by the diabetogenic compound. UAG and Ob increased islet area, islet number, and beta-cell mass with respect to STZ treatment alone. Finally, in STZ-treated animals, UAG and Ob up-regulated insulin and Pdx1 mRNA and increased the expression of BCL2 similarly to AG. Taken together, our results suggest that in STZ-treated newborn rats, UAG and Ob improve glucose metabolism and preserve islet cell mass, granting a therapeutic potential in medical conditions associated with impaired beta-cell function.

  20. Improved outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats with myocardial infarction treated with allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Xu, Tingyan; Weil, Max Harry

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that rats in which myocardial infarction had been treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would have better outcomes following the global myocardial ischemia of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) compared with rats in which myocardial infarction had been treated with phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Prospective, randomized controlled study. University-affiliated research institute. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Myocardial infarction was induced in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four weeks later, animals were randomized to receive 5 x 10 MSCs labeled with red fluorescent dye gel (PKH26) in PBS or a PBS-alone injection into right femoral vein. Echocardiographically measured myocardial function, including ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, and left ventricular end-systolic volume, was quantitated 2 and 4 weeks after administering MSCs or PBS. Four weeks after MSCs or PBS injection, 6 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and 6 minutes of CPR were performed before defibrillation. Myocardial function, including cardiac index, left ventricular, dP/dt max (dP/dt max), left ventricular negative dP/dt min (-dP/dt min), and left ventricular diastolic pressure, was measured before inducing VF and hourly following return of spontaneous circulation. Labeled MSCs were observed in 5-mum cryostat sections from each harvested heart. Significant improvements in ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-systolic volume, cardiac index, dP/dt max, -dP/dt min, and left ventricular diastolic pressure followed injection of MSCs before inducing VF. Following return of spontaneous circulation, myocardial function was significantly better in animals pretreated with MSCs; this was associated with significantly increased duration of postresuscitation survival. Myocardial function before and after CPR and duration of survival after CPR were significantly improved in animals in which myocardial

  1. [Effects of milkvetch root on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthma model rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-cheng; Zhao, Fu-dong; Xie, Jin-yu

    2007-07-01

    To study the change and the effect of milkvetch root (MR) on neuro-endocrino-immune (NEI) network related indexes in repeated asthmatic attack model rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal group (A), the model group (B), and the three treated groups (C, D, E) treated with low, medium and high dose of the MR by gastrogavage. The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus was tested by Realtime-PCR, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) were detected with radioimmunoassay, serum IL-6, IL-4, IFN-gamma determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the lung tissue pathology was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. As compared with the normal group, in the rats 3 weeks after modeling, CRH mRNA expression, blood IFN-gamma and plasma ACTH were unchanged, serum level of CORT raised significantly (P<0.05), IL-6 and IL-4 showed an increasing trend but without significance. Low dose of MR could promote the production of serum CORT, and hight dose of MR could down-regulate the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-6 (P<0.01). No significant difference was found in comparison of pathological changes of lung tissue among the groups. Rats suffered from repeated asthmatic attack have some disorders in indexes of NEI, MR could enhance the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis and adjust the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines to alleviate the inflammation of asthma.

  2. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S; Ansari, A S; Lohiya, N K

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2× CD), 250 mg (5× CD) and 500 mg (10× CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2× CD, 5× CD and 10× CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  3. Transplantation of Achilles Tendon Treated With Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 Promotes Meniscus Regeneration in a Rat Model of Massive Meniscal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Koga, Hideyuki; Katagiri, Hiroki; Otabe, Koji; Okuno, Makiko; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Kobayashi, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to examine whether bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) induces ectopic cartilage formation in the rat tendon, and whether transplantation of tendon treated with BMP-7 promotes meniscal regeneration. Additionally, we analyzed the relative contributions of host and donor cells on the healing process after tendon transplantation in a rat model. Methods BMP-7 was injected in situ into the Achilles tendon of rats, and the histologic findings and gene profile were evaluated. Achilles tendon injected with 1 μg of BMP-7 was transplanted into a meniscal defect in rats. The regenerated meniscus and articular cartilage were evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Achilles tendon from LacZ-transgenic rats was transplanted into the meniscal defect in wild-type rats, and vice versa. Results Injection of BMP-7 into the rat Achilles tendon induced the fibrochondrocyte differentiation of tendon cells and changed the collagen gene profile of tendon tissue to more closely approximate meniscal tissue. Transplantation of the rat Achilles tendon into a meniscal defect increased meniscal size. The rats that received the tendon treated with BMP-7 had a meniscus matrix that exhibited increased Safranin O and type II collagen staining, and showed a delay in articular cartilage degradation. Using LacZ-transgenic rats, we determined that the regeneration of the meniscus resulted from contribution from both donor and host cells. Conclusion Our findings indicate that BMP-7 induces ectopic cartilage formation in rat tendons. Transplantation of Achilles tendon treated with BMP-7 promotes meniscus regeneration and prevents cartilage degeneration in a rat model of massive meniscal defect. Native cells in the rat Achilles tendon contribute to meniscal regeneration. PMID:23897174

  4. Selective sparing of goblet cells and paneth cells in the intestine of methotrexate-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verburg (Melissa); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); H.P. Meijer; J.A. Taminiau; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Dekker (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProliferation, differentiation, and cell death were studied in small intestinal and colonic epithelia of rats after treatment with methotrexate. Days 1-2 after treatment were characterized by decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased numbers and depths

  5. A histopathological and morphometrical study of femur head cartilage in Wistar rats treated with prednisolone

    OpenAIRE

    Barrueco, J. L.; Gázquez, A; Redondo, E.; Roncero, V; Durán, E.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis was made of histopathological developments in femur head cartilage in a group of Wistar rats receiving a daily intra-muscular injection of 2.5 mg prednisolone. This group was divided into four experimental batches, each consisting of 6 rats. Batches were sacrificed at 15,30,60 and 90 days after the start of the experiment. Degeneration of the femur head cartilage was observed from the start of the experiment (15 days), and gave rise to chondrocy...

  6. lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks; Group 2, diabetes control rats, induced with 150 mg/kg b.w., i.p. administration of alloxan and thereafter given 0.2 ml distilled water throughout the study period; Groups 3, 4 and 5, diabetic (i.p., 150 mg/kg. b.w. alloxan) rats were given single oral dose of MAD (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. respectively) for 4 weeks; ...

  7. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria Verônica de; Silva, Carlos Henrique Osório; Silva, Micheline Ozana da; Costa, Marcela Bueno Martins da; Dornas, Raul Felipe; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; Natali, Antônio José

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking) on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric e...

  8. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  9. KCC2 expression changes in Diazepam-treated neonatal rats with hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Pei; Guo, Liu-Bin; Li, Yong-Mei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sai-Qi; Liu, Hong-Min; Wang, Cong

    2014-05-14

    Hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major type of perinatal brain injury in newborns. In this study, we investigate the short- and long-term neuroprotective effects of Diazepam on neonatal rats with HIBD and the potential mechanisms underlying its protective effects. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by a 2-h exposure to 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen. Diazepam was administered immediately via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection after inducing HIBD at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1)8h(-1) for three consecutive days. Three days after HIBD, rats were decapitated, and the extent of brain injury was evaluated using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Additionally, the expression of Potassium-chloride cotransporter-2 (KCC2) was analysed using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Three weeks after HIBD, rats were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the locomotor activity test to determine the long-term therapeutic effects of Diazepam. We observed that the volume of infarction in the Diazepam group was significantly less (PDiazepam rats improved significantly compared with the untreated rats (PDiazepam appears to attenuate HIBD and can efficiently improve the long-term learning and memory capabilities of the animal. A potential mechanism underlying these effects may involve preventing the decrease in KCC2 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats treated by two different routes: single intravenous injection and single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2015-01-01

    Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was studied in rats via a single intravenous (iv) injection and a single oral administration (3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood concentrations of zinc (Zn) were monitored for 7 d and tissue distribution were determined in liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, thymus, brain, and testes. To ascertain the excretion of ZnONP, Zn levels in urine and feces were measured for 7 d. ZnONP were not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after oral administration and were excreted mostly in feces. When the nanoparticles were injected iv to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, peak concentration appeared at 5 min but returned to normal range by d 2 (48 h after injection). ZnONP were distributed mainly to liver, kidneys, lung, and spleen, but not to thymus, brain, and testes. The distribution level was significantly decreased to normal by d 7. Feces excretion levels after iv injection supported biliary excretion of ZnONP. In rats injected iv with 30 mg/kg, mitotic figures in hepatocytes were significantly increased and multifocal acute injuries with dark brown pigment were noted in lungs, while no significant damage was observed in rats treated orally with the same dosage.

  11. Natural reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular remodeling in SU5416/hypoxia-treated Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhosazane Zungu-Edmondson

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a lethal disease and improved therapeutic strategies are needed. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure, due to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, causes right ventricle (RV failure and death in patients. The treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with SU5416 injection and exposure to chronic hypoxia for three weeks followed by maintenance in normoxia promote progressive and severe PAH with pathologic features that resemble human PAH. At 5-17 weeks after the SU5416 injection, PAH is developed with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as RV hypertrophy and fibrosis. The present study investigated subsequent events that occur in these PAH animals.At 35 weeks after the SU5416 injection, rats still maintained high RV pressure, but pulmonary vascular remodeling was significantly reduced. Metabolomics analysis revealed that lungs of normal rats and rats from the 35-week time point had different metabolomics profiles. Despite the maintenance of high RV pressure, fibrosis was resolved at 35-weeks. Masson's trichrome stain and Western blotting monitoring collagen 1 determined 12% fibrosis in the RV at 17-weeks, and this was decreased to 5% at 35-weeks. The level of myofibroblasts was elevated at 17-weeks and normalized at 35-weeks.These results suggest that biological systems possess natural ways to resolve pulmonary and RV remodeling. The resolution of RV fibrosis appears to involve the reduction of myofibroblast-dependent collagen synthesis. Understanding these endogenous mechanisms should help improve therapeutic strategies to treat PAH and RV failure.

  12. Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized Eurycoma longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes.

  13. Oxygen nano-bubble water reduces calcium oxalate deposits and tubular cell injury in ethylene glycol-treated rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Kubota, Yasue; Kawai, Noriyasu; Itoh, Yasunori; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Water containing oxygen nano-bubbles (nanometer-sized bubbles generated from oxygen micro-bubbles; ONB) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ONB water on kidney stone formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-treated rats. We divided 60 rats, aged 4 weeks, into 5 groups: control, the water-fed group; 100 % ONB, the 100 % ONB water-fed group; EG, the EG treated water-fed group; EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB, water containing EG and 50 % or 100 % ONB, respectively. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and renal expression of inflammation-related proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the crystal-binding molecule hyaluronic acid were compared among the 5 groups. In the control and 100 % ONB groups, no renal CaOx deposits were detected. In the EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB groups, ONB water significantly decreased renal CaOx deposits, urinary NAG excretion, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, and hyaluronic acid expression and increased renal superoxide dismutase-1 expression compared with the EG group. ONB water substantially affected kidney stone formation in the rat kidney by reducing renal tubular cell injury. ONB water is a potential prophylactic agent for kidney stones.

  14. Call-Center Based Disease Management of Pediatric Asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Cagnani CE. Allergic rhinitis and asthma in children: disease management and outcomes. Current Allergy & Asthma Reports. 1(6):515-22, 2001. 58. Chan...of Pediatric Asthmatics PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James M. Quinn, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation...CONTRACT NUMBER Call-Center Based Disease Management of Pediatric Asthmatics 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0182 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  15. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis history in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Rifda Suryati; Arwin AP Akib; I Boediman; Abdul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a risk factor of asthma. There is still limited information about its prevalence and characteristics in asthmatic children. Objective To find out the prevalence of AD history in asthmatic children. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the De- partment of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from July until December 2004. Patients with asthma who were at or less than 5 years of age were included in the...

  16. Asymmetrical development of the monoamine systems in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzi, Analía; Duffard, Ricardo; de Duffard, Ana María Evangelista

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the regional brain biogenic amine levels in adult rats were altered by pre- and post-natal exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pregnant rats were daily orally exposed to 70 mg/kg per day of 2,4-D from gestation day (GD) 16 to post-partum day (PPD) 23. After weaning, the pups were assigned to one of two subgroups: T1 fed with untreated diet up to post-natal day (PND) 90 and T2 (maintained with 2,4-D diet up to PND 90). In addition, we wanted to know the effect of 2,4-D on lateralization in the monoamine systems of the basal ganglia of these adult rats and whether there was any correlation with the behavioral developmental pattern previously reported by us. In this study the content of noradrenaline (NA) was significantly increased in substantia nigra (SN) while it decreased in cerebellum in male and female rats of T2 group. The decreased dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovallinic acid (HVA) contents in cerebellum, midbrain, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and prefrontal cortex (PFc) showed an alteration in the mesocorticolimbic system. However, an increase of DA in SN and of DOPAC and HVA in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both sexes and of DA and DOPAC (only in females) in striatum was detected. The contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) were significantly increased in both sexes in PFc, striatum (St), midbrain, SN and cerebellum. Variations of any monoamine levels in NAc and VTA were determined. T1 rats were irreversibly altered: a diminution in DA and/or DOPAC levels in PFc, midbrain, VTA and cerebellum was determined. Indolamines of these rats were increased in both sexes in PFc and St. There was also a large increase in 5-HT levels in midbrain of male rats. Although no changes in the dopaminergic system with respect to their control values in any side of these brain structures were observed, DA and DOPAC levels were found to be decreased in the right side with

  17. [The problem of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in asthmatic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, E G; Naumov, D E; Perelman, Yu M; Kolosov, V P

    2017-01-01

    Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes. Thus, there is an obvious synergism between these conditions, which affects symptoms, response to therapy, and prognosis. The available data allow discussion on whether there is a need to identify and treat OSAS in asthmatic patients. By keeping in mind the high incidence of OSAS in patients with severe asthma, it may be suggested that treatment for OSAS can reduce the number of exacerbations, improve the quality of life, and decline the number of obstinate asthma cases. It is very important for general practitioners to assess risk factors, such as body weight, nasal stuffiness, and GERD, and to utilize screening tools for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Considering the known positive effects of CPAP therapy in short-term studies, future investigations should focus on the impact of CPAP therapy on asthma symptoms in the long-term, as well as on the effects of asthma drugs on the course of OSAS.

  18. Management of oral focal infection in patients with asthmatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is commonly related to allergic diseases, nevertheless only 40% of asthma patients are related to allergy or atopy. There are some unknown etiologies of asthma that are still in researches. One of the possible causes of asthma is the multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS which related to the “neurogenic switching hypothesis”. Since rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma are closely related, treatments which are successfully reduce or eliminate the rhinitis and sinusitis symptoms should also be advantageous to asthma management. There were a lot of sinusitis treatments which reduced asthma symptoms such as nasal corticosteroid, diathermy and surgery. It was also been reported that oral focal infection might cause sinusitis. However, the involvement of oral focal infection in the etiopathogenesis of asthma was seldom discussed. The objective of this study is to propose a mechanism of the relationship between oral focal infection and asthma which is explained by the “neurogenic switching hypothesis”. Two asthmatic patients who also had periodontal disease, pulpal and periapical infection were treated with conventional and/or surgical dental treatments. After the dental and periodontal treatments were completed, the usual triggers of severe asthma attacks such as cold and house dust did not elicit the asthma symptoms. It concluded that regarding to the disappearing of asthma symptoms, the elimination of oral focal infection had a beneficial effect in reducing asthma symptoms.

  19. Physiological Changes at Altitude in Nonasthmatic and Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Louie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercised-induced asthma is not due to exercise itself per se, but rather is due to cooling and/or drying of the airway because of the increased ventilation that accompanies exercise. Travel to high altitudes is accompanied by increased ventilation of cool, often dry, air, irrespective of the level of exertion, and by itself, this could represent an 'exercise' challenge for asthmatic subjects. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was measured at sea level and at various altitudes during a two-week trek through the Himalayas in a group of nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. The results of this study showed that in mild asthmatics, there was a significant reduction in peak expiratory flow at very high altitudes. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, there was not a significant additional decrease in peak expiratory flow after exercise in the asthmatic subjects at high altitude. However, there was a significant fall in arterial oxygen saturation postexercise in the asthmatic subjects, a change that was not seen in the nonasthmatic subjects. These data suggest that asthmatic subjects develop bronchoconstriction when they go to very high altitudes, possibly via the same mechanism that causes exercise-induced asthma.

  20. [Oral health in asthmatic children: a dose-response study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloot, A; Vanobbergen, J; Martens, L

    2004-01-01

    In literature there is a lack of consensus regarding the relationship between dental caries risk and asthma in a child population. Despite these divergent views, all studies conclude that asthmatic children are at risk and that special preventive programs are needed. The asthmatic through either its disease status or its pharmacotherapy carries several factors for an increased caries risk. PH values of most inhalant powders are less than 5.5. A decrease of the salivary and plaque pH has been detected in asthmatic children after use of these inhalers. This low pH value associated with a reduced salivary flow rate (caused by beta-adrenergic agonists and by anti-histaminic medication) makes asthmatics more susceptible to caries and erosion. There are only a few studies that take into account that asthma is a disease with a large diversity of severity and duration. This approach could help to clarify some variability in caries risk. The aim of the present study (a dose-response study) was to examine the oral health status of asthmatic children and to compare the oral health condition and oral health habits within different groups of asthmatic children.

  1. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  2. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiling; Cardenes, Nayra; Corey, Catherine; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Shiva, Sruti

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma. PMID:26147848

  3. The dental status of asthmatic British school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDerra, E J; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental disease in British school children with asthma. A convenience sample of 100 asthmatic children (aged 4-16 years) was examined for dental caries, periodontal condition, and tooth surface loss. School children, equated for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were chosen for comparison. Children were divided into two age ranges; 4-10 and 11-16 years. A significant difference was found in DMFT (0.96 vs. 0.31) and DMFS (1.37 vs. 0.37) between the 4-10-year-old asthmatic children compared with healthy control children. In the 11-16-year age range, the asthmatic children had a DMFT and DMFS of 2.48 and 3.39 compared with the control children who had a DMFT and DMFS of 1.11 and 1.97 respectively. Asthmatic children had significantly more plaque, gingivitis, and calculus compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the severity and number of teeth affected by tooth surface loss affecting labial surfaces of the anterior teeth and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth of asthmatic children. It was concluded that asthmatic children have more decay affecting their permanent teeth, poorer periodontal status, and more tooth surface loss than healthy controls.

  4. The ECM deposited by basal asthmatic and non-asthmatic ASM cells is different in composition but not biological function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkness, L.; Ashton, A.; Burgess, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The remodelled asthmatic airway has increased airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) growth, expanded vasculature, and altered extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is the external cellular microenvironment which regulates cell behaviour. Under proliferative, inflammatory, or fibrotic conditions, the

  5. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Rieth Nery-Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20 and group II (tamoxifen, n=20, receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student’s t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean index of Ki-67 expression in the rat vagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression.

  6. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery-Aguiar, Afif Rieth; Aguiar, Yousef Qathaf; Conde Júnior, Airton Mendes; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Tavares, Cleciton Braga; Lopes-Costa, Pedro Vitor; Nazário, Afonso Celso; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20) and group II (tamoxifen, n=20), receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student's t tests (p<0.05). The mean index of Ki-67 expression in the rat vagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001). According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression.

  7. [EFFECTS OF BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TRANSPLANTATION FOR TREATING RAT SPINAL CORD INJURY AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AT INJURY SITES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Cuiping; Ren, Lijie; Zhao Zhenfu; Zhou, Guangqian; Yao, Xiaolu; Gong, Feipeng; Chen, Gang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat and the cytokine expression changes in the local injury tissues. BMSCs were separated from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and cultured with the whole bone marrow culture method. rAd-EGFP was used to transfect the 5th generation BMSCs for green fluorescent protein (GFP) label. Twelve SD rats were randomly divided into experimental group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). After the T10 SCI model was established with Allen's impact device in 2 groups, 1 x 1096) GFP-labeled BMSCs and PBS were administered by subarachnoid injection in situ in experimental group and control group, respectively. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to detect the motor function at immediat, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after SCI. At 5 weeks, the spinal cord tissues were harvested for the histological and immunofluorescent staining examinations to measure the expressions of neural marker molecules, including Nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). Cytokine was analyzed with antibody array. At 5 weeks, 2 rats died of urinary tract infection in 2 groups respectively, the other rats survived to the end of experiment. BBB score of experimental group was significantly higher than that of control group at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks (P cells with regular arrangement in the experimental group; there were less cells with irregular arrangement in the control group. Compared with the control group, Nestin and NeuN expressions significantly increased (P transplantation can improve survival and regeneration of nerve cells and enhances the recovery of nerve function by regulating secretion of cytokines from grafted BMSCs.

  8. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  9. Efficacy of intra-tendinous injection of platelet-rich plasma in treating tendinosis: comprehensive assessment of a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaudière, Benjamin; Lempicki, Marta; Pesquer, Lionel; Louedec, Liliane; Preux, Pierre Marie; Meyer, Philippe; Hummel, Vincent; Larbi, Ahmed; Deschamps, Lydia; Journe, Clement; Hess, Agathe; Silvestre, Alain; Sargos, Paul; Loriaut, Philippe; Boyer, Patrick; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Serfaty, Jean Michel

    2013-10-01

    To assess the potential of intra-tendinous injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP) to treat tendinosis (T+) in a rat model of patellar and Achilles T+, and evaluate its local toxicity. Thirty rats (120 patellar and Achilles tendons) were used. We induced T+ into 80 tendons (patellar = 40, Achilles = 40) by injecting collagenase at day 0 under ultrasound (US) guidance. Clinical examination and US at day 3, followed by US-guided intra-tendinous injection of either PRP (PRPT+, n = 40) or physiological serum (ST+, n = 40, control). Follow-up was at days 6, 13, 18 and 25 using clinical, US and histological evaluation. To study PRP toxicity, we injected PRP into 40 normal tendons (PRPT-) and compared with 40 untreated normal tendons (T-). All PRPT+ showed better joint mobilisation compared with ST+ at day 6 (P = 0.005), day 13 (P = 0.02), day 18 (P = 0.003) and day 25 (P = 0.01). Similar results were found regarding US and histology, with smaller collagen fibre diameters (day 6, P = 0.003, day 25, P ≤ 0.004), less disorganisation and fewer neovessels (day 6, P = 0.003, day 25, P = 0.0003) in PRPT+ compared with ST+. Comparison between PRPT- and T- showed no PRP toxicity (P = 0.18). Our study suggests that mono-injection of PRP in T+ improves tendon healing, with no local toxicity. • We assessed the potential of platelet rich plasma (PRP) to treat tendinosis. • We treated patellar and Achilles tendinosis in a rat model. • We evaluated clinical, imaging and histological data. • Intra-tendinous PRP injection could be useful in the treatment of tendinosis.

  10. Association between hepatic cholesterol and oleic acid in the liver of rats treated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Gabriela Salim Ferreira de; Almeida, Bianca Bellizzi de; Carvalho, Daphne Santoro Leonardi de; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the lipid profiles of the hepatic and adipose tissues of Wistar rats treated for 21 days with a diet high in saturated fat (high saturated fat, n=6) or high in hydrogenated fat, that is, having 50% partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in its composition (high hydrogenated fat, n=6), and compare them to those of a control group (control group, n=6). Methods Adipose tissue and total hepatic fat were higher in the saturated fat group than...

  11. Improvement of Insulin Secretion and Pancreatic β-cell Function in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Aloe vera Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ayesha; Gunasekaran, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the A. vera extract on improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. After acclimatization, male Wistar rats, maintained as per the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals guidelines, were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The effect of A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats on the pancreatic islets by morphometric analysis was evaluated. Oral administration of A. vera extract (300 mg/kg) daily to diabetic rats for 3 weeks showed restoration of blood glucose levels to normal levels with a concomitant increase in insulin levels upon feeding with A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic sections revealed quantitative and qualitative gain in terms of number, diameter, volume, and area of the pancreatic islets of diabetic rats treated with A. vera extract when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. A. vera extract exerts antidiabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by restoring pancreatic islet mass in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin levels were restored to normal levels in diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera extractIslets of pancreas were qualitatively and quantitatively restored to

  12. Learning preferences of caregivers of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Adams, Christina; Brimer, Alysa; Silva, Maria D

    2005-10-01

    People learn in different ways: visually, aurally, by reading/writing, and kinesthetically. In our clinic, we use color-coded Asthma Action Cards to educate our patients and their caregivers on asthma management. Our teaching is largely aural based, with the cards providing reading and visual stimulation and hands-on practice with devices offering kinesthetic stimulation. We sought to determine the learning styles of the caregivers of our asthmatic children. Caregivers in our Asthma/Allergy Clinic completed the Visual-Aural-Read/Write-Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire anonymously, and the responses were evaluated on the basis of previously validated scoring instructions. Analysis of 98 respondents showed that 42% had a single learning modality preference, and the remaining 58% were multimodal learners. Of those who reported a single mode of learning, 61% preferred kinesthetic, 27% preferred reading/writing, and less than 1% each preferred aural or visual stimuli. Of all 98 caregivers, 82% included kinesthetic as a learning preference, 59% included read/write, 50% included aural, and 41% included visual. The majority of caregivers preferred the kinesthetic learning method, whether as a single learning preference or in combination with other approaches. Incorporating kinesthetic methods of learning, such as role plays and problem-solving case scenarios, into standardized asthma education curricula may be beneficial to patients and families in terms of understanding and using their regimen.

  13. Increased astrocytic expression of metallothioneins I + II in brainstem of adult rats treated with 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan; Moos, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral distribution of metallothioneins I and II (MT-I + II) was studied in adult rats subjected to i.p. injection with the gliotoxin 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN). Grey matter regions of the brainstem heralded numerous OX-42-positive macrophages and microglia, indicating that 6-AN primarily c...

  14. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abbasmanthiri, R.; Al-Elewi, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Omani, Saud; Al-Asmary, Saeed; Al-Asmari, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    The potential effect of camel milk (CM) against gentamicin (GM) induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p.), and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of CM significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST) activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent. PMID:25544839

  15. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  16. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-03-07

    Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (pOzone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (pozone treatment group (pozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy.

  17. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery-Aguiar, Afif Rieth; Aguiar, Yousef Qathaf; Júnior, Airton Mendes Conde; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Tavares, Cleciton Braga; Lopes-Costa, Pedro Vitor; Nazário, Afonso Celso; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20) and group II (tamoxifen, n=20), receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student's t tests (pvagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression. PMID:26934238

  18. Sperm quality of male rats treated with aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha were studied on sperm motility, viability and counts in adult albino rats. Oral administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for a week caused dose-dependent changes in the sperm motility and viability without a significant change in the sperm counts.

  19. Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D-L; Forsyth, K D

    Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3(+)/CD4(+) T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiological profile of smoking and nicotine addiction among asthmatic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, E M; Vázquez-Rodríguez, C F; Castillo Ruiz, O; Peinado Herreros, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, this habit in asthmatic adolescents continues to be a health problem worldwide. Our objectives were to determine the epidemiological profile of smoking and the degree of nicotine dependence among asthmatic adolescents. Through a cross-sectional investigation, 3383 adolescents (13-19 years of age) were studied. Information was collected using a previously validated questionnaire. Two study groups of adolescent smokers were formed: one composed of asthmatic adolescents and the other of healthy youths. Asthmatic adolescents were found to be more likely to smoke (21.6% vs 11.8%) and to have some degree of nicotine dependence compared with healthy adolescents (51.6% vs 48.8%). The most important characteristic of smoking in asthmatic adolescents was found to be an onset before 11 years of age due to curiosity about cigarettes. Asthmatic youths continue smoking because this habit decreases their anxiety and stress. Adolescents know that smoking is addictive and often smoke on waking up in the morning or when they are sick. Yet, these adolescents do not consider smoking to be a problem. In this study, curiosity about cigarettes was the primary reason why asthmatic adolescents smoked for the first time and developed a greater dependence to nicotine compared with healthy adolescents. Moreover, the findings show that many of the factors that favour the development of smoking are preventable, given that they are present in the family and social environment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of green tea against neuro-functional alterations in rats treated with MnO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárközi, Kitti; Papp, András; Horváth, Edina; Máté, Zsuzsanna; Hermesz, Edit; Kozma, Gábor; Zomborszki, Zoltán Péter; Kálomista, Ildikó; Galbács, Gábor; Szabó, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Inhalation of manganese-containing metal fumes at workplaces can cause central nervous damage including a Parkinson-like syndrome. Oxidative stress is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, due to the presence of nano-sized metal oxide particles with high biological and chemical activity. Oxidative damage of the nervous system could be prevented or ameliorated by properly applied antioxidants, preferably natural ones such as green tea, a popular drink. The aim of this work was to see if orally applied green tea brew could diminish the functional neurotoxicity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles introduced into the airways of rats. Young adult male Wistar rats were treated intratracheally for 6 weeks with a suspension of synthetic MnO2 nanoparticles (4 mg/kg body weight), and received green tea brew (1 g leaves 200 mL(-1) water) as drinking fluid. Reduced body weight gain, indicating general toxicity of the nanoparticles, was not influenced by green tea. However, in rats receiving green tea the nervous system effects - changes in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity and peripheral nerve action potential - were diminished. The use of green tea as a neuroprotective functional drink seems to be a viable approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Experiment study on ultrashort wave for treating vascular crisis after rat tail replantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long; Gao, Wenshan; Xi, Ali; Wang, Cong; Chen, Shouying; Zhao, Yanyan; Di, Keqian; Yang, Xincai; Weng, Shengbin

    2012-10-01

    To explore the effect and mechanism of ultrashort wave (USW) for prevention and treatment of vascular crisis after rat tail replantation. Eighty 3-month old female Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 232.8-289.6 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups. In each group, based on the caudal vein and the coccyx was retained, the tail was cut off. The tail artery was ligated in group A; the tail artery was anastomosed in groups B, C, D, and E to establish the tail replantation model. After surgery, the rats of group B were given normal management; the rats of group C were immediately given intraperitoneal injection (3.125 mL/kg) of diluted papaverine hydrochloride injection (1 mg/mL); the rats of groups D and E were immediately given the local USW treatment (once a day) at anastomotic site for 5 days at the dosage of 3 files and 50 mA for 20 minutes (group D) and 2 files and 28 mA for 20 minutes (group E). The survival rate of the rat tails was observed for 10 days after the tail replantation. The tail skin temperature difference between proximal and distal anastomosis was measured at pre- and post-operation; the change between postoperative and preoperative temperature difference was calculated. The blood plasma specimens were collected from the inner canthus before operation and from the tip of the tail at 8 hours after operation to measure the content of nitric oxide (NO). The survival rates of the rat tails were 0 (0/14), 36.4% (8/22), 57.1% (8/14), 22.2% (4/18), and 75.0% (9/12) in groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively, showing significant overall differences among 5 groups (chi2 = 19.935, P = 0.001); the survival rate of group E was significantly higher than that of group B at 7 days (P 0.05). At preoperation, there was no significant difference in tail skin temperature difference among 5 groups (P > 0.05); at 8 hours, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days after operation, significant overall difference was found in the change of the skin temperature difference among groups (P

  3. Effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction on biochemical and morphological alterations of liver in fenitrothion-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Taib, Izatus Shima; Louis, Santhana Raj

    2014-11-01

    Indiscriminate application of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has led to environmental pollution and severe health problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on biochemical and morphological changes of the liver in rats treated with fenitrothion (FNT), a type of OP pesticide. A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; control group, TRF-supplemented group, FNT-treated group and TRF+FNT group. TRF (200 mg/kg) was supplemented 30 minutes prior to FNT (20 mg/kg) administration, both orally for 28 consecutive days. Following 28 days of treatment, plasma biochemical changes and liver morphology were evaluated. The body and absolute liver weights were significantly elevated in TRF+FNT group compared to FNT group. TRF administration significantly decreased the total protein level and restored the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in TRF + FNT group. In contrast, total bilirubin level, γ-glutamyltranferase (GGT) and cholinesterase activity in TRF + FNT group did not significantly differ from FNT group. Administration of TRF also prevented FNT-induced morphological changes of liver as observed by electron microscope. In conclusion, TRF supplementation showed potential protective effect towards biochemical and ultrastructural changes in liver induced by FNT.

  4. The Ultrastructural Study of Oocyte and Zona Pellucida in Ovarian Follicles of Untreated and Metformin-Treated Diabetic Rats Subsequent to Induction of Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Pournaghi D.V.M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting the whole body systems including the female reproductive organs. Moreover, diabetes is an important cause of infertility. Metformin is commonly used to control hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. This study was done to evaluate the ultrastructural changes of ovarian follicles in diabetic rats and their response to metformin.Methods: Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley female rats (170-210 g were studied in three groups (Control, diabetic and metformin-treated rats. In the second and third groups, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. The rats in the third group were later treated by metformin monohydrochloride (100 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and their right ovaries were observed under transmission electron microscope. Quantitative data were analyzed by student t-test in SAS software.Results: In comparison with the control group, significant decreases in zona pellucida thickness and the mean number of microvilli were observed (respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.001 in diabetic rats. Significant decreases in zona pellucida thickness were also observed in metformin-treated rats (P<0.05 but changes in the number of microvilli were non-significant. The number of organelles in oocyte cytoplasm was higher and they were natural or natural-looking in metformin-treated rats versus the diabetic ones. Reduction in the number of mitochondria and their ballooning cristae were of the most noticeable changes in diabetic rats.Conclusion: Diabetes decreases the number of microvilli and oocyte organelles and diminishes zona pellucida thickness leading to structural changes in the organelles but metformin could improve the aforesaid conditions.

  5. Altered regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-treated male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookstaff, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) severely decreases plasma androgen concentrations, yet plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations remain unchanged. The mechanism by which TCDD prevents the expected compensatory increase in plasma LH was investigated. No effect on the plasma disappearance rate of LH or on pituitary capacity to synthesize or secrete LH was detected. Rather, TCDD altered the regulation of LH secretion by substantially increasing the potency of both androgens and estrogens as feedback inhibitors of LH secretion. The mechanism by which TCDD alters androgen-regulated LH secretion was further investigated. Seven days after dosing, TCDD decreased plasma testosterone concentrations but prevented the expected compensatory increases in pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, and plasma LH concentrations as seen in similarly hypoandrogenic vehicle dosed rats. Furthermore, the TCDD dose-response relationships for preventing the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number and plasma LH concentration were similar. However, in the absence of gonadal steroids (7 days after castration) TCDD did not affect the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, or plasma LH concentration. All of these parameters increased substantially relative to intact TCDD treated rats, and to levels virtually identical to those seen in castrated control rats. Treatment of castrated rats with testosterone restored the ability of TCDD to prevent these compensatory increases. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the presence of androgens is required for TCDD to alter the regulation of pituitary GnRH receptors.

  6. Evaluation of the antidepressant, anxiolytic and memory-improving efficacy of aripiprazole and fluoxetine in ethanol-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda-Malarz, Kinga; Kus, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Piotr; Czubak, Anna; Hardyk, Szymon; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    Some study results indicate a positive effect of aripiprazole (ARI) on impaired cognitive functions caused by brain damage resulting from chronic EtOH abuse. However, other research shows that to manifest itself, an ARI antidepressant effect requires a combined therapy with another selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, namely, fluoxetine (FLX). The aim of this article was to assess antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of ARI as well as its effect on spatial memory in ethanol-treated (alcoholized) rats. On the basis of alcohol consumption pattern, groups of (1) ethanol-preferring rats, with mean ethanol intake above 50%, and (2) ethanol-nonpreferring rats (EtNPRs), with mean ethanol intake below 50% of total daily fluid intake, were formed. The group of EtNPRs was used for this study, subdivided further into three groups administered ARI, FLX and a combination of both, respectively. Behavioral tests such as Porsolt's forced swimming test, the Morris water maze test and the two-compartment exploratory test were employed. Behavioral test results demonstrated (1) no antidepressant effect of ARI in EtNPRs in subchronic treatment and (2) no procognitive effect of ARI and FLX in EtNPRs in combined single administration. Combined administration of both drugs led to an anxiogenic effect and spatial memory deterioration in study animals. ARI had no antidepressant effect and failed to improve spatial memory in rats. However, potential antidepressant, anxiolytic and procognitive properties of the drug resulting from its mechanism of action encourage further research aimed at developing a dose of both ARI and FLX that will prove such effects in alcoholized EtNPRs.

  7. VEGF, HIF-1α and PEDF expression in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetics rats treated with ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Xie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF, pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFand hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1αexpression in retinal and serum in ozone-treated streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats and to determine the possible efficacy of ozone therapy for diabetic retinopathy(DR.METHODS:Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group A(n=10received a normal diet, diabetic molding established by intraperitoneal injection of STZ(50mg/ml, then divided into three groups, group B without any intervene; and groups C and D given oxygen and ozone clyster treatment respectively, twice per week for 1mo. Retina and blood were taken under general anesthesia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISAmethods were used to study retinal and serum VEGF, HIF-1α and PEDF expression.RESULTS:VEGF occurred mostly in the inner layer of the retina; the difference of VEGF in the retina among each group has statistical difference(F=23.923; P=0.000; in which, group D closer to group A, but still has statistical difference(PP>0.05except for no difference between group A and D(P>0.05, others as same result as retinal VEGF expression.HIF-1α expression decreased in ozone-treated rats(group Dcompared with control group(PPP>0.05. Overall, PEDF expression was lower than VEGF and HIF-1α, and groups A and D showed more expression than groups B and C, but the differences were not significant(P >0.05.CONCLUSION: Ozone administration can reduce the VEGF and HIF-1α expression and ozone may have potential uses in its treatment.

  8. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects.

  9. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Improves Cholestasis in α-Naphthylisothiocyanate–Treated Rats and Mdr2−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cholestasis results in liver injury and eventually liver failure. Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) showed limited benefits in primary biliary cirrhosis, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapy for chronic cholestatic disorders. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent suppressor of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. atRA also repressed the expression of tumor growth factor-β and collagen 1A1 in activated primary human stellate cells and LX2 cells. When administered together with UDCA to bile duct–ligated rats, this combined therapy significantly reduced the bile acid pool size and improved liver conditions. To further examine whether atRA alone or in combination with UDCA has greater beneficial effects than UDCA treatment alone, we assessed this treatment in two additional chronic cholestatic rodent models: α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)–treated rats and the Mdr2−/− (Abcb4−/−) knockout mouse. atRA alone significantly reduced bile duct proliferation, inflammation, and hydroxyproline levels in ANIT-treated rats, whereas the combination of atRA and UDCA significantly reduced plasma bile salt level compared with UDCA treatment. atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and bile salts in 12-week-old Mdr2−/− mice. Reduced bile duct proliferation and inflammation were also observed in the livers of these mice. Together, atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced the severity of liver injury in these two animal models, further supporting the combination treatment of atRA and UDCA as a potential new therapy for patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease who have not responded fully to UDCA. PMID:24492652

  10. Studies of a periodontal tissue lesion in the rat, untreated or treated with chlorhexidine digluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, R; Baverel, M

    1981-08-01

    The studies currently reported formed part of an enquiry whose overall objective was to identify a suitable animal model upon which initial screening of compounds and formulations with prophylactic and/or therapeutic potential in periodontitis could be carried out. An earlier study (Rovin et al. 1966) reported that periodontal inflammation could be produced in the conventional laboratory rat by application of a ligature to the molar teeth. The present paper describes the pathological and histo-pathological changes in the periodontium following application of ligatures to the molar teeth of young rats, and the tissue responses observed after topical application of chlorhexidine digluconate. Plaque formed rapidly and an acute periodontitis was induced; application of increasing concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate gave a progressive diminution in the severity of the lesions. The major bacterial components of the plaque were actinomycetes and streptococci.

  11. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia (karela fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aftab Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (karela (M. charantia fruits on blood glucose level, pancreatic weight changes and histopathology of pancreatic changes in the streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty-six albino rats were used in the experiment; diabetes mellitus was induced in 30 adult albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg STZ. Six non diabetic rats remained as control (T1 . The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into five equal groups: diabetic control (T2 without any treatment, groups T3, T4, T5 and T6 were treated with aqueous extract of karela fruits daily at a doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg up to 90 d, respectively. At Day 90, all rats were sacrificed, the pancreases of the rats were excised and processed. Results: The results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits was able to reduce blood glucose level significantly compared with the diabetic control group (P<0.01. Histopathologically, STZ resulted severe necrotic changes in pancreatic islets. Tissues sections of pancreas in the treated groups showed regeneration of β cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Conclusions: The present study suggests that oral feeding of M. charantia fruit juice has a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect and may have a role in the regeneration of the β cells in STZ diabetic rats.

  12. Change in pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously administered midazolam due to increased CYP3A2 expression in rats treated with menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Sho; Yamamura, Ayumi; Konishi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    Menthol is used widely as a constituent of functional foods and chemical drugs. The present study investigated changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously administered midazolam (MDZ), a probe for CYP3A, when rats were treated with menthol. The study also examined which isoforms of CYP3A1 and 3A2 were menthol-inducible and contributed to the altered disposition of midazolam. Menthol was administered intraperitoneally to rats once daily for 3 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg, while the control rats received vehicle alone. The pharmacokinetic examination of i.v. administered midazolam revealed that serum midazolam concentrations at each sampling point were lower in the menthol-treated rats than in the control rats. Regarding the pharmacokinetic parameters of the menthol-treated group, the area under the curve (AUC) was decreased significantly and, correspondingly, the elimination rate constant at terminal phase (ke) was increased significantly without significant changes in the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss). The metabolic production of the 1'-hydroxylated and 4'-hydroxylated forms of MDZ by hepatic microsomes was significantly greater in the menthol-treated rats than in the control rats. The expression levels of mRNA and protein for hepatic CYP3A2 were more than 2.5-fold higher than the control levels when the rats were treated with menthol, whereas no changes were observed in the expression levels of CYP3A1. These results indicate that menthol enhanced the elimination clearance of midazolam by inducing hepatic CYP3A2 and that careful attention should be paid when menthol is ingested in combination with drugs that act as substrates for CYP3A. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. Material/Methods A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Results Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Conclusions Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy. PMID:26947591

  14. Changed Synaptic Plasticity in Neural Circuits of Depressive-Like and Escitalopram-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Yong-Gui; Xu, Hua; Wu, Di; Gong, Wei-Gang; Geng, Lei-Yu; Wu, Fang-Fang; Tang, Hao; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-04-21

    Although progress has been made in the detection and characterization of neural plasticity in depression, it has not been fully understood in individual synaptic changes in the neural circuits under chronic stress and antidepressant treatment. Using electron microscopy and Western-blot analyses, the present study quantitatively examined the changes in the Gray's Type I synaptic ultrastructures and the expression of synapse-associated proteins in the key brain regions of rats' depressive-related neural circuit after chronic unpredicted mild stress and/or escitalopram administration. Meanwhile, their depressive behaviors were also determined by several tests. The Type I synapses underwent considerable remodeling after chronic unpredicted mild stress, which resulted in the changed width of the synaptic cleft, length of the active zone, postsynaptic density thickness, and/or synaptic curvature in the subregions of medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of the amygdala, accompanied by changed expression of several synapse-associated proteins. Chronic escitalopram administration significantly changed the above alternations in the chronic unpredicted mild stress rats but had little effect on normal controls. Also, there was a positive correlation between the locomotor activity and the maximal synaptic postsynaptic density thickness in the stratum radiatum of the Cornu Ammonis 1 region and a negative correlation between the sucrose preference and the length of the active zone in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus region in chronic unpredicted mild stress rats. These findings strongly indicate that chronic stress and escitalopram can alter synaptic plasticity in the neural circuits, and the remodeled synaptic ultrastructure was correlated with the rats' depressive behaviors, suggesting a therapeutic target for further exploration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. A Rat Model of Sytemic Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer to Evaluate and Treat Chemobrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Nat Neurosci 10:1110-1115. Saxe MD, Malleret G, Vronskaya S, Mendez I, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, Kandel ER, Hen R...learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats. BMC Neurosci 6:36. Cosolo W, Christophidis N (1987) Blood-brain barrier... Neurosci 16:2027-2033. 42 Linden CJ (1990) Response to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide of a human pleural mesothelioma clinically and as a xenograft

  16. Morphological Analysis of the Enamel Organ in Rats Treated with Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Igor Henrique Morais; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Evêncio, Liriane Baratella; Porter, Stephen Ross; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l.), and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 – 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 μm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis. PMID:20126347

  17. Morphological analysis of the enamel organ in rats treated with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Morais Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l., and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 - 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 mm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis.

  18. Ovarian development in Wistar rat treated prenatally with single dose diisobutyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, B; D'Souza, A S; Kumar, V; Pugazhandhi, B; D'Souza, M R; Nayak, D; Sushma, R K; Shetty, P; Singh, H; Krishna, L; Bhat, K M; Rao, A C; Chakraborti, S; Kumar, N; Saxena, A

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of industrial compounds with an array of toxicological properties used in day to day life. Diisobutyl phthalate on (DIBP) is used as an additive to keep the plastics soft or flexible (plasticizer) in nitrocellulose plastic, nail polish, explosives, lacquer manufacturing etc. Although DIBP exposure in humans is generally low, people in adhesive industries and pharmaceutical industries are exposed to higher levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single dose of DIBP on developing ovary of Wistar rat. One hundred and eight adult pregnant Wistar rats were divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in experimental group were given DIBP on day 10, 12 and 14 of gestation at 0.375, 0.75 and 1.25 ml/kg body weight dose intraperitoneally in a single dose. Sections of ovaries collected on day 21 of gestation were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined and Masson's trichrome histologically. Sections belonging to the control group showed the presence of oocytes in clusters separated by thin fibrous septa. Degeneration oocytes, empty follicles surrounded by follicular cells without gonocytes in the center were observed in ovarian stroma. Blood vessels in the ovarian stroma were prominent and congested. Around a bunch of follicles total architectural disarray was observed although on special staining fibrosis was not evident. As pregnant women are constantly exposed, effect of DIBP on ovary of a developing fetus would denote the long term consequence in future generations (Fig. 5, Ref. 39).

  19. Assessment of the oral health status of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Abla; Aldahlawi, Salwa; Fathi, Adel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the oral health status and salivary composition in a group of children suffering from bronchial asthma. The sample consisted of sixty asthmatic children, sixty healthy negative controls, and sixty healthy positive controls of both sexes with age ranging from 4 to 12 years old. The asthmatics were grouped according to disease severity into mild, moderate, or severe asthmatic. All the children were clinically examined to assess their dental caries experience (decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary tooth [def] and decayed-missing-filled permanent tooth [DMF]), dental erosion condition (tooth wear index), and gingival health condition (gingival index [GI]). Salivary samples were collected and assessed for salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and the level of calcium, sodium, and potassium. The results of this study revealed that asthmatic children presented significantly higher def, DMF score, and GI mean values compared to the control groups. Severe asthmatics significantly presented the highest def and GI score. Salivary analysis revealed reduced stimulated salivary flow rate and altered salivary pH. In addition, significantly elevated mean salivary calcium level found to be associated with higher GI mean score. Children suffering from bronchial asthma should receive special dental preventive attention as presented with greater risk for oral and dental diseases as compared to the healthy controls.

  20. Assessment of the oral health status of asthmatic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Abla; Aldahlawi, Salwa; Fathi, Adel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the oral health status and salivary composition in a group of children suffering from bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of sixty asthmatic children, sixty healthy negative controls, and sixty healthy positive controls of both sexes with age ranging from 4 to 12 years old. The asthmatics were grouped according to disease severity into mild, moderate, or severe asthmatic. All the children were clinically examined to assess their dental caries experience (decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary tooth [def] and decayed-missing-filled permanent tooth [DMF]), dental erosion condition (tooth wear index), and gingival health condition (gingival index [GI]). Salivary samples were collected and assessed for salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and the level of calcium, sodium, and potassium. Results: The results of this study revealed that asthmatic children presented significantly higher def, DMF score, and GI mean values compared to the control groups. Severe asthmatics significantly presented the highest def and GI score. Salivary analysis revealed reduced stimulated salivary flow rate and altered salivary pH. In addition, significantly elevated mean salivary calcium level found to be associated with higher GI mean score. Conclusions: Children suffering from bronchial asthma should receive special dental preventive attention as presented with greater risk for oral and dental diseases as compared to the healthy controls. PMID:28932147

  1. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute asthmatic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroksky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterised by reversible airway obstruction. In most patients, control of disease activity is easily achieved. However, in a small minority, asthma may be fatal. Between the two extremes lie patients with severe asthmatic attacks, refractory to standard treatment. These patients are at an increased risk of recurrent severe attacks, with respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation of the asthmatic patient is associated with a higher risk of complications and, therefore, is a measure of last resort. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is another treatment modality that may be beneficial in patients with severe asthmatic attack who are at an increased risk of developing respiratory failure. These patients have the potential to benefit from early respiratory support in the form of NPPV. However, reports of NPPV in asthmatic patients are scarce, and its usage in asthmatic attacks is, therefore, still controversial. Only a few reports of NPPV in asthma have been published over the last decade. These studies mostly involve small numbers of patients and those who have problematic methodology. In this article we review the available evidence for NPPV in asthma and try to formulate our recommendations for NPPV application in asthma based on the available evidence and reports.

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and their conditioned media could potentially ameliorate ovalbumin-induced asthmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Kazemi, Masoumeh; Keyhanmanesh, Rana

    2017-01-01

    The major feature of asthma is governed by chronic airway inflammation. This investigation was proposed to achieve the suitable candidate for ameliorating long-term chronic asthmatic changes of respiratory tract. 36 rats were classified into healthy (C) and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized animals (S). To sensitize, the rats were exposed to OVA over a course of 32±1days. One day after sensitization, equal six different groups were subjected to experimental procedure (n=6); Rats only received intratracheally 50ml PBS (CPT and SPT groups), 50μl conditioned medium (CM) (CST and SST groups) and 50μl PBS containing 2×10(6) rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) (CCT and SCT groups). Two weeks after treatment, tracheal responsiveness, immunologic responses and recruitment of rBMMSCs into the lung as well as pathological changes were evaluated. A high degree of tracheal responsiveness, total white blood cell and percentages of eosinophil and neutrophil was significantly recorded in all sensitized groups rather than of controls (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Of interest, all above-mentioned parameters decreased significantly in SST and notably SCT groups as compared to S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). The results revealed decrease number of blood CD3(+)CD4(+) and concurrent increase in CD3(+)CD8(+) in all sensitized rats as compared to control (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Noticeably, no significant modulatory effects of either cell or CM administration were achieved on the CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) populations in non-asthmatic rats. Moreover, the number of CD3(+)CD4(+) in SST and SCT groups tended to increase, which coincided with a decreased manner of CD3(+)CD8(+) populations as compared with S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). However, the CD3(+)CD4(+) cells in SCT rats were significantly higher than the group SST (p<0.01) whereas CD3(+)CD8(+) cells diminished simultaneously (p<0.001). Real-time PCR analysis further showed that both CM and particularly MSCs changed the expression

  3. Effect of an intranasal conrticosteroid on exercide induced bronchocostriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, E.T.; Leeuwen, J.C. van; Brand, P.L.; Duiverman, E.J.; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Thio, B.J.; Driessen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Allergic rhinitis and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are common in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of allergic rhinitis with an intranasal corticosteroid protects against EIB in asthmatic children. Methods: This was a

  4. The lipid profile in obese asthmatic children compared to non-obese asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L-J; Huang, C-S; Liu, Y-C; Su, Y-M; Wan, K-S

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between asthma and obesity has been documented in children and adolescents. An alternate day calorie restriction diet has been reported to improve asthma symptoms by decreasing levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides, reducing markers of oxidative stress and increasing levels of the antioxidant uric acid. Therefore, to investigate the lipid profile in asthmatic children may be important in asthma control treatment. One hundred and sixty newly diagnosed persistent asthmatic children were selected to participate in the study. They were divided into four groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Group I normal weight (BMI=20-24.9kg/m(2), n=30); Group II under-weight (BMI30kg/m(2), n=25). Fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, and HbA1c were measured to exclude the possibility of pre-diabetes. Lipid profile measurements included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-A1, apo-B and triglycerides. There were no significant differences in the levels of apo-A1, apo-B, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL in all four groups. Only the level of HDL was higher in GIV>GIII>GII>GI (75.84±13.95, 68.56±15.28, 64.17±13.93, 63.17±14.34mg/dl, respectively). There were no cases of pre-diabetes in any of the four groups. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia were not found in any of the persistent asthmatic children, and thus they are not high risk factors for asthma. Similarly, there were no differences in apo-A1 and apo-B between any of the BMI groups. No differences were found in LDL levels, however HDL levels were increased in all four groups, indicating that allergic sensitisation may have occurred. Controlling body weight and restricting calorie intake may be as important as appropriate pharmacological management in controlling asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Cyclic PTH(1-17) analog with bone anabolic activity and efficacy sufficient to treat established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morko, Jukka; Peng, ZhiQi; Vääräniemi, Jukka

    of a novel, cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, ZP2307, on the treatment of established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats. ZP2307 has been developed at Zealand Pharma A/S. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized at the age of 6 months. After 6 weeks without treatment, the development of metaphyseal...... exacerbated in OVX rats treated with vehicle. Treatment with ZP2307 reversed the development of osteopenia in tibial metaphysis and lumbar vertebra at all doses in a dose-dependent manner, and enhanced bone formation on their trabecular bone surface at the dose of 200.0 µg/kg/d. Treatment with ZP2307 also......, is the shortest PTH analog reported hitherto to exhibit bone anabolic activity and efficacy sufficient to treat established osteopenia in adult OVX rats. Due to its mild efficacy, ZP2307 may be very tolerable and have a broad therapeutic window and a better safety/efficacy profile than the PTH analogs currently...

  6. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  7. An autopsy case of asthmatic death: Usefulness of biochemical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma is the one of the major causes of sudden death in Japan. Postmortem diagnosis of asthma has been based on morphological findings in lungs, but it histological evidence, was also reported that the biochemical markers such as total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE are useful. Case report. We present here a case of fatal asthmatic death. A Japanese male in his thirties, complaining of dyspnea, collapsed suddenly. He was taken by ambulance to hospital, but cardiopulmonary resuscitation was ineffective. From autopsy findings, we concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia due to asthma attack. Biochemical findings indicated that the deceased had a severe asthmatic condition. Conclusion. In the presented case, the biochemical examination of the serum obtained at autopsy gave helpful information for the diagnosis that asthmatic attack was a cause of death.

  8. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Gibson, Peter G; Pretto, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma-related morbidity is greater in older compared with younger asthmatics. Airway closure is also greater in older asthmatics, an observation that may be explained by differences in airway inflammation. We hypothesized that in older adult patients with asthma......, neutrophil airway inflammation increases airway closure during bronchoconstriction, while eosinophil airway inflammation increases airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). METHODS: Asthmatic subjects (n = 26), aged ≥55 years (68% female), were studied, and AHR to 4.5% saline challenge was measured by the response......-dose ratio (%fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/mg saline). Airway closure was assessed during bronchoconstriction percent change in forced vital capacity (FVC)/percent change in FEV1 (i.e. Closing Index). Airway inflammation was assessed by induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). RESULTS...

  9. Dental health in asthmatic children: a South Italy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Sangianantoni, Giancarla; Cantile, Tiziana; Amato, Ivana; Ingenito, Aniello; Noschese, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health status of children with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma compared to healthy children. A group of 124 asthmatic children was compared to 156 age-matched healthy children. Bitewing radiographs were taken and clinical examinations were carried out to record caries prevalence, caries experience in both dentitions, periodontal health and dental enamel defects. Caries prevalence for asthmatic patients was 39% in the permanent dentition and 32% in the primary dentition. Healthy subjects presented 36% caries prevalence in the permanent dentition and 26% in the primary dentition. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in caries experience. The differences between asthmatic subjects and healthy subjects for periodontal health and enamel defects were not statistically significant either. Children affected by mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma do not seem to be more susceptible to oral diseases than healthy children.

  10. Some hematological parameters of Wistar rats treated with Chromolaena odorata leave extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of the different extracts of Chromolaena odorata leave on the hematopoietic system of Wistar rats. Solvent extraction was used for the ethanol and aqueous extractions while decoction method was used for the crude extraction. Fifty Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 140-180 g were used for this study. They were divided into ten groups each containing five rats. The animals were fed the extracts by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Blood sample was collected via cardiac artery. Hematological parameters were analyzed using automation method. The ethanol extract gave the highest extract yield. The aqueous, ethanol and crude extraction had median lethal toxicity (LD50 of 2738.6 mg/kg, 1581.1 mg/kg and 224.7 mg/kg, respectively. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the total white blood cell count was observed in the 75 mg/kg ethanol and 300 mg/kg crude extracts when compared with control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the hemoglobin concentration was observed in the 150 mg/kg ethanol extracts when compared with the control group. Significant difference (P<0.05 in the packed cell volume was seen in the 75 mg/kg aqueous, 150 mg/kg aqueous and 75 mg/kg ethanol extracts in respect to the control group. The mean cell volume, the mean platelet volume and platelet large cell ratio of the 75 mg/kg aqueous extract were significantly different (P<0.05 when compared with the control group. The present study showed possible treatment-induced hematopoietic function of C. odorata leave extracts.

  11. Glutamine reduces bacterial translocation after small bowel transplantation in cyclosporine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Frankel, W L; Bain, A; Choi, D; Klurfeld, D M; Rombeau, J L

    1995-02-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) of enteric organisms is a major cause of sepsis in patients undergoing small bowel transplantation (SBT). Cyclosporine (CsA) may be toxic to intestinal epithelium and increase the risk of BT. Glutamine (Gln) is the preferred enterocyte fuel and maintains graft epithelial integrity in experimental SBT. This study determined the effects of CsA on mucosal structure and function of transplanted intestinal isograft and examined whether Gln-enriched diet reversed CsA-induced intestinal toxicity. Thirty-three adult Lewis rats underwent resection of the distal 60% of small bowel and received an orthotopic jejunal isograft. Rats received either elemental diet with 2% Gln or the same diet with balanced nonessential amino acids (non-Gln) by gastrostomy for 10 days. CsA (15 mg/kg, im) or olive oil was injected daily. Rats were assigned to four groups: non-Gln with vehicle, non-Gln with CsA, Gln with vehicle, and Gln with CsA. Mucosal villous height, surface area, crypt depth, 14C glucose absorption, BT to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and body weight change were evaluated. The non-Gln with CsA group had the highest incidence of BT (P < 0.001). Gln groups had significantly decreased BT (P < 0.01) and increased crypt depth and villous surface area (P < 0.01) when compared to non-Gln groups. Body weight significantly decreased in CsA groups when compared to non-CsA groups (P < 0.01). These results indicate at CsA significantly decreased body weight and increased BT without decreasing mucosal structure and glucose absorption of intestinal isografts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The neurochemical profile of the hippocampus in isoflurane-treated and unanesthetized rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshanov Petr N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In vivo study of cerebral metabolism in neonatal animals by high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is an important tool for deciphering the developmental origins of adult diseases. Up to date, all in vivo spectrum acquisition procedures have been performed in neonatal rodents under anesthesia. However, it is still unknown if the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane, which is commonly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies, could affect metabolite levels in the brain of neonatal rats. Moreover, the unanesthetized MRS preparation that uses neonatal rodent pups is still lacking.

  13. Biospeciation of tungsten in the serum of diabetic and healthy rats treated with the antidiabetic agent sodium tungstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros; Rodríguez-Fariñas, Nuria; Cañas-Montalvo, Benito; Domínguez, Jorge; Guinovart, Joan; Cámara-Rica, Carmen

    2011-05-30

    It is known that oral administration of sodium tungstate preserves the pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic rats. Healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with sodium tungstate for one, three or six weeks, after which the species of W in serum, were analysed. An increase in serum W with treatment time was observed. After six weeks, the serum W concentration in diabetic rats (70 mg L(-1)) was about 4.6 times higher than in healthy specimens. This different behaviour was also observed for Cu accumulation, while the Zn pattern follows the contrary. The patterns observed in the retention of Cu and Zn may be attributable to a normalization of glycaemia. The speciation analysis of W was performed using 2D separations, including an immunoaffinity packing and a SEC (Size Exclusion Chromatography) column coupled to an ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) for elemental detection. Ultrafiltration data together with SEC-ICP-MS results proved that around 80% of serum W was bound to proteins, the diabetic rats registering a higher W content than their healthy counterparts. Most of the protein-bound W was due to a complex with albumin. An unknown protein with a molecular weight higher than 100 kDa was also found to bind a small amount of W (about 2%). MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight) analysis of the desalted and concentrated chromatographic fractions confirmed albumin as the main protein bound to tungstate in rat serum, while no binding to transferrin (Tf) was detected. The interaction between glutathione and W was also evaluated using standard solutions; however, the formation of complexes was not observed. The stability of the complexes between W and proteins when subjected to more stringent procedures, like those used in proteomic methodologies (denaturing with urea or SDS, boiling, sonication, acid media, reduction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) or DTT (dithiotreitol) and alkylation with

  14. [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET study in a lactacystin-treated rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chi-Chang; Huang, Siao-Lan; Chen, Zi-An; Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2017-08-01

    Lactacystin has been used to establish rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD), with cerebral α-synuclein inclusions. This study evaluated the uptake of [ 18 F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2)-targeting radiotracer, through positron emission tomography (PET) in lactacystin-treated rat brains. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated with a single intracranial dose of lactacystin (2 or 5 μg) or saline (served as the sham control) into the left medial forebrain bundle. A 30-min static [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ brain PET scan was performed following an intravenous [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ dose (approximately 22 MBq) in each animal at 2 and 3 weeks after lactacystin treatment. Upon completing the last PET scans, the animals were killed, and their brains were dissected for ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as well as VMAT2. Both the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups exhibited significantly decreased specific [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake in the ipsilateral striata (I-ST) at 2 weeks (1.51 and 1.16, respectively) and 3 weeks (1.36 and 1.00, respectively) after lactacystin treatment, compared with the uptake in the corresponding contralateral striata (C-ST) (3.48 and 3.08 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 2 weeks; 3.36 and 3.11 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 3 weeks) and the sham controls (3.34-3.53). Lactacystin-induced decline in I-ST [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake was also demonstrated through ex vivo ARG, and the corresponding dopaminergic neuron damage was confirmed by the results of TH- and VMAT2-IHC studies. In this PD model, lactacystin-induced dopaminergic terminal damage in the ipsilateral striatum could be clearly visualized through in vivo [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging. This may serve as a useful approach for evaluating the effectiveness of new

  15. Bone mineral density in asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroids in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chunn Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The risk factors for osteoporosis and osteopenia among asthmatic patients were older age and lower BMI, but not the cumulative dose of ICS. Asthmatic patients on ICS have no added risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia as compared with non-asthmatic subjects.

  16. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  18. Glutamyl aminopeptidase in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate if the content of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAp in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.Urine samples were collected 24 hours after injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg, n = 10 or saline serum (n = 10, and they were subjected to differential centrifugation at 1.000, 17.000 and 200.000 g to obtain microvesicular and exosomal fractions. GluAp was measured with a commercial ELISA kit in both fractions. Serum creatinine (SCr and body weight were measured 15 days after treatment. We analyzed if early excretion of GluAp in microsomal and exosomal fractions was correlated with final SCr and body weight increase. In a second experiment, enzymatic activities of GluAp and alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAp in urine, microvesicular and exosomal fractions were measured three days after injection. We analyzed the correlation of both markers with SCr determined at this point. Finally, we studied the expression of GluAp and extracellular vesicles markers Alix and tumor susceptibility gene (TSG101 in both fractions by immunoblotting.GluAp excretion was increased in all fractions of urine after cisplatin treatment, even if data were normalized per mg of creatinine, per body weight or per total protein content of each fraction. We found significant predictive correlations with SCr concentration, and inverse correlations with body weight increase determined 15 days later. Three days after injection, aminopeptidasic activities were markedly increased in all fractions of urine in cisplatin-treated rats. The highest correlation coefficient with SCr was found for GluAp in microvesicular fraction. Increase of GluAp in microvesicular and exosomal fractions from cisplatin-treated rats was confirmed by immunoblotting. Alix and TSG101 showed different patterns of expression in each fraction.Determination of GluAp content or its enzymatic activity in microvesicular and

  19. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-01-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies. PMID:25075781

  20. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine Enhances Vascularization and Prevents Osteonecrosis in Steroid-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (steroid-induced ONFH is an avascular necrosis disease of bone. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, with significant vascular protective properties, has been widely used for the treatments of ischemic neural disorders and cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in the treatment of steroid-induced ONFH has not been evaluated. In this study, our results showed that TMP significantly decreased the ratio of empty lacuna, adipose tissue area, and adipocyte perimeter in steroid-induced ONFH rats histopathologically. TMP also reduced the levels of serum lipid dramatically by haematological examination. According to the micro-CT quantification, TMP could improve the microstructure of the trabecular bone and increases bone mineral density in steroid-induced ONFH rats. Moreover, TMP significantly increased the vessel volume, vessel surface, percentage of vessel volume, and vessel thickness of the femoral heads by micro-CT. Interestingly, the downregulation of VEGF and FLK1 proteins in the sera and necrotic femoral heads could be reversed by TMP treatment, and this was true for their mRNA expressions in femoral heads. In conclusion, these findings suggest for the first time that TMP may prevent steroid-induced ONFH and also enhance femoral head vascularization by inhibiting the effect of steroid on VEGF/FLK1 signal pathway.

  2. Combination Ointment Containing Solid Tranilast Nanoparticles and Dissolved Sericin Is Efficacious for Treating Skin Wound-Healing Deficits and Redness in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ogata, Fumihiko; Deguchi, Saori; Ueno, Akina; Kawasaki, Naohito; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to design a combination ointment containing solid tranilast nanoparticles and dissolved sericin as a wound-healing drug (TS-combination ointment), and evaluated its usefulness as therapy for wound-healing deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat) using kinetic analyses as an index. Solid tranilast nanoparticles were prepared by bead mill methods with low-substituted methylcellulose; the mean particle size of the tranilast nanoparticles was 70 nm. The ointment was designed to contain the tranilast nanoparticles plus sericin powder and/or Carbopol® 934. Skin wound healing in STZ rats begins significantly later than in normal rats. Although the skin wound healing rate in STZ rats treated with an ointment containing tranilast nanoparticles was lower than in STZ rats treated with vehicle, the ointment was effective in reducing redness. An ointment containing sericin enhanced the skin-healing rate, but the preventive effect on redness was weak. On the other hand, the combination of tranilast and sericin increased both the skin healing rate and reduction in redness. In conclusion, we have adapted kinetic analyses to skin wound healing in rats, and found these analyses to be useful as an index of wound healing ability by a wound-healing drug. In addition, we show that treatment with the TS-combination ointment enhances the skin wound healing rate and reduces redness. These findings provide information significant to the search for new wound-healing therapies and for the design of wound-healing drugs.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-11-14

    To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl(4)-treated rats. Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl(4)-only treated), B (CCl(4)+UD treated), C (CCl(4)+NS treated) and D (CCl(4)+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl(4) (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. The CCl(4) treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  4. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, M; Meral, I; Dede, S; Gunduz, H; Cemek, M; Ozbek, H; Uygan, I

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects Nigella sativa L. (NS) and Urtica dioica L. (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. A total of 60 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4 + UD treated), C (CCl4 + NS treated) and D (CCl4 + UD + NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 [0.8 ml/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 days starting day 1]. In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 ml/kg NS or/and 2 ml/kg UD oils for 45 days starting day 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 ml/kg normal saline solution for 45 days starting day 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at beginning, at 45th and at 90th day of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 days increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 days starting day 46 decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. Live weights of the rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. It is concluded that NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defence system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  5. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased microparticle production and impaired microvascular endothelial function in aldosterone-salt-treated rats: protective effects of polyphenols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López Andrés

    Full Text Available We aimed to characterize circulating microparticles in association with arterial stiffness, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in aldosterone-salt-induced hypertension in rats and to investigate the preventive effects of red wine polyphenols. Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with aldosterone-salt (1 µg.h(-1, with or without administration of either red wine polyphenols, Provinols™ (20 mg.kg(-1.day(-1, or spironolactone (30 mg.kg(-1.day(-1 for 4 weeks. Microparticles, arterial stiffness, nitric oxide (NO spin trapping, and mesenteric arterial function were measured. Aldosterone-salt rats showed increased microparticle levels, including those originating from platelets, endothelium and erythrocytes. Hypertension resulted in enhanced aortic stiffness accompanied by increased circulating and aortic NO levels and an upregulation of aortic inducible NO-synthase, NFκB, superoxide anions and nitrotyrosine. Flow-induced dilatation was reduced in mesenteric arteries. These effects were prevented by spironolactone. Provinols™ did not reduce arterial stiffness or systolic hypertension but had effects similar to those of spironolactone on endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilatation, microparticle generation, aortic NO levels and oxidative stress and apoptosis in the vessel wall. Neither the contractile response nor endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries differed between groups. The in vivo effects of Provinols™ were not mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors or changes in shear stress. In conclusion, vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction in aldosterone-salt-mediated hypertension are associated with increased circulating microparticles. Polyphenols prevent the enhanced release of microparticles, macrovascular inflammation and oxidative stress, and microvascular endothelial dysfunction independently of blood pressure, shear stress and mineralocorticoid receptor activation in a

  7. Prevention of hepatorenal toxicity with Sonchus asper in gentamicin treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sonchus asper possesses antioxidant capacity and is used in liver and kidney disorders. We have investigated the preventive effect of methanolic extract of Sonchus asper (SAME on the gentamicin induced alterations in biochemical and morphological parameters in liver and kidneys of Sprague-Dawley male rat. Methods Acute oral toxicity studies were performed for selecting the therapeutic dose of SAME. 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were equally divided into five groups with 06 animals in each. Group I received saline (0.5 ml/kg bw; 0.9% NaCl while Group II administered with gentamicin 0.5 ml (100 mg/kg bw; i.p. for ten days. Animals of Group III and Group IV received gentamicin and SAME 0.5 ml at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively while Group V received only SAME at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were determined in serum collected from various groups. Urinary out puts were measured in each group and also assessed for the level of protein and glucose. Lipid peroxides (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, DNA injuries and activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined in liver and renal samples. Histopathological studies of liver and kidneys were also carried out. Results On the basis of acute oral toxicity studies, 2000 mg/kg bw did not induce any toxicity in rats, 1/10th of the dose was selected for preventive treatment. Gentamicin increased the level of serum biomarkers; AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, BUN, total and direct bilirubin; as were the urinary level of protein, glucose, and urinary output

  8. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  9. Expression of metallothioneins I and II related to oxidative stress in the liver of aluminium-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaabane, Mariem; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Abdelhedi, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Hepatotoxicity, induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3), has been well studied but there are no reports about liver metallothionein (MT) genes induction. Therefore, it is of interest to establish the mechanism involving the relation between MT gene expression levels and the oxidative stress status in hepatic cells of aluminium-treated rats. Aluminium (Al) was administered to rats in their drinking water at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for three weeks. AlCl3 provoked hepatotoxicity objectified by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and vitamin C. CAT and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased while Mn-SOD gene expression, total Metallothionein content and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. There are changes in plasma of some trace elements, albumin levels, transaminases, LDH and ALP activities. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations.

  10. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  11. Influence of the fish oil in the gut microbiota of wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) treated with dexamethasone and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan, Luiza; Girotto, Camila; Fracasso, Mateus; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Wagner, Glauber; Battiston, Francielle Garghetti

    2017-10-14

    The widespread use of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory has been more and more prominent. In spite of the proven pharmacological potential, its collateral effects are still being described. The fish oil is made of acids fatty polyunsaturated, as the omega 3. The aim of this paper is to check if there would be interference of this fish oil in the gut microbiota of rats when treated with dexamethasone and amoxicillin, joining with the parameter lipids and glycemic. This study was done with 42 Wistar rats, divided into 6 groups with 7 animals each: naive (CTL), amoxicillin (AMOX), dexamethasone (DEX), fish oil (OLP), associated amoxicillin and fish oil (AMOX + OLP) association dexamethasone and fish oil (DEX + OLP). The results show that the fish oil influenced in the concentration of blood glucose in the animals, keeping stable levels even after a pool of glucose. Differently, the fish oil increased the levels of LDL in the animals. The amoxicillin changed the mass of liver and spleen, changed the levels of triglyceride and changed the gut microbiota. The dexamethasone influenced the lipids parameters and mass of the spleen as well as it slightly increased the amount of cholesterol LDL. It is possible to conclude that fish oil increases the levels of LDL in the tested model and the dose tested, but is able to maintain glucose levels even after a pool of the same, and can be a preventive model with hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preventive effects of green tea against liver oxidative DNA damage and hepatotoxicity in rats treated with 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Chujo, T; Sai-Kato, K; Umemura, T; Tanimura, A; Kurokawa, Y

    1995-11-01

    Male rats were given 2% green tea as their drinking water for 2 wk before a single ip injection of the carcinogen 2-nitropropane (2NP) (100 mg/kg body weight) and liver nuclear 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and hepatotoxicity parameters were determined 6 or 15 hr thereafter. The increase of 8-OHdG adducts in liver nuclear DNA caused by 2NP was depressed 50% at both time points with the green tea pretreatment. The time-dependent elevations of serum aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase values by 2NP were also effectively prevented. However, green tea had no obvious effects on the falls in serum lipid peroxide and triglyceride levels associated with carcinogen exposure. Increases of hepatic lipid peroxide levels with 2NP were depressed 100 and 30%, at 6 and 15 hr, respectively, by green tea and the decrease in hepatic glycogen content at 6 hr was clearly alleviated. Histopathological examination revealed effective protection against induction of hepatic degenerative changes by 2NP at 15 hr. Drinking crude catechin extract solution with the same concentration of (-)epigallocatechin gallate as green tea provided protection at 6 hr, but with only half the effectiveness. These findings demonstrate that green tea can effectively block oxidative DNA damage to the liver as well as hepatotoxicity in rats treated with 2NP.

  13. Serum and liver lipids distributions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat treated with diet containing yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; Rêgo, Thaís de Salgado; Asht, Louise da Silva; Monteiro, Igor Cabral Coutinho do Rêgo; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Feijó, Márcia Barreto da Silva; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2015-04-01

    Liver disease as a major cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a interest to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of yam. The goal was assess the role of Brazilian yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) on serum and hepatic levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, in female diabetic rats. The rats were divided into three groups: Control (C), Diabetic (DM); Diabetic Yam (DMY), treated with diet containing 25g/100g of yam flour. After 5 weeks of experiment, glucose, insulin, gonadal fat and liver mass were evaluated. Serum and liver concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were quantified. Total liver thiols were determined. After the 5 weeks, experimental groups shower (P < 0.05): Lower body mass; lower serum insulin; higher food intake and higher blood glucose concentration. DMY (vs. DM) group showed (P < 0.05): Lower blood glucose; higher gonadal fat mass; lower serum and hepatic triglycerides; higher hepatic cholesterol and thiols concentrations. DMY (vs. C) group showed: Similar serum and hepatic triglycerides and hepatic thiols. Brazilian yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) alleviated the consequences of the experimental diabetic disease, suggesting protection to hypertriglyceridemia and lipid peroxidation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  15. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  16. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  17. Pregabalin can prevent, but not treat, cognitive dysfunction following abdominal surgery in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takashi; Eguchi, Satoru; Iwata, Hideki; Yamanaka, Daiki; Tateiwa, Hiroki; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the preventive or therapeutic effect of peri-operative pregabalin treatment on the memory deficits and related hippocampal inflammation following surgery in aged rats. Aged rats underwent abdominal or sham surgery, and were then divided into 2 groups, either early or late pregabalin treatment. Fourteen days after surgery, the cognitive function was assessed using novel object recognition test, followed by measurement of hippocampal cytokines and voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit (CACNA2D1). The parabiotic experiments determined whether the humoral or neuronal pathway was involved in the neuroinflammation development following the abdominal surgery. The effects of pregabalin on LPS-induced cytokine release from hippocampal microglia were also evaluated. Early pregabalin treatment, which was administered pre-operatively and continued for 3 or 7days after surgery, prevented memory deficits and decreased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. In contrast, no beneficial effects were observed when pregabalin was administered late in the post-operative period. The hippocampal levels of CACNA2D1 did not change under any experimental condition. The data from the cross-circulation (parabiosis) experiments indicated that abdominal surgery may induce neuroinflammation via a neural transmission pathway from the periphery to the brain. The ex vivo experiments further demonstrated that pregabalin had no effect on LPS-induced cytokines release from hippocampal microglia. Our findings highlight reveal that peri-operative pregabalin treatment during the early post-operative period can prevent neuroinflammation and memory deficits after surgery. It is likely this occurs through a peripheral and central neuro-immune interaction rather than through direct anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changed Synaptic Plasticity in Neural Circuits of Depressive-Like and Escitalopram-Treated Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Yong-Gui; Xu, Hua; Wu, Di; Gong, Wei-Gang; Geng, Lei-Yu; Wu, Fang-Fang; Tang, Hao; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although progress has been made in the detection and characterization of neural plasticity in depression, it has not been fully understood in individual synaptic changes in the neural circuits under chronic stress and antidepressant treatment. Methods: Using electron microscopy and Western-blot analyses, the present study quantitatively examined the changes in the Gray’s Type I synaptic ultrastructures and the expression of synapse-associated proteins in the key brain regions of rats’ depressive-related neural circuit after chronic unpredicted mild stress and/or escitalopram administration. Meanwhile, their depressive behaviors were also determined by several tests. Results: The Type I synapses underwent considerable remodeling after chronic unpredicted mild stress, which resulted in the changed width of the synaptic cleft, length of the active zone, postsynaptic density thickness, and/or synaptic curvature in the subregions of medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of the amygdala, accompanied by changed expression of several synapse-associated proteins. Chronic escitalopram administration significantly changed the above alternations in the chronic unpredicted mild stress rats but had little effect on normal controls. Also, there was a positive correlation between the locomotor activity and the maximal synaptic postsynaptic density thickness in the stratum radiatum of the Cornu Ammonis 1 region and a negative correlation between the sucrose preference and the length of the active zone in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus region in chronic unpredicted mild stress rats. Conclusion: These findings strongly indicate that chronic stress and escitalopram can alter synaptic plasticity in the neural circuits, and the remodeled synaptic ultrastructure was correlated with the rats’ depressive behaviors, suggesting a therapeutic target for further exploration. PMID:25899067

  19. Drinking behaviour in rats treated with isoprenaline, angiotensin II or angiotensin antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraviglio, Emma

    1979-01-01

    1. Isoprenaline hydrochloride injected subcutaneously in rats given a choice test of 1·8% NaCl and water, first induced saline intake which started immediately and was almost concluded in 15 min, followed by a copious water intake. When either saline or water were given in a separate test, saline intake surpassed the water intake in the first 15 min. 2. The delay of 15, 30 or 60 min after injection of isoprenaline, 100 μg/kg, before drinking was allowed, significantly reduced saline intake but did not modify the amount of water subsequently drunk. 3. Isoprenaline caused a sudden drop in arterial blood pressure, the extent and duration depending on the dose. The time of maximum drop 3-4 min after injection coincided with the time the rat drank salt. 4. Isoprenaline-induced saline drinking was significantly reduced after bilateral nephrectomy but water intake was unaffected. 5. The beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, propranolol, inhibited isoprenaline-induced NaCl and water intake, while the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine abolished isoprenaline-induced NaCl intake and enhanced water intake. 6. Saralasin acetate (P-113), a competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II, given into the third brain ventricle, prevented the isoprenaline-induced NaCl and water intake as well as angiotensin II-induced drinking. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor SQ-20881 reduced the isoprenaline-induced NaCl and water intake. 7. In conclusion, hypotension might be a component of salt drinking evoked by isoprenaline although the dipsogenic action of beta-stimulation is mainly due to endogenous renin-angiotensin activation. PMID:231100

  20. P38/TRHr-Dependent Regulation of TPO in Thyroid Cells Contributes to the Hypothyroidism of Triclosan-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Yang, Min; Zeng, Li; Liu, Changjiang

    2018-02-15

    Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs). To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474), or TRHr siRNA. Tissues and/or cells were analyzed by several techniques including transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, gene silencing, western blot, and real-time PCR. Triclosan led to histopathologic changes in the thyroid and decreases in triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Triclosan stimulated ROS production and oxidative stress occurrence, thereby activating the p38 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr) was induced when the p38 pathway was activated, and was suppressed when that pathway was inhibited. Moreover, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) was restrained and modulated by the p38/TRHr pathway after triclosan treatment. Furthermore, deiodinase 3 (D3) and hepatic enzymes (Ugt2b1, CYP1a1, CYP1a2, CYP2b1, CYP3a1, and Sult1e1) were also induced by triclosan. Taken together, p38/TRHr-dependent regulation of TPO in thyroid cells contributes to the hypothyroidism of triclosan-treated rats. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. P38/TRHr-Dependent Regulation of TPO in Thyroid Cells Contributes to the Hypothyroidism of Triclosan-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs. Methods: To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474, or TRHr siRNA. Tissues and/or cells were analyzed by several techniques including transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, gene silencing, western blot, and real-time PCR. Results: Triclosan led to histopathologic changes in the thyroid and decreases in triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. Triclosan stimulated ROS production and oxidative stress occurrence, thereby activating the p38 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr was induced when the p38 pathway was activated, and was suppressed when that pathway was inhibited. Moreover, thyroid peroxidase (TPO was restrained and modulated by the p38/TRHr pathway after triclosan treatment. Furthermore, deiodinase 3 (D3 and hepatic enzymes (Ugt2b1, CYP1a1, CYP1a2, CYP2b1, CYP3a1, and Sult1e1 were also induced by triclosan. Conclusion: Taken together, p38/TRHr-dependent regulation of TPO in thyroid cells contributes to the hypothyroidism of triclosan-treated rats.

  2. IL-25 Promotes Th2 Immunity Responses in Asthmatic Mice via Nuocytes Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-25 (IL-25 is a potent activator of type-2 immune responses, and is responsible for airway inflammation in asthma. Previous reports have shown that IL-25 expressed hyper-reactivity in an experimental mouse-model of asthma. In addition, the production of IL-13/IL-5 promoted by nuocytes induced airway inflammation. Thus, it has been questioned whether blocking IL-25 against its receptor IL-17BR could inhibit the expression of IL-13 and IL-5 via nuocytes, and further protect against inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA induced mouse-model of asthma.In this study, in order to investigate the correlation among IL-25, IL-5, IL-13 and nuocyte activities, we used OVA-sensitization and -challenging to induce the mouse model of asthma. The murine asthmatic model was validated by histology. The expressions of IL-5, IL-13 and IL-25 were detected by ELISA, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting of the lung tissue. Nuocyte activation was identified by the levels of ICOS (clone C398.4A and T1/ST2 (cloneDJ8 (acting as nuocytes surface markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. This, in turn, was done by means of flow cytometry. The expressions of IL-25, IL-5 and IL-13 in our murine model were detected in the BALF.The mice sensitized and challenged with OVA showed a high expression of IL-25 in both the mRNA and protein levels in lungs. The expressions of ICOS and T1/ST2 in BALF were increased. A significant correlation between IL-25 mRNA, protein, and other Th2-cell producing cytokines (such as IL-5 and IL-13 moreover were identified. Furthermore, when the asthmatic mice were treated with anti-IL-25, both the inflammatory cells' infiltration and the inflammatory cytokines' secretion were significantly decreased. The present findings indicate that IL-25 might be involved in a series of asthmatic immune responses, playing an important role in the increase of nuocytes, and that its activation is necessary in maintaining Th2 central memory and

  3. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  4. original article clinical effects of yoga on asthmatic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    CONCLUSION: Yoga exercise among asthmatic patients resulted in a decreased number of day and ... children in USA and Australia have the disorder. (4). ... emotional wellbeing and positive out look in general and to result in a feeling of freedom and relaxation. Twenty four patients diagnosed to have asthma and.

  5. Cockroach hypersensitivity in asthmatics in Lagos, Nigeria | Adanijo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both sexes was not significant. Other highlights of the study included the fact that cockroach sensitivity was related to age, duration of asthma, nocturnal asthmatic attacks, frequency of attacks, and the levels of infestation. There was an insignificant relationship between cockroach sensitivity and the location of residences as ...

  6. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    The frequency of vitamin D deficiency among asthmatic Egyptian children. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is defined as a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurrent symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Children have smaller airways than adults, which ...

  7. daily, sustained-release theophylline on sleep in nocturnal asthmatics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the effects of once-daily, sustained- release theophylline on sleep patterns in nocturnal asthmatics. Design. Double-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo- controlled trial ... 22-day trial, 3 patients having withdrawn due to adverse events. During the initial 7 days of the stUdy, serum was obtained at 07hOO and ...

  8. Bronchoprotection with a leukotriene receptor antagonist in asthmatic preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...

  9. J. . Sulphur dioxide sensitivity in South African asthmatic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preservatives in the food industry. They inhibit enzymatic browning in fresh fruit, vegetables and salads, and non-enzyrnatic browning in dried ..... choconstriction due to aspirin, azo dyes, non-azo dyes, and preser- vatives in a population of perennial asthmatics. ] Allergy Clin. Immll1w11979; 64: 32-36. 15. Bush RK, Taylor ...

  10. Clinical Effects of Yoga on Asthmatic Patients: A Preliminary Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the commonest respiratory diseases in Jimma area as well as a significant disease burden worldwide costing billions of dollars. Anti-asthmatic drugs that are available in the market are expensive and have adverse effects. Thus, it is wise to look for an adjunct therapy to alleviate these ...

  11. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and ...

  12. Clinical effectiveness of conventional influenza vaccination in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A J; Hak, E; Stalman, W A B; van Essen, G A; Hoes, A W; Verheij, Th J M

    Influenza immunization rates among young asthmatics remain unsatisfactory due to persistent concern about the impact of influenza and the benefits of the vaccine. We assessed the effectiveness of the conventional inactivated trivalent sub-unit influenza vaccine in reducing acute respiratory disease

  13. plasma magnesium in adult asthmatics at the lagos university

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... Objective: To determine the plasma magnesium levels in adult asthmatics. Design: Case control study. Setting: Lagos ... using spectrophotometric end point methods. Results: Mean (SD) plasma magnesium ... and it is known to have a direct effect on calcium uptake resulting in smooth muscle relaxation (3).

  14. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still

  15. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  16. Reduction of EEG theta power and changes in motor activity in rats treated with ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesi, Michele; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of total glutamate transport. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ceftriaxone (CEF) robustly increases GLT-1 expression. In addition, physiological studies have shown that GLT-1 up-regulation strongly affects synaptic plasticity, and leads to an impairment of the prepulse inhibition, a simple form of information processing, thus suggesting that GLT-1 over-expression may lead to dysfunctions of large populations of neurons. To test this possibility, we assessed whether CEF affects cortical electrical activity by using chronic electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in male WKY rats. Spectral analysis showed that 8 days of CEF treatment resulted in a delayed reduction in EEG theta power (7-9 Hz) in both frontal and parietal derivations. This decrease peaked at day 10, i.e., 2 days after the end of treatment, and disappeared by day 16. In addition, we found that the same CEF treatment increased motor activity, especially when EEG changes are more prominent. Taken together, these data indicate that GLT-1 up-regulation, by modulating glutamatergic transmission, impairs the activity of widespread neural circuits. In addition, the increased motor activity and prepulse inhibition alterations previously described suggest that neural circuits involved in sensorimotor control are particularly sensitive to GLT-1 up-regulation.

  17. Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourique, Giovana M; Saccol, Etiane M H; Pês, Tanise S; Glanzner, Werner G; Schiefelbein, Sun Hee; Woehl, Viviane M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Long-term administration of valproic acid (VPA) is known to promote reproductive impairment mediated by increase in testicular oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant known to be essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the capacity of this vitamin to abrogate the VPA-mediated oxidative stress has not yet been assessed. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of VitE on functional abnormalities related to VPA-induced oxidative stress in the male reproductive system. VPA (400 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gavage and VitE (50 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Analysis of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides was performed. The testes and epididymides were collected for measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. Treatment with VPA induced a decrease in sperm motility accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, depletion of reduced glutathione and a decrease in total reactive antioxidant potential on testes and epididymides. Co-administration of VitE restored the antioxidant potential and prevented oxidative damage on testes and epididymides, restoring sperm motility. Thus, VitE protects the reproductive system from the VPA-induced damage, suggesting that it may be a useful compound to minimize the reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term treatment with VPA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo cardiac electrical activity of nitric oxide in barium chloride treated male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihi, Abbas B. Q.; Shekha, Mudhir S.; Hamadamin, Peshraw S.; Maulood, Ismail M.; Rasul, Khder H.; Salim, Muhammed A.; Qadir, Fikry A.; Othman, Goran Q.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.; Al-Habib, Omar A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitric oxide in barium chloride (BaCl2)-induced arrhythmia in male albino rats. 10mg/kg/hr of BaCl2 was infused intravenously through caudal vein to induce arrhythmia, to ameliorate this effect 1mg and 10mg/kg/hr of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor) were infused, respectively. The ECG signals and parameters were recorded and analyzed with the aid of BioAmp of ADInstruments data acquisition system and Labchart software. The results showed that infusion of both 1mg/kg/hr and 10mg/kg/hr of SNP non significantly changed heart rate (BPM), QRS interval (s), S amplitude (mV), T amplitude (mV), ST height (mV), JT height (mV), QT intervals (s) and QTc (s). In conclusion the results of the current study indicate that SNP cannot ameliorate arrhythmia-induced by BaCl2.

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  20. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  1. Vitamin C acts as a hepatoprotectant in carbofuran treated rat liver slices in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Carbamates, most commonly used pesticides in agricultural practices, have been reported to produce free radicals causing deleterious effects in animals. The present study was designed to assess the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat liver slices in vitro and also to evaluate protective role of vitamin C by incubating them in Krebs-Ringer HEPES Buffer (KRHB containing incubation media (Williams medium E (WME supplemented with glucose and antibiotics with different concentrations of carbofuran. The results demonstrated that carbofuran caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition in the activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD in concentration dependent manner. The data with incubation medium reflected that carbofuran at lowest concentration caused an increase in SOD activity followed by its inhibition at higher concentration. Carbofuran treatment caused inhibition in the activity of catalase in liver slices and WME incubation medium. Pre-incubation of liver slices and the WME media with vitamin C restored the values of biochemical indices tested. The results indicated that carbofuran might induce oxidative stress in hepatocytes. The pretreatment with vitamin C may offer hepatoprotection from toxicity of pesticide at low concentration only. Keywords: Carbofuran, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, In vitro, Hepatotoxicity

  2. Aging and Oxidative Stress Decrease Pineal Elongation Factor 2: In Vivo Protective Effect of Melatonin in Young Rats Treated With Cumene Hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario F; Argüelles, Sandro; Cano, Mercedes; Marotta, Francesco; Ayala, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We studied the alterations of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) in the pineal gland of aged rats as well as the possible protective role of exogenous melatonin on these changes in young rats treated with cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound that promotes lipid peroxidation and inhibits protein synthesis. The study was performed using male Wistar rats of 3 (control), 12, and 24 months and 3-month-old rats treated with CH, melatonin, and CH plus melatonin. We found that pineal eEF-2 is affected by aging and CH, these changes being prevented by exogenous melatonin in the case of CH-treated rats. The proteomic studies show that many other proteins are affected by aging and oxidative stress in the pineal gland. The results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms underlying pineal gland dysfunction during aging is the effect of lipid peroxidation on eEF-2, which is a key component of protein synthesis machinery. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 182-190, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. HLA-G Haplotypes Are Differentially Associated with Asthmatic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ribeyre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, a HLA class Ib molecule, interacts with receptors on lymphocytes such as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells to influence immune responses. Unlike classical HLA molecules, HLA-G expression is not found on all somatic cells, but restricted to tissue sites, including human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC. Individual variation in HLA-G expression is linked to its genetic polymorphism and has been associated with many pathological situations such as asthma, which is characterized by epithelium abnormalities and inflammatory cell activation. Studies reported both higher and equivalent soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in different cohorts of asthmatic patients. In particular, we recently described impaired local expression of HLA-G and abnormal profiles for alternatively spliced isoforms in HBEC from asthmatic patients. sHLA-G dosage is challenging because of its many levels of polymorphism (dimerization, association with β2-microglobulin, and alternative splicing, thus many clinical studies focused on HLA-G single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictive biomarkers, but few analyzed HLA-G haplotypes. Here, we aimed to characterize HLA-G haplotypes and describe their association with asthmatic clinical features and sHLA-G peripheral expression and to describe variations in transcription factor (TF binding sites and alternative splicing sites. HLA-G haplotypes were differentially distributed in 330 healthy and 580 asthmatic individuals. Furthermore, HLA-G haplotypes were associated with asthmatic clinical features showed. However, we did not confirm an association between sHLA-G and genetic, biological, or clinical parameters. HLA-G haplotypes were phylogenetically split into distinct groups, with each group displaying particular variations in TF binding or RNA splicing sites that could reflect differential HLA-G qualitative or quantitative expression, with tissue-dependent specificities. Our results, based on a

  4. Complexity of VTA DA neural activities in response to PFC transection in nicotine treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akay Yasemin M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopaminergic (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA are widely implicated in the addiction and natural reward circuitry of the brain. These neurons project to several areas of the brain, including prefrontal cortex (PFC, nucleus accubens (NAc and amygdala. The functional coupling between PFC and VTA has been demonstrated, but little is known about how PFC mediates nicotinic modulation in VTA DA neurons. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of acute nicotine exposure on the VTA DA neuronal firing and to understand how the disruption of communication from PFC affects the firing patterns of VTA DA neurons. Methods Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats and nicotine was administered after stable recording was established as baseline. In order to test how input from PFC affects the VTA DA neuronal firing, bilateral transections were made immediate caudal to PFC to mechanically delete the interaction between VTA and PFC. Results The complexity of the recorded neural firing was subsequently assessed using a method based on the Lempel-Ziv estimator. The results were compared with those obtained when computing the entropy of neural firing. Exposure to nicotine triggered a significant increase in VTA DA neurons firing complexity when communication between PFC and VTA was present, while transection obliterated the effect of nicotine. Similar results were obtained when entropy values were estimated. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PFC plays a vital role in mediating VTA activity. We speculate that increased firing complexity with acute nicotine administration in PFC intact subjects is due to the close functional coupling between PFC and VTA. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that deletion of PFC results in minor alterations of VTA DA neural firing when nicotine is acutely administered.

  5. Thioacetamide-induced acute liver toxicity in rats treated with Balanites roxburghii extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Rao Talluri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and thioacetamide induced liver toxicity using extracts of aerial parts of Balanites roxburghii (B. roxburghii. Methods: The in-vitro antioxidant activity was estimated for different extracts on superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and the hepatoprotective activity of the selected plant extracts was evaluated by using thioacetamide-induced liver intoxication in rats model. Results: There were no visible signs of toxicity, mortality and no behavioral changes were observed for the selected plant extracts (hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate and hexane at 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The plant extracts showed dose-dependent effectiveness in the inhibition of free radicals generation and hepatoprotective nature. The hydroalcoholic extract showed more scavenging activity as compared to other extracts with IC50 values of (332.50 ± 1.30 mg, (302.00 ± 1.50 mg and (230.40 ± 1.10 mg on superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. Aerial parts of B. roxburghii at three dose levels such as 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed dose dependent percentage protection as standard drugs and on enhancement activities of serum biomarker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein observed in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. The hydroalcoholic extract showed significant results at 500 mg/kg body weight as compared to other extracts (P < 0.05 with 65.65%, 62.39%, 59.89%, 55.90% and 54.61% on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein levels. Conclusions: It was observed that the B. roxburghii plant extracts are non-toxic and have capacity to restore the physiological changes caused by the hepatotoxic compounds.

  6. Peroxisomal Enzymes and 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in Rat Liver Treated with Perfluorooctanoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdellatif

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although peroxisome proliferators are considered non-genotoxic agents, most of them, nevertheless, were found to promote and/or induce, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in rodents. The aim of the present study is, first, to investigate whether the peroxisome proliferator perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA possesses inherent liver cancer promoting activity, and second, to study the possible mechanisms involved. To acheive these aims two protocols have been applied, a biphasic protocol (initiation by diethyl-nitrozamine (DEN 200 mg/kg i.p. followed by treatment with 0.005% or 0.02% perflourooctanoic acid (PFOA for 14 and 25 weeks and a triphasic initiation, selection-promotion (IS protocol (initiation by giving 200 mg/kg DEN i.p. followed by a selection procedure for 2 weeks consisting of giving 0.03% 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF in diet. In the middle of this treatment a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (2.0 ml/kg was given, followed by giving diet containg 0.015% of PFOA for 25 weeks. After applying both protocols, our results showed slight increase in the catalase activity while acyl CoA oxidase activity was markedly increased. Both experiments indicated that PFOA has a liver cancer promoting activity. Other groups of rats were given either basal diet or diet containing 0.02% PFOA. Five or nine weeks later they were sacrificed and the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the isolated DNA were estimated. The data showed a slight nonetheless insignificant increase in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. From the present data, it is concluded that PFOA is a true liver cancer promoter that may not require extensive initial DNA damage for its promoting activity.

  7. Extraction socket healing in rats treated with bisphosphonate: animal model for bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of jaws in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Erdem, Mehmet; Burak-Cankaya, Abdulkadir; Cemil-Isler, Sabri; Demircan, Sabit; Soluk, Merva; Kasapoglu, Cetin; Korhan-Oral, Cuneyt

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to replicate both clinical and histological presentation of bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaws (BONJ) in an animal model of the disease state. Successful recapitulation of a BONJ-like indication in an animal model will be useful for studying pathogenesis, as well as prevention and treatment strategies for BONJ. Eighty (80) rats were prospectively and randomly divided into two groups; control group(40) and study group(40). All animals in study group, injected with a dose of 1 mg/kg dexamethasone (DX) subcutaneously on day 7, 14, or 21; and 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7.5 µg/kg zoledronic acid (ZA) subcutaneously administered to coincide with the last day of DX. Half of the animals from each group underwent extraction of the left mandibular molars and the remaining animals underwent extraction of the left maxillary molars under pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized twenty-eight (28) days following tooth extractions. The amount of new bone trabecules as significantly decreased in bisphosphonate-dexamethasone (BP-DX) treated sockets. Difference between both groups was found statistically significant (p=0,0001). There's no foreign body reaction in sockets of both groups and no significance difference observed for fibrosis (p=0,306). The necrosis scores were significantly higher in BP-DX treated sockets (p=0,015). The inflamation scores were significantly higher for study group (p=0,0001). This study provides preliminary observations for the development of an animal model of BONJ. But we think that there is need for other studies have only BP treated group and larger study population.

  8. Validation of the antidiabetic effects of Vernonia amygdalina delile leaf fractions in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vernonia amygdalina (VA is used in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria. Previous scientific verification of VA is on Type-1 diabetes model, in spite of the continuous increase in Type-2 diabetes (T2D among adults. This study aimed to validate the antidiabetic effects of VA leaf fraction (VALF in a unique T2D rat model. Materials and Methods: Methanol crude extract of VA leaf was fractionated with solvents of increasing order of polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, n- butanol and water. The antidiabetic activities of the fractions were evaluated in vivo in T2D model rats. Albino Wistar rats were induced with T2D and treated with the VALF. Several T2D-related parameters were measured. Results: T2D rats showed significant increase in serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, liver and kidney biomarkers. At 28-day post-oral treatment with the VALF, FBG levels were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced (n- hexane [29.3%], chloroform [66.7%], ethyl acetate [36.2%], n- butanol [45.59%] and aqueous [39.3%]. The glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the chloroform fraction (Vernonia amygdalina chloroform fraction [VAc]-treated groups compared to the other fractions-treated group and diabetic control group. Furthermore, the VAc was found to be most effective as it ameliorates most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters in diabetic rats when compared with n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The study validates the anti-diabetic effects of VALF in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of T2D, and suggests that the VAc is a potential candidate for development of a more effective drug for the management of T2D.

  9. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in lung compliance (Cdyn) and airway resistance (RI) in response to increasing concentrations of methacholine were recorded directly, as described previously [15]. Briefly, the rats were tracheotomised and cannulated and placed in a whole body plethysmograph chamber connected to the ventilator. The rats were ...

  10. Transmeningeal muscimol can prevent focal EEG seizures in the rat neocortex without stopping multineuronal activity in the treated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvig, Nandor; Tang, Hai M; Artan, N Sertac; Mirowski, Piotr; Medveczky, Geza; Baptiste, Shirn L; Darisi, Sindhu; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Devinsky, Orrin; French, Jacqueline A

    2011-04-18

    Muscimol has potent antiepileptic efficacy after transmeningeal administration in animals. However, it is unknown whether this compound stops local neuronal firing at concentrations that prevent seizures. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that epidurally administered muscimol can prevent acetylcholine (Ach)-induced focal seizures in the rat neocortex without causing cessation of multineuronal activity. Rats were chronically implanted with a modified epidural cup over the right frontal cortex, with microelectrodes positioned underneath the cup. In each postsurgical experimental day, either saline or 0.005-, 0.05-, 0.5- or 5.0-mM muscimol was delivered through the cup, followed by a 20-min monitoring of the multineuronal activity and the subsequent delivery of Ach in the same way. Saline and muscimol pretreatment in the concentration range of 0.005-0.05 mM did not prevent EEG seizures. In contrast, 0.5-mM muscimol reduced the average EEG Seizure Duration Ratio value from 0.30±0.04 to 0. At this muscimol concentration, the average baseline multineuronal firing rate of 10.9±4.4 spikes/s did not change significantly throughout the 20-min pretreatment. Muscimol at 5.0mM also prevented seizures, but decreased significantly the baseline multineuronal firing rate of 7.0±1.8 to 3.7±0.9 spikes/s in the last 10 min of pretreatment. These data indicate that transmeningeal muscimol in a submillimolar concentration range can prevent focal neocortical seizures without stopping multineuronal activity in the treated area, and thus this treatment is unlikely to interrupt local physiological functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of skin wound healing in diabetic rats treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Martins, Marcelino, E-mail: nayanamachado@oi.com.br [Faculdade Diferencial Integral (FACID), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Costa, Charlytton Luis Sena da; Maia Filho, Antonio Luis [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Loschiavo [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: patients with diabetes mellitus exhibit a delay in the lesion repair process. The active components of Cenostigma macrophyllum may represent a viable alternative to facilitate the recovery of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsion oil-water Cenostigma macrophyllum in the repair process of lesions in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: 63 male rats (Wistar, 200-250 g body weight, 30-40 days old) were distributed into the following groups: control (C), diabetic (D) and diabetic treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum (P), subdivided based on the experimental times, days 7, 14 and 28, with 21 animals per main group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg via penile vein and 12-h fasting) and confirmed at day 21 (glycemic index > 240 mg/dL). In the animals of group P, 0.5 ml of the oil-water emulsion obtained from the plant seed was used. The samples were removed and hemisectioned, and one portion was used for the quantitative histological analysis of collagen using Masson's trichrome staining, while another portion was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results: A higher percentage area of the volume of collagen fibers was observed for the experimental time Day 14 in group P compared with group D (p < 0.001). Regarding the ratio of areas of the amides I (1700-1600 cm{sup -1}) and III (1245-1345 cm{sup -1}), the groups D and P show the opposite behavior. Conclusion: Cenostigma macrophyllum accelerated the repair process in skin of diabetic ratsfor14 days. (author)

  12. Effects of olive oil and its fractions on oxidative stress and the liver's fatty acid composition in 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellouz Meriem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C a control group, (D group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w., (D/EVOO group treated with 2,4-D plus extra virgin olive oil, (D/OOHF group that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (D/OOLF group treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO group that received only extra virgin olive oil, (OOHF group given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF group treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavage for 4 weeks. Results A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions. Conclusion We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction.

  13. Effects of olive oil and its fractions on oxidative stress and the liver's fatty acid composition in 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Olive oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C) a control group, (D) group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w.), (D/EVOO) group treated with 2,4-D plus extra virgin olive oil, (D/OOHF) group that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (D/OOLF) group treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO) group that received only extra virgin olive oil, (OOHF) group given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF) group treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavage for 4 weeks. Results A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions. Conclusion We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction. PMID:21034436

  14. Increased proinflammatory responses from asthmatic human airway smooth muscle cells in response to rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Nicholas JC

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exacerbations of asthma are associated with viral respiratory tract infections, of which rhinoviruses (RV are the predominant virus type. Airway smooth muscle is important in asthma pathogenesis, however little is known about the potential interaction of RV and human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM. We hypothesised that rhinovirus induction of inflammatory cytokine release from airway smooth muscle is augmented and differentially regulated in asthmatic compared to normal HASM cells. Methods HASM cells, isolated from either asthmatic or non-asthmatic subjects, were infected with rhinovirus. Cytokine production was assayed by ELISA, ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by FACS, and the transcription regulation of IL-6 was measured by luciferase activity. Results RV-induced IL-6 release was significantly greater in HASM cells derived from asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects. This response was RV specific, as 5% serum- induced IL-6 release was not different in the two cell types. Whilst serum stimulated IL-8 production in cells from both subject groups, RV induced IL-8 production in only asthmatic derived HASM cells. The transcriptional induction of IL-6 was differentially regulated via C/EBP in the asthmatic and NF-κB + AP-1 in the non-asthmatic HASM cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates augmentation and differential transcriptional regulation of RV specific innate immune response in HASM cells derived from asthmatic and non-asthmatics, and may give valuable insight into the mechanisms of RV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  15. Bronchial macrophages in asthmatics reveal decreased CD16 expression and substantial levels of receptors for IL-10, but not IL-4 and IL-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Dabrowska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of different subpopulations of bronchial macrophages (BMs in asthma pathogenesis has not yet been completely elucidated. In addition, little is known about potential in vivo responsiveness of BMs to pro- and anti-inflam-matory cytokines present in the bronchial milieu. We aimed to characterize asthmatic patients' BM subpopulations delineated by common markers of macrophage/monocyte cells, CD16 and CD14, and subsequently to analyze cytokine receptor expression on those subsets. Subjects included eighteen patients with moderate asthma (six steroid-naive and twelve steroid-treated and ten healthy control subjects. Flow cytometry was used to analyze phenotypical features of BMs including expression of receptors for IL-10, IL-4 and IL-7. Exhaled nitric oxide analysis and induced sputum eosinophil counts were used to assess airway inflammation. BMs from both steroid-naive and steroid-treated asthmatic patients showed significantly decreased expression of CD16, as compared to healthy subjects' BMs. CD16, but not CD14, expression inversely correlated with exhaled nitric oxide levels and sputum eosinophilia. Short-term administration of inhaled cortiocosteroids (ICS in steroid-naive asthmatic patients led to significant reduction of CD16 expression and enhancement of CD14 expression. Next, we analyzed the expression of receptors for IL-10, IL-4 and IL-7 on the surface of BM subpopulations characterized by different levels of CD14 and CD16 expression. We observed substantial levels of IL-10R on the surface of BMs collected from asthmatic and healthy subjects. Interestingly, IL-10R was found mostly on those macrophages that co-expressed CD14. In contrast, independently on co-expression of CD14, the levels of IL-4R and IL-7R on BMs were low in both asthmatic and healthy subjects. The results suggest that different BM subsets may be differentially involved in regulating the inflammatory response in allergic asthma.

  16. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J. K.; Ketheson, A.; Faiz, A.; Rempel, K. A. Limbert; Oliver, B. G.; Ward, J. P. T.; Halayko, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness

  17. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  18. Changes in Iron Metabolism and Oxidative Status in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Bis(maltolato Oxovanadium (IV as an Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sánchez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of vanadium as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic agent has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the metabolism of iron and in antioxidant defences of diabetic STZ rats following treatment with vanadium. Four groups were examined: control; diabetic; diabetic treated with 1 mgV/day; and Diabetic treated with 3 mgV/day. The vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato oxovanadium (IV (BMOV. The experiment had a duration of five weeks. Iron was measured in food, faeces, urine, serum, muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, and femur. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, NAD(PH: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 activity, and protein carbonyl group levels in the liver were determined. In the diabetic rats, higher levels of Fe absorbed, Fe content in kidney, muscle, and femur, and NQO1 activity were recorded, together with decreased catalase activity, in comparison with the control rats. In the rats treated with 3 mgV/day, there was a significant decrease in fasting glycaemia, Fe content in the liver, spleen, and heart, catalase activity, and levels of protein carbonyl groups in comparison with the diabetic group. In conclusion BMOV was a dose-dependent hypoglycaemic agent. Treatment with 3 mgV/day provoked increased Fe deposits in the tissues, which promoted a protein oxidative damage in the liver.

  19. Choice of cell-delivery route for skeletal myoblast transplantation for treating post-infarction chronic heart failure in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satsuki Fukushima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Intramyocardial injection of skeletal myoblasts (SMB has been shown to be a promising strategy for treating post-infarction chronic heart failure. However, insufficient therapeutic benefit and occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias are concerns. We hypothesised that the use of a retrograde intracoronary route for SMB-delivery might favourably alter the behaviour of the grafted SMB, consequently modulating the therapeutic effects and arrhythmogenicity.Three weeks after coronary artery ligation in female wild-type rats, 5x10(6 GFP-expressing SMB or PBS only (control were injected via either the intramyocardial or retrograde intracoronary routes. Injection of SMB via either route similarly improved cardiac performance and physical activity, associated with reduced cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy and fibrosis. Grafted SMB via either route were only present in low numbers in the myocardium, analysed by real-time PCR for the Y-chromosome specific gene, Sry. Cardiomyogenic differentiation of grafted SMB was extremely rare. Continuous ECG monitoring by telemetry revealed that only intramyocardial injection of SMB produced spontaneous ventricular tachycardia up to 14 days, associated with local myocardial heterogeneity generated by clusters of injected SMB and accumulated inflammatory cells. A small number of ventricular premature contractions with latent ventricular tachycardia were detected in the late-phase of SMB injection regardless of the injection-route.Retrograde intracoronary injection of SMB provided significant therapeutic benefits with attenuated early-phase arrhythmogenicity in treating ischaemic cardiomyopathy, indicating the promising utility of this route for SMB-delivery. Late-phase arrhythmogenicity remains a concern, regardless of the delivery route.

  20. The anti-obesity agent Orlistat is associated to increase in colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Barros, Luane Taísa da Costa; Turatti, Aline; Martinello, Flávia; Modiano, Patrícia; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Vespúcio, Marcelo Vinícius de Oliveira; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira

    2006-08-28

    Orlistat is an anti-obesity agent that increases the fecal fat excretion, which promotes colon carcinogenesis. Therefore, the present study was designed to verify the effects of Orlistat on the formation of rat colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation evaluated by the PCNA method. Male Wistar rats received either a standard diet or a high fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with Orlistat (200mg/kg chow) and two doses of the carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (25mg/Kg). After 30 days, Orlistat was associated to a significant increase in the number of colonic ACFs and cell proliferation in DMH-treated animals, independently of the HFD.

  1. Protective Effects of Vitamin E and/or Quercetin Co-Supplementation on the Morphology of Kidney in Cyclosporine A-Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Mostafavi Pour; Mahmood Vessal; Fatemeh Zal; Zahra Khoshdel; Simin Torabinejad

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a nephrotoxic immunosuppressivedrug. Antioxidants might attenuate its toxicity. Inthe present study, the effects of vitamin E and quercetin on themorphology of kidney in CsA-treated rats were investigated.Methods: Six groups of rats were used in this gavage feedingstudy either for 4 or 8 weeks. Groups 1 and 2 received eitherolive oil or 25% ethanol in olive oil per day. Group 3 receivedCsA (25 mg/kg/day) in olive oil. All other groups received CsAplus the f...

  2. Effects of ankaferd blood stopper on soft tıssue healıng ın warfarın treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Aktop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS is a new promising local haemostatic agent. Although there are many studies showing its mechanism of haemostasis, histological and biochemical effects of ABS have not been studied in detail. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this new generation local haemostatic agent on warfarin treated rats focusing on short term soft tissue healing. 12 systemically warfarin treated (warfarin group and 12 none treated Wistar – Albino rats (control group were selected for the trial. Rats in warfarin group were treated intraperitonally 0,1 mg/kg warfarin and rats in control group were given 1ml/kg saline 3 days earlier to surgical procedure and continued until sacrification. All rats had incisions on dorsal dermal tissue which was applied ABS or no haemostatic agent (NHAA before suturing. Six of each group are sacrified on day 4, and the other 6 were sacrified on day 8. Prothrombin time (PT in blood samples, collagen rate and histological evaluation in skin samples were determined. NHAA tissue samples’ collagen rate decreased [p=0,008] but the collagen rate of ABS administrated tissue samples remained unchanged [p=0,257] from day 4 to 8 in the control group.Both ABS administrated tissue samples’ [p=0,026] and NHAA tissue samples’ [p=0,005] histologic total damage score values decreased from day 4 to 8 in warfarin group, but values of ABS administrated tissues were significantly higher than NHAA tissues in warfarin group at the eight day [p=0,006]. ABS seems to have a negative effect on short term soft tissue healing histologically under warfarin treatment.

  3. Prostate carcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-testosterone-treated rats fed tomato powder, lycopene, or energy-restricted diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Thomas W-M; Liao, Zhiming; Kim, Sunny; Lemeshow, Stanley; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2003-11-05

    Consumption of tomato products or lycopene and energy restriction have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of human prostate cancer. We investigated the effects of these dietary variables in a rat model of prostate carcinogenesis. Male rats (n = 194) treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and testosterone to induce prostate cancer were fed diets containing whole tomato powder (13 mg lycopene/kg diet), lycopene beadlets (161 mg lycopene/kg diet), or control beadlets. Rats in each group were randomly assigned to either ad libitum feeding or 20% diet restriction. Differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves for diet composition or restriction were tested with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to examine the combined effect of diet composition and restriction on survival. Statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of death with prostate cancer was lower for rats fed the tomato powder diet than for rats fed control beadlets (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59 to 0.93; P =.009). In contrast, prostate cancer-specific mortality of the control and lycopene-fed rats was similar (P =.63). The proportions of rats dying with prostate cancer in the control, lycopene, and tomato powder groups were 80% (95% CI = 68% to 89%), 72% (95% CI = 60% to 83%), and 62% (95% CI = 48% to 75%), respectively. Rats in the diet-restricted group experienced longer prostate cancer-free survival than rats in the ad libitum-fed group (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.96; P =.029). The proportion of rats that developed prostate cancer was 79% (95% CI = 69% to 86%) for ad libitum-fed rats and 65% (95% CI = 54% to 74%) for rats fed restricted diets. No interactions were observed between diet composition and dietary restriction. Consumption of tomato powder but not lycopene inhibited prostate carcinogenesis, suggesting that tomato products contain compounds in addition to lycopene that modify prostate carcinogenesis. Diet restriction also reduced the

  4. Caries experience in asthmatic children: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkistani, Jihan Mohammed; Farsi, Najat; Almushayt, Abdullah; Alaki, Sumer

    2010-01-01

    This review explores the discriminating factors involved for increased caries experience in asthmatic children. Dental caries is the single most common chronic disease of childhood. Children with chronic medical conditions are considered high caries risk. Asthma is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in childhood. 27 studies examined the asthma-caries causative relationship. Most of them were cross sectional studies; only 5 longitudinal studies were reported. In the literature, there is a lack of consensus regarding the relationship between dental caries and asthma in a child population. Despite the fact that some relatively recent studies have provided little evidence for an asthma-caries causative relationship, the majority and the most recent reports have concluded that the individualistic nature of asthmatic condition, through either its disease status or its pharmacotherapy (diferent combinations of medicaments), or attempts to alleviate the condition's physiologic sequelea, carries several factors for an increased caries risk.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium increases the intracellular free calcium concentration in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Min, Shengping; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-04-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the activation of astrocytes. A previous study showed that CNTF-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) contributed to the increase of the calcium current and the elevation of corresponding ion channels in cortical neurons. On this basis, it is reasonable to assume that CNTF-ACM may increase the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in neurons. In the present study, the effects of CNTF-ACM on [Ca 2+ ] i in rat cortical neurons were determined, and on this basis, the aim was to investigate the potential active ingredients in ACM that are responsible for this biological process. As expected, the data indicated that CNTF-ACM resulted in a clear elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i in neurons. Additionally, the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) contained in the CNTF-ACM was found to participate in the upregulation of [Ca 2+ ] i . Taken together, CNTF induces the production of active factors (at least including FGF-2) released from astrocytes, which finally potentiate the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i in cortical neurons.

  6. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Deregulation of Inflammation-Related Proteins in Acupuncture-Treated Rats with Asthma Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Dong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the beneficial effects of acupuncture in asthma treatment have been well documented, little is known regarding the biological basis of this treatment. Changes in the lung proteome of acupuncture-treated rats with asthma onset were comparatively analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE and mass-spectrometry- (MS- based proteomic approach. Acupuncture on specific acupuncture points appeared to improve respiratory function and reduce the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-induced asthma onset. Image analysis of 2DE gels revealed 32 differentially expressed acupuncture-specific protein spots in asthma onset; 30 of which were successfully identified as 28 unique proteins using LC-MS/MS. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that these altered proteins are most likely involved in inflammation-related biological functions, and the functional associations of these proteins result in an inflammation signaling pathway. Acupuncture regulates the pathway at different levels by regulating several key nodal proteins, including downregulating of proinflammatory proteins (e.g., S100A8, RAGE, and S100A11 and upregulating of anti-inflammatory proteins (e.g., CC10, ANXA5, and sRAGE. These deregulated inflammation-related proteins may mediate, at least in part, the antiasthmatic effect of acupuncture. Further functional investigation of these acupuncture-specific effector proteins could identify new drug candidates for the prophylaxis and treatment of asthma.

  7. Bypassing hazard of housekeeping genes: Their evaluation in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of Multiple Sclerosis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali eMathur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies employing real-time PCR has become an intrinsic part of biomedical research. Appropriate normalization of target gene transcript(s based on stably expressed housekeeping genes is crucial in individual experimental conditions to obtain accurate results. In multiple sclerosis (MS, several gene expression studies have been undertaken, however, the suitability of housekeeping genes to express stably in this disease is not yet explored. Recent research suggests that their expression level may vary under different experimental conditions. Hence it is indispensible to evaluate their expression stability to accurately normalize target gene transcripts. The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The selected reference genes were quantified by real time PCR and their expression stability was assessed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Both methods reported transferrin receptor (Tfrc and microglobulin beta-2 (B2m the most stable genes whereas beta-actin (ActB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh the most fluctuated ones. Altogether our data demonstrate the significance of pre-validation of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization and indicates Tfrc and B2m as best endogenous controls in MS. ActB and Gapdh are not recommended in gene expression studies related to the current one.

  8. Use of Propolis Hydroalcoholic Extract to Treat Colitis Experimentally Induced in Rats by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Cristina Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the therapeutic effect of a propolis SLNC 106PI extract on experimental colitis. Wistar adult rats received 0.8 mL rectal dose of one of the following solutions: saline (group S, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol (group TNBS, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and propolis extract in saline (group TNBS-P, propolis extract in saline (group SP, and 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and 50 mg/kg mesalazine (group TNBS-M. The animals were euthanized 7 or 14 days after the colitis induction. Samples of the distal colon were harvested for the analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity and for morphometric analysis in paraffin-embedded histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin or histochemical staining. The animals treated with TNBS exhibited the typical clinical signs of colitis. Increased MPO activity confirmed the presence of inflammation. TNBS induced the development of megacolon, ulceration, transmural inflammatory infiltrate, and thickened bowel walls. Treatment with propolis moderately reduced the inflammatory response, decreased the number of cysts and abscesses, inhibited epithelial proliferation, and increased the number of goblet cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the propolis SLNC 106 extract was confirmed by the reductions in both the inflammatory infiltrate and the number of cysts and abscesses in the colon mucosa.

  9. Effects of different quantities of fat on serum and liver lipids, phospholipid class distribution and fatty acid composition in alcohol-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna; Ristić, Gordana N

    2003-12-01

    The present study investigated the quantitative effect of dietary fats and ingestion of alcohol on serum and liver lipids, fatty acid bound to phospholipids and their class distribution of male Wistar rats. The rats in C (control) and A (alcohol) groups were fed a standard laboratory diet, HFC (high fat-control) and HFA (high fat-alcohol) groups were fed a high fat diet (standard diet supplemented with 20 g%w/w, sunflower oil: lard mixture 1: 1) for 6 wk. Alcohol-treated rats consumed alcohol at the rate of 9 g/kgbw/d (15-20% energy). Liver phospholipid (PL) content was decreased, and phospholipid/cholesterol liver molar ratio increased in the alcohol treated rats. The proportion of serum sphingophospholipid (Sph) was significantly lower and proportion of phosphatidylcholin (PC) significantly higher in serum PL in alcohol-treated rats. Phospholipid class distribution was unaffected by alcohol feeding in liver. Significantly lower levels of 16:1n-7 and higher levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:4n-6 in the serum PL were observed in the alcohol-treated rats. The groups on the HF diet increased levels of 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6 and total n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased levels of 18:1n-9 and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)in both liver and serum PL, but n-3 fatty acid increased in serum PL and decreased in liver PL compared to groups on the standard diet. Alcohol fat interaction was evident in MUFA and PUFA/SFA in serum PL and n-6, MUFA, PUFA and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA/SFA) in liver PL. This study showed that the high fat intake in alcohol-treated rats increased levels of 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6 and 20:4/18:2 ratio, and decreased level of 18:1n-9 in liver and serum phospholipids.

  10. The Clinical report of Asthmatic Patients with CVA by treatment of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun­Gon Kim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Asthma is considered to be an inflamatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two patients of Asthma with CVA by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The effect of Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture was assessed by analyzing the pulmonary function test(PFT and Quality of Life Questionnaire for adult Korean Asthmatics(QLQAKA in patients before and after treatment. Total score was increased. The patients are satisfied our treatment. But further research concerning this is still necessary.

  11. PIKO-6® vs. forced spirometry in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Larios-Castañeda, Pablo José; Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Briseño, David Martínez; Flores-Campos, Roberto; Sáenz-López, Juan Arturo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The PIKO-6® is an electronic device that measures forced expiratory volume at seconds 1 (FEV1) and 6 (FEV6) of a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver. This device could aid in diagnosing obstructive respiratory diseases. To determine the concordance of FEV1, FEV6, and the FEV1/FEV6 quotient achieved with PIKO-6® versus spirometric values from asthmatic patients, and compare results with measures from healthy children. A cross-sectional study with asthmatic and healthy 6-to-14-year-old children, all of whom performed a forced spirometry as well as a PIKO-6® test. The study included 82 subjects (58 asthmatics, 24 healthy children). Except for the functional parameters, the basal characteristics of the two groups were similar. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for FEV1 was 0.938 (P spirometry was lower in patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma compared to controlled or healthy children. The broad limits of agreement show that the FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 obtained with the PIKO-6® are not interchangeable with spirometry results. Longitudinal evaluations of asthma patients are necessary to assess the utility of PIKO-6®. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Body Mass Index and Comorbidities in Adult Severe Asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreina Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both severe asthma and obesity are growing health problems. Severe asthma leads to a poor quality of life. The relationship among BMI, comorbidities, and severe asthma control in adults is still unclear. The aim of the study is to better understand the effect of the comorbidities as atopy, type II diabetes, OSAS, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, infections, and psychological factors with BMI on asthma control in a cohort of adult severe asthmatics. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study assessing asthma control, treatments, pulmonary function, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Patients were divided into 3 classes according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We found that the optimal state of asthma control is lower. whereas the score of Asthma Control Questionnaire, the number of asthma exacerbations during last year, the oral corticosteroids requirement during the previous year, and the LABA treatments are higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight severe asthmatics. The number of subjects with type II diabetes and OSAS are higher among obese and overweight patients than in normal weight asthmatics. In conclusion, BMI represents per se a factor for the deterioration in disease control in severe asthma.

  13. What can we learn from chest radiographs in hypoxemic asthmatics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shiu-Lin; Crain, Ellen F. [Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert EinsteinCollege of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Silver, Ellen J. [Department of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert EinsteinCollege of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Goldman, Harold S. [Department of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert EinsteinCollege of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Radiology, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Background: Chest radiographs (X-rays) are frequently obtained on children with asthma exacerbations who remain hypoxemic after therapy eventhough their utility has not been evaluated. Objective: To compare X-rays in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic asthmatic children. Methods: Over 21 months, X-rays were obtained on all persistently hypoxemic asthmatics (1-17 years, oxygen saturation <93% in room air), and some non-hypoxemic asthmatics. A pediatric radiologist blinded to the patients' symptoms evaluated each X-ray for lung size, extravascular lung fluid, and atelectasis. Clinical outcomes including duration of hypoxemia, length of hospital stay, and admission to the PICU were assessed through chart audit after hospital discharge. Results: A total of 445 patients were enrolled and stratified into four groups based on initial and post-treatment pulse oximetry measurements. Hypoxemic groups I and II were more likely to have large or small lungs (P<0.05), severe interstitial fluid (P<0.01), and atelectasis (P<0.01) compared to non-hypoxemic group IV. Group I was more likely to have fluid in the alveolar space compared to all other groups (P<0.01). Within hypoxemic group I, there was no association between any radiographic findings and our clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  14. Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% RSD, FEF50% RSD, slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert H.; Reynolds, Curt; Brooker, Allison; Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that deep inspiration (DI), either before methacholine (MCh) challenge (Bronchoprotection, BP) or after MCh challenge (Bronchodilation, BD) protects against this challenge in healthy individuals, but not in asthmatics. Sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant and antiinflammatory phytochemical derived from broccoli, may affect the pulmonary bronchoconstrictor responses to MCh and the responses to DI in asthmatic patients. Methods Forty-five moderate asthmatics we...

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profile of urinary organic acids of Wistar rats orally treated with ozonized unsaturated triglycerides and ozonized sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardines, Daniel; Correa, Teresa; Ledea, Oscar; Zamora, Zullyt; Rosado, Aristides; Molerio, Jesús

    2003-01-15

    The main products in the ozonolysis of unsaturated triglycerides or vegetable oils are peroxides, aldehydes, Criegee ozonides and carboxylic acids. Some of these compounds are present in different concentrations in the biological fluids. The aim of this work is to study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the organic acid excretion in urine of rats orally treated with ozonized sunflower oil (OSO), ozonized triolein or ozonized trilinolein. Oral administration of OSO to Wistar rats has produced changes in the urinary content of dicarboxylic organic acids. Among others heptanedioic (pimelic acid) and nonanedioic acids (azelaic acid) were the major increased dicarboxylic acids found. The urinary dicarboxylic acid profiles of rats which received ozonized triolein only showed an increase in heptanedioic and nonanedioic acids. However, when ozonized trilinolein is applied, the profile is similar to that obtained when OSO is administered. A biochemical mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of dicarboxylic acids from ozonated unsaturated triglycerides.

  17. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  18. Hepatotoxicity or hepatoprotection? Pattern recognition for the paradoxical effect of the Chinese herb Rheum palmatum L. in treating rat liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-bo Wang

    Full Text Available The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract (RE to normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels (2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg(-1, measured as the quantity of crude material, followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl(4-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl(4. By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl(4-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic

  19. Histomorphological changes in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult male rats treated with aqueous ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Mbaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Secamone afzelii (S. afzelii used locally to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to treat exogenously induced BPH in adult male Wister rats. Male rats weighing 200 ± 10 g kg−1 had exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol in staggered doses (three times weekly for three weeks. The induced animals were in five groups (6 rats per group. Groups 1 and 2 received extract at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight (bwt by gavages for thirty days; group 3, finasteride (0.1 mg kg−1; group 4, untreated for thirty days; group 5, negative control, which was sacrificed twenty-one days after induction. Group 6 received extract (400 mg kg−1 and steroid hormones simultaneously; group 7, normal control. The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of BPH induced rats with the photomicrograph of the prostate showing extensive shrinkage of glandular tissue whereas glandular hyperplasia occurred in the negative control. Prostate specific antigen (PSA level significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control. Treatment with the extract/finasteride caused significant decrease in testosterone to a level comparable to normal. The BPH induced rats treated with S. afzelii/finasteride recorded marked increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes compared to the negative control. S. afzelii effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia exogenously induced by causing extensive shrinkage of glands and stroma. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and showed to be a good prophylaxis.

  20. Resistant starch but not enzymatic treated waxy maize delays development of diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D. Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset.......9%) than rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS (5.6–6.1%) diets. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was significantly lower in rats fed RS than in rats fed the other diets (185 compared with 311–360), indicating that rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS diets were diabetic, and a 100% higher urine...

  1. Percutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid after Administration of Trolamine Salicylate Cream in Rats with Transcutol® and Eucalyptus Oil Pre-Treated Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Sajjadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the effect of skin pre-treatment with Transcutol® and eucalyptus oil on systemic absorption of topical trolamine salicylate in rat. Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylic acid following administration of trolamine salicylate on rat skin pre-treated with either Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil were determined using both non-compartmental and non-linear mixed effect modeling approaches and compared with those of control group. Results: Median (% of interquartile range/median of salicylic acid AUC0-8hr (ng/mL/hr values in Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil treated rats were 2522(139% and 58976(141%, respectively as compared to the 3023(327% of the control group. Skin pre-treatment with eucalyptus oil could significantly decrease extravascular volume of distribution (V/F and elimination rate constant (k of salicylic acid. Conclusion: Unlike Transcutol®, eucalyptus oil lead to enhanced transdermal absorption of trolamine salicylate through rat skin.

  2. Daily inhibition of postprandial hyperglycaemia with JTT-608, a novel oral antidiabetic agent, ameliorates pancreatic function in neonatally streptozotocin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Sasase, T; Miyajima, K; Matsui, K; Matsushita, M; Furukawa, N; Yonemori, F

    2005-09-01

    Chronic glycaemic control, in particular, the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia, is essential for preventing the development of diabetic complications. We therefore evaluated the chronic treatment effect of a new antidiabetic agent, JTT-608 [trans-4-(methylcyclohexyl)-4-oxobutyric acid], in neonatally streptozotocin-treated rats. The rats were maintained with liquid meal three times a day and treated orally with JTT-608 10 min before each meal for 12 weeks. Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and fasting blood glucose levels were measured at 4-week intervals, and effects of JTT-608 on pancreatic function and diabetic complications were examined after dosing period. The postprandial hyperglycaemia was suppressed by JTT-608 administration, and both HbA1C levels and fasting blood glucose levels were reduced during the experimental period. After the treatment period of 12 weeks, JTT-608 further improved the early insulin secretion and the impaired glucose tolerance after meal loading in the diabetic rats. Also, pathological examination revealed that JTT-608 reduced the incidence of the decrease in immunoreactivity of insulin. In examination of other diabetic complications, JTT-608 ameliorated the reduced motor nerve conduction velocities observed in diabetic rats and inhibited the incidence of cataracts with diabetes. We conclude that a newly developed antidiabetic agent, JTT-608, improves the pancreatic function and prevents the development of diabetic complications by inhibition of daily postprandial hyperglycaemia and could be useful for the treatment of diabetic subjects with impaired insulin secretion.

  3. Comparison of sensory tests and neuronal quantity of peripheral nerves between streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and paclitaxel (PAC)-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Na Young; Ko, Hyun A; Lee, Kyung Ae; Park, Tae Sun

    Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are different disease entities, they share similar neuropathic symptoms that impede quality of life for these patients. Despite having very similar downstream effects, there have been no direct comparisons between DPN and CIPN with respect to symptom severity and therapeutic responses. We compared peripheral nerve damage due to hyperglycemia with that caused by paclitaxel (PAC) treatment as represented by biochemical parameters, diverse sensory tests, and immunohistochemistry of cutaneous and sciatic nerves. The therapeutic effects of alpha-lipoic acid and DA-9801 were also compared in the two models. Animals were divided into seven groups (n = 7-10) as follows: normal, diabetes (DM), DM + alpha-lipoic acid 100 mg/kg (ALA), DM + DA-9801 (100 mg/kg), paclitaxel-treated rat (PAC), PAC + ALA (100 mg/kg), and PAC + DA-9801 (100 mg/kg). The sensory thresholds of animals to mechanical, heat, and pressure stimuli were altered by both hyperglycemia and PAC when compared with controls, and the responses to sensory tests were different between both groups. There were no significant differences in the biochemical markers of blood glutathione between DM and PAC groups (p > .05). Quantitative comparisons of peripheral nerves by intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) analysis indicated that the DM and PAC groups were similar (6.18 ± 1.03 vs. 5.01 ± 2.57). IENFD was significantly improved after ALA and DA-9801 treatment in diabetic animals (7.6 ± 1.28, 7.7 ± 1.28, respectively, p PAC-treated groups (6.05 ± 1.76, 5.66 ± 1.26, respectively, p > .05). Sciatic nerves were less damaged in the PAC-treated groups compared with the DM groups with respect to axonal diameter and area (8.60 ± 1.14 μm vs. 6.66 ± 1.07 μm, and 59.04 ± 15.16 μm2 vs. 35.71 ± 11.2 μm2, respectively, p < .05

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  5. Identification of New Epididymal Luminal Fluid Proteins Involved in Sperm Maturation in Infertile Rats Treated by Dutasteride Using iTRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wu Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatozoa become mature and acquire fertilizing capacity during their passage through the epididymal lumen. In this study, we identified new epididymal luminal fluid proteins involved in sperm maturation in infertile rats by dutasteride, a dual 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to provide potential epididymal targets for new contraceptives and infertility treatment. Methods: Male rats were treated with dutasteride for 28 consecutive days. We observed the protein expression profiles in the epididymal luminal fluids in infertile and normal rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. The confidence of proteome data was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: 1045 proteins were tested, and 23 of them presented different expression profiling in the infertile and normal rats. The seven proteins were down-regulated, and 16 proteins were up-regulated. Among the seven proteins which were significantly down-regulated by dutasteride in the epididymal luminal fluids, there were three β-defensins (Defb2, Defb18 and Defb39, which maybe the key proteins involved in epididymal sperm maturation and male fertility. Conclusions: We report for the first time that dutasteride influences the protein expression profiling in the epididymal luminal fluids of rats, and this result provides some new epididymal targets for male contraception and infertility therapy.

  6. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Marshall, R S; Hunter, D L; Lowit, A

    2007-03-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r(2)=0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r(2)=0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.

  7. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allergic asthma is a chronic airway disorder characterised by airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) ... °C, 40–60 % humidity) and were supplied with water and food ad libitum. The mice were acclimatised to ..... Ovalbumin induced allergic rhinitis and development of prediabetes to rats: possible role of.

  8. [Effects of drug cupping therapy on immune function in chronic asthmatic bronchitis patients during protracted period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-qing; Liang, Tie-jun; Zhang, Wei

    2006-11-01

    To observe the clinical effect of drug cupping therapy (DCT, cupping therapy with pingchuan ointment made by the authors themselves in the cups) on chronic asthmatic bronchitis (CAB) during the protracted period, and explore its effect on immune function. Seventy-seven patients were randomly divided into two groups:the treated group (n=40) treated by orally taken Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP) and DCT and the control group (n=37) with LDP and common cupping therapy without drug in cups. The changes of T-lymphocyte subset, levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL), immunoglobulin (Ig), complement 3 and 4 (C3 and C4) were detected before and after treatment. The total effective rate was higher in the treated group than that in the control group (90.0% vs. 59.5%, P < 0.01). The levels of CD4+, CD4+ /CD8+, IL-2, IFN-gamma, C3, C4, IgA, IgG and IgM increased, while the levels of IgE, IL-4, IL-10 and CD8+ decreased after treatment in both groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), the improvements were better in the treated group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). DCT shows better curative effects than that of common cupping therapy without drug, it could improve the cellular and humoral immunity in CAB patients.

  9. Effect of Nd:YAG laser light on post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Merigo, Elisabetta; Passerini, Pietro; Corradi, Domenico; Maestri, Roberta; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sala, Roberto; Govoni, Paolo; Namour, Samir; Vescovi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing process could be useful for the prevention of post-extractive Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of LLLT on the post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone. Material and Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in 4 groups: control group (C, n = 5), laser group (L, n = 5), treatment group (T, n = 10) and treatment plus laser group (T+L, n = 10). Rats of group T and T+L received zoledronate 0,1 mg/Kg and dexamethasone 1 mg/Kg every 2 days for 10 weeks. Rats of group C and L were infused with vehicle. After 9 weeks the first maxillary molars were extracted in all rats. Rats of groups L and T+L received laser therapy (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm, 1.25W, 15Hz, 5 min, 14.37 J/cm2) in the socket area at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after surgery. At 8 days from extraction, the sockets were clinically assessed with a grading score and the wound area was measured with a dedicate software. Histomorphometric evaluation and western blot analysis of osteopontin and osteocalcin expression were performed. Results Group T+L showed a trend toward a better clinical grading score compared to group T (grade I 22% Vs 28 % - grade II 56% Vs 28% - grade III 22% Vs 44%, respectively). The average wound area was similar among the groups. Inhibition of osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption was found in groups T and T+L (P<0.001). Rats of groups L and T+L showed a significant higher expression of osteocalcin compared to rats of groups C and T (C=0.3993; L=1.394; T=0.2922; T+L=1.156; P=0.0001). The expression of osteopontin did not show significant differences in the groups treated with Nd:YAG compared to the ones that did not receive laser irradiation. Conclusion Our findings suggest that laser irradiation after tooth extraction can promote osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the higher expression of

  10. Correlation between prevention of cataract development by disulfiram and fates of selenium in selenite-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Cai, H; Koizumi, Y; Nakao, M; Terao, M

    1999-04-01

    We found a new pharmacological effect of disulfiram (DSF) against rat pups with cataract induced by selenite injection. The possible reactive mechanism is discussed in this present paper. Wistar male and female rats aged 13 and 30 days, and male rats aged 7 weeks were used this present study. Cataract was induced by injection of selenite (19 micromol/kg, s.c.) to 13-day old rats. The lens opacification was monitored by using the slit lamp equipped with an anterior eye segment analysis system (EAS-1000, Nidek). The selenium contents in rat organs were detected fluorimetrically. Liposomes containing DSF (DSF-liposomes) were prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method. Rat pups were instilled 5 microl of DSF-liposomes into both eyes 4 times per day. Adult rats were administered with DSF suspensions (100 mg/kg) by nasal cannulation. The changes of plasma concentration of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which was a metabolite of disulfiram, were determined by HPLC method. Intraocular treatment with DSF-liposomes prevented the onset of cataract development in rat pups injected with sodium selenite. Treatment with DSF also significantly reduced the selenium contents in plasma at 1 h post-treatment and in the eye at 96 h post-treatment. No significant differences of selenium content in liver and kidney were observed in 13-day old rats instilled with DSF-liposomes or DSF free liposomes. Cataract could not be induced in the 30-days-old rats with the same dose of selenite (19 micromol/kg) and the liver, kidney, and especially eye of the older rats had lower levels of selenium than 13-day old rats. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), an active metabolite of DSF, was decreased in the plasma following a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite. The selenium concentration in the plasma was decreased by the intranasal administration of DSF suspensions. Instillation of DSF-liposomes into the eyes of rat pups given a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite to induce cataracts

  11. Effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereci, Selim; Pirgon, Ozgur; Akcam, Mustafa; Turkyilmaz, Kemal; Dundar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroids are under suspicion of playing an important role in the development of retinopathy. We aimed to determine peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children being treated with inhaled fluticasone propionate due to asthma. Thirty-eight children diagnosed with allergic asthma (mean age 9.8 ± 2.8 years, age range 6-13 years) and 40 age-similar controls were enrolled in this study. All children with asthma were taking inhaled fluticasone propionate at a dosage of 250 µg or more per day for at least 1 year. The RNFL thickness measurements were performed using Cirrus HD spectral-domain OCT 400. Central subfield thickness, cube average thickness, and cube volume were also measured. Among the 38 children with asthma and 40 healthy subjects who completed follow-up, children with asthma had similar mean peripapillary RNFL thicknesses compared with control children. The mean central subfield thickness was significantly higher than that of controls (248.8 ± 23.4 vs 237.5 ± 23.5, p<0.037). There was a positive linear relationship between cube average thickness and eosinophil count with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.336 (p<0.039) and a negative correlation was found between central subfield thickness and disease duration (r = -0.385, p = 0.017) in children with asthma. Asthmatic children have similar peripapillary RNFL measurements compared to controls on spectral-domain OCT. Raised eosinophil counts in asthmatic children were found to be significantly associated with cube average thickness.

  12. Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynak, A R; Barnum, J E; Cunningham, C L; Ng, A; Ykoruk, B A; Bennet, B; Stoffregen, D; Merschman, M; Freeland, E; Galloway, S M

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined the ability of the assay to determine the genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), azidothymidine (AZT), cisplatin (CPN), and isobutyraldehyde (IBA) in liver and glandular stomach of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given oral doses of test compound or control once daily for three days. High dose levels were approximately maximum tolerated doses and were based on preliminary range-finding studies. Tissues were harvested 3h after the final dose (48h after the initial dose). A bone marrow micronucleus assay (MN) was also conducted on the rats treated with AZT, CPN, and IBA. Acute toxic effects of treatment were determined primarily through histomorphologic analysis of liver and stomach but also by body weight and serum liver enzyme changes. The comet assay was conducted on fresh tissue preparations but frozen samples from two studies were also assayed. Statistically significant dose-related differences in comet % DNA in tail were found in liver and stomach for the genotoxin AZT and in liver for the genotoxin CPN, but not in liver or stomach for the non-genotoxin IBA. Statistically significant differences in % DNA in tail were measured in liver for the low and mid dose of the genotoxin AAF, but not the high dose. The comet assays of frozen liver suspensions from CPN- and AAF-treated rats yielded comparable results to the assays of fresh preparations. There were no indications of significant toxicity induced by any treatment. The micronucleus assay was positive for CPN and AZT and negative for IBA. In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-hyperglycemic effect, inhibition of inflammatory cytokines expression, and histopathology profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Arracacia tolucensis aerial-parts extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galicia, Mary Carmen; Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; García-Zebadúa, Julio César; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia

    2014-02-27

    Arracacia tolucensis is a medicinal plant used in northeast of Mexico as a remedy to treat people with Diabetes mellitus (DM); however, there are no scientific studies that support this information. Thus, we evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from aerial parts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. DM was induced in Wistar male rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ 50mg/kg). After STZ-induction, hyperglycemic rats were treated with all three extracts orally at a single dose (250 mg/kg) each 48 h for 21 days. Glibenclamide (1mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose levels, the hematic biometry and biochemical profiles, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines expression were estimated. Histopathology analysis of pancreas, liver, spleen, and kidney tissue was carried out. Ours results showed that ethyl acetate extract decreased blood glucose levels significantly (75%, p< 0.05) when compared to diabetic rats and controlled the body weight loss; the lipids level did not change, but the enzyme levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase decreased significantly (60.83% and 66.16%, respectively, p< 0.05) and inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines,with respect to diabetic rats. Histopathology injury was not observed; by contrast repair of islet of Langerhans was exhibited. These results validate the use of Arracacia tolucensis as a treatment against DM and suggests it is suitable to continue studies for its safe therapeutic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  15. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  16. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 reduces bleeding time and thrombocytopenia after amputation in rats treated with heparin, warfarin or aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnisek, Mirjana; Franjic, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Hrelec, Masa; Kolenc, Danijela; Radic, Bozo; Bojic, Davor; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    Recently, in rat abdominal aorta terminoterminal-anastomosis the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 prevents obstructive thrombus formation and rapidly destroys already formed obstructive thrombus. Also, BPC 157 wound healing may signify the clot as conductive matrix or "scaffold" to speed up wound healing process, and decrease bleeding. Here, in rats, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) improved always reduced bleeding time and amount of bleeding after (tail) amputation only, heparin (250 mg/kg, 25mg/kg, 10mg/kg i.v.), warfarin (1.5mg/kg i.g. once daily for 3 consecutive days), aspirin (0.1g/kg i.g. (once daily/3 consecutive days) or 1.0 g/kg i.p. once), and amputation associated with those agents application. BPC 157 counteracting regimens (i.v., i.p., i.g. (immediately after any challenge)) correspondingly follow the route of bleeding-agents application. All heparin-, warfarin-, and aspirin-rats and normal-rats that received BPC 157 exhibited lesser fall in platelets count. BPC 157 attenuated over-increased APTT-, TT-values in 10mg/kg heparin-rats, but did not influence heparin activity (anti-Xa test). Indicatively, unless counteracted in BPC 157 rats, excessive bleeding-acute thrombocytopenia (BPC 157 markedly prolongs the survival time (heparin-rats, 25mg/kg, right foot amputation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Chi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  18. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Cariogenic microorganisms and oral conditions in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M P J; Maciel, S M; Cerci Neto, A; Dezan, C C; Fernandes, K B P; de Andrade, F B

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the caries risk of asthmatic patients on the basis of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli levels in saliva samples as well as the index of oral hygiene and dental caries (DMFT index). The study population was composed of 80 asthmatic children, aged 3-15 years, who use specific medication, and 80 matched, healthy control children. The parents were interviewed about oral health-related factors. The World Health Organization criteria were used for dental examinations. The Köhler and Bratthal methodology was used to detect salivary MS levels and dilutions of saliva were done for lactobacilli counting. No differences between asthma and control groups were observed for caries prevalence in children aged 3-6 and 7-10 years, except in severe cases in the younger group. However, higher caries prevalence for permanent dentition was observed in 11- to 15-year-old asthmatic children. An increased dental biofilm was observed in the asthma group, as well as salivary levels of MS. No differences were observed in levels of lactobacilli. No statistical correlations were found between medication, frequency of treatment, method of consumption and caries experience, dental biofilm and salivary levels of MS or lactobacilli. However, there was a correlation between MS levels and treatment duration. The logistic regression revealed that MS level is an important risk factor for increased caries experience. Asthma should be evaluated as a risk factor for caries experience because it can increase the levels of MS and the dental biofilm. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Regional catecholamine concentrations in brain and spinal cord of male albino rats treated with the synthetic pyrethroid cyfluthrine

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N. A. [نوال عبد الحي احمد; Ibrahim, Nagi A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmady S.; Al-Zawahry, Safaa A.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determine the modifications induced by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin in the concentrations of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine(E) in selected brain and spinal cord regions of male albino rats. A group of 30 rats were injected intraperitoneally every other day with cyfluthrin at 1/4 LD50 dose level for 18 days. Other two groups (30 rats each) were daily given cyfluthrin intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 1/8 ...

  1. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghdas Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR, bradykinin (BK, and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779 and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE or vehicle (OV for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1 were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P<0.05. Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9±1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9±1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats.

  2. Increasing ventilation as an intervention in homes of asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In children asthma is the most frequent chronic disease and house dust mite (HDM) allergy the most frequent cause of allergic asthma. Indoors most of the time, children are exposed to many indoor air pollutants that may act as asthma triggers. Reducing this exposure may improve asthma control...... in children. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 46 asthmatic, house dust mite allergic children. The aim was to investigate the association between indoor air quality in homes and severity of asthma, in particular the effect of increased ventilation rate and expected lower...

  3. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (pmuricata extract has a protective, beneficial effect on hepatic tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress, possibly by decreasing lipid peroxidation and indirectly enhancing production of insulin and endogenous antioxidants.

  4. Appropriate Insulin Level in Selecting Fortified Diet-Fed, Streptozotocin-Treated Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes for Anti-Diabetic Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological investigation of disease in a suitable animal model is a classical approach towards development of a credible therapeutic strategy. This study examined appropriate insulin level in selecting animal model for type 2 diabetes (T2D studies.Albino Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into two groups fed with commercially available normal-diet-feed (NDF and water or fortified diet feed (FDF (10g NDF per gram of margarine with 20% fructose solution as drinking water. After 6 weeks of dietary regimen both groups were divided into 5 sub-groups and injected intraperitoneally with a graded dose of streptozotocin (STZ (0, 25, 35, 45 & 55mg/kg bw..The result showed that the FDF-fed rats increased significantly in body weight, basal serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose levels as compared to NDF-fed rats. Ten days post STZ induction, the groups treated with STZ (45 & 55 mg/kg developed frank hyperglycaemia with 300 mg/dL throughout the 6weeks post diabetes confirmation. These FDF35 rats were sensitive to glibenclamide, metformin and pioglitazone in lowering hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia.The hyperglycaemia stability of the FDF35 rats (85.5% insulin together with their sensitivity to 3 different hypoglycaemic drugs strongly suggests their suitability as a non-genetic model of T2D. Hence the study shows that circulating serum insulin ≥ 85.8% with overt hyperglycaemia may be utilized as the benchmark in selecting rat models for T2D studies.

  5. Appropriate Insulin Level in Selecting Fortified Diet-Fed, Streptozotocin-Treated Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes for Anti-Diabetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajiya M

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological investigation of disease in a suitable animal model is a classical approach towards development of a credible therapeutic strategy. This study examined appropriate insulin level in selecting animal model for type 2 diabetes (T2D) studies. Albino Wistar rats (150-200g) were divided into two groups fed with commercially available normal-diet-feed (NDF) and water or fortified diet feed (FDF) (10g NDF per gram of margarine) with 20% fructose solution as drinking water. After 6 weeks of dietary regimen both groups were divided into 5 sub-groups and injected intraperitoneally with a graded dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (0, 25, 35, 45 & 55mg/kg bw.). The result showed that the FDF-fed rats increased significantly in body weight, basal serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose levels as compared to NDF-fed rats. Ten days post STZ induction, the groups treated with STZ (45 & 55 mg/kg) developed frank hyperglycaemia with insulin, a severe deficiency typical of diabetes type 1. The NDF25 and NDF35 groups with 75.7% and 64.4% serum insulin respectively presented relative normoglycemia, whereas the FDF35 (85.8% serum insulin) were notably hyperglycaemia (>300 mg/dL) throughout the 6weeks post diabetes confirmation. These FDF35 rats were sensitive to glibenclamide, metformin and pioglitazone in lowering hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. The hyperglycaemia stability of the FDF35 rats (85.5% insulin) together with their sensitivity to 3 different hypoglycaemic drugs strongly suggests their suitability as a non-genetic model of T2D. Hence the study shows that circulating serum insulin ≥ 85.8% with overt hyperglycaemia may be utilized as the benchmark in selecting rat models for T2D studies.

  6. Testosterone Propionate Exacerbates the Deficits of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System and Downregulates Nrf2 Expression in Reserpine-Treated Aged Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a controversy over the effects of testosterone supplements on dopaminergic function. Both neuroprotective and toxic effects of testosterone supplements are reported. The status of oxidative stress seems to explain the neuroprotective or toxic properties of testosterone. To determine the efficacy of testosterone supplements in different status of oxidative stress, the present studies analyzed the dopamine (DA-related behaviors and neurochemical indices, as well as markers of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA system in reserpine-treated aged male rats followed by testosterone propionate (TP supplements. The status of oxidative stress of experimental animals was evaluated by analyzing oxidative stress parameters and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE signaling pathway in substantia nigra (SN. Consistent with our previous studies, TP supplements to 21-month old aged male rats had the beneficial effects on NSDA system and DA-related behaviors and enhanced the antioxidative capabilities in SN. However, the beneficial effects of TP supplements on NSDA system and DA-related behaviors in aged male rats were reversed by reserpine pretreatment to them. Reserpine treatment induced the severe oxidative stress and reduced the expressions of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 in the SN of aged male rats. The TP supplements to reserpine-pretreated aged male rats exacerbated the defects in NSDA system and DA-related behaviors, aggravated oxidative damages and downregulated the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 in the SN. These results suggested that the efficacy of TP supplements on impaired NSDA system was related to the status of oxidative stress in experimental rats.

  7. Pancreatic alpha-cell dysfunction contributes to the disruption of glucose homeostasis and compensatory insulin hypersecretion in glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rafacho

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC-based therapies can cause insulin resistance (IR, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia and, occasionally, overt diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms behind these metabolic disorders could improve the management of glucose homeostasis in patients undergoing GC treatment. For this purpose, adult rats were treated with a daily injection of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p. (DEX or saline as a control for 5 consecutive days. The DEX rats developed IR, augmented glycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Treatment of the DEX rats with a glucagon receptor antagonist normalized their blood glucose level. The characteristic inhibitory effect of glucose on glucagon secretion was impaired in the islets of the DEX rats, while no direct effects were found on α-cells in islets that were incubated with DEX in vitro. A higher proportion of docked secretory granules was found in the DEX α-cells as well as a trend towards increased α-cell mass. Additionally, insulin secretion in the presence of glucagon was augmented in the islets of the DEX rats, which was most likely due to their higher glucagon receptor content. We also found that the enzyme 11βHSD-1, which participates in GC metabolism, contributed to the insulin hypersecretion in the DEX rats under basal glucose conditions. Altogether, we showed that GC treatment induces hyperglucagonemia, which contributes to an imbalance in glucose homeostasis and compensatory β-cell hypersecretion. This hyperglucagonemia may result from altered α-cell function and, likely, α-cell mass. Additionally, blockage of the glucagon receptor seems to be effective in preventing the elevation in blood glucose levels induced by GC administration.

  8. Effect of an intranasal corticosteroid on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Thio, Bernard J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.

    Rationale Allergic rhinitis and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are common in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of allergic rhinitis with an intranasal corticosteroid protects against EIB in asthmatic children. Methods: This was a double-blind,

  9. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Kauffman, H. F.; Dubois, A. E.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to cat and dog allergens is very common in the Western World and is a serious cause of asthma in sensitized subjects. We sought to study the clinical effects of air cleaners in living rooms and bedrooms of asthmatic children sensitized to cat or dog allergens. Twenty asthmatic children

  10. Molecular Mechanism of the Additive Effects of Leukotriene Modifier in Asthmatic Patients Receiving Steroid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Matsunaga

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: LM caused a greater improvement in pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatics with AR. The RANTES-mediated pathway may be involved in the improvement of the airflow limitation and airway lability by LM additive therapy in asthmatics receiving steroid therapy.

  11. Ethnic and migrant differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication have been reported, with ethnic minorities being at a higher risk of suboptimal asthma control. As contextual socioeconomic characteristics may play a role, we analysed whether ethnic differences in the use of anti-asthmatic medication am...

  12. Florida Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Longitudinal Respiratory Effects in Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Judy A; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Cheng, Yung Sung; Wanner, Adam; Benson, Janet; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Abraham, William M; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Hollenbeck, Julie; Zaias, Julia; Mendes, Eliana; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant and persistent adverse changes in pulmonary function for asthmatics after 1 hour exposure to brevetoxins in Florida red tide (Karenia brevis bloom) aerosols, we assessed the possible longer term health effects in asthmatics from intermittent environmental exposure to brevetoxins over 7 years. 125 asthmatic subjects were assessed for their pulmonary function and reported symptoms before and after 1 hour of environmental exposure to Florida red tide aerosols for upto 11 studies over seven years. As a group, the asthmatics came to the studies with normal standardized percent predicted pulmonary function values. The 38 asthmatics who participated in only one exposure study were more reactive compared to the 36 asthmatics who participated in ≥4 exposure studies. The 36 asthmatics participating in ≥4 exposure studies demonstrated no significant change in their standardized percent predicted pre-exposure pulmonary function over the 7 years of the study. These results indicate that stable asthmatics living in areas with intermittent Florida red tides do not exhibit chronic respiratory effects from intermittent environmental exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins over a 7 year period.

  13. Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu

    2005-01-01

    Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children.

  14. Volumes and Breathing Patterns during Speech in Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Robert G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lung volumes and ventilatory patterns used by 10 healthy and 14 asthmatic subjects during conversation, monologue, and counting at two loudness levels were studied. Asthmatics were found to favor respiratory over communications needs. They used a greater percentage of their reduced vital capacity, with slower inspiratory and faster expiratory flow…

  15. Inspiratory airflow limitation after exercise challenge in cold air in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Aalderen, W.M.; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Methacholine and histamine can lead to inspiratory flow limitation in asthmatic children and adults. This has not been analyzed after indirect airway stimuli, such as exercise. The aim of the study was to analyze airflow limitation after exercise in cold, dry air. 72 asthmatic children with mild to

  16. Differential Expression of Serum Proteins in Rats with Allergic Asthma: A Study Based on the Nanoliter Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xingke Yan; Ao Zhang; Lu Yu; Cheng Chen; Haifu Cui

    2017-01-01

    ...), and the asthma model group (C). The nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique was used to study the differential protein expressions of the serum in asthmatic rats...

  17. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Cedó; Anna Castell-Auví; Victor Pallarès; Mayte Blay; Anna Ardévol; Montserrat Pinent

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model ...

  18. Effect of disease severity and pharmacotherapy of asthma on oral health in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeborn, K; Dahllöf, G; Hedlin, G; Lindell, M; Modéer, T

    1987-04-01

    Oral health was studied in a group of asthmatic children (n = 61). The children were divided in two groups, 5-10 and 11-18 yr of age. The individuals with asthma were further subgrouped with respect to the disease severity. Severe asthma was defined as more than 10 asthmatic attacks per year. This patient group had daily medication compared to children with moderate asthma (less than 10 asthmatic attacks/yr) who medicated temporarily. 55 age matched children from the same area made up the control group. All children were examined clinically and two bitewing radiographs were taken. The results showed no statistically significant differences concerning caries prevalence and gingival condition in asthmatic children compared to a healthy control group. The study shows that neither the asthma per se nor the disease severity affected the caries prevalence and gingival condition in asthmatic children.

  19. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  20. [Somatic development of asthmatic children and youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi-Pagowska, I

    2000-01-01

    Systemic diseases especially the chronic ones, causing substance and oxygen insufficiency may lead to disturbances in growth, in the nutritional status and slowing of the maturation processes. Bronchial asthma is the most frequent inflammatory chronic disease of the respiratory system and it is estimated, that 5-10% of the population in the development period suffers from it. Somatic development retardation, disturbances in the nutritional status and maturation may be caused by respiratory insufficiency leading to anoxia, improper nutritional habits, recurrent or chronic infections, long-term physical and mental stress, limited physical activity and also pharmacological therapy. THE AIM of this work was to conduct, in children with bronchial asthma, the evaluation of: somatic development, body proportions, nutritional status, sexual maturation depending on the duration and degree of severity of the disease. The second aim was to assess whether the assumed standard for complex treatment depending on the severity of the diseases may lead to normal somatic development. In the research comprised 508 children (3 1 5 boys and 93 girls) between 7 and 1 5 years of age, treated for bronchial asthma in the Paediatric Department of the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Rabka. Due to the multiplicity of factors influencing the course of development, the following were observed in the studied groups: birth weight and length, average height of parents (selected genetic factors); place of domicile and educational level of the parents (social-economic factors). The study concerned children born with normal birth weight and length. Evaluation of the impact of genetic factors, was based on the analysis of parent's height; it did not differ in the studied groups with regard to the women's or men's height in the average population. The majority of the studied children lived in towns, every third child lived in the country. Parents of the studied children suffering from

  1. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats treated with a hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme inducer p,p'-DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuko; Tomita, Mariko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Katoh, Yoshitaka; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Soma, Katsumi; Kojima, Sayuri; Ohtsuka, Ryoichi; Takeda, Makio; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocellular hypertrophy in association with drug-metabolizing enzyme induction is considered to be an adaptive change associated with drug metabolism. To improve our understanding of liver hypertrophy, we determined the effect of a single ip injection of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle in male F344 rats with hepatocellular hypertrophy induced by oral delivery of p,p'-DDT for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 3h or 24h after LPS or vehicle injection. LPS induced a focal hepatocellular necrosis in rats fed the control diet. When rats pre-treated with p,p'-DDT were injected with LPS, necrotic foci surrounded by ballooned hepatocytes were observed in the liver. The change was consistent with reduced LPS-mediated increases in plasma hepatic biomarkers, neutrophil influx, and apoptosis, and also associated with hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, CYPs, and NOS2. By contrast, when combined with p,p'-DDT and LPS, faint hepatocellular fatty change was extended, together with a synergistic increase in total blood cholesterol. These results suggest that hepatocytes exposed to p,p'-DDT are protected from the cell-lethal toxic effects of an exogenous stimulus, resulting in cell ballooning rather than necrosis in association with reduced inflammation and apoptosis, but compromised by an adverse effect on lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of fractal dimension and Shannon entropy in myocytes from rats treated with histidine-tryptophan-glutamate and histidine-tryptophan cetoglutarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solutions that cause elective cardiac arrest are constantly evolving, but the ideal compound has not yet been found. The authors compare a new cardioplegic solution with histidine-tryptophan-glutamate (Group 2) and other one with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate (Group 1) in a model of isolated rat heart. Objective To quantify the fractal dimension and Shannon entropy in rat myocytes subjected to cardioplegia solution using histidine-tryptophan with glutamate in an experimental model, considering the caspase markers, IL-8 and KI-67. Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were anesthetized and heparinized. The chest was opened, the heart was withdrawn and 40 ml/kg of cardioplegia (with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate or histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution) was infused. The hearts were kept for 2 hours at 4ºC in the same solution, and thereafter placed in the Langendorff apparatus for 30 min with Ringer-Locke solution. Analyzes were performed for immunohistochemical caspase, IL-8 and KI-67. Results The fractal dimension and Shannon entropy were not different between groups histidine-tryptophan-glutamate and histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate. Conclusion The amount of information measured by Shannon entropy and the distribution thereof (given by fractal dimension) of the slices treated with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate and histidine-tryptophan-glutamate were not different, showing that the histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution is as good as histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate to preserve myocytes in isolated rat heart. PMID:25140464

  3. Original article. Protective effect of resveratrol against neuronal damage through oxidative stress in cerebral hemisphere of aluminum and fluoride treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalagoni Chandra Shakar Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum has no defined biological function and it is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the presence of fluoride causes more aluminum to accumulate in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal damage. In recent years, resveratrol through its ameliorative effects was found to be a neuroprotectant. This study reports the protective effects of resveratrol on combined aluminum and fluoride induced neuronal damage through oxidative stress in rats. Protective effects of resveratrol (30 mg/kg b.w on markers of oxidative stress were determined in rats exposed to aluminum chloride (100 mg/kg b.w along with sodium fluoride (10 mg/kg b.w for 8 weeks. The results showed a statistically significant (p<0.05 increase in lipid peroxidation (LPx as well as a significant (p<0.05 decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Enlarged cells, neurofibrillary tangles, and vacuolar spaces showing oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex were also observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections in aluminum and fluoride treated rats. Administration of resveratrol along with aluminum + fluoride showed significant reversal of oxidative stress and neuronal damage in rats. Thus resveratrol potentially acts as a neuroprotectant against aluminum chloride + sodium fluoride induced neuronal damage through its anti-oxidant efficacy.

  4. Inhibition of the acquisition of conditioned place aversion by dopaminergic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala in morphine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Li, Y H; Tan, B P; Luo, X J; Xiao, L; Zheng, X G; Yang, X Y; Sui, N

    2012-01-01

    The negative affective state of opiate abstinence plays an important role in craving and relapse to compulsive drug use. The dopamine system participates in the reward effects of opiate use and the aversive effect of opiate abstinence. The amygdala is an essential neural substrate for associative learning of emotion. To establish a model of conditioned place aversion (CPA) in morphine-treated rats, we used different visual and tactual cues as conditioned stimuli (CS) within a conditioning apparatus. An injection of naloxone served as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion technique was used to investigate the effects of the dopaminergic system of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) on naloxone-induced CPA. Rats were rendered physically dependent via administration of increasing doses of morphine delivered via intraperitoneal injection. Doses increased by 20 % each day for 14 days, starting from an initial dose of 6 mg/kg. All rats also received a low dose of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg) by injection 4 hours after morphine treatment on days 11 and 13 to induce CPA in a biased two-compartment conditioned place apparatus. Morphine-dependent rats with sham lesions were found to develop significant CPA after naloxone treatment. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the CeA impaired the acquisition of CPA but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results suggest that the dopaminergic system of the CeA plays an important role in the negative affective state of opiate abstinence.

  5. Data on the effects of losartan on protein expression, vascular reactivity and antioxidant capacity in the aorta of ethanol-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Ceron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist on the alterations induced by treatment with ethanol in the rat aorta. The data shown here are related to the article entitled “Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress” (P. Passaglia, C.S. Ceron, A.S. Mecawi, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, E.B. Coelho, C.R. Tirapelli, 2015 [1]. Here we include new data on the protective effect of losartan against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats treated for 2 weeks with ethanol (20%, vol./vol. exhibited increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and losartan (10 mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage prevented this response. Ethanol did not alter the expression of eNOS in the rat aorta. Losartan prevented ethanol-induced increase in the aortic expression of nNOS. Neither ethanol nor losartan affected superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase (CAT activities in the rat aorta. Treatment with ethanol increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas and these responses were prevented by losartan. Conversely, neither ethanol nor losartan affected the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Montelukast on mediator release by nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects with or without allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, A; Miller, D; Spiteri-Cornish, D; Turner, S W; Devereux, G S; Walsh, G M

    2013-12-01

    This study tested inhibitory effects of in vitro Montelukast treatment on nasal airway epithelial cells (AEC) cultured from asthmatic patients treated with Montelukast with and without concomitant allergic rhinitis. We further examined the effect of Montelukast withdrawal in these patients on cytokine release from cultured nasal AEC. Nasal AEC were collected by brushings from subjects with a history of stable (no exacerbations or change in medication for ≥ 1 month) physician confirmed mild/moderate asthma whose asthma symptoms were documented to benefit from Montelukast treatment (NCT01230437). Release of the following mediators by nasal AEC were measured: IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, RANTES, eotaxin and IFN-γ. Nasal AEC were cultured before and one week after withdrawal of their Montelukast treatment. Forty two asthmatics were recruited. Nasal AEC were successfully cultured in 17 at the first assessment, 14 at the second assessment and in 10 individuals at both assessments. Nasal AEC release was no different between asthmatics with or without allergic rhinitis. Montelukast significantly suppressed the release of IL-8 (p = 0.016), IL-6 (p = 0.006), RANTES (p = 0.002) and IFN-γ (p = 0.046), in a dose dependent manner in unstimulated cultures but not in those stimulated with IL-1/TNF. Withdrawal of Montelukast treatment, was associated with increased IL-8 and RANTES secretion in unstimulated nasal AEC cultured from subjects with asthma and allergic rhinitis but not with asthma alone. Montelukast treatment for asthma symptoms reversibly suppresses nasal AEC release of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e. IL-8 and RANTES) but only in those cells cultured from subjects with concomitant allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Ermiao Recipe with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix on promoting the homing of bone marrow stem cells to treat cartilage damage in osteoarthritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Dai, Guo-jing; Liu, Qian; Ma, Xiao-ping; Li, Li; Chen, Wei-heng; Lin, Na

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Ermiao Recipe (, EMR) with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) on the homing of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to focal zone in osteoarthritis (OA) rats. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham-operated, model, EMR, and EMR plus APR groups (12 rats in each group). The OA rat model was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscus resection. All rats were injected with recombinant human granulocyte colonystimulating factor [rhG-CSF, 30 μg/(kg·d) for continuous 7 days], and rats in the EMR and EMR plus APR groups were treated with EMR or EMR plus APR at 1.6 or 1.9 g/(kg·d) for 3 or 6 weeks, respectively. Cartilage histopathologic changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Chondrocytes apoptosis and cartilage matrix components were tested by transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling assay and special staining. Interleukin-1β (IL-1 β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or radioimmunoassay assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), and stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were measured by immunohistochemistry assay. EMR and EMR plus APR significantly inhibited articular cartilage damage and synovium inflammation in OA rats at 3 or 6 weeks of treatment, the most obvious changes in these parameters were found in the EMR plus APR group. At 6 weeks, compared with EMR treatment, EMR plus APR remarkably inhibited chondrocytes apoptosis and the release of IL-1β and TNF-α, obviously decreased MMP-13 expression, and significantly increased expressions of proteoglycan, collagen, type II collagen and TIMP-1, serum levels of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 as well as expressions of BrdU, CD34 and

  8. Psychological problems in Turkish asthmatic children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, N; Aydogan, M; Hassanzadeh, A; Camcioglu, Y; Cokugraş, H

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of impaired breathing. The disease causes psychological problems due to hospitalization, long-term medication use, and restricted social life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity and duration of asthma and psychological problems in asthmatic children, as well as the probability of maternal anxiety. Thirty-seven children with mild asthma, 55 with moderate asthma and eight with severe asthma were compared with 50 healthy children. The severity of asthma was evaluated using the Pearlman-Bierman classification. Psychological adjustment was measured using the Achenback child Behavior checklist and Spielberger's scale. Emotional factors and family dynamics were found to be triggering factors for disease attacks in 16% of children with mild asthma, 38% of those with moderate asthma and 63% of those with severe asthma (p anxiety score between the disease severity groups (p > 0.05). The mean depression score was significantly higher in children with moderate and severe asthma than in those with mild asthma (p anxiety. Both asthmatic children and their mothers are negatively affected by the disease.

  9. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  10. Transcriptomics analysis and hormonal changes of male and female neonatal rats treated chronically with a low dose of acrylamide in their drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Cristina Collí-Dulá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is known to produce follicular cell tumors of the thyroid in rats. RccHan Wistar rats were exposed in utero to a carcinogenic dose of acrylamide (3 mg/Kg bw/day from gestation day 6 to delivery and then through their drinking water to postnatal day 35. In order to identify potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the thyroid glands, we used a transcriptomics approach. Thyroid glands were collected from male pups at 10 PM and female pups at 10 AM or 10 PM in order to establish whether active exposure to acrylamide influenced gene expression patterns or pathways that could be related to carcinogenesis. While all animals exposed to acrylamide showed changes in expected target pathways related to carcinogenesis such as DNA repair, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, among others; animals that were sacrificed while actively drinking acrylamide-laced water during their active period at night showed increased changes in pathways related to oxidative stress, detoxification pathways, metabolism, and activation of checkpoint pathways, among others. In addition, thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, were increased in acrylamide-treated rats sampled at night, but not in quiescent animals when compared to controls. The data clearly indicate that time of day for sample collection is critical to identifying molecular pathways that are altered by the exposures. These results suggest that carcinogenesis in the thyroids of acrylamide treated rats may ensue from several different mechanisms such as hormonal changes and oxidative stress and not only from direct genotoxicity, as has been assumed to date.

  11. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model is a robust model mimicking a prediabetic state, as these rats display insulin resistance, increased insulin synthesis and secretion, and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. In addition, GSPE treatment (25 mg/kg of GSPE for 21 days) in male rats improves insulin resistance and counteracts the cafeteria-induced effects on insulin synthesis. However, the administration of the extract enhances the cafeteria-induced increase in Bax protein levels, suggesting increased apoptosis. This result contradicts previous results from cafeteria-fed female rats, in which GSPE seemed to counteract the increased apoptosis induced by the cafeteria diet.

  12. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Cedó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model is a robust model mimicking a prediabetic state, as these rats display insulin resistance, increased insulin synthesis and secretion, and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. In addition, GSPE treatment (25 mg/kg of GSPE for 21 days in male rats improves insulin resistance and counteracts the cafeteria-induced effects on insulin synthesis. However, the administration of the extract enhances the cafeteria-induced increase in Bax protein levels, suggesting increased apoptosis. This result contradicts previous results from cafeteria-fed female rats, in which GSPE seemed to counteract the increased apoptosis induced by the cafeteria diet.

  13. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTION OF THYMALINUM AND SUSPENSION OF RED BONE MARROW IN TREATING EXPERIMENTAL TOXIC HEPATITIS OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Kulbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic decompensation problems make it timely to search for the methods of its treatment. Stem cells usage in attempt to restore structures of organs and tissues is a promising direction of researches. However the problem of possible blast-cell transformation slows down studies in this direction. Attempt of thymalinum use as an antitumoral immune system's modulator may be successful and may widen the possibilities of stem cells use in hepatology. On the basis of toxical affection of rats' lever by tetrachloromethane and paracetamol we have studied hepatoprotective activity of thymalinum and suspension of rats' red bone marrow (RBM and a thymalinum + suspension of RBM complex. Hepatoprotective action was estimated by the volume of discharged bile of control group rats which received paracetamol comparing with intact animals. This confirms the absence of reliable hepatotoxical action of paracetamol following the methodology applied. Significant reduction of discharged bile volume of control group rats which received tetrachloromethane comparing with intact animals confirms the successfulness of the formation method of hepatitis model in animals which received tetrachloromethane. The animals which were given tetrachloromethane and thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination had bigger volume of bile discharged than control group animals. Hepatoprotective action tendency of thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination shown before on mice is also true for rats

  14. Effect of “treating liver by nourishing spleen” on gut microbiota in rats with liver fibrosis based on Xiaoyao powder and its separated recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Bin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the possible mechanism of “treating liver by nourishing spleen” in the treatment of liver fibrosis with reference to the effect of Xiaoyao powder and its separated recipe on gut microbiota and the level of portal endotoxins. MethodsA total of 70 healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group (10 rats, model group (20 rats, experimental group (20 rats, and control group (20 rats, and tail vein injection of bovine serum albumin was performed for 8 weeks to establish a rat model of immune liver fibrosis. The rats in the experimental group were given Xiaoyao granules by gavage, and those in the control group were given Xiaoyao granules without the spleen-strengthening traditional Chinese medicines Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., Poria cocos, ginger, and Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata by gavage. Serum aminotransferases, liver pathology, portal endotoxins, and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR fingerprint of gut microbiota were observed in each group. The analysis of variance was applied for comparison of continuous data with homogeneity of variance between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups; the Tamhane’s method was applied for data with heterogeneity of variance; the Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. ResultsCompared with the blank group, the model group showed changes in the diversity and structure of gut microbiota and an increase in the level of portal endotoxins (0.421±0.170 EU/ml vs 0.784±0.180 EU/ml, which showed significant differences between these two groups (P<0.01, and the level of portal endotoxins was positively correlated with collagen area percentage in liver tissue(r=0736,P<001. Compared with the model group, the experimental group had significantly reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and portal

  15. Ghrelin fibers from lateral hypothalamus project to nucleus tractus solitaries and are involved in gastric motility regulation in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shasha; Jin, Hong; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Luo

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin can alleviate cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia in rodents, though the neural mechanisms involved are not known. Therefore, ghrelin projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its involvement in the regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats were investigated with a multi-disciplined approach. Retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining were used to investigate ghrelin fiber projections arising from LH and projecting to nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS). Results revealed that ghrelin fibers originating in LH project to NTS. Expression of ghrelin and its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) in LH and NTS were detected by Western Blot. 2days after cisplatin dosing, expression of ghrelin in LH decreased while GHS-R1a in both LH and NTS increased. In electrophysiological experiments, the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) microinjection in LH on neuronal discharge of gastric distension-responsive neurons in NTS and gastric motility were assessed. NMDA in LH excited most of ghrelin-responsive gastric distension (GD)-sensitive neurons in NTS and promoted gastric motility. This effect was partially blocked by ghrelin antibody in NTS. Furthermore, the excitatory effects of NMDA in cisplatin-treated rats were weaker than those in saline-treated rats. Behaviorally, cisplatin induced a significant increase of kaolin consumption and decrease of food intake. These studies reveal a decreased expression of ghrelin in LH and up-regulation of GHS-R1a in LH and NTS, which are involved in the regulation of GD neuronal discharge in NTS and gastric motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. THE THE ACTIVITIES OF ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE AND ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE ENZYMES IN MALE WHITE RATS TREATED WITH EXTRACT ARECA NUT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Sagung Kendran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut is a plant of Arecaceae family, known as herbal medicine and useful as an anthelmetic treatment. The aim of this research was to determine hepar toxicity of the Areca nut extracts given to male white rats by measuring ALT and AST. The doses of extracts were 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The results showed that no significant effect of ALT and AST enzymes found in the treatment groups. Betel nut extract in those concentration was not toxic in the male white rats.

  17. [Indoor air quality and parents of asthmatic children practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendy Magnin, S; Desssome, B; Moret, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air pollution can worsen asthma in children. Better knowledge of factors determining parents' reception of recommendations to limit pollution of indoor air in the homes of asthmatic children would be helpful to improve implementation. A descriptive study evaluating practices known to have an impact on the quality of air in homes was conducted among parents of asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years. From May to September 2013, parents answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires in waiting rooms of generalist practitioners, in the Nantes University pneumology pediatric outpatient clinic, and as part of therapeutic education sessions conducted by the Asthma-44 Network. There were 190 exploitable questionnaires: 88.2% of parents reported never smoking in the home; 48.4% used home fragrance in the living room at least once a week; 77.8% opened their children's bedroom windows more than 10minutes at least once a day; 32.6% used several cleaning products or bleach once or twice a week. Good practices concerning smoking in housing were applied less in homes where the child was monitored only by a general practitioner (OR=0.08; CI[0.02-0.34]). Good practices on the use of perfume were statistically linked to having an intermediate level occupation (OR=2.31; CI[1.01-5.32]) and being followed by the university hospital, by the asthma network or by a general practitioner if the child had already consulted a pneumo-pediatrician or an allergist (OR=0.24; CI[0.07-0.81]). Good ventilation practices forchildren's bedrooms were statistically linked to residing in a rural rather than urban setting (OR=4.72; CI[1.0-22.16]). Practices observed in parents of asthmatic children differ little from those of the general population. Recommendations on how to limit sources of chemical pollutants, with the exception of smoking, are still poorly applied. Specialist consultations and specific training for general practitioners should improve the penetration

  18. HRCT findings of asthmatic children under maintenance therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Jai Soung; Goo, Dong Erk; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Pyun, Bok Yang [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRCT findings of bronchial asthma during maintenance bronchodilator therapy and to determine whether there were irreversible bronchial changes occurred in pediatric patients with this condition. HRCT findings of the lung in 21 asthmatic children (14 boys and 7 girls aged between 3.5 and 13.8 (mean: 7.7) years) who were receiving maintenance bronchodilator therapy were retrospectively studied. At the time of CT examination, 16 were receiving nonsteroid bronchodilator therapy only, and five were receiving both bronchodilator and steroid therapy. Thirteen patients were defined as allergic and eight were nonallergic. The clinical severity of chronic asthma was graded as severe in seven cases, and moderate in 14. The duration of the disease ranged from 4 months to 6 years (mean 3.2 years). HRCT was performed in 19 cases for evaluation of the atelectasis, hyperinflation, and prominent bronchovascular bundles seen on plain radiographs, and in two cases for evaluation following acute exacerbation. A CT W-2000 scanner (Hitachi Medical Co. Tokyo, Japan) was used during the end inspiratory phase, and in addition, ten patients were scanned during the expiratory phase. Scans were reviewed for evidence of bronchial thickening, bronchiectasis, emphysema, abnormal density, mucus plugs, and other morphological abnormalities. The presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping was evaluated according to the duration, severity and type of asthma. Among the 21 patients, 7 (33.3%) had normal HRCT findings, while in 14 (66.7%), bronchial wall thickening was demonstrated. Eleven of the 14 patients with bronchial wall thickening(78.6%) also had air trapping. No patient was suffering from bronchiectasis or emphysema. There were no statistically significant correlations between the presence of bronchial wall thickening or air trapping and the duration of the disease, its severity, or type of asthma. There was, however, a statistically

  19. R-flurbiprofen suppresses distal nonmucin-producing colorectal tumors in azoxymethane-treated rats, without suppressing eicosanoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan E; Le Leu, Richard K; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity and gastrointestinal side effects limits the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as agents to prevent colorectal cancer. These undesirable effects appear to be related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-associated pathways. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)-rat model of carcinogenesis, we aimed to test the potency of a low-toxicity R-flurbiprofen and whether NSAIDs have differing effects on regional tumor subtypes. Groups of 50 rats were gavaged 6 days a week with drug. After 1 and 2 wk on drug, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of AOM (15 mg/kg body wt). Groups were controls, sulindac (nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) 5 and 20 mg/kg body wt per day, and R-flurbiprofen 30 mg/kg body wt per day. Tumor location, size, and histological subtype (either mucinous or nonmucinous) were recorded after 30 wk. The incidence of colon tumors was significantly reduced in the sulindac 20 mg (P colon tumors (P affected. Tumors only of the nonmucinous subtype were significantly reduced with the sulindac 20 mg and R-flurbiprofen groups (P colonic prostaglandin E2 concentration. The sulindac groups showed a dose-dependant reduction in body weight gain (P body wt per day was well tolerated by the animals and, along with sulindac at 30 mg/day body wt, showed protection against the development of colon cancer in the rat-AOM model.

  20. PREVENTION OF CORNEAL ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION IN RATS TREATED WITH SUBCONJUNCTIVAL INJECTIONS OF LIPOSOMES CONTAINING DICHLOROMETHYLENE DIPHOSPHONATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, G; BROERSMA, L; VANROOIJEN, N; VANRIJ, G; VANDERGAAG, R

    Purpose. The drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate (CL2MDP) encapsulated in liposomes depletes macrophages but not other immunocompetent cells. The authors investigated whether subconjunctival injection of CL2MDP containing liposomes (CL2MDP-LIP) could prolong survival of corneal allografts in rats.

  1. Decreased phalloidin response, phallotoxin uptake and bile acid transport in hepatocytes prepared from wistar rats treated chronically with diethylnitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, K; Petzinger, E; Frimmer, M

    1980-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from rats pretreated with diethylnitrosamine (0.5 mg/kg DENA/DAY P.O.) are less sensitive to phalloidin poisoning. They take up lower amounts of both phallotoxins and bile acids than controls. The degree of inhibition depends on the period of pretreatment.

  2. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats I : Magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Wim M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    OBJECTIVE: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has received increasing attention as a potential antiepileptogenic target. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin after status epilepticus reduces the development of epilepsy in a rat model. To study whether rapamycin mediates this

  3. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  4. Renal content and output of epidermal growth factor in long-term adrenergic agonist-treated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the renal and urinary levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rats under long-term treatment with alpha- or beta-adrenergic agonists. Urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14 and 21, and renal tissue samples on day 21. EGF was quantified by ELISA and tissue sections were...

  5. The stimulatory effect of vasopressin on the luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized, estradiol-treated rats is time-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, I. F.; van der Beek, E. M.; Wiegant, V. M.; Buijs, R. M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2001-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat is not only induced by the positive feedback of estradiol, but also by circadian signals originating in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In a previous study we showed that administration of vasopressin, an SCN transmitter present in preoptic

  6. Improved Early Postresuscitation EEG Activity for Animals Treated with Hypothermia Predicted 96 hr Neurological Outcome and Survival in a Rat Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of hypothermia on 96 hr neurological outcome and survival by quantitatively characterizing early postresuscitation EEG in a rat model of cardiac arrest. Materials and Methods. In twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, cardiac arrest was induced through high frequency transesophageal cardiac pacing. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5 mins untreated arrest. Immediately after resuscitation, animals were randomized to either 2 hrs of hypothermia (N=10 or normothermia (N=10. EEG, ECG, aortic pressure, and core temperature were continuously recorded for 6 hrs. Neurological outcome was evaluated daily during the 96 hrs postresuscitation period. Results. No differences in the baseline measurements and resuscitation outcome were observed between groups. However, 96 hr neurological deficit score (204 ± 255 versus 500 ± 0, P=0.005 and survival (6/10 versus 0/10, P=0.011 were significantly better in the hypothermic group. Quantitative analysis of early postresuscitation EEG revealed that burst frequency and spectrum entropy were greatly improved in the hypothermic group and correlated with 96 hr neurological outcome and survival. Conclusion. The improved burst frequency during burst suppression period and preserved spectrum entropy after restoration of continuous background EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted favorable neurological outcome and survival in this rat model of cardiac arrest.

  7. Improved early postresuscitation EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted 96 hr neurological outcome and survival in a rat model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Song, Feng-Qing; Sun, Lei-Lei; Lei, Ling-Yan; Gan, Wei-Ni; Chen, Meng-Hua; Li, Yongqin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hypothermia on 96 hr neurological outcome and survival by quantitatively characterizing early postresuscitation EEG in a rat model of cardiac arrest. In twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, cardiac arrest was induced through high frequency transesophageal cardiac pacing. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5 mins untreated arrest. Immediately after resuscitation, animals were randomized to either 2 hrs of hypothermia (N = 10) or normothermia (N = 10). EEG, ECG, aortic pressure, and core temperature were continuously recorded for 6 hrs. Neurological outcome was evaluated daily during the 96 hrs postresuscitation period. No differences in the baseline measurements and resuscitation outcome were observed between groups. However, 96 hr neurological deficit score (204 ± 255 versus 500 ± 0, P = 0.005) and survival (6/10 versus 0/10, P = 0.011) were significantly better in the hypothermic group. Quantitative analysis of early postresuscitation EEG revealed that burst frequency and spectrum entropy were greatly improved in the hypothermic group and correlated with 96 hr neurological outcome and survival. The improved burst frequency during burst suppression period and preserved spectrum entropy after restoration of continuous background EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted favorable neurological outcome and survival in this rat model of cardiac arrest.

  8. Serum paraoxonase 1 status and its association with atherogenic indexes in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats treated with coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Ghasemi Dehnoo, Maryam; Dehghani, Akram; Bagheri, Shahrokh; Cheraghi, Rooh Angiz

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is a natural antioxidant and scavenger of free radicals. In the present study, we examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 on paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, lipid profile, atherogenic indexes and relationship of PON 1 activity by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and atherogenic indexes in gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups to receive saline; GM, 100 mg/kg/d; and GM plus coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p daily, respectively. After 12 days, animals were anaesthetized, blood samples were also collected before killing to measure the levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), HDL, atherogenic indexes and the activities of PON1 of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (using SPSS 13 software). Coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased TG, C, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, atherogenic coefficient and cardiac risk ratio. HDL level and PON1 activity were significantly increased when treated with coenzyme Q10. Also, the activity of PON 1 correlated positively with HDL and negatively with atherogenic coefficient, cardiac risk ratio 1 and cardiac risk ratio 2. This study showed that coenzyme Q10 exerts beneficial effects on PON1 activity, lipid profile, atherogenic index and correlation of PON 1 activity with HDL and atherogenic index in GM -induced nephrotoxicity rats.

  9. Simultaneous determination of eight lipid peroxidation degradation products in urine of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zwart, L L; Venhorst, J; Groot, M; Commandeur, J N; Hermanns, R C; Meerman, J H; Van Baar, B L; Vermeulen, N P

    1997-07-04

    One of the major processes that occur as a result of radical-induced oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation (LPO). Degradation of lipid peroxides results in various products, including a variety of carbonyl compounds. In the present study eight different lipid degradation products, i.e., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal and malondialdehyde were identified and measured simultaneously and quantitatively in rat urine after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorbenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride, extraction with heptane and using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The identity of the respective oximes in urine was confirmed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). Simultaneously measured standard curves were linear for all oxime-products and the detection limits were between 39.0 +/- 5.3 (n=9) and 500 +/- 23 (n=9) fmol per microl injected sample. Recoveries of all products from urine or water were 73.0 +/- 5.2% and higher. In urine of CCl4-treated rats an increase in all eight lipid degradation products in urine was found 24 h following exposure. ACON showed the most distinct increase, followed by PROPA, BUTA and MDA. It is concluded that the rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method based on GC-ECD presented here is well suited for routine measurement of eight different lipid degradation products. These products appear to be useful as non-invasive biomarkers for in vivo oxidative stress induced in rats by CCl4.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Hermansen, Mette N; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    to a standardized submaximal exercise test on the treadmill were measured in 111 school children with asthma. EIB could be excluded with a probability of 90% in asthmatic children with FeNO levels ... reducing the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of FeNO as a predictor of EIB in asthmatic children. METHODS: Stable outpatient asthmatic school children performed standard exercise challenge tests and measurement of FeNO. RESULTS: FeNO and response...

  11. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect. PMID:24187491

  12. Inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Amanda Maria Sena; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Boeloni, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Ferreira, Andrea da Fonseca; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid that is widely consumed due to its presence in drugs, coffee, tea, and chocolate. This compound passes to offspring through the placenta and milk; can cause teratogenic mutations; and reduces the formation, growth, and mass of bone. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for generating the entire skeleton, we hypothesized that these cells are targets of caffeine. This study evaluated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including one control group and three experimental groups treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine. At weaning, three 21-day-old pups from each dam in each group were euthanized for extraction of bone marrow cells for in vitro tests. Caffeine doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase at 7, 14, and 21 days and the expression of collagen I at 21 days. However, the expression of gene transcripts for alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, and bone sialoprotein, as well as the synthesis of mineralization nodules, decreased significantly in all groups treated with caffeine. The expression of osteocalcin was significantly reduced only in the group treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine. The caffeine that passes from the mother to the offspring during pregnancy and lactation reduces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We propose that this reduction in the osteogenic potential of MSCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteopenia resulting from caffeine consumption.

  13. Increasing ventilation as an intervention in homes of asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In children asthma is the most frequent chronic disease and house dust mite (HDM) allergy the most frequent cause of allergic asthma. Indoors most of the time, children are exposed to many indoor air pollutants that may act as asthma triggers. Reducing this exposure may improve asthma control...... in children. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 46 asthmatic, house dust mite allergic children. The aim was to investigate the association between indoor air quality in homes and severity of asthma, in particular the effect of increased ventilation rate and expected lower...... exposure to HDM on medication intake among these children. As a result of the intervention, the ventilation rate increased and the CO2 concentration fell significantly compared to baseline in the intervention group. The analyses of the effect of ventilation on health outcomes are being processed...

  14. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Asthma and leukotrienes: antileukotrienes as novel anti-asthmatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, H E; Dahlén, S E

    1999-03-01

    Antileukotriene drugs inhibit the formation or action of leukotrienes, which are potent lipid mediators generated from arachidonic acid in lung tissue and inflammatory cells. The leukotrienes were discovered in basic studies of arachidonic acid metabolism in leucocytes 20 years ago and were found to display a number of biological activities which may contribute to airway obstruction. Clinical studies with antileukotriene drugs have indeed demonstrated that leukotrienes are significant mediators of airway obstruction evoked by many common trigger factors in asthma. Moreover, treatment trials have established that this new class of drugs has beneficial anti-asthmatic properties, and several antileukotrienes have recently been introduced as new therapy of asthma. This communication presents an overview of the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, their biological effects and clinical effects of antileukotrienes in the treatment of asthama.

  16. The effects of GABAA and NMDA receptors in the shell-accumbens on spatial memory of METH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heysieattalab, Soomaayeh; Naghdi, Nasser; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Haghparast, Abbas; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive and neurotoxic psychostimulant. Its use in humans is often associated with neurocognitive impairment and deficits in hippocampal plasticity. Striatal dopamine system is one of the main targets of METH. The dopamine neurons in the striatum directly or indirectly regulate the GABA and glutamatergic signaling in this region and thus their outputs. This is consistent with previous reports showing modification of neuronal activity in the striatum modulates the expression of hippocampal LTP and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks such as Morris water maze (MWM). Therefore, reversing or preventing METH-induced synaptic modifications via pharmacological manipulations of the shell-nucleus accumbens (shell-NAc) may introduce a viable therapeutic target to attenuate the METH-induced memory deficits. This study is designed to investigate the role of intra-shell NAc manipulation of GABAA and NMDA receptors and their interaction with METH on memory performance in MWM task. Pharmacological manipulations were performed in rats received METH or saline. We found systemic saline plus intra-shell NAc infusions of muscimol dose-dependently impaired performance, while bicuculline had no effect. Surprisingly, the intra-NAc infusions of 0.005μg/rat muscimol that has no effect on memory performance (ineffective dose) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. In the contrary, the intra-NAc infusions of bicuculline (0.2μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. However, pre-training intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 dose-dependently impaired performance, while NMDA had no effect in rats received systemic saline (control group). The intra-NAc infusions with an ineffective dose of NMDA (0.1μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 with an ineffective dose (0.1μg/rat) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. Our result is consistent with the interpretation that METH-mediated learning deficit

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide dynamics in asthmatic reactions induced by diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P; Scarpa, M C; Guarnieri, G; Giordano, G; Baraldi, E; Maestrelli, P

    2016-12-01

    Isocyanate-induced asthmatic reactions are associated with delayed increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at expiratory flow of 50 mL/s (FeNO50), a biomarker of airway inflammation. The time course of FeNO increase is compatible with the activation of NO synthase, but the origin of NO production in the lung is undetermined. The aim of this study was to define the dynamics of airway and alveolar NO during specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with isocyanates and the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Spirometry, exhaled NO parameters (FeNO50, bronchial wall NO concentration, NO airway diffusing capacity, NO flux to luminal space, alveolar NO) and ADMA levels in exhaled breath condensate were measured before and at intervals up to 24 h after exposure to isocyanates. The results were compared between 17 SIC-positive and eight SIC-negative subjects. A significant FeNO50 increase in SIC-positive subjects was detected 24 h after exposure and was associated with the augmented NO flux from airway wall to the lumen, whereas airway NO diffusion and alveolar NO were not affected. The changes in NO dynamics were specific for the subjects who developed an asthmatic reaction, but were independent from the pattern and magnitude of bronchoconstriction. There was no evidence that exhaled NO is modulated by the changes in ADMA concentration. Because isocyanate-induced increase in FeNO50 was almost exclusively determined by the increase in NO flux, the use of FeNO50 appears adequate to monitor the exhaled NO dynamics during SIC. FeNO50 measurement may provide additional information to spirometry, because bronchoconstriction and airway inflammatory responses are dissociated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vitamin D and pulmonary function in obese asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbacher, Laura A; Jariwala, Sunit P; Markowitz, Morri E; Rastogi, Deepa

    2016-12-01

    Asthma-related morbidity is higher among children with vitamin D deficiency and obesity, morbidities that frequently co-exist among minority children. However, the effect of co-existent obesity and vitamin D deficiency on pulmonary function is poorly understood. We compared percent-predicted values of pulmonary function across vitamin D categories among 72 obese and 71 normal-weight Hispanic and African-American children with asthma recruited at an urban children's hospital. Serum cytokines associated with Th1 and Th2 inflammation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were quantified in fasting serum. 25-OHD levels ≥30 ng/ml were categorized as sufficient, children and did not differ by obese status. Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (84.5 ± 9.4 vs. 94.8 ± 8.4, P Functional Residual Capacity (67.5 ± 20.1 vs. 79.3 ± 19, P = 0.01) were lower among vitamin D deficient obese asthmatics than their sufficient counterparts, and Total Lung Capacity was lower than their insufficient counterparts (86.9 ± 14.3 vs. 96.6 ± 10, P = 0.01); similar associations were not observed in normal-weight asthmatics and were not influenced by systemic inflammation. No association between Th1 and Th2 inflammatory measures, vitamin D deficiency, and pulmonary function tests was found. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with pulmonary function deficits among obese children, but not among normal-weight children with asthma, an association that was independent of Th1 and Th2 serum inflammatory measures. Vitamin D deficiency may be one potential mechanism underlying the obese-asthma phenotype. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1276-1283. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessments of body composition and bone parameters of lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed meal (Linum usitatissinum) during post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante Ribeiro, Danielle; Alves da Silva, Paula Cristina; D'Avila Pereira, Aline; Ferolla da Camara Boueri, Bianca; Ribeiro Pessanha, Carolina; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, Maíra; Saldanha Melo, Henrique; Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-08-01

    There are few studies on body composition and the effects of diet on weight postpartum women. The aim was to evaluate the body composition and bone parameters in lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed flour during postweaning period. After weaning, the lactating rat were divided in control (n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) group, treated with 25% flaxseed flour diet. After 30 days, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum analysis, organs and intra-abdominal fat mass, femur and lumbar vertebra parameters were determined. The groups showed similar food intake, body mass and bone parameters. While F group showed the following: lower body (-5%), gonadal (-17%), mesenteric (-23%) and intra-abdominal (-6%) fat mass. Increase of HDL-cholesterol (+10%) and lower glucose (-15%), triglycerides (P < 0.05, -37%) and cholesterol (P < 0.05, -21%). The findings highlight the effects of flaxseed for control of adiposity and to maintain a healthy biochemical profile during the postnatal period. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. The pharmacological potential of Sorbus commixta cortex on blood alcohol concentration and hepatic lipid peroxidation in acute alcohol-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Syng-Ook; Lee, Hang Woo; Lee, In-Seon; Im, Hyo Gwon

    2006-05-01

    The effect of Sorbus commixta cortex, a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment of bronchitis, gastritis and dropsy, on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hepatic lipid peroxidation was examined in acute alcohol-treated rats. A 30-min pretreatment with a methanol extract of S. commixta cortex (SC) at concentrations higher than 200 mg kg(-1) resulted in a significant decrease in BAC and the ethyl acetate fraction (SE) of the extract showed the highest potency, with a maximum of a 46% decrease at 150 mg kg(-1) 2 h after alcohol administration (3.0 g kg(-1)) compared with the control group (P < 0.005). The rapid reduction in BAC did not appear to be due to the protection or activation of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity by SE. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased by acute alcohol administration within 6 h, although pretreatment with the SE caused a significant decrease in MDA levels compared with alcohol treatment alone. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity remained unchanged by alcohol, SE alone or by the combined treatment of alcohol and SE. However, catalase activity was significantly reduced by acute alcohol administration and pretreatment with the SE led to significant protection of its activity. These results suggest that pretreatment with SE reduces hepatic lipid peroxidation by decreasing the bioavailability of alcohol and its oxidative metabolites, such as H2O2, at least partly, through the protection of hepatic catalase in acute alcohol-treated rats.

  1. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Barbosa Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV. Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA. Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis.

  2. Influence of progesterone on GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum and prefrontal cortex of female rats repeatedly treated with cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Female rats are intensely affected by cocaine, with estrogen probably playing an important role in this effect. Progesterone modulates the GABA system and attenuates the effects of cocaine; however, there is no information about its relevance in changing GABA synthesis pathways after cocaine administration to female rats. Our objective was to investigate the influence of progesterone on the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the isoenzymes of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in brain areas involved in the addiction circuitry. Ovariectomized, intact and progesterone replacement-treated female rats received saline or cocaine (30 mg/kg, ip acutely or repeatedly. GAD isoenzyme mRNA levels were determined in the dorsolateral striatum (dSTR and prefrontal cortex (PFC by RT-PCR, showing that repeated, but not acute, cocaine decreased GADs/β-actin mRNA ratio in the dSTR irrespective of the hormonal condition (GAD65: P < 0.001; and GAD67: P = 0.004. In the PFC, repeated cocaine decreased GAD65 and increased GAD67 mRNA ratio (P < 0.05. Progesterone replacement decreased both GAD isoenzymes mRNA ratio after acute cocaine in the PFC (P < 0.001 and repeated cocaine treatment reversed this decrease (P < 0.001. These results suggest that cocaine does not immediately affect GAD mRNA expression, while repeated cocaine decreases both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the dSTR of female rats, independently of their hormonal conditions. In the PFC, repeated cocaine increases the expression of GAD isoenzymes, which were decreased due to progesterone replacement.

  3. Amination of tyrosine in liver cytosol protein of male F344 rats treated with 2-nitropropane, 2-nitrobutane, 3-nitropentane, or acetoxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodum, R S; Fiala, E S

    1997-12-01

    Previously, the secondary nitroalkane 2-nitropropane, a strong hepatocarcinogen in rats, had been shown to induce the formation of 8-aminoguanine in both DNA and RNA of rat liver through a sulfotransferase-mediated pathway. This pathway was postulated to convert the carcinogen into an aminating species [Sodum, R. S., et al. (1994) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 7, 344-351]. To submit this postulate to further test, we examined liver proteins of rats treated with 2-nitropropane, other carcinogenic secondary nitroalkanes, or the related rat liver tumorigen acetoxime for the presence of 3-aminotyrosine, the expected product of tyrosine amination. Using ion-pair and/or cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we found that the liver cytosolic proteins of these animals contained 0.1-1.5 mol of 3-aminotyrosine/10(3) mol of tyrosine. Treatment with the noncarcinogenic primary nitroalkane 1-nitropropane or with other primary nitroalkanes did not produce an analogous increase in the aminated amino acid (level of detection estimated at approximately 0.01 mol/10(3) mol of tyrosine). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the modification of protein tyrosine in vivo by a carcinogen. In vitro studies with acetoxime-O-sulfonate and hydroxylamine-O-sulfonate showed that these proposed intermediates in the activation pathway of 2-nitropropane react with guanosine to give 8-aminoguanosine, N1-aminoguanosine, and 8-oxoguanosine and also react with tyrosine to give 3-aminotyrosine and 3-hydroxytyrosine. The in vitro amination and oxidation of guanosine at C8 were also produced by acetophenoxime-O-sulfonate and 2-heptanoxime-O-sulfonate. These results provide additional evidence for the production of a reactive species capable of aminating nucleic acids and proteins from 2-nitropropane and other carcinogenic secondary nitroalkanes by a pathway involving oxime- and hydroxylamine-O-sulfonates as intermediates.

  4. The paraoxonase 1 (PON1), platelet-activating factor acetylohydrolase (PAF-AH) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity in the metformin treated normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicka, Grażyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Czechowska, Grażyna; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Marciniak, Sebastian; Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2016-10-15

    Antidiabetic agents per se, apart from their glucose-lowering effect, can have an important impact on modifying the cardiovascular risk. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the known cardio-protective effects of metformin are linked to its potential ability to affect activities of HDL's paraoxonase (PON1) and platelet activating factor acetylohydrolase (PAF-AH) or via its interaction with the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)- dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) axis. Normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated with metformin (300mg/kg; 4 weeks). The activity of PON1, PAF-AH and DDAH were measured spectrophotometrically. The plasma ADMA level was determined by ELISA method. In STZ-induced diabetic rats the long-term administration of metformin normalized reduced PON1 activity assayed toward paraoxon (+42.5%, PPAF-AH activity in the plasma. Moreover, metformin increased DDAH activity in the renal cortex (+38.24%, P<0.01). Additionally metformin administration caused the increase in PON1 activity in the liver (+29.2%, P<0.01) accompanied by the reduction in the lipid peroxidation (-59.8%, P<0.001). Similarly, in non-diabetic treated rats the increase in liver PON1 activity was observed toward both paraoxon (+80.19%, P<0.001) and phenyl acetate (+29.3%, P<0.05), respectively. The present study has demonstrated that insulin-sensitizer metformin is important for preserving antioxidant HDL function in diabetes. Metformin might also exert its effect against diabetic complications by improving DDAH activity in the kidney and increasing PON1 activity in the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the effect of vitamin K(2) and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid-treated rats: a bone histomorphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideo; Tadeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yeh, James K

    2009-04-30

    To compare the effect of vitamin K(2) and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated rats. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats, 3 months of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into 5 groups according to the following treatment schedule: age-matched control, GC administration, and GC administration with concomitant administration of vitamin K(2), risedronate, or vitamin K(2) + risedronate. GC (methylprednisolone sodium succinate, 5.0 mg/kg) and risedronate (10 microg/kg) were administered subcutaneously three and five times a week, respectively. Vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg) was administered orally three times a week. At the end of the 8-week experiment, bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on trabecular bone of the tibial proximal metaphysis. GC administration decreased trabecular bone mass compared with age-matched controls because of decreased bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate) and increased bone erosion. Vitamin K(2) attenuated GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced decrease in bone formation (mineralizing surface) and subsequently reducing GC-induced increase in bone erosion. Risedronate prevented GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced increase in bone erosion although it also suppressed bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate). Vitamin K(2) mildly attenuated suppression of bone formation (mineralizing surface) and bone erosion caused by risedronate without affecting trabecular bone mass when administered in combination. The present study showed differential effect of vitamin K(2) and risedronate on trabecular bone in GC-treated rats.

  6. Protective Effect of Flowerbuds of Lonicera Japonica Extract on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Associated Vascular Complications in STZ-HFD Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar Amrutlal Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of Lonicera Japonica Alcoholic Extract (LJALE on Diabetes Mellitus  II (DM and associated vascular complications.Methods: Induction of Diabetes Mellitus II with 35 mg / kg STZ-HFD leads to excessive level of 11β-HSD1 enzyme. It has been found that flower buds of Lonicera Japonica (LJ has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of diabetes. Chlorogenic Acid (CA is a major bioactive component in the flower buds of LJ has received more attention because of its 11β-HSD1 inhibitory action.11β-HSD1 regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases. LJALE was prepared with help of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE method.  STZ-HFD-induced diabetic rats were treated with LJALE (200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and Metformin (50 mg/kg. It was given for 4 weeks.Result: LJALE treated Diabetic rats showed significant decreased in blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, serum cortisol as well significant increased hepatic glycogen, 11β-HSD1 index compare to diabetic control rats. LJALE (500 mg/kg treatment showed the return of islets close to good vascular pattern. LJALE treatment restored endothelium dysfunction.Conclusions: From all results it is reasonable to conclude that LJALE (500 mg/kg may be used in treatment of diabetes and diabetes associated vascular dysfunction.Keywords:  Diabetes Mellitus, 11β-HSD1, CA, LJALE

  7. Effects of osmolality and calcium on renin release from superfused rat glomeruli treated with nigericin or monensin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1988-01-01

    Proton gradients may be important for the induction of swelling and exocytosis of secretory renin granules during basal renin release (RR). The sensitivity of renin release to changes in osmolality and to calcium was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli that had been pretreated with the m......Proton gradients may be important for the induction of swelling and exocytosis of secretory renin granules during basal renin release (RR). The sensitivity of renin release to changes in osmolality and to calcium was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli that had been pretreated...... of proton gradients with the ionophores inhibit RR late in the secretory pathways, independently of effects on the Golgi-apparatus and intracellular calcium concentration. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a low granular pH is important for driving JGC-granule swelling and exocytosis....

  8. Radiographic and Histopathologic Analysis on Osteoarthritis Rat Model Treated with Essential Oils of Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Belkhodja , Boumediene Meddah, Aicha Meddah TirTouil, Khaled Slimani, Abdenacer Tou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plants represent an important source of various chemical structures known for their therapeutic activities in folk medicine. Our study aimed to exploit natural bioactive components from well-known medicinal plants "Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba". Methods: The study of acute toxicity of essential oils of Rosemary and White poplar was carried out on Wistar rats. Then, the effect of these essential oils was studied in the treatment of experimental models induced by knee osteoarthritis. A radiographic and Histologic analysis was carried out to monitor the efficiency of essential oil. The choice of the model of osteoarthritis turned to unilateral intra-articular injection of a mono-iodo acetic acid. Results: The results revealed that the action of the essential oil showed a significant decrease in the Mankin score compared to the group of untreated rats. Conclusion: The essential oils of R. officinalis, P. alba presented an protective effect against osteoarthritis with difference degrees.

  9. The effect of propranolol and midazolam on the reconsolidation of a morphine place preference in chronically treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J.F. Robinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A stable memory can be disrupted if amnestic treatment is applied in conjunction with memory reactivation. Recent findings in the conditioned place preference (CPP model suggest that blocking reconsolidation attenuates the ability of environmental cues to induce craving and relapse in drug addicts, but the impact of prior physical dependence has not been described. We examined the effect of post-reactivation amnestic treatment on reconsolidation of a CPP for morphine, in animals naïve to morphine, under chronic morphine experience or abstinent. Morphine experience was induced by escalating doses of morphine from 10 mg/kg/day (s.c., and maintained on 30 mg/kg/day during the course of conditioning and reactivation procedures, or conditioning alone. Naïve and morphine-experienced animals were trained in a 3-compartment apparatus by 4 morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c. and 4 saline experiences paired with either of two large conditioning compartments. The memory was then reactivated by a CPP test, and immediately afterwards animals received an injection of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg, s.c., the GABAa agonist midazolam (1 mg/kg, i.p., or saline. Morphine-naïve rats received only a single reconsolidation blocking treatment (Exp 1, while chronic morphine rats were given 8 reactivation sessions each followed by amnestic treatment, either before (Exp 2 or after 10 days of withdrawal (Exp 3. Propranolol and midazolam disrupted reconsolidation in morphine- naïve rats, but failed to disrupt the CPP when rats were trained under chronic morphine treatment, even if they were recovered from chronic opiate exposure before reactivation. In fact, propranolol increased the preference for the drug-paired context in animals trained while maintained on chronic morphine. Midazolam had little effect. Morphine experience may produce neurochemical changes which alter memory storage processes and reduce the impact of amnestic treatments on reconsolidation.

  10. Oxidative DNA and RNA damage in the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with the hepatocarcinogen 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, E S; Conaway, C C; Mathis, J E

    1989-10-15

    2-Nitropropane (2-NP), a widely used industrial chemical, is a mutagen in bacteria and a powerful hepatocarcinogen in Sprague-Dawley rats. In contrast, 1-nitropropane (1-NP) is not mutagenic and does not appear to be carcinogenic. Thus far, the mechanism of carcinogenicity of 2-NP has not been examined. We report in the present work that i.p. treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats with 100 mg/kg 2-NP results in a 3.6-fold increase (P less than 0.01) in the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine as well as in the appearance of an additional electrochemically active species, presumably a modified deoxynucleoside, in liver DNA hydrolysates 6 h after dosing. Treatment with 2-NP also induces an 11-fold increase (P less than 0.0001) in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine in rat liver RNA, and results in the appearance of two new electrochemically active species (RX1 and RX2), presumably modified nucleosides. Small, statistically not significant increases of 8-hydroxyguanosine in RNA and of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA, as well as the induction of much smaller amounts of RX2 (but apparently not RX1) in rat liver RNA, are also observed following analogous treatment with 1-NP. Since the presence of 8-hydroxyguanine, a product of the attack of hydroxyl radicals (or other reactive oxygen species) on guanine, can cause DNA misreplication [Kuchino et al., Nature (Lond.), 327: 77-79, 1987], our findings are consistent with a mechanism of hepatocarcinogenicity of 2-NP based on damage to nucleic acids from the intracellular generation of reactive forms of oxygen and/or the 2-NP free radical.

  11. Changes of cytoskeletal proteins in nerve tissues and serum of rats treated with 2,5-hexanedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Shan; Hou, Li-Yan; Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fu-Yong; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2008-02-28

    To investigate the mechanisms and biomarker of the neuropathy induced by 2,5-hexanedione (HD), male Wistar rats were administrated HD at dosage of 200 or 400mg/kg for 8 weeks (five-times per week). All rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks of treatment and the cerebrum cortex (CC), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerves (SN) were dissected, homogenized and used for the determination of cytoskeletal proteins by western blotting. The levels of neurofilaments (NFs) subunits (NF-L, NF-M and NF-H) in nerve tissues of 200 and 400mg/kg HD rats significantly decreased in both the supernatant and pellet fractions. Furthermore, significant negative correlations between NFs levels and gait abnormality were observed. As for microtubule (MT) and microfilament (MF) proteins, the levels of alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin and beta-actin in the supernatant and pellet fraction of SN significantly decreased in 200 and 400mg/kg HD rats and correlated negatively with gait abnormality. However, the contents of MT and MF proteins in CC and SC were inconsistently affected and had no significant correlation with gait abnormality. The levels of NF-L and NF-H in serum significantly increased, while NF-M, alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin and beta-actin contents remain unchanged. A significant positive correlation (R=0.9427, P<0.01) was observed between gait abnormality and NF-H level in serum as the intoxication went on. These findings suggested that HD intoxication resulted in a progressive decline of cytoskeletal protein contents, which might be relevant to the mechanisms of HD-induced neuropathy. NF-H was the most sensitive index, which may serve as a good indicator for neurotoxicity of n-hexane or HD.

  12. Tocopherol fate in plasma and liver of streptozotocin-treated rats that orally received antioxidants and Spirulina extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, D; Rupérez, F J; Ugarte, P; Barbas, C

    2007-07-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats constitute a model of oxidative stress, and vitamin E continues to be a topic of speculation in this area. On the other hand, marine extracts, particularly microalgae extracts obtained with environmentally clean technologies and which demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro, are a potential source of in vivo antioxidant defense. We have studied the alpha-tocopherol content in the plasma and liver of diabetic rats after 7 and 14 days under the condition, and before and after the treatment with vitamin E and C, as well as with different Spirulina extracts, as compared with the corresponding controls. The improvement of analytical methodology related to the determination of alpha-tocopherol in the plasma and liver of rats was also considered. To do this, a method previously developed for plasma, employing a single extraction step, was adapted and validated for liver after minor modifications. Moreover, stability of alpha-tocopherol in plasma of diabetic and control animals was compared in different storage conditions. Results showed that diabetic plasma strongly influences stability of alpha-tocopherol, even at -20 degrees C, but samples are stable for at least one year at -80 degrees C. Finally, regarding supplementation, results indicate that supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increases stored alpha-tocopherol in liver, but not in plasma, but this availability is strongly dependent on the stage of diabetes of the animal. Extracts of Spirulina platensis, despite showing antioxidant activity in vitro, increased alpha-tocopherol concentration in neither plasma nor liver.

  13. Histomorfometria da mama de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio Breast histomorphometry of rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Maria Preda dos Santos Torres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas nas mamas de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio por curto período de tempo. MÉTODOS: Foram divididas em quatro grupos 40 ratas ooforectomizadas: GC-recebeu veículo; GE-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal; GP-recebeu acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal e, GEP-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal e acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal. No grupo GE, o estradiol foi administrado durante sete dias, por via subcutânea. Já no grupo EP o estradiol foi administrado nos primeiros sete dias e o progestagênio por mais 23 dias, por via subcutânea. Vinte e quatro horas após a última administração dos hormônios, os animais foram anestesiados e o primeiro par de mamas inguinais removido, imerso em formaldeído a 10% e processado para inclusão em parafina, sendo os cortes corados pela Hematoxilina-Eosina. Foram avaliadas a morfologia e a área ocupada pelo parênquima mamário, sendo os dados submetidos à análise de variância complementado pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p GEP > GC; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breast histomorphometric changes in rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen for a short period of time. METHODS: Forty oophorectomized rats were divided into four groups: GC, vehicle; GE, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal; GP, treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.2 mg/animal and GEP, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.28 mg/animal. In GE group, estradiol was administered subcutaneously for seven days; in GEP group, estradiol was administered once in a day for the first seven days and the progestogen over the next 23 days both subcutaneously. Twenty-four hours after the last hormone administration, the animals were killed upon deep anesthesia and the first inguinal breasts were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed to be included in paraffin

  14. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to coadministration of ritonavir and inhaled budesonide in an asthmatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Eynat; Shahar, Eduardo; Hassoun, Gamal; Pollack, Shimon

    2010-09-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is caused by exposure to glucocorticoids and may be promoted by interaction with additional drugs. It is well known in asthmatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with inhaled fluticasone with ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen (cART). The authors present an asthmatic HIV-infected Ethiopian woman, treated with fluticasone/salmeterol, commencing cART with tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. During 7 months she gained 9 kg and hyperpigmentation, mild edema, marked abdominal striae, and increase in blood pressure were noted. Plasma am and urine free cortisol levels confirmed CS diagnosis and fluticasone was discontinued. Complete resolution of CS occurred within 2 months. However, frequent asthma symptoms required resumption of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment, and budesonide/formeterol was prescribed. Soon reemergence of symptomatic CS was noted. Ritonavir dose was halved, but CS symptoms continued to develop. Budesonide was stopped and montelukast initiated. Resolution of cushingoid symptoms was observed within weeks. Corticosteroids are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Fluticasone has the longest glucocorticoid receptor-binding half-life and is 300 times more lipophilic than budesonide. Inhaled fluticasone possesses a high suppression rate of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, may inhibit corticosteroid degradation and increase its accumulation. Inhaled budesonide is less likely to cause adrenal suppression. Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome presents a clinical challenge due to similarities with clinical manifestations and side effects related to cART. In patients treated with inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids together with cART there may be a higher incidence of iatrogenic CS. CS should be looked for, and management considered carefully.

  15. DYNAMICS OF EOSINOPHIL INFILTRATION IN THE BRONCHIAL-MUCOSA BEFORE AND AFTER THE LATE ASTHMATIC REACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; DEMONCHY, JGR; KAUFFMAN, HF; SMITH, M; HOEKSTRA, Y; VRUGT, B; TIMENS, W

    We wanted to determine whether changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) following allergen challenge show a time relationship with inflammatory events in the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects. Lavage was performed and endobronchial biopsies were taken via the fibreoptic bronchoscope,

  16. CYP1A2 polymorphism and theophylline clearance in Korean non-smoking asthmatics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yim, Eun-Young; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Jung, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown in humans. We investigated the relationship between differences in theophylline clearance and genetic polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 gene in 89 Korean asthmatic patients...

  17. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Si-Oh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation of the respiratory tract is a crucial process in immune diseases, including asthma, and atopic rhinitis. To establish whether an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn (SoL) has a beneficial influence in terms of anti-asthmatic activity, we examined its effects on an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were orally administered the SoL extract, and their lungs examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine IL-4/13 cytokine expression. The SoL extract exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects by inducing a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung. Our results collectively indicate that the aqueous SoL extract ameliorates asthmatic symptoms effectively in a mouse ovalbumin-challenge model.

  18. Influenza enhances caspase-1 in bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers and is associated with pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The leading cause of asthma exacerbation is respiratory viral infection. Innate antiviral defense pathways are altered in the asthmatic epithelium, yet involvement of inflammasome signaling in virus-induced asthma exacerbation is not known. Objective: This study com...

  19. Do dental procedures affect lung function and arterial oxygen saturation in asthmatic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mahmoud Emara

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Asthmatic patients may be at a higher risk of developing oxygen desaturation after dental procedures regardless of their type with and without local anesthesia and a decrease in PEF after dental procedures with local anesthesia.

  20. Analysis of anti-asthmatic drug patents published in China between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Zhang, Huiyun; Cao, Ke; He, Ping; Dai, Hongliang; He, Shaoheng

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that 789 anti-allergic patents were granted in China between 1988 and 2008, but the number of patents seems to have grown much faster in China in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the patents for anti-asthmatic products between 2004 and 2013 to give pharmaceutical companies and individuals a better understanding of potential candidates for anti-asthmatic drug development from patents published in China. The current report analyses the scientific progress that supports anti-asthmatic drug patent applications and reviews the published patent literature in China from 2004 to 2013. The rapid increase in the number of anti-asthmatic patents in China indicates that more specific discoveries have been made and that more people are aware of the importance of intellectual property protection in China. Holding patents may guarantee protection for an innovative new product.

  1. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  2. Knowledge and Practice of Asthmatic Children's Parents About Daily Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Salehpour, Sousan; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge and practice about air pollution are essential subjects in special groups such as cardio-pulmonary patients. For children with air pollution-related diseases, knowledge and attitude of parents play a determining role in this respect. Since providing a coherent curriculum needs evidence-based information, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of asthmatic children's parents about daily air quality since asthmatic children are among the most vulnera...

  3. Sample size estimation in studies monitoring exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstra, W. B.; Sont, J. K.; Sterk, P. J.; Neijens, H J; Kuethe, M. C.; Duiverman, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability of the response to standardised treadmill exercise testing using dry air and monitoring of heart rate in asthmatic children suffering from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well established. METHODS: Twenty seven asthmatic children with known EIB performed standardised exercise testing twice within a period of three weeks. The tests were performed on a treadmill while breathing dry air. During both tests heart rate had to reach 90% of ...

  4. Effect of inhaled medication and inhalation technique on dental caries in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Marzie; Nematollahi, Hossein; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the type of inhaled medication, length of use, dosing, the inhaler use technique and the severity and duration of disease on the dental caries of asthmatic patients. In the present study, the frequency of dental caries in the asthmatic patients and control group was examined. In addition the possible association of dental caries with disease duration, disease severity, asthma symptoms, chest wheeze, PFT values, and dose of medication and inhalation use technique was evaluated. 40 asthmatic patients of both sex (20-30 years old) and 40 age and sex matched controls were studied. In asthmatic patients, the type, dose, duration of medications, the technique of inhaler use and severity and duration of the disease were recorded. The dental health status including DT, MT, FT and DMFT (decay, missing, filling teeth) were examined. In addition, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed for both groups. All PFT variables in asthmatic patients were significantly lower than those of control group except for FVC (P dental caries in asthmatic group were higher than those of controls which was statistically significant for MT and DMFT (P asthma duration were significantly more than those of 6-10 years (P dental caries and disease duration, PFT values; doses of medication or the technique of inhaler use; although the technique of inhaler use was relatively acceptable in all asthmatic patients. These results showed that dental caries among asthmatic patients was more common than control group which can be due to using inhaler drugs or the technique of inhaler use.

  5. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Hyun Kim; Ji-Yeon Yang; Jae-Young Lee; Jung-Won Park; Kwang-Jin Kim; Byung-Seo Lim; Geon-Woo Lee; Si-Eun Lee; Dong-Chun Shin; Young-Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with ind...

  6. Wave-speed-determined flow limitation at peak flow in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, O F; Brackel, H J; Bogaard, J M; Kerrebijn, K F

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether peak expiratory flow is determined by the wave-speed flow-limiting mechanism. We examined 17 healthy subjects and 11 subjects with stable asthma, the latter treated with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. We used an esophageal balloon and a Pitot-static probe positioned at five locations between the right lower lobe and midtrachea to obtain dynamic area-transmural pressure (A-Ptm) curves as described (O. F. Pedersen, B. Thiessen, and S. Lyager. J. Appl. Physiol. 52: 357-369, 1982). From these curves we obtained cross-sectional area (A) and airway compliance (Caw = dA/dPtm) at PEF, calculated flow at wave speed (Vws = A[A/(Caw*rho)0.5], where rho is density) and speed index is (SI = V/Vws). In 13 of 15 healthy and in 4 of 10 asthmatic subjects, who could produce satisfactory curves, SI at PEF was > 0.9 at one or more measured positions. Alveolar pressure continued to increase after PEF was achieved, suggesting flow limitation somewhere in the airway in all of these subjects. We conclude that wave speed is reached in central airways at PEF in most subjects, but it cannot be excluded that wave speed is also reached in more peripheral airways.

  7. Stability of FeNO and airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol in untreated asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Pernille Bækgaard; Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation are important hallmarks of asthma and are useful in asthma diagnosing, monitoring and treatment. The aim of the study was to assess whether two commonly used clinical tests, the mannitol challenge and Fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO), were...... stable clinical indicators over time in stable untreated asthmatics. METHODS: 54 non-smoking, asthma patients not treated with steroids were enrolled in the study and assessed at baseline and a median of 6 months later. At baseline and follow-up, FeNO and airway hyperesponsiveness to mannitol were......-up 0.90 (± 0.74) (ns), as was the FEV1% (94.1% (±17.1%) vs 94.6% (19.7%)(ns) indicating that patients were clinically stable during follow-up. The response to mannitol was unchanged at follow-up (Geometric mean (CI) of Response Dose Ratio (RDR) to mannitol: 0.026(0.013-0.046) vs 0.026(0.012-0.050) (ns...

  8. DNA synthesis and scanning electron microscopic lesions in renal pelvic epithelium of rats treated with bladder cancer promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M A; Asakawa, E; Hagiwara, A; Kurata, Y; Fukushima, S

    1991-03-01

    The proliferation response of rat renal pelvic epithelium, lined by transitional epithelium, to administration of various bladder