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Sample records for astatine 221

  1. Organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper surveys the investigations on the chemical behaviour of astatine in organic systems and deals with the preparation and identification of its organic compounds. A discussion is given on some of the physico-chemical properties of these compounds determined by extrapolation techniques as well as by direct measurement. The biomedical importance of 211At-labelled compounds is briefly referred to. (authors)

  2. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  3. Astatine-211: production and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutsky, Michael R; Pruszynski, Marek

    2011-07-01

    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen (211)At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of (210)At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, (210)Po. The intrinsic cost for producing (211)At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available (123)I. The major impediment to (211)At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for (211)At production. PMID:22201707

  4. Recent advances in the organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation on the chemical behaviour of astatine in the last decade are surveyed. The survey covers the physical and chemical properties of astatine, synthesis and identification of organic astatine compounds, their physicochemical properties. A special chapter is devoted to biomedical applications, including inorganic 211At species, 211At-labelled proteins and drugs. An extensive bibliography of the related literature is given. (N.T.) 129 refs.; 12 figs.; 14 tabs

  5. ENG 221 Uop Material-eng221dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    Sandywilliam6

    2015-01-01

    ENG 221 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.eng221.com   ENG 221 Week 2 Web-Conferencing Programs Research Memo ENG 221 Week 3 Request for Proposal for Trainers ENG 221 Week 4 User manual Critique ENG 221 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment: Project (Manual) ENG 221 Week 1 DQs ENG 221 Week 2 DQs ENG 221 Week 3 DQs ENG 221 Week 4 DQs ENG 221 Week 5 DQs  

  6. ENG 221 UOP Course Tutorial / eng221dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    anil14

    2015-01-01

    ENG 221 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.eng221.com   ENG 221 Week 2 Web-Conferencing Programs Research Memo ENG 221 Week 3 Request for Proposal for Trainers ENG 221 Week 4 User manual Critique ENG 221 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment: Project (Manual) ENG 221 Week 1 DQs ENG 221 Week 2 DQs ENG 221 Week 3 DQs ENG 221 Week 4 DQs ENG 221 Week 5 DQs  

  7. IT 221 courses / snaptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    IT 210 snaptutorial

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 1 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 2 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 CheckPoint: The Phases of the System Development Process IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life (GROUP ASSIGNMENT) IT 221 Week 2 Assignment: Final Project—Project Overview- Appendix B IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Final Project—Proposal IT 221 Week 3...

  8. Dosimetrical considerations in astatine-211 radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several dosimetrical quantities have been suggested for use in alpha-particle dosimetry. To evaluate the expected biological effect when using these quantities, a Monte Carlo program was set to register the single-event distribution of both specific energy and alpha-particle track length to a cell nucleus (r=5.6 μm). Distributions were acquired for both 'bound' (simulating the effect of 211At-labelled antibodies bound to antigens on cell surfaces (r=7.0 μm)) as well as 'non-bound' (simulating 211At-labelled antibodies that have not bound to a cell) astatine-211. From these distributions, various theoretical cell survival curves were established for 3 different dosimetrical quantities, i.e. specific energy, number of alpha-particle hits and total track length. The survival curves for all quantities are presented for the corresponding mean absorbed dose in order to facilitate comparisons of the expected effects of using the 3 different quantities for both distributions of 211At decays. The theoretical survival curves presented here could, combined with experiments using 'bound' and 'non-bound' 211At in a single-cell suspension, reveal which dosimetrical quantity is most suitable for 211 At-radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  9. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Extraction of astatine isotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals using a 211Rn-211At generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to utilize a 211At isotope, a promising α-emitter for radionuclide therapy, the chemical properties of astatine isotopes are studied. We have examined wet chemistry methods through the distribution ratios of astatine in liquid-liquid extraction. The astatine isotopes have been found to be well extracted into DIPE and MIBK. We observed that the distribution ratio of astatine isotopes increases with concentrations of HCl greater than 3 M, while it decreases with the HCl concentration less than 2 M. The results will be useful for development of the 211Rn-211At generator. (author)

  11. Astatine-211-Labeled Targeted Radiotherapeutics: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy halogen 211At was first proposed for use in α-particle targeted radiotherapy more than 30 years ago and continues to be one of the most promising radionuclides for this purpose. Although its 7.2-h half life is not ideal for intravenously administered whole antibodies, it is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of antibody fragments, peptides, aptamers and organic molecules. Its diverse chemistry allows its incorporation into a wide array of targeting vehicles, relying on its chemical similarity to iodine to provide a useful point of departure. On the other hand, the relatively low carbon-astatine bond strength is challenging. In common with the other α-emitters being discussed at this symposium, lack of reliable availability is one of the biggest hurdles in the use of 211At for targeted radiotherapy. However, in the case of 211At, it is not a question of production cost or availability of target material, because 211At can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets. Rather, the difficulty is the lack of cyclotrons equipped with the medium energy α-particle beams required for its production. If the infrastructure for producing 211At is to be improved to the stage where 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals can have a meaningful impact, several developments must occur. First, the ability to produce clinically relevant levels of 211At that can be shipped to remote locations in chemically tractable form must be demonstrated. Approaches under consideration include compensating for radiolysis-mediated effects and the consideration of alternative chemistries. Second, strategies for compensating for heterogeneities in dose deposition must be developed, hopefully in a way that is compatible with approval for human use. And third, it is essential that more clinical trials be performed with 211At-labeled therapeutics, particularly in settings of minimum residual disease where the radiobiological advantages of α-particles can be best exploited. Our

  12. Scrutinizing "Invisible" astatine: A challenge for modern density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; David, Grégoire; Montavon, Gilles; Maurice, Rémi; Galland, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The main-group 6p elements did not receive much attention in the development of recent density functionals. In many cases it is still difficult to choose among the modern ones a relevant functional for various applications. Here, we illustrate the case of astatine species (At, Z = 85) and we report the first, and quite complete, benchmark study on several properties concerning such species. Insights on geometries, transition energies and thermodynamic properties of a set of 19 astatine species, for which reference experimental or theoretical data has been reported, are obtained with relativistic (two-component) density functional theory calculations. An extensive set of widely used functionals is employed. The hybrid meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) PW6B95 functional is overall the best choice. It is worth noting that the range-separated HSE06 functional as well as the old and very popular B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid-GGAs appear to perform quite well too. Moreover, we found that astatine chemistry in solution can accurately be predicted using implicit solvent models, provided that specific parameters are used to build At cavities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059181

  13. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Köster, U; Lane, J; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of smallest quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.317510(8) eV. New ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of super-heavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Svedhem, Sofia; Lindegren, Sture

    2016-03-16

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even single cancer cells. A promising radioactive nuclide for this type of therapy is astatine-211. Astatine-211 attached to tumor-specific antibodies as carrier molecules is a system currently under investigation for use in targeted alpha therapy. In the common radiolabeling procedure, astatine is coupled to the antibody arbitrarily on lysine residues. By instead coupling astatine to disulfide bridges in the antibody structure, the immunoreactivity of the antibody conjugates could possibly be increased. Here, the disulfide-based conjugation was performed using a new coupling reagent, maleimidoethyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide (MSB), and evaluated for chemical stability in vitro. The immunoconjugates were subsequently astatinated, resulting in both high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. The MSB-conjugate was shown to be stable with a long shelf life prior to the astatination. In a comparison of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26791409

  15. Astatine-211: production, injection into monoclonal antibodies radiological effect, possible application to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, for producing astatine-211 and injecting it into monoclonal antibodies are described. The use of its diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid complex is shown to be the most effective method of injecting astatine into a biomolecules. The biological effect of the α-particles emitted from the astatine-211 is investigated using Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Ehrlich carcinoma cells. It is established that the mitotic activity depression, number of degenerating cells, number of cells with chromosome aberrations, and cellular surviving fraction depend on the concentration of the radionuclide in the medium 'in vitro'. The RBE of α-particles in comparison with 60Co γ-rays is 3. Injection of astatine-211 absorbed on tellurium particles into mice with ascitic tumors resulted in prolongation of their life or elimination of the tumors. (author). 39 refs, 7 figs

  16. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, S.; A. N. Andreyev; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T.E.; Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the io...

  17. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies.

  18. On the ^{221}Rn \\to ^{221}Fr Decay Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, K Ya; Norseev, Yu V; Samatov, Zh K; Sergienko, V A; Fominykh, V I; Chumin, V G

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigating the ^{221}Rn beta^{-}-decay and the ^{225}Ac alpha-decay are compared. It is shown that ^{221}Fr levels at 145.9 and 393.2 keV are excited at the ^{221}Rn decay. Intensities and reduced probabilities of the beta^{-}-decay to the ^{221}Fr levels are determined. A conclusion is drawn that the parity of the ^{221}Rn ground state is positive.

  19. ENG 221 UOP course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   ENG 221 Week 2 Web-Conferencing Programs Research Memo   ENG 221 Week 3 Request for Proposal for Trainers   ENG 221 Week 4 User manual Critique   ENG 221 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment: Project (Manual)   ENG 221 Week 1 DQs   ENG 221 Week 2 DQs   ENG 221 Week 3 DQs   ENG 221 Week 4 DQs   ENG 221 Week 5 DQs  

  20. ENG 221 UOP COURSE Tutorial/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    ddfvbnm

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ENG 221 Week 2 Web-Conferencing Programs Research Memo ENG 221 Week 3 Request for Proposal for Trainers ENG 221 Week 4 User manual Critique ENG 221 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment: Project (Manual) ENG 221 Week 1 DQs ENG 221 Week 2 DQs ENG 221 Week 3 DQs ENG 221 Week 4 DQs ENG 221 Week 5 DQs  

  1. MAT 221 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    mirat

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 221 Week 1 Assignment 1 Simplifying Expressions (Ash) MAT 221 Week 1 DQ 1 Evaluating Algebraic Expressions (Ash) MAT 221 Week 2 Assignment 2 Inequalities (Ash) MAT 221 Week 2 DQ 1 Formulas (Ash) MAT 221 Week 3 Assignment 3 Two-Variable Inequality (Ash) MAT 221 Week 3 DQ 1 Parallel and Perpendicular (Ash) MAT 221 Week 4 Assignment 4 Financial Polynomials (Ash) MAT 221 Week 4 DQ 1 Initial Investme...

  2. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method......To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and...... challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies....

  3. Study of Astatine (III) reactions with O, S and N ligands in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Astatine (At, Z=85: [Xe]4f145d106s26p5) belongs to the halogen group and is located below iodine in the periodic table. One of its isotopes (211At) appears promising as a therapeutic agent in nuclear medicine (Ref.1) owing to the energy of the alpha particles emitted during the disintegration of its nucleus and its short physical half-life (7.2 h). Since there are no stable isotopes of astatine, the chemistry of this element remains poorly understood. Generally, At is supposed to behave as a halogen (Ref.2) but it has been shown recently in our group that astatine presents a metallic behaviour in aqueous solution: it notably exists as At+ and AtO+ species under the oxidation states +I and +III (Ref.3). At the present time, the number of studies dealing with the complexation properties of the cationic forms of astatine remains limited (Ref.4), owing to its low availability. In this work, we have investigated the reactions of AtO+ species with different hetero-atomic (N, S, O) model ligands. A combined approach based on experimental and theoretical studies has been used (Ref.5). On account of the difficulties of experimental investigations of astatine species, the reactivity of AtO+ was explored using a competition method founded on astatine distributions between two distinct phases. Furthermore, for each AtO+/ ligand complex, the nature of the species formed and the associated thermodynamic constants were determined by computational modeling (DFT calculations). In this framework, an original computational methodology was developed to take into account the specificities of astatine, notably the associated relativistic effects. The computed equilibrium constants have been confronted with the experimental results. This comparison demonstrates an outstanding coherence between experience and theory. Furthermore, the analysis of the results shows a key role of solvent effects on astatine chemistry. Lastly, a specific reactivity for the

  4. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments (209At, 210At, 211At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  5. Astatine-211 Pathway from Radiochemistry to Clinical Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularly in clinical settings where tumour burden is low and cancers are located in close proximity to essential normal tissue structures, α-particle emitting radionuclides can offer significant advantages for targeted radionuclide therapy. One of the first alpha emitters to be evaluated for this purpose is the 7.2-h half-life radiohalogen Astatine-211 (211At). From a commercialization-potential perspective 211At, is less appealing than the longer half-life alpha particle emitters Radium-223, Actinium-225 and Thorium-227, which have become the focus of many laboratories. However, if methods for providing a better supply of 211At could be developed, this alpha emitter would be the radionuclide of choice for many potential therapeutic applications. With regard to the production of 211At, this can be readily be accomplished by bombarding natural bismuth targets with 28−29.5 MeV alpha particles via the 209Bi(α,2n)211At reaction. The goal is to utilize an alpha particle beam energy that provides the required balance for maximizing 211At production while minimizing creation of 210At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life alpha-particle emitting daughter, 210Po. For most intended clinical applications, alpha particle beam energy of about 29 MeV offers the best compromise between maximizing yield and providing 211At with sufficient radionuclidic purity for clinical use. Clinically relevant levels of 211At have been produced at several institutions using both internal and external cyclotron targets

  6. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced throug...

  7. IT 221 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    nukmu

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 1 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 2 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 CheckPoint: The Phases of the System Development Process IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life (GROUP ASSIGNMENT) IT 221 Week 2 Assignment: Final Project—Project Overview- Appendix B IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Final Project—Proposal ...

  8. IT 221 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/ UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    BAGIRAVI

    2015-01-01

     For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 1 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 DQS part 2 of 2 IT 221 Week 1 CheckPoint: The Phases of the System Development Process IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life (GROUP ASSIGNMENT) IT 221 Week 2 Assignment: Final Project—Project Overview- Appendix B IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Project Management in Everyday Life IT 221 Week 2 CheckPoint: Final Project—Propo...

  9. Direct astatination of a tumour-binding protein, human epidermal growth factor, using nido-carborane as a prosthetic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for direct astatine labeling of proteins has been investigated. Binding sites for astatine were created by coupling of a nido-carborane derivative to a protein, the human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), using two different conjugation methods - by glutaraldehyde cross-linking or by introduction of sulfohydryl groups by Traut's reagent with subsequent linking of ANC-1 with m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester. The conjugates were astatinated using the Chloramine-T method in high yield. The best labeling was obtained by the glutaraldehyde conjugate with an average yield of 68 ± 9%. In vitro stability tests indicated that the glutaraldehyde conjugated label was as stable as hEGF labeled with astatobenzoate. (author)

  10. Labelling prospects of astatine-211 with immunoglobulins (IgG): some general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumour therapeutic potential of the short lived alpha emitting radiohalogen 211At has been already been well recognised in the field of radioimmuno therapy. There is no evidence as such to show that astatine itself is a tumour seeking isotope. Therefore it has to be tagged to tumour seeking compound such as a drug or a protein preferably an antibody (IgG). In this communication, the labelling parameters which are required to be investigated for obtaining a stable product which could be useful as radioimmuno therapeutic agent, are described. (author). 6 refs

  11. Determination of the electron affinity of astatine and polonium by laser photodetachment

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to conduct the first electron anity (EA) measurements of the two elements astatine (At) and polonium (Po). Collinear photodetachment spectroscopy will allow us to measure these quantities with an uncertainty limited only by the spectral linewidth of the laser. We plan to use negative ion beams of the two radioactive elements At and Po, which are only accessible on-line and at ISOLDE. The feasibility of our proposed method and the functionality of the experimental setup have been demonstrated at ISOLDE in o-line tests by the clear observation of the photodetachment threshold for stable iodine. This proposal is based on our Letter of Intent I-148 [1].

  12. 20 CFR 221.1 - Introduction.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 221.1 Section 221.1 Employees... DETERMINATIONS § 221.1 Introduction. This part explains the factors involved in deciding whether the Social Security Administration or the Railroad Retirement Board will pay benefits to a railroad employee, and...

  13. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

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  14. 24 CFR 92.221 - Match credit.

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    2010-04-01

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  18. 33 CFR 117.221 - Saugatuck River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saugatuck River. 117.221 Section 117.221 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.221 Saugatuck River. (a)...

  19. 39 CFR 221.5 - Headquarters organization.

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    2010-07-01

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  20. 14 CFR 23.221 - Spinning.

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    2010-01-01

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  1. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following...

  2. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  3. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  4. Extraction of 211At-astatine from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of TOPO, TBP, and triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction behaviour of astatine was studied under defined conditions from hydrochloride acid solutions (cHCl>0.1 M or 1 and 2M). Therefore other effects like adsorption, reduction or hydrolysis can be excluded. The present work describes the extraction with tri- n- octylphosphinoxide (TOPO), tri- n-butylphosphate (TBP) and tri-phenylphosphine in chloroform. (orig.)

  5. No-carrier-added astatination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) via electrophilic destannylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The no-carrier-added synthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astato-benzoate from N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE) is described. The nature of the solvent in which the 211At was isolated from the target was an important factor influencing both the radiochemical yields and the nature of the incorporated astatine activity. (orig.)

  6. 211At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex as a precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    211At is one of the most promising radionuclides in α-radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT). Unfortunately, biomolecules labeled by direct electrophilic astatination are unstable due to the rapid loss of 211At under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present paper describes the results of our studies on attaching At- to the rhodium(III) complex with thioether ligand: 1,5,9,13-etrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16-S4-diol). Rh3+ was chosen as a moderately soft metal cation which should form very strong bonds with soft At- anions, but first of all because of the kinetic inertness of low spin rhodium(III) d6 complexes. The 16-S4-diol ligand was selected due to formation of stable complexes with Rh3+. The experiments related to optimization of the reaction conditions were performed with the 131I, basing on a chemical similarity of I- to At-. The experiments with 211At were then carried out under the conditions found optimal for I-. The preliminary results are promising, and indicate a possibility for astatination of biomolecules by using the 211At-Rh(16-S4-diol) complex

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFM221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM221 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM221P (Link to Original site) AFM221F 624 AFM...221Z 732 AFM221P 1336 - - Show AFM221 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM221 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...2-A/AFM221Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM221P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM221 (AFM221Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-A/AFM221Q.Seq.d/ ACACAACAATTTATAA

  8. 24 CFR 221.501 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Moderate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility requirements. 221.501 Section 221.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  10. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255...

  11. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section 221.770 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. 40 CFR 436.221 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.221 Section 436.221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bentonite Subcategory §...

  13. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  14. 29 CFR 1952.221 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.221 Section 1952.221 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The Tennessee state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule...

  15. 40 CFR 98.221 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.221 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a nitric acid train and the facility meets...

  16. Unexpected Behavior of the Heaviest Halogen Astatine in the Nucleophilic Substitution of Aryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, François; Lee, Yong-Sok; Baidoo, Kwamena; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2016-08-22

    Aryliodonium salts have become precursors of choice for the synthesis of (18) F-labeled tracers for nuclear imaging. However, little is known on the reactivity of these compounds with heavy halides, that is, radioiodide and astatide, at the radiotracer scale. In the first comparative study of radiohalogenation of aryliodonium salts with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , initial experiments on a model compound highlight the higher reactivity of astatide compared to iodide, which could not be anticipated from the trends previously observed within the halogen series. Kinetic studies indicate a significant difference in activation energy (Ea =23.5 and 17.1 kcal mol(-1) with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , respectively). Quantum chemical calculations suggest that astatination occurs via the monomeric form of an iodonium complex whereas iodination occurs via a heterodimeric iodonium intermediate. The good to excellent regioselectivity of halogenation and high yields achieved with diversely substituted aryliodonium salts indicate that this class of compounds is a promising alternative to the stannane chemistry currently used for heavy radiohalogen labeling of tracers in nuclear medicine. PMID:27305065

  17. DNA analysis of the genes encoding acidocin LF221 A and acidocin LF221 B, two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LF221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majhenič, A.Č.; Venema, K.; Allison, G.E.; Matijašić, B.B.; Rogelj, I.; Klaenhammer, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LF221, an isolate from the feces of a child, produces two bacteriocins. Standard procedures for molecular techniques were used to locate, clone and sequence the fragments of LF221 chromosomal DNA carrying the acidocin LF221 A and B structural genes, respectively. Sequencing ana

  18. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  19. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  20. [2+2+1] cyclization of allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, S; Inagaki, F; Mukai, C

    2014-05-01

    The [2+2+1] cyclization of an alkyne, an alkene and carbon monoxide, i.e., the Pauson-Khand reaction, is one of the most powerful tools for constructing a five-membered ring. In place of the alkene or alkyne part, the use of an allene functionality has proven to make this reaction more valuable for organic synthesis. This review focuses on the origin and progress of the allenic [2+2+1] cyclocarbonylation, including the chirality transfer of the allene and its synthetic applications. PMID:24514744

  1. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(2)) for low cost and moderate income...

  2. 14 CFR 221.70 - Who may amend tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may amend tariffs. 221.70 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.70 Who may amend tariffs. A tariff shall be amended only by the carrier or agent who issued the tariff (except as otherwise authorized in subparts P and Q)....

  3. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of tariff terms. 221.103 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.103 Notice of tariff terms. Each carrier shall cause to be displayed continuously in a conspicuous public place at...

  4. 14 CFR 221.210 - Suspension of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of tariffs. 221.210 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.210 Suspension of tariffs. (a) A fare, charge, rule or other tariff provision that is suspended by the Department pursuant to section 41509...

  5. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  6. 40 CFR 86.221-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86.221-94 Section 86.221-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.221-94 Hydrocarbon...

  7. 32 CFR 724.221 - Scheduling of discharge reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of discharge reviews. 724.221 Section 724.221 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.221 Scheduling of...

  8. 49 CFR 199.221 - Use following an accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use following an accident. 199.221 Section 199.221... Prevention Program § 199.221 Use following an accident. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee who has actual knowledge of an accident in which his or her performance of covered functions has not...

  9. 46 CFR 221.93 - Collection of civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of civil penalties. 221.93 Section 221.93... RELATED ACTIVITIES REGULATED TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING DOCUMENTED VESSELS AND OTHER MARITIME INTERESTS Civil Penalties § 221.93 Collection of civil penalties. Within 30 days after receipt of the Hearing...

  10. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural...

  11. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  12. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  13. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  14. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  15. Ectrodactyly and 7q22.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, H. [Salisbury District Hospital, Odstock (United Kingdom)

    1994-10-15

    This succinct `Letter to the Editor` was written in response to a report on a family exhibiting both a t(2;7)(q21.2;q22.1) and split hand/foot anomaly by Genuardi et al. [1993]. Pertinent sections of the article are discussed, with disagreement taken with a lack of mention to work conducted in 1991 by Rivera et al. in assigning the crucial locus to band 7q22 near to the proximal interface. 3 refs.

  16. 2.2.1 Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, K.-U.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.2.1 Ionizing Radiation' of the Section '2.2 Kinds of Radiation' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  17. 24 CFR 221.256 - Interest rate increase and payment of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... balance of the mortgage on the first day of the month following the date on which such right first accrued... of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and § 221.65. 221.256 Section 221.256... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND...

  18. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 221.212 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.212 Special tariff permission. (a) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which...

  19. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs... file tariffs electronically, the filer in addition to filing electronically must continue to...

  20. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  1. 14 CFR 221.100 - Public notice of tariff information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of tariff information. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.100 Public notice of tariff information. Carriers must make tariff information available...

  2. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  3. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable hours of work. 553.221 Section 553.221 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  4. 14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time delay analysis. 417.221 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.221 Time delay analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...

  5. 39 CFR 221.2 - Board of Governors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board of Governors. 221.2 Section 221.2 Postal... Governors. (a) Composition. The Board of Governors consists of 11 members. Nine governors are appointed by... five governors may be adherents of the same political party. The governors are chosen to represent...

  6. 14 CFR 221.211 - Cancellation of suspended matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of suspended matter. 221.211 Section 221.211 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... matter. When, pursuant to an order of the Department, the cancellation of rules, fares, charges, or...

  7. 24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221.790 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 221.780 - Issuance of debentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of debentures. 221.780 Section 221.780 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 221.275 - Method of paying insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of paying insurance benefits. 221.275 Section 221.275 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  10. 24 CFR 221.251 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.251... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross-reference. 221.251...

  11. 24 CFR 221.280 - Waived title objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waived title objections. 221.280 Section 221.280 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 221.305 - Condition of the multifamily structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condition of the multifamily structure. 221.305 Section 221.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. 24 CFR 221.751 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross-reference. 221.751 Section 221.751 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 221.310 - Assessment of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assessment of taxes. 221.310 Section 221.310 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. 24 CFR 221.800 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Servicing Responsibilities-Low Cost Homes § 221.800 Cross... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross-reference. 221.800...

  16. 24 CFR 221.320 - Certificate or statement of condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate or statement of condition. 221.320 Section 221.320 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 24 CFR 221.315 - Certificate of tax assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of tax assessment. 221.315 Section 221.315 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  18. 14 CFR 21.221 - Class I provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class I provisional airworthiness certificates. 21.221 Section 21.221 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... limitations established in §§ 21.81(e) and 91.317 of this subchapter. (b) The manufacturer must hold...

  19. 12 CFR 221.104 - Federal credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interpretation on Federal credit unions, see 12 CFR 220.110. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal credit unions. 221.104 Section 221.104... CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR...

  20. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  1. 14 CFR 221.141 - Method of revoking concurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of revoking concurrence. 221.141... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Concurrences to Carriers § 221.141 Method of revoking concurrence. (a) A concurrence may be revoked by filing with the Department a Notice of...

  2. Stability and in vivo behavior of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex: A potential precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The heavy halogen 211At is of great interest for targeted radiotherapy because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy α-particles. However, many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking other 211At labeling strategies. One relatively unexplored approach is to utilize prosthetic groups based on astatinated rhodium (III) complex stabilized with a tetrathioether macrocyclic ligand – Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of this complex in comparison to its iodine analog – Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I. Methods: Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I complexes were synthesized and purified by HPLC. The stability of both complexes was evaluated in vitro by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum at different temperatures. The in vivo behavior of the two radiohalogenated complexes was assessed by a paired-label biodistribution study in normal Balb/c mice. Results: Both complexes were synthesized in high yield and purity. Almost no degradation was observed for Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I in PBS over a 72 h incubation. The astatinated analog exhibited good stability in PBS over 14 h. A slow decline in the percentage of intact complex was observed for both tracers in human serum. In the biodistribution study, retention of 211At in most tissues was higher than that of 131I at all time points, especially in spleen and lungs. Renal clearance of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I predominated, with 84.1 ± 2.3% and 94.6 ± 0.9% of injected dose excreted via the urine at 4 h. Conclusions: The Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex might be useful for constructing prosthetic groups for the astatination of biomolecules and further studies are planned to evaluate this possibility

  3. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D., Scott

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  4. Establishment of radioactive astatine and iodine uptake in cancer cell lines expressing the human sodium/iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for radioiodine-mediated cancer gene therapy. In this study we investigated the role of human NIS for cellular uptake of the high LET α-emitter astatine-211 (211At) in comparison with radioiodine as a potential radionuclide for future applications. A mammalian NIS expression vector was constructed and used to generate six stable NIS-expressing cancer cell lines (three derived from thyroid carcinoma, two from colon carcinoma, one from glioblastoma). Compared with the respective control cell lines, steady state radionuclide uptake of NIS-expressing cell lines increased up to 350-fold for iodine-123 (123I), 340-fold for technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) and 60-fold for 211At. Cellular 211At accumulation was found to be dependent on extracellular Na+ ions and displayed a similar sensitivity towards sodium perchlorate inhibition as radioiodide and 99mTcO4- uptake. Heterologous competition with unlabelled NaI decreased NIS-mediated 211At uptake to levels of NIS-negative control cells. Following uptake both radioiodide and 211At were rapidly (apparent t1/2 3-15 min) released by the cells as determined by wash-out experiments. Data of scintigraphic tumour imaging in a xenograft nude mice model of transplanted NIS-modified thyroid cells indicated that radionuclide uptake in NIS-expressing tumours was up to 70 times (123I), 25 times (99mTcO4-) and 10 times (211At) higher than in control tumours or normal tissues except stomach (3-5 times) and thyroid gland (5-10 times). Thirty-four percent and 14% of the administered activity of 123I and 211At, respectively, was found in NIS tumours by region of interest analysis (n=2). Compared with cell culture experiments, the effective half-life in vivo was greatly prolonged (6.5 h for 123I, 5.2 h for 211At) and preliminary dosimetric calculations indicate high tumour absorbed doses (3.5 Gy/MBqtumour for 131I and 50.3 Gy/MBqtumour for 211At). In

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 221-U Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed to be conducted to support the evaluation of alternatives for the final disposition of the 221-U Facility. This SAP will describe general sample locations and the minimum number of samples required. It will also identify the specific contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) and the required analysis. This SAP does not define the exact sample locations and equipment to be used in the field due to the nature of unknowns associated with the 221-U Facility

  6. 27 CFR 555.221 - Requirements for display fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in assembling fireworks or articles pyrotechnic. 555.221 Section 555.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Requirements for display fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in...

  7. 75 FR 52591 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight... RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security...

  8. 76 FR 38741 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  9. 75 FR 9016 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  10. Theragnosis-based combined cancer therapy using doxorubicin-conjugated microRNA-221 molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Moon, Sung Ung; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNA (miRNA or miR) has emerged as a new cancer biomarker because of its high expression level in various cancer types and its role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In cancer studies, molecular imaging and treatment based on target cancer markers have been combined to facilitate simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, for combined therapy with diagnosis of cancer, we developed a doxorubicin-conjugated miR-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 DOXO MB) in a single platform composed of three different nucleotides: miR-221 binding sequence, black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), and doxorubicin binding site. Imaging of endogenous miR-221 was achieved by specific hybridization between miR-221 and the miR-221 binding site in miR-221 DOXO MB. The presence of miR-221 triggered detachment of the quencher oligo and subsequent activation of a fluorescent signal of miR-221 DOXO MB. Simultaneous cancer therapy in C6 astrocytoma cells and nude mice was achieved by inhibition of miRNA-221 function that downregulates tumor suppressor genes. The detection of miR-221 expression and inhibition of miR-221 function by miR-221 DOXO MB provide the feasibility as a cancer theragnostic probe. Furthermore, a cytotoxic effect was induced by unloading of doxorubicin intercalated into miR-221 DOXO MB inside cells. Loss of miR-221 function and cytotoxicity induced by the miR-221 DOXO MB provides combined therapeutic efficacy against cancers. This method could be used as a new theragnostic probe with enhanced therapy to detect and inhibit many cancer-related miRNAs. PMID:26454049

  11. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...

  12. 14 CFR 221.20 - Specifications applicable to tariff publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specifications applicable to tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Specifications of Tariff Publications § 221.20 Specifications applicable to tariff publications. (a) Numerical order. All items in a tariff shall be arranged...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Avibacterium paragallinarum Strain 221

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fuzhou; Miao, Deyuan; Du, Yu; CHEN, XIAOLING; Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Huiling

    2013-01-01

    Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza. Here we report the draft genome sequence of reference strain 221 of A. paragallinarum serovar A. The genome is composed of 135 contigs for 2,685,568 bp with a 41% G+C content.

  14. 24 CFR 221.254 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 221... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and...

  15. 20 CFR 725.221 - Determination of dependency; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Act, such disability must have begun before the child attained age 22, or in the case of a student... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; child. 725.221... Determination of dependency; child. For the purposes of determining whether a child was dependent upon...

  16. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs. 221.202 Section 221.202 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.202...

  17. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tariffs. 221.180 Section 221.180 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.180 Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs. (a) No carrier or filing agent shall file an electronic...

  18. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  19. 12 CFR 221.109 - Loan to open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan to open-end investment company. 221.109 Section 221.109 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.109 Loan to open-end investment company....

  20. Establishment of radioactive astatine and iodine uptake in cancer cell lines expressing the human sodium/iodide symporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, T.; Helmeke, H.-J.; Meyer, G.J.; Knapp, W.H.; Poetter, E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for radioiodine-mediated cancer gene therapy. In this study we investigated the role of human NIS for cellular uptake of the high LET {alpha}-emitter astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) in comparison with radioiodine as a potential radionuclide for future applications. A mammalian NIS expression vector was constructed and used to generate six stable NIS-expressing cancer cell lines (three derived from thyroid carcinoma, two from colon carcinoma, one from glioblastoma). Compared with the respective control cell lines, steady state radionuclide uptake of NIS-expressing cell lines increased up to 350-fold for iodine-123 ({sup 123}I), 340-fold for technetium-99m pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and 60-fold for {sup 211}At. Cellular {sup 211}At accumulation was found to be dependent on extracellular Na{sup +} ions and displayed a similar sensitivity towards sodium perchlorate inhibition as radioiodide and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} uptake. Heterologous competition with unlabelled NaI decreased NIS-mediated {sup 211}At uptake to levels of NIS-negative control cells. Following uptake both radioiodide and {sup 211}At were rapidly (apparent t{sub 1/2} 3-15 min) released by the cells as determined by wash-out experiments. Data of scintigraphic tumour imaging in a xenograft nude mice model of transplanted NIS-modified thyroid cells indicated that radionuclide uptake in NIS-expressing tumours was up to 70 times ({sup 123}I), 25 times ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and 10 times ({sup 211}At) higher than in control tumours or normal tissues except stomach (3-5 times) and thyroid gland (5-10 times). Thirty-four percent and 14% of the administered activity of {sup 123}I and {sup 211}At, respectively, was found in NIS tumours by region of interest analysis (n=2). Compared with cell culture experiments, the effective half-life in vivo was greatly prolonged (6.5 h for {sup 123}I, 5.2 h for {sup 211}At) and

  1. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process identifies the sampling and analytical requirements necessary to support future detailed evaluation of alternatives via the CERCLA process, for final disposition of the 221-U Canyon Facility. Viable alternatives for the disposition of the 221-U Facility have been identified in a CERCLA Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) (DOE-RL 1997) for the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The scope of this DQO Process is limited to the 221-U Process Canyon Building and equipment contained within the facility. Associated stacks, filters, solvent handling, vaults, and storage facilities external to the 221-U Building are not addressed in this DQO. This DQO focuses on the 221-U Building because it provides the greatest potential source of contaminant volumes and concentrations and the physical structure poses the greatest challenge for disposition decisions

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFI221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAAACAACTTTAACAATCTTTAAAAAATTTT ATATTTTTCAACTTTATAACTTNATTATATTCAAAACCAATTTNAATAATTNAANAAAAA AATTT Length of 3' end seq. 785 Connect...ed seq. ID - Connected seq. - Length of connected seq. - Full length Seq ID - Full length Seq. - Length of full length seq. - ... ... falciparum 3D7 chromosome 10 section 2 of 7 of the complete sequence. 34 0.12 8 AX348619 |AX348619.1 Sequen...olderia sp. 383 chromosome 3... 136 9e-31 CP000633_73( CP000633 |pid:none) Agrobacterium vitis...VF (Link to library) VFI221 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U09577-1 - (Link to Or

  3. 14 CFR 221.123 - Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected. 221.123 Section 221.123 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission To File on Less...

  4. 14 CFR 221.102 - Accessibility of tariffs to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tariffs to the public. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.102 Accessibility of tariffs to the public. Each file of tariffs shall be kept in...

  5. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff...

  6. 24 CFR 221.300 - Changes in the plan of apartment ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in the plan of apartment ownership. 221.300 Section 221.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  7. 14 CFR 221.205 - Justification and explanation for certain fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Justification and explanation for certain fares. 221.205 Section 221.205 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Justification and explanation for certain fares. Any carrier or its agent must provide, as to any new...

  8. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten; Correia, J.G.; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Jeppesen, Henrik; Johnston, K.; Kirsebom, Oliver Sølund; Skovbo, Katrine; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard

    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference ...

  9. Phase I feasibility study for the Canyon disposition initiative (221-U facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) presented in this document is to provide decision makers sufficient information on the remedial alternatives specific to the disposition of the 221-U Canyon Building (221-U Facility) located at the Hanford Site, and to determine which alternatives are viable for further detailed analysis

  10. 14 CFR 221.151 - Method of revoking power of attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of revoking power of attorney. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.151 Method of revoking power of attorney. (a) A power of attorney may be revoked only by filing...

  11. Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using α-emitter astatine-211-labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Kornblit, Brian; Hamlin, Donald K; Sale, George E; Santos, Erlinda B; Wilbur, D Scott; Storer, Barry E; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2012-02-01

    To reduce toxicity associated with external γ-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the α-emitter, astatine-211 ((211)At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 μCi/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with (211)At doses less than or equal to 405 μCi/kg. Higher doses of (211)At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 μCi/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/μL), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/μL), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/μL) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest (211)At dose (155 μCi/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning. PMID:22134165

  12. 12 CFR 221.120 - Allocation of stock collateral to purpose and nonpurpose credits to same customer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonpurpose credits to same customer. 221.120 Section 221.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... § 221.120 Allocation of stock collateral to purpose and nonpurpose credits to same customer. (a) A bank proposes to extend two credits (Credits A and B) to its customer. Although the two credits are proposed...

  13. MiR-221 influences effector functions and actin cytoskeleton in mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J Mayoral

    Full Text Available Mast cells have essential effector and immunoregulatory functions in IgE-associated allergic disorders and certain innate and adaptive immune responses, but the role of miRNAs in regulating mast cell functions is almost completely unexplored. To examine the role of the activation-induced miRNA miR-221 in mouse mast cells, we developed robust lentiviral systems for miRNA overexpression and depletion. While miR-221 favored mast cell adhesion and migration towards SCF or antigen in trans-well migration assays, as well as cytokine production and degranulation in response to IgE-antigen complexes, neither miR-221 overexpression, nor its ablation, interfered with mast cell differentiation. Transcriptional profiling of miR-221-overexpressing mast cells revealed modulation of many transcripts, including several associated with the cytoskeleton; indeed, miR-221 overexpression was associated with reproducible increases in cortical actin in mast cells, and with altered cellular shape and cell cycle in murine fibroblasts. Our bioinformatics analysis showed that this effect was likely mediated by the composite effect of miR-221 on many primary and secondary targets in resting cells. Indeed, miR-221-induced cellular alterations could not be recapitulated by knockdown of one of the major targets of miR-221. We propose a model in which miR-221 has two different roles in mast cells: in resting cells, basal levels of miR-221 contribute to the regulation of the cell cycle and cytoskeleton, a general mechanism probably common to other miR-221-expressing cell types, such as fibroblasts. Vice versa, upon induction in response to mast cell stimulation, miR-221 effects are mast cell-specific and activation-dependent, contributing to the regulation of degranulation, cytokine production and cell adherence. Our studies provide new insights into the roles of miR-221 in mast cell biology, and identify novel mechanisms that may contribute to mast cell-related pathological

  14. Level structure of 217Rn and 221Ra investigated in the alpha-decay 225Th → 221Ra → 217Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclei 221Ra and 217Rn have been investigated in the α-decay chain 225Th → 221Ra → 217Rn through γ-ray and conversion-electron studies. The short-lived 225Th nuclei (T1/2=8 min) were produced in the 226Ra(α, 5n) reaction, and γ-rays and conversion electrons were measured - between the irradiation periods - in coincidence with α-particles. In 221Ra the five lowest levels are interpreted as members of a K=5/2 parity-doublet with ΔEπ=104 keV. These levels, as well as a higher-lying Kπ=3/2+ band, are consistent with an octupole deformation of 221Ra, as expected from theoretical considerations. In 217Rn only three excited levels are observed, with a favoured α-decay to a 5/2+ excited level thus establishing positive parity for the ground state of 221Ra. (orig.)

  15. 50 CFR 221.34 - What is the law governing ex parte communications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedural requirements, unless the inquiry involves an area of controversy in the hearing process. ... LICENSES Hearing Process General Provisions Related to Hearings § 221.34 What is the law governing ex...

  16. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.204... carrier, the effective and prospective fares of the adopted carrier shall be changed to reflect the...

  17. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0

  18. Human miR-221/222 in Physiological and Atherosclerotic Vascular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Chistiakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cluster of miR-221/222 is a key player in vascular biology through exhibiting its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs. These miRNAs contribute to vascular remodeling, an adaptive process involving phenotypic and behavioral changes in vascular cells in response to vascular injury. In proliferative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, pathological vascular remodeling plays a prominent role. The miR-221/222 cluster controls development and differentiation of ECs but inhibits their proangiogenic activation, proliferation, and migration. miR-221/222 are primarily implicated in maintaining endothelial integrity and supporting quiescent EC phenotype. Vascular expression of miR-221/222 is upregulated in initial atherogenic stages causing inhibition of angiogenic recruitment of ECs and increasing endothelial dysfunction and EC apoptosis. In contrast, these miRNAs stimulate VSMCs and switching from the VSMC “contractile” phenotype to the “synthetic” phenotype associated with induction of proliferation and motility. In atherosclerotic vessels, miR-221/222 drive neointima formation. Both miRNAs contribute to atherogenic calcification of VSMCs. In advanced plaques, chronic inflammation downregulates miR-221/222 expression in ECs that in turn could activate intralesion neoangiogenesis. In addition, both miRNAs could contribute to cardiovascular pathology through their effects on fat and glucose metabolism in nonvascular tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles.

  19. MiR-221 Promotes Capan-2 Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells Proliferation by Targeting PTEN-Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhuo Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs have emerged as critical regulators of cancer cell proliferation. The effect of miR-221 on cancer cell growth could be significantly changeable in different cell lines. Although miR-221 was reported to promote the cell growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells, its role in Capan-2 cell line is largely unknown. Methods: Capan-2 cells were transfected with miR-221 mimics, inhibitors, or negative controls. Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to determine cell viability. EdU staining and cell cycle analysis were used to measure cell proliferation. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of PTEN and phospho-Akt. The PI3K-Akt pathway activator SC-79 and inhibitor LY294002 were used to perform the rescue experiment in determining cell proliferation. Results: Overexpressing miR-221 significantly increased cell vitality and promoted cell proliferation and G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle in Capan-2 cells, while inhibition of miR-221 decreased that. The protein level of PTEN in Capan-2 cells was downregulated by overexpressing miR-221, while upregulated by inhibiting miR-221. Consistently, enhanced phosphorylation of AktSer473 was observed in miR-221 overexpressed Capan-2 cells, and the opposite result was found in miR-221 inhibited cells. LY294002 restored the pro-proliferation effect of miR-221 on Capan-2 cells, while SC-79 had no additional effect on cell proliferation in Capan-2 cells transfected with miR-221 mimics. Conclusion: Our study indicates that miR-221 is an oncogenic miRNA which promotes Capan-2 cells proliferation by targeting PTEN-Akt pathway.

  20. Knock-down of miR-221 and miR-222 in the radiosensitization of breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of knock-down of miR-221 miR-222 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Antisense oligonucleotides of miR-221 and miR-222 (AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222), mediated by lipofectamine, were transfected to MCF-7 cells to knock down miR-221 and miR-222, Northern blotting was conducted to detect the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in transfected cells. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 activity assay. Clonogenic assay was used to measure the sensitizing enhancement ratio. Target genes of miR-221 and miR-222 relevant to radio-sensitivity were searched using bioinformatics analysis. The targeted protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in the AS-miR-221/222 cells determined by Northern blotting was significantly reduced. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis and mitotic cell death after the radiation were significantly higher in AS-miR-221/222 cells. The sensitizing enhancement ratio was 1.87. Based on bioinformatics analysis, PTEN was a target gene of miR-221 and miR-222 which could enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells. In AS-miR-221/222 cells, the expression of PTEN was up-regulated while pAkt down-regulated. Conclusions: AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222 may enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of PTEN. (authors)

  1. MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 regulate gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and radioresistance by targeting PTEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes via regulation of cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. MiR-221 and miR-222 were discovered to induce cell growth and cell cycle progression via direct targeting of p27 and p57 in various human malignancies. However, the roles of miR-221 and miR-222 have not been reported in human gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of miR-221 and miR-222 on human gastric cancer cells, and identified target genes for miR-221 and miR-222 that might mediate their biology. The human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was transfected with AS-miR-221/222 or transduced with pMSCV-miR-221/222 to knockdown or restore expression of miR-221 and miR-222, respectively. The effects of miR-221 and miR-222 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, transwell, and clonogenic assay. Potential target genes were identified by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Upregulation of miR-221 and miR-222 induced the malignant phenotype of SGC7901 cells, whereas knockdown of miR-221 and miR-222 reversed this phenotype via induction of PTEN expression. In addition, knockdonwn of miR-221 and miR-222 inhibited cell growth and invasion and increased the radiosensitivity of SGC7901 cells. Notably, the seed sequence of miR-221 and miR-222 matched the 3'UTR of PTEN, and introducing a PTEN cDNA without the 3'UTR into SGC7901 cells abrogated the miR-221 and miR-222-induced malignant phenotype. PTEN-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed PTEN as a direct target of miR-221 and miR-222. These results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 regulate radiosensitivity, and cell growth and invasion of SGC7901 cells, possibly via direct modulation of PTEN expression. Our study suggests that inhibition of miR-221 and miR-222 might form a novel therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer

  2. miR-221/222 Target the DNA Methyltransferase MGMT in Glioma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Romano, Giulia; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; De Marinis, Pasqualino; Soini, Ylermi; Esteller, Manel; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis. PMID:24147153

  3. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Quintavalle

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis.

  4. 221-U Facility concrete and reinforcing steel evaluations specification for the canyon disposition initiative (CDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This describes a test program to establish the in-situ material properties of the reinforced concrete in Building 221-U for comparison to the original design specifications. Field sampling and laboratory testing of concrete and reinforcing steel structural materials in Building 221-U for design verification will be undertaken. Forty seven samples are to be taken from radiologically clean exterior walls of the canyon. Laboratory testing program includes unconfined compressive strength of concrete cores, tensile strength of reinforcing steel, and petrographic examinations of concrete cores taken from walls below existing grade

  5. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... death or injury under the Warsaw Convention. 221.105 Section 221.105 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... injury under the Warsaw Convention. (a)(1) In addition to the other requirements of this subpart, each... to passengers provided by the Warsaw Convention, shall, at the time of delivery of the...

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a 13-mer LNA-inhibitor-miR-221 in Mice and Non-human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Cantafio, Maria Eugenia; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Mignogna, Chiara; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Botta, Cirino; Frandsen, Niels M; Rolfo, Christian; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Di Martino, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides have been successfully used to efficiently inhibit endogenous small noncoding RNAs in vitro and in vivo. We previously demonstrated that the direct miR-221 inhibition by the novel 13-mer LNA-i-miR-221 induces significant antimyeloma activity and upregulates canonical miR-221 targets in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the LNA-i-miR-221 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel assays for oligonucleotides quantification in NOD.SCID mice and Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) plasma, urine and tissues were developed. To this aim, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method, after solid-phase extraction, was used for the detection of LNA-i-miR-221 in plasma and urine, while a specific in situ hybridization assay for tissue uptake analysis was designed. Our analysis revealed short half-life, optimal tissue biovailability and minimal urine excretion of LNA-i-miR-221 in mice and monkeys. Up to 3 weeks, LNA-i-miR-221 was still detectable in mice vital organs and in xenografted tumors, together with p27 target upregulation. Importantly, no toxicity in the pilot monkey study was observed. Overall, our findings indicate the suitability of LNA-i-miR-221 for clinical use and we provide here pilot data for safety analysis and further development of LNA-miRNA-based therapeutics for human cancer. PMID:27327137

  7. 12 CFR 221.116 - Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purchase mutual fund shares. 221.116 Section 221.116 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares. (a) In a situation considered by the Board of Governors, a business concern (X) proposed to purchase mutual fund shares,...

  8. 5 CFR 591.221 - How does OPM compute the consumer expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes? 591.221 Section 591.221 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... the consumer expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes? OPM uses the following ten-step... aggregation. (f) Step 6. OPM computes a set of ratios by dividing each expenditure share of the...

  9. 14 CFR 221.60 - When reference to governing tariffs permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When reference to governing tariffs... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.60 When reference to governing tariffs permitted. (a) Reference to other tariffs prohibited except as authorized. A tariff shall...

  10. 14 CFR 221.72 - Reinstating canceled or expired tariff provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reinstating canceled or expired tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.72 Reinstating canceled or expired tariff provisions. Any fares, rules, or other tariff provisions which have been canceled or...

  11. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers. (a) Each filer that files an electronic tariff under...

  12. 14 CFR 221.130 - Applications for waiver of tariff regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for waiver of tariff... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Waiver of Tariff Regulations § 221.130 Applications for waiver of tariff regulations. Applications for waiver or modification of any of...

  13. 50 CFR 221.74 - Has OMB approved the information collection provisions of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Has OMB approved the information... PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.74 Has OMB approved the information... it displays a currently valid OMB control number that indicates OMB approval. OMB has reviewed...

  14. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use. (a) All airspace: U.S.-registered civil aircraft. Any traffic alert...

  15. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(22)-1 - Successor life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Successor life insurance company. 1.381(c)(22)-1... company. (a) Carryover requirement. If in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1957, a distributor or transferor corporation which is an insurance company is acquired by a corporation which is...

  16. Tetrasomy 21 pter {yields} q22.1 and Down syndrome: Molecular definition of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumer-Haas, C.; Schuffenhauer, S.; Walther, J.U. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Portsmann, T. [Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Korenberg, J.R.; Schipper, R.D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Down syndrome is usually caused by complete trisomy 21. Rarely, it is due to partial trisomy of the segment 21q22. We report on a 33-month-old girl with tetrasomy 21 pter {yields} q22.1 resulting from an extra chromosome idic(21)(q22.1). She has craniofacial traits typical of Down syndrome, including brachycephaly, third fontanel, upward slanting palpebral fissures, round face, and protruding tongue. Speech development is quite delayed whereas motor development is only mildly retarded. The molecular content of the extra isodicentric chromosome was defined by molecular genetic investigations using 13 single copy probes unique to chromosome 21, and SOD1 expression studies. The child was found to have 4 copies of the region defined by D21S16 (21cen) through D21S93 on 21q22.1 and two copies of the remaining region defined by SOD1 {yields} D21S55 {yields} D21S123. In view of the recent assignment of Down syndrome facial characters to the 21q22 region, defined in part by D21S55, it is significant that this child shows a subset of Down syndrome facial manifestations, without duplication of this region. These results suggest that genes contributing to the facial and some of the hand manifestations of Down syndrome also exist in the chromosomal region proximal to D21S55 in band 21q22.1. 34 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non... molding compound in dough, sheet or extruded rope form, evolving flammable vapor must be packed in: wooden... flammable vapor or Plastic molding compounds in dough, sheet or extruded rope, evolving flammable vapor...

  18. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  19. DME-221 thoria fuel: fabrication, irradiation testing, and post-irradiation examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, S.; Floyd, M.R.; Hamilton, H.; Livingstone, S.; Harrison, N.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Thoria (ThO{sub 2}) has several advantages over Urania (UO{sub 2}) as a nuclear fuel; its higher thermal conductivity results in lower operating temperatures, and its higher melting point and chemical inertness promise better stability under postulated accident conditions. Thorium is a 'fertile' material, breeding mainly fissile {sup 233}U as it is irradiated, making it more proliferation resistant. Thorium is also abundant as a natural resource, and is therefore an attractive future energy source. Past irradiation tests have shown that pellet microstructure greatly influences the irradiation performance of thoria fuels (e.g., fission-gas release is strongly influenced by the as-fabricated fuel microstructure). The “DME-221” test, conducted at AECL’s Chalk River Laboratories, was designed to demonstrate the superior irradiation performance of thoria fuels characterized by homogeneous, high-density microstructures. Eighteen DME-221 fuel elements were irradiated in the National Research Universal (NRU) loops in a 36-element demountable bundle. Six of the elements had pellets comprised of natural thoria (ThO{sub 2}), and twelve comprised of thoria blended with 1.0 wt.% or 1.5 wt% {sup 235}U in (Th, U)O{sub 2}. Various power histories were achieved as a result of the varied initial fissile concentration. To date, DME-221 thoria fuel has demonstrated excellent performance to burnups up to ∼930 MWh/kgHE (39 GWd/tHE); fission-gas release is substantially lower than that expected from UO{sub 2} fuels experiencing similar operating histories. This paper highlights the fabrication, irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination of twelve DME-221 fuel elements. The remaining six DME-221 elements are currently planned for irradiation in NRU to burnups up to 1500 MWh/kgHE (42-63 GWd/tHE). (author)

  20. Treatment of cultured glioma cells with the EGFR-TKI gefitinib (''Iressa'', ZD1839) increases the uptake of astatinated EGF despite the absence of gefitinib-mediated growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EGFR-TKI (epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) gefitinib (''Iressa'', ZD1839), a reversible growth inhibitor of EGFR-expressing tumour cells, has been shown to enhance the antitumour effect of ionising radiation, and also to increase the uptake of radioiodinated EGF. Thus, combination of gefitinib treatment and radionuclide targeting is an interesting option for therapy of brain tumours that are difficult to treat with conventional methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate how pre-treatment with gefitinib affects binding of astatinated EGF (211At-EGF) to cultured glioma U343 cells, which express high levels of EGFR. The growth of U343 cells in the presence of gefitinib was investigated, and it was found that gefitinib does not significantly inhibit the growth of these cells. Nevertheless, the uptake of 211At-EGF in U343 cells was markedly increased (up to 3.5 times) in cells pre-treated with gefitinib (1 μM). This indicates that a combination of gefitinib treatment and radionuclide targeting to EGFR might be a useful therapeutic modality, even for patients who do not respond to treatment with gefitinib alone. (orig.)

  1. Increased MiR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MiR-221 is over-expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical significance and function in HCC remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between miR-221 overexpression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and the effect of miR-221 inhibitor and mimic on different HCC cell lines in vitro. MiR-221 expression was detected using real time RT-qPCR in FFPE HCC and the adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. The relationship between miR-221 level and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Furthermore, miR-221 inhibitor and mimic were transfected into HCC cell lines HepB3, HepG2 and SNU449. The effects of miR-221 on cell growth, cell cycle, caspase activity and apoptosis were also investigated by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative expression of miR-221 in clinical TNM stages III and IV was significantly higher than that in the stages I and II. The miR-221 level was also upregulated in the metastatic group compared to the nonmetastatic group. Furthermore, miR-221 over-expression was related to the status of tumor capsular infiltration in HCC clinical samples. Functionally, cell growth was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and apoptosis was increased by miR-221 inhibitor in vitro. Likewise, miR-221 mimic accelerated the cell growth. Expression of miR-221 in FFPE tissues could provide predictive significance for prognosis of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC

  2. The Inhibition of the Highly Expressed Mir-221 and Mir-222 Impairs the Growth of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, Neri; Coppola, Valeria; Bonci, Desirée; Miele, Francesca; Costantini, Arianna; Guadagnoli, Marco; Bonanno, Elena; Muto, Giovanni; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; De Maria, Ruggero; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Farace, Maria Giulia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a number of in vivo approaches confirming our previous data. The ectopic overexpression of miR-221 is able, per se, to confer a high growth advantage to LNCaP-derived tumors in SCID mice. Consistently, the anti-miR-221/222 antagomir treatment of established subcutaneous tumors derived from the highly aggressive PC3 cell line, naturally expressing high levels of miR-221/222, reduces tumor growth by increasing intratumoral p27 amount; this effect is long lasting, as it is detectable as long as 25 days after the treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence in favour of a clinical relevance of the role of miR-221/222 in prostate carcinoma, by showing their general upregulation in patient-derived primary cell lines, where we find a significant inverse correlation with p27 expression. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma. PMID:19107213

  3. Preparation and Electrooxidative SO-Extrusion of Halogenated 7-Thiabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene 7-Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann, Thies; Melo, M. Luísa Sá e; Neves, André S. Campos; Li, Yuanqiang; Mataka, Shuntaro; Tashiro, Masashi; Geißler, Uwe; Walton, David

    1998-01-01

    Halogenated thiophenes have been cycloadded oxidatively to maleimides to give halogenated thiabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene S-oxides which have been subjected to an electrochemical extrusion of SO to give various halogeno-substituted phthalimides.

  4. The denitrification characteristics of Pseudomonas stutzeri SC221-M and its application to water quality control in grass carp aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    Full Text Available To reduce ammonium and nitrite in aquaculture water, an isolate of the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri, SC221-M, was obtained. The effects of various nitrogen and carbon sources, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and temperature on bacterial growth, denitrification rates and the expression levels of nirS and nosZ in SC221-M were studied. The following conditions were determined to be optimal for growth and denitrification in SC221-M: NaNO2 as the nitrogen source, sodium citrate as the carbon source, a carbon to nitrogen ratio range of 4-8, and a temperature range of 20-35°C. Subsequently, SC221-M and the Bacillus cereus BSC24 strain were selected to generate microbial preparations. The results showed that addition of the microbial preparations decreased various hydrochemical parameters, including total dissolved solids, ammonium, nitrite, total nitrogen and the chemical oxygen demand. Nitrogen removal rates were highest on day 9; the removal rates of BSC24, SC221-M, a mixed preparation and a 3× mixed preparation were 24.5%, 26.6%, 53.9% and 53.4%, respectively. The mixed preparation (SC221-M+BSC24 was more effective at removing nitrogen than either the SC221-M or BSC24 preparation. Roche 454 pyrosequencing and subsequent analysis indicated that the control and other groups formed separate clusters, and the microbial community structure in the water changed significantly after the addition of microbial preparations. These results indicate that the addition of microbial preparations can improve both the water quality and microbial community structure in an experimental aquaculture system. P. stutzeri strain SC221-M and its related microbial preparations are potential candidates for the regulation of water quality in commercial aquaculture systems.

  5. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...The U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) staff is soliciting public comment on its proposed Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-024, ``Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles.'' The purpose of this ISG is to supplement the guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and......

  6. A=225 implantation for $^{221}$Fr source for TRIUMF atom trap

    CERN Multimedia

    The FrPNC Collaboration is mounting an atom trap for parity violation experiments and precision spectroscopy on francium atoms at TRIUMF's ISAC facility. We would like to use ISOLDE's capability of simultaneously implanting A=225 (while another experiment runs online) to make a long-lived source feeding $^{221}$Fr for tests of the trap. $^{225}$Ra $\\beta$-decays to $^{225}$Ac, which then $\\alpha$-decays, producing 100 keV $^{221}$Fr t$_{1/2}$= 4.8 minute recoils. The implanted A=225 source would be shipped to TRIUMF, where it would be held for several minutes at a time a few mm from the same yttrium foil that normally receives the ISAC beam. SRIM calculations imply that 20% of the $^{221}$Fr will be implanted in a 1 cm diameter spot on the yttrium. Then the yttrium foil is moved to the trap and heated to release the Fr atoms, just as in normal ISAC online operation. A test implantation will be done at 10$^{7}$/sec production for 1 day, testing whether carbon cracking on the implantation foil in the mass separ...

  7. Targeted delivery of chemically modified anti-miR-221 to hepatocellular carcinoma with negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wendian Zhang,1 Fangqi Peng,1 Taotao Zhou,1 Yifei Huang,2 Li Zhang,3 Peng Ye,4 Miao Lu,1 Guang Yang,5 Yongkang Gai,1 Tan Yang,1 Xiang Ma,1 Guangya Xiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, 5School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Gene therapy was established as a new strategy for treating HCC. To explore the potential delivery system to support the gene therapy of HCC, negatively charged liposomal delivery system was used to deliver miR-221 antisense oligonucleotide (anti-miR-221 to the transferrin (Tf receptor over expressed HepG2 cells. The liposome exhibited a mean particle size of 122.5 nm, zeta potential of -15.74 mV, anti-miR-221 encapsulation efficiency of 70%, and excellent colloidal stability at 4°C. Anti-miR-221-encapsulated Tf-targeted liposome demonstrated a 15-fold higher delivery efficiency compared to nontargeted liposome in HepG2 cells in vitro. Anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome effectively delivered anti-miR-221 to HepG2 cells, upregulated miR-221 target genes PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3, and exhibited greater silencing efficiency over nontargeted anti-miR-221 liposome. After intravenous injection into HepG2 tumor-bearing xenografted mice with Cy3-labeled anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome, Cy3-anti-miR-221 was successfully delivered to the tumor site and increased the expressions of PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3. Our results demonstrate that the Tf-targeted negatively charged liposome could be a potential therapeutic modality in the gene therapy of human HCC. Keywords: transferrin, gene, HCC, target delivery system, anionic liposome 

  8. Advance research on microRNA-221,microRNA-222 and malignant tumor%microRNA-221和microRNA-222与恶性肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春智; 康春生; 浦佩玉

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that particular microRNAs(miRNAs) function either as tumor suppres-sors or oncogenes, whose loss or overexpression, respectively, has diagnostic and prognostic significance.Mi-croRNA-221 and microRNA-222 are a cluster microRNAs of oncogenes.They are overexpressed in some malig-nant tumors, including glioblstoma, prostate carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and so on.By regulating particular target mRNAs, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 perform pro- oneogenie role.p27kip1 and p57kip2 are target genes of microRNA-221 and mieroRNA-222.MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 promote oncogensis and tumor grow by down-regulating p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression.%微RNA(micmRNA)-221和microRNA-222是成簇的microRNA,在恶性肿瘤中起促癌作用,在胶质母细胞瘤、前列腺癌、乳头状甲状腺癌等恶性肿瘤中高表达.microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过调控其特定的靶基因行使促癌作用.在所有预测的靶基因中,p27kip1和p57kip2是已被验证的靶基因,microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过下调p27kip1和p57kip2的表达来促进肿瘤的形成和生长.

  9. Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression through suppressing E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Nan; Liang, Hongwei; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    It is generally regarded that E-cadherin is downregulated during tumorigenesis via Snail/Slug-mediated E-cadherin transcriptional reduction. However, this transcriptional suppressive mechanism cannot explain the failure of producing E-cadherin protein in metastatic breast cancer cells after overexpressing E-cadherin mRNA. Here we reveal a novel mechanism that E-cadherin is post-transcriptionally regulated by Slug-promoted miR-221, which serves as an additional blocker for E-cadherin expression in metastatic tumor cells. Profiling the predicted E-cadherin-targeting miRNAs in breast cancer tissues and cells showed that miR-221 was abundantly expressed in breast tumor and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells and its level was significantly higher in breast tumor or MDA-MB-231 cells than in distal non-tumor tissue and low-metastatic MCF-7 cells, respectively. MiR-221, which level inversely correlated with E-cadherin level in breast cancer cells, targeted E-cadherin mRNA open reading frame (ORF) and suppressed E-cadherin protein expression. Depleting or increasing miR-221 level in breast cancer cells induced or decreased E-cadherin protein level, leading to suppressing or promoting tumor cell progression, respectively. Moreover, miR-221 was specifically upregulated by Slug but not Snail. TGF-β treatment enhanced Slug activity and thus increased miR-221 level in MCF-7 cells. In summary, our results provide the first evidence that Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression via reducing E-cadherin expression. PMID:27174021

  10. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel locked nucleic acid (LNA-inhibitor-miR-221 against multiple myeloma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Di Martino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM: The miR-221/222 cluster is upregulated in malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM patients harboring the t(4;14 translocation. We previously reported that silencing of miR-221/222 by an antisense oligonucleotide induces anti-MM activity and upregulates canonical miR-221/222 targets. The in vivo anti-tumor activity occurred when miR-221/222 inhibitors were delivered directly into MM xenografts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-MM activity of a novel phosphorothioate modified backbone 13-mer locked nucleic acid (LNA-Inhibitor-miR-221 (LNA-i-miR-221 specifically designed for systemic delivery. METHODS: In vitro anti-MM activity of LNA-i-miR-221 was evaluated by cell proliferation and BrdU uptake assays. In vivo studies were performed with non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD.SCID mice bearing t(4;14 MM xenografts, which were intraperitoneally or intravenously treated with naked LNA-i-miR-221. RNA extracts from retrieved tumors were analyzed for miR-221 levels and modulation of canonical targets expression. H&E staining and immunohistochemistry were performed on retrieved tumors and mouse vital organs. RESULTS: In vitro, LNA-i-miR-221 exerted strong antagonistic activity against miR-221 and induced upregulation of the endogenous target p27Kip1. It had a marked anti-proliferative effect on t(4;14-translocated MM cells but not on MM cells not carrying the translocation and not overexpressing miR-221. In vivo, systemic treatment with LNA-i-miR-221 triggered significant anti-tumor activity against t(4;14 MM xenografts; it also induced miR-221 downregulation, upregulated p27Kip1 and reduced Ki-67. No behavioral changes or organ-related toxicity were observed in mice as a consequence of treatments. CONCLUSIONS: LNA-i-miR-221 is a highly stable, effective agent against t(4;14 MM cells, and is suitable for systemic use. These data provide the rationale for the clinical development of LNA

  11. Increased expression of microRNA-221 inhibits PAK1 in endothelial progenitor cells and impairs its function via c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► MicroRNA-221 is upregulated in the endothelial progenitor cells of atherosclerosis patients. ► PAK1 is a direct target of microRNA-221. ► MicroRNA-221 inhibits EPCs proliferation through c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. -- Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high mortality and occurs via endothelial injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) restore the integrity of the endothelium and protect it from atherosclerosis. In this study, we compared the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EPCs in atherosclerosis patients and normal controls. We found that miR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients compared with controls. We predicted and identified p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target of miR-221 in EPCs. We also demonstrated that miR-221 targeted a putative binding site in the 3′UTR of PAK1, and absence of this site was inversely associated with miR-221 expression in EPCs. We confirmed this relationship using a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-221 in EPCs significantly decreased EPC proliferation, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by decreased PAK1. Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-221 affects the MEK/ERK pathway by targeting PAK1 to inhibit the proliferation of EPCs

  12. Functional synergy of anti-mir221 and nanohydroxyapatite scaffold in bone tissue engineering of rat skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahya; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Khojasteh, Arash

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate cell source, effective cell modification, and proper supportive matrices are the main bases of tissue engineering. The effectiveness of anti-mir221 or hydroxyapatite (HA) in improving the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported previously. Herein, simultaneous application of these osteogenic inducers was investigated in vivo. The Poly-caprolactone (PCL)/HA nanofibers were characterized using contact angle measurement, tensile test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Rat MSCs were isolated, characterized and transfected with anti-mir221. The rats were divided into 4 groups and an 8 mm defect were created in the mid-calvaria of each rat by trephine bur. Group 1 received (PCL)/HA nanofibers, group 2 received (PCL)/HA nanofibers plus autologous MSCs, group 3 received (PCL)/HA nanofibers plus MSCs transfected with anti-mir221, and group 4 rats were left empty as an additional control group. Histomorphometric and radiomorphometric evaluation after 4 and 8 weeks revealed more new bone formation in the cell-treated groups compared to the scaffold alone group. There was evidence for a combination of increased osteoclasts and osteoblast vascular lake containing red blood cells in the anti-mir221 transfected group. New bone penetration into the scaffolds empirically demonstrated the capability of this combination for efficient osteointegration. Altogether, the co-application of HA and anti-mir221 transfected cells can enhance bone healing of the rat skull. PMID:27412651

  13. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ``Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel``, dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment.

  14. Report on sampling and analysis of exhaust air at the 221-T and 2706-T buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, M.

    1997-09-22

    This report presents analytical results from exhaust air samples collected at stacks 221-T and 2706-T of the T-Plant. The samples were collected with SUMMA canisters over a 24 hour interval and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data suggest that the buildings had generally low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (< 40 ppbv). However, samples from building 2706-T did have significant amounts of non-target higher-boiling hydrocarbons, probably from a petroleum destination fraction.

  15. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ''Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel'', dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment

  16. Dual Selectivity Expressed in [2+2+1] Dynamic Clipping of Unsymmetrical [2]Catenanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi

    2010-06-11

    A {pi}-templated dynamic [2+2+1] clipping protocol is established for the synthesis of [2]catenanes from two parts dialdehyde, two parts diamine and one part tetracationic cyclophane. It is further diversified for the selective formation of an unsymmetrical [2]catenane showing great translational selectivity by employing two different dialdehydes in a one-pot reaction. The dual selectivity and the dynamic nature are verified by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal structural studies and exchange experiments.

  17. A family with an inverted tandem duplication 5q22.1q23.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Bartels, I; Liehr, T; Burfeind, P; Zoll, B; Shoukier, M

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a 3-year-old boy with short stature, developmental delay and mild facial dysmorphic signs. Karyotype analysis and array-CGH revealed a pure duplication 5q22.1q23.2 with a length of 14.25 Mb. As demonstrated by multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization, the duplicated segment was orientated in an inverted tandem manner. One of the 2 older half-brothers of the index patient was intellectually disabled and showed short stature as well. The mother of the siblings was only 149 cm in height. The affected half-brother as well as the mother of the siblings were tested positive for the same duplication. Duplications of the long arm of chromosome 5 are rare. There are 16 reported cases of different 5q segments with a pure duplication and no additional chromosomal imbalance. In order to refine the 5q-duplication phenotype, reported cases were recently classified in 3 groups on the basis of clinical findings and the involved chromosome segments. However, our case does not fit in any of these groups but is placed in the interjacent chromosomal area between 2 of these groups. Overall, this is the second reported family with a duplication of 5q22.1q23.2 and both families share phenotypic features like short stature, facial dysmorphic signs and speech delay. The reported family provides further information for delineating phenotype-genotype correlations of pure duplications of the 5q region. PMID:23051634

  18. New Short-Lived Isotope ^{221}U and the Mass Surface Near N=126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuyagbaatar, J; Yakushev, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Ackermann, D; Andersson, L-L; Block, M; Brand, H; Cox, D M; Even, J; Forsberg, U; Golubev, P; Hartmann, W; Herzberg, R-D; Heßberger, F P; Hoffmann, J; Hübner, A; Jäger, E; Jeppsson, J; Kindler, B; Kratz, J V; Krier, J; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Maiti, M; Minami, S; Mistry, A K; Mrosek, Ch M; Pysmenetska, I; Rudolph, D; Sarmiento, L G; Schaffner, H; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Steiner, J; De Heidenreich, T Torres; Uusitalo, J; Wegrzecki, M; Wiehl, N; Yakusheva, V

    2015-12-11

    Two short-lived isotopes ^{221}U and ^{222}U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction ^{50}Ti+^{176}Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of E_{α}=9.31(5)  MeV and half-life T_{1/2}=4.7(7)  μs was attributed to ^{222}U. The new isotope ^{221}U was identified in α-decay chains starting with E_{α}=9.71(5)  MeV and T_{1/2}=0.66(14)  μs leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N=126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α-decay reduced width. PMID:26705628

  19. Preparation and Photo-thermal Isomerization of Azo [2.2.1]-and Azo[2.2.3]metacyclophane Tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Thiemann, Thies; Mataka, Shuntaro

    1999-01-01

    Azo[2.2.1]metacyclophane (MCP) tweezer 11 and azo[2.2.3]MCP tweezer 12 were prepared from [2.2.1]MCP 1a and [2.2.3]MCP 8, respectively, by ipso-nitration followed by reductive coupling using LiAlH_4. The photochemical and thermal isomerization of azo[2.2.n]MCP tweezers were studied by UV spectroscopy. The activation parameter (E_a) of the thermal cis-trans isomerization of 11 and 12 was determined as 81.7 kJmol^ and 90.9 kJmol^, respectively.

  20. The Inhibition of the Highly Expressed Mir-221 and Mir-222 Impairs the Growth of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Neri Mercatelli; Valeria Coppola; Desirée Bonci; Francesca Miele; Arianna Costantini; Marco Guadagnoli; Elena Bonanno; Giovanni Muto; Giovanni Vanni Frajese; Ruggero De Maria; Luigi Giusto Spagnoli; Maria Giulia Farace; Silvia Anna Ciafrè

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a n...

  1. Elevation of miR-221 and -222 in the internal mammary arteries of diabetic subjects and normalization with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Chasity B; Lightell, Daniel J; Moss, Stephanie C; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased intimal thickening and accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. We measured the expression of two microRNAs that promote intimal thickening, miR-221/222, and mRNA encoding a downstream target, p27(Kip1), in internal mammary artery (IMA) segments collected from 37 subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The segments were stratified into three groups: non-diabetic subjects (ND), diabetic subjects not on metformin (DMMet-), and diabetic subjects on metformin (DMMet+). The DMMet- group exhibited a significant increase in miR-221/222 and decrease in p27(Kip1) mRNA compared to both the ND and DMMet+ groups. miR-221/222 levels inversely correlated with metformin dose. VSMCs isolated from the IMAs of the DMMet- group proliferate at a faster rate than those of the ND and DMMet+ groups. Further studies into the importance of miR-221/222 in the increased intimal thickening observed in diabetic subjects is warranted. PMID:23648338

  2. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed to receive such stock as collateral for a “living expenses” loan that will be advanced to the... period would be substantially greater than the maximum loan value of the collateral as prescribed in § 221.7 (the Supplement). (d) In the opinion of the Board of Governors, a loan of the kind...

  3. A novel Xq22.1 deletion in a male with multiple congenital abnormalities and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Aypar, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Here we report the first male case of a novel Xq22.1 deletion. An 8-week-old boy with multiple congenital abnormalities and respiratory failure was referred to the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics laboratory for testing. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a novel 1.1 Mb deletion at Xq22.1. A similar deletion has only been described once in the literature in a female patient and her mother; both have intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features. In addition, the mother had a son who died at 15 days due to breathing failure. Recently, a mouse model revealed that a 0.35 Mb sub-region, containing 4 genes, is sufficient to cause majority of the Xq22.1 deletion phenotypes. The deleted intervals in our male patient and the female patients contain 15 common genes, including the four described in the 0.35 Mb sub-region. Male mice with deletion of the 0.35 Mb sub-region died perinatally from respiratory failure due to pulmonary hypoplasia, consistent with the breathing problem and potential neonatal fatality in male patients. The phenotypes of the mouse models and the patients are strikingly similar; therefore, the deletion of these five genes (ARMCX5, ARMCX5-GPRASP2, GPRASP1, GPRASP2, and BHLHB9) is likely responsible for the novel Xq22.1 deletion syndrome. PMID:26995686

  4. Deliverable 2.2.1 Use Scenarios in the Pilot Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2010-01-01

    Deliverable 2.2.1 - Use scenarios in the pilot services During the first phase of ISISEMD project (WP1) the user requirements analysis phase, mainly D1.1.1, has proposed a list of services organized in three groups (bundles as in Dow) and classified as mandatory or not mandatory and leading to di...... how the services look like and shall work at runtime. The integration work is now in progress and during the next months the design, workflow, GUI etc. for each service will be fully integrated, tested and evaluated in cooperation with the regions according to the project plan...... and usage scenarios of service bundles to be implemented in the ISISEMD Pilot platform in each of the four regions during the pilot. The services/sub functions are presented as workflows and also described by presenting how the Graphical User Interface will be organized and designed thus reflecting...

  5. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  6. Circulating miR-221-3p as a novel marker for early prediction of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskunpinar, Ender; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Tiryakioglu, Necip Ozan; Erturk, Mehmet; Ongen, Zeki

    2016-10-10

    Recent studies have reported circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and acute pulmonary embolism. The aims of this study were 1) to compare the plasma expression levels of miRNAs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and control subjects and in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI 2) to evaluate miRNAs potential to be used as novel diagnostic biomarkers for ACS. Twenty seven consecutive patients, admitted to emergency department of a training and research hospital between January-December 2013 with acute chest pain and/or dyspnea and diagnosed with ACS, and 16 non-ACS control subjects were included in this study. miRNA profiling was performed by using real time polymerase chain reaction. Functions of dysregulated miRNAs were evaluated by computerized-pathways analysis. miR-221-3p was one of the two most dysregulated miRNAs with a fold regulation of 3.89. It was significantly positively correlated with both Troponin and GRACE and Synthax Score. Moreover, miR221-3p was found to be significantly inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. miR-221-3p was the most prominent biomarker candidate with an area under curve (AUC) level of 0.881 (95% confidence interval: 0.774-0.987; p=0.002). The present study is the first to report an increased expression levels of miR-221-3p in AMI. Since miR-221-3p has a high discriminative value and significant relations with Troponin, GRACE and Synthax score and left ventricular systolic function, it may be a potential biomarker for early prediction of AMI. PMID:27374153

  7. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  8. Simultaneous detection and differentiation by multiplex real time RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 classic (clade 2.2.1 proper and escape mutant (clade 2.2.1 variant lineages in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafa Abdel-Satar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic status of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 in Egypt continues to devastate the local poultry industry and poses a permanent threat for human health. Several genetically and antigenically distinct H5N1 lineages co-circulate in Egypt: Strains of clade 2.2.1 proper replicate mainly in backyard birds causing the bulk of human infections, while a variant lineage within 2.2.1 (2.2.1v appears to be perpetuated mainly in commercial poultry farms in Egypt. Viruses of the 2.2.1v lineage represent drift variants escaping from conventional vaccine-induced immunity and some of these strains also escaped detection by commercial real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR protocols due to mismatches in the primers/probe binding sites. Results We developed therefore a versatile, sensitive and lineage-specific multiplex RT-qPCR for detection and typing of H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Analytical characterization was carried out using 50 Egyptian HPAIV H5N1 strains isolated since 2006 and 45 other avian influenza viruses (AIV. A detection limit of 400 cRNA copies per ml sample matrix was found. Higher diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex assay in comparison to other generic H5 or M-gene based RT-qPCR assays were found by examination of 63 swab samples from experimentally infected chickens and 50 AIV-positive swab samples from different host species in the field in Egypt. Conclusions The new multiplex RT-qPCR assay could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry in Egypt. It may also aid in prospective epidemiological studies to further delineate and better control spread of HPAIV H5N1 in Egypt.

  9. De Novo Balanced Translocation t (7;16 (p22.1; p11.2 Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of de novo chromosomal aberrations in a population of persons with autism suggests a causal relationship between certain chromosomal aberrations and the occurrence of isolated idiopathic autism. We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a male patient with autism, no physical abnormalities and a de novo balanced (7;16(p22.1;p16.2 translocation. G-banded chromosomes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH were used to examine the patient's karyotype as well as his parents'. FISH with specific RP11-BAC clones mapping near 7p22.1 and 16p11.2 was used to refine the location of the breakpoints. This is, in the best of our knowledge, the first report of an individual with autism and this specific chromosomal aberration.

  10. De Novo Balanced Translocation t (7;16) (p22.1; p11.2) Associated with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Bayou; Ridha M'rad; Ahlem Belhaj; Hussein Daoud; Lamia Ben Jemaa; Ramzi Zemni; Sylvain Briault; M. Bechir Helayem; Habiba Chaabouni

    2008-01-01

    The high incidence of de novo chromosomal aberrations in a population of persons with autism suggests a causal relationship between certain chromosomal aberrations and the occurrence of isolated idiopathic autism. We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a male patient with autism, no physical abnormalities and a de novo balanced (7;16)(p22.1;p16.2) translocation. G-banded chromosomes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to examine the patient's karyotype as wel...

  11. NIEZAWIADOMIENIE O WYPADKU PRZY PRACY LUB CHOROBIE ZAWODOWEJ (PRZESTĘPSTWO Z ART. 221 K.K.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jachimowicz, Marcin

    2003-01-01

    The crime described under Article 221 of the Criminal Code has been introduced to the Polish Criminal Law for the first time by the Criminal Code of 1997. Before that, this act was prosecuted under Article 283 § 6 section 6 of the Labor Code. This crime primarily covers failure to notify the relevant institution of a mishap at workplace or professional illness, or failure to submit appropriate documentation of such event. The paper begins with the analysis of the rights protect...

  12. Investigation of $\\alpha$-decay rates of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in different environments

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested, and indicated experimentally, that $\\alpha$- decay half-lives are modified by solid state effects in the surrounding environment. We propose here to measure with high accuracy the $\\alpha$-decay half-life of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in insulators and metals. Furthermore we plan to investigate the temperature dependency of the half-life in these materials (room temperature, 4 K and 10 mK).

  13. Overexpression of miR-221 in peripheral blood lymphocytes in petrol station attendants: A population based cross-sectional study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dalin; Peng, Xiaowu; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaochun; Tang, Huanwen; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Yang, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Benzene is a recognized environmental leukemogen, however, the mechanisms for its carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Recently, miR-221, a suggested oncogene involved in a number of malignancies, has been detected with elevated expression levels in blood cells of patients with leukemia. To explore whether benzene exposure has an effect on the expression of miR-221, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted in southern China, with 97 petrol station attendants as the exposure group and 103 general residents as the control group. Plasma benzene was analyzed by using GC∖MS. miR-221 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured by qRT-PCR and the ΔCt value for each sample was calculated by normalizing the Ct value for miR-221 with U6 RNA (i.e., ΔCt = CtmiR-221 - CtU6). Potential confounding factors were taken into account. Pearson correlation, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed in statistical analysis. The results showed that the air concentrations of benzene were significantly higher in petrol stations than in control sites (P < 0.05); The levels of benzene and miR-221 in exposure group were both significantly higher than in control group (P < 0.05) and there was a significant positive correlation between the two indexes (r = 0.851, P < 0.05); An association between benzene levels and the ΔCt values for miR-221 was identified by univariate and multivariate logistic analysis (OR 0.274; 95%CI 0.117, 0.396). Our investigation indicates that benzene exposure may be related to elevated miR-221 expression in human lymphocytes. PMID:26841344

  14. INSULIN RESISTANCE AND CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN 221 PATIENTS WITH POTENTIAL HYPERGLYCEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yang; Tian-de Li; Jin-song Wang; Guang Zhi; Wen-sheng Jin; Yong Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with potential hyperglycemia.Methods A total of 221 patients were recruited among those with potential hyperglycemia. All participants underwent physical examination, medical history interview, and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Venous blood was sampled for measurement of insulin and cholesterol levels. The intima-media thickness (IMT) in bilateral common carotid arteries was observed by B-mode ultrasound. Insulin resistance index was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).Subjects were stratified in quintiles according to HOMA-IR values. Risk factors and atherosclerotic parameters were analyzed.Results With HOMA-IR value increase, incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease increased, the levels of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, 2 hour plasma glucose, and fasting insulin increased as well, while the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased. Meanwhile, all atherosclerotic parameters increased. Multivariate regression analysis showed that TG, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C levels, and In(HOMA-IR) were related to IMT, hence were risk factors for IMT increase.Conchsion Insulin resistance is implicated in atherogenesis.

  15. MiR-221-inhibited adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells bioengineered in a nano-hydroxy apatite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, Saghar; Atashi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud; Alizadeh, Effat; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-04-01

    The repair of skeletal defects is the main goal of bone tissue engineering. Recent literature highlighted various regulatory roles of microRNAs in stem cell fate determination. In addition, the role of porous hydroxyapatite/polycaprolacton (nHA/PCL) as a bioactive scaffold which enhances adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) growth and osteogenic differentiation has been proved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic potential of both down-regulating miR-221 and nHA/PCL scaffold seeding in osteogenic potential of AT-MSCs. After isolation and characterization of AT-MSCs, the transfection of anti-miR-221 was performed into the cells using lipofectamine 2000 and the transfected cells were seeded into a synthesized nHA/PCL scaffold. The DAPI staining confirmed the presence of AT-MSCs on nHA/PCL scaffold. Quantitative expression of osteoblast marker genes, Runx2, and osteocalcin of the transfected cells in the scaffold were evaluated. Interestingly, significant upregulation of transcribed Runx2 and osteocalcin genes (P PCL seeded cells. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) was significantly higher (P PCL than those seeded on nHA/PCL or transfected with anti-miR-221, individually. The results of this combination suggest a valuable method for enhancing osteogenesis in AT-MSCs. This method could be applicable for gene-cell therapy of bone defects. PMID:26822432

  16. Astatination of closo-dodecaborate(2-) anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlova, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Tolmachev, V.; Lundquist, H.; Carlsson, J.; Sjöberg, S.

    Cambridge : The Royal Society of Chemistry , 2000 - (Davidson, M.; Hughes, A.; Marder, T.; Wade , K.), s. 144-147 [Conference "Contemporary Boron Chemistry ". Durham (GB), 11.07.1999-15.07.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  17. Establishment and characterization of a new human myxoid liposarcoma cell line (DL-221) with the FUS-DDIT3 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Marieke A; Yu, Jamie S E; Beird, Hannah C; Ingram, Davis R; Nguyen, Theresa; Juehui Liu, Jeffrey; Bolshakov, Svetlana; Szuhai, Károly; Åman, Pierre; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bovée, Judith V M G; Lazar, Alexander J; Somaiah, Neeta

    2016-08-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma has the pathognomonic fusion oncogene FUS-DDIT3 encoding a chimeric transcription factor. Metastatic risk is higher with an increased round cell component and has been linked to aberrations involving the IGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway. These molecular insights have yet to translate to targeted therapies, and the lack of experimental models is a major hindrance. We describe the initial in-depth characterization of a new cell line (DL-221) and establishment of a mouse xenograft model. The cell line DL-221 was derived from a metastatic pleural lesion showing myxoid and round cell histology. This newly established cell line was characterized for phenotypic properties and molecular cytogenetic profile, using PCR, COBRA-FISH, and western blot. Next-generation whole-exome sequencing was performed to further characterize the cell line and the parent tumor. NOD-SCID-IL2R gamma knockout mice were xenograft hosts. DL-221 cells grew an adhering monolayer and COBRA-FISH showed an aneuploid karyotype with t(12;16)(q13;p11) and several other rearrangements; RT-PCR demonstrated a FUS-DDIT3 fusion transcript type 1. Both the cell line and the original tumor harbored a TP53 compound heterozygous mutation in exon 4 and 7, and were wild-type for PIK3CA. Moreover, among the 1254 variants called by whole-exome sequencing, there was 77% concordance between the cell line and parent tumor. The recently described hotspot mutation in the TERT promoter region in myxoid liposarcomas was also found at C228T in DL-221. Xenografts suitable for additional preclinical studies were successfully established in mice after subcutaneous injection. The established DL-221 cell line is the only published available myxoid liposarcoma cell line that underwent spontaneous immortalization, without requiring SV40 transformation. The cell line and its xenograft model are unique and helpful tools to study the biology and novel potential-targeted treatment approaches for myxoid liposarcoma. PMID:27270875

  18. The inhibition of the highly expressed miR-221 and miR-222 impairs the growth of prostate carcinoma xenografts in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Mercatelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a number of in vivo approaches confirming our previous data. The ectopic overexpression of miR-221 is able, per se, to confer a high growth advantage to LNCaP-derived tumors in SCID mice. Consistently, the anti-miR-221/222 antagomir treatment of established subcutaneous tumors derived from the highly aggressive PC3 cell line, naturally expressing high levels of miR-221/222, reduces tumor growth by increasing intratumoral p27 amount; this effect is long lasting, as it is detectable as long as 25 days after the treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence in favour of a clinical relevance of the role of miR-221/222 in prostate carcinoma, by showing their general upregulation in patient-derived primary cell lines, where we find a significant inverse correlation with p27 expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and reactivity of (μ3-η2-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yn-2-one) nonacarbonyldihydridotriruthenium and (μ3-η2-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yn-2-one) hexacarbonyldihydridotris(triphenylphosphine)triruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal reaction of Ru3(CO)12 with 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene systems give ruthenium complexes. Single crystal diffraction studies are reported. Preliminary studies on the reactivity of these new clusters are described

  20. Regulation of the p27Kip1 tumor suppressor by miR-221 and miR-222 promotes cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Sage, Carlos; Nagel, Remco; Egan, David A; Schrier, Mariette; Mesman, Elly; Mangiola, Annunziato; Anile, Corrado; Maira, Giulio; Mercatelli, Neri; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Agami, Reuven

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of protein coding genes. Patterns of misexpression of miRNAs in cancer suggest key functions of miRNAs in tumorigenesis. However, current bioinformatics tools do not entirely support the identification and characterization of the mode of action of such miRNAs. Here, we used a novel functional genetic approach and identified miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221&222) as potent regulators of p27Kip1, a cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor. Using miRNA inhibitors, we demonstrate that certain cancer cell lines require high activity of miR-221&222 to maintain low p27Kip1 levels and continuous proliferation. Interestingly, high levels of miR-221&222 appear in glioblastomas and correlate with low levels of p27Kip1 protein. Thus, deregulated expression of miR-221&222 promotes cancerous growth by inhibiting the expression of p27Kip1. PMID:17627278

  1. Knockdown of miR-221 promotes the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the BIM-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Hao, Rutian; Cai, Yefeng; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Guanli

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in the initiation and progression of types of human cancer, including breast cancer. Recent research indicated that miRNAs are also related with the chemotherapy on cancers. In this study, the expression of miR-221 in breast cancer (BC) patients' serum and cancer tissues was found to be significantly up-regulated. The results of in vitro MTT assay indicated that although the anti-miR-221 oligonucleotide alone did not influence the viability of BC cell lines markedly, it significantly promoted the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (DDP) to BC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the gene of BIM (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death), a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, was up-regulated by the knockdown of miR-221. We found that the synergetic effect of anti-miR-221 on increasing the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 was BIM dependant. Furthermore, results of immunoprecipitation showed the up-regulated BIM directly combined with the Bax and Bak, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest the anti-miR-221 could promote the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the Bim-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer. PMID:26503209

  2. Towards the Secrecy Capacity of the Gaussian MIMO Wire-tap Channel: The 2-2-1 Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Ulukus, Sennur

    2007-01-01

    We find the secrecy capacity of the 2-2-1 Gaussian MIMO wire-tap channel, which consists of a transmitter and a receiver with two antennas each, and an eavesdropper with a single antenna. We determine the secrecy capacity of this channel by proposing an achievable scheme and then developing a tight upper bound that meets the proposed achievable secrecy rate. We show that, for this channel, Gaussian signalling in the form of beam-forming is optimal, and no pre-processing of information is necessary.

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi grown in high-salt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Toshiko; Shirakami, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2008-02-10

    A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt. The Th1-promoting activity was also manifested in an in vivo mouse study, since Th1-dependant contact sensitivity was augmented and Th2 immunity, as evaluated by specific immunoglobulin E production, was suppressed following oral ingestion of Th221. Based on these findings, Th221 administration may be useful for improving allergic symptoms. PMID:18061297

  4. MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, T; Wang, X; He, HH; Sweeney, CJ; Liu, SX; Brown, M.; Balk, S.; Lee, G-SM; Kantoff, PW

    2013-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer typically progresses to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after the androgen deprivation therapy. We investigated the impact of microRNAs (miRs) in the transition of prostate cancer to CRPC. MiR-221/-222 was highly expressed in bone metastatic CRPC tumor specimens. We previously demonstrated that transient overexpression of miR-221/-222 in LNCaP promoted the development of the CRPC phenotype. In current study, we show that stably overexpressing miR-...

  5. miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Hwang

    Full Text Available The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a highly conserved physiological program involved in development and tissue repair; however, its aberrant activation has been implicated in accelerating the progression of a variety of cancers. In breast cancer, the microRNAs (miRNAs miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222 are differentially expressed in the clinically more aggressive basal-like subtype compared to luminal subtype of breast cancer and upregulation of miR-221/222 induces the EMT by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of the GATA family transcriptional repressor TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1. The complete mechanism through which miR-221/222 promotes the EMT, however, is not fully understood. We identified adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1, a receptor for the adipocytokine adiponectin, as a direct target of miR-221/222. ADIPOR1 is expressed at higher levels in the luminal compared to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer cell lines, which can be reduced by miR-221/222 targeting of its 3'UTR. In addition, miR-221/222 were negatively correlated with ADIPOR1 expression across breast cancer cell lines and tumors. ADIPOR1 depletion by siRNA in MCF10A cells induced the EMT and increased cell invasion. Depletion of ADIPOR1 by siRNA induced activation of the canonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and subsequent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 in an interleukin 6 (IL6-dependent manner. Finally, overexpression of ADIPOR1 in the basal-like cell line, MDA-MB-231, attenuated cell invasion and promoted the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET. We conclude that ADIPOR1 negatively regulates EMT in breast cancer and provides an additional node by which miR-221/222 induces the EMT. These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer

  6. Regulation of the p27Kip1 tumor suppressor by miR-221 and miR-222 promotes cancer cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    le Sage, Carlos; Nagel, Remco; Egan, David A.; Schrier, Mariette; Mesman, Elly; Mangiola, Annunziato; Anile, Corrado; Maira, Giulio; Mercatelli, Neri; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Agami, Reuven

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of protein coding genes. Patterns of misexpression of miRNAs in cancer suggest key functions of miRNAs in tumorigenesis. However, current bioinformatics tools do not entirely support the identification and characterization of the mode of action of such miRNAs. Here, we used a novel functional genetic approach and identified miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221&222) as potent regulators of p27Kip1, a cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppresso...

  7. Up-regulation of miRNA-221 inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced autophagy through the DDIT4/mTORC1 and Tp53inp1/p62 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying; Zhou, Yue; Richards, A Mark; Wang, Peipei

    2016-05-20

    Timely reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction has improved clinical outcomes but the benefits are partially offset by ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). MiRNA regulates mRNA of multiple effectors within injury and survival cell signaling pathways. We have previously reported the protective effects of miRNA-221 in I/R injury. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying cardioprotection of miR-221. Myoblast H9c2 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) were subjected to 0.2% O2 hypoxia followed by 2 h of re-oxygenation (H/R). In gain-and-loss function studies through transfections of miR-221 mimic (miR-221) and inhibitor (miR-221-i), the protective effects of miR-221 were confirmed as assessed by increased cell metabolic activity (WST-1) and decreased LDH release. Autophagy was assessed by GFP-LC3 labeling of autophagosome formation, LC3 and p62 measurements. Co-immuno-precipitation and specific gene cloning and function were used to identify the pathways underpinning miR-221 effects. MiR-221 significantly reduced H/R injury in association with inhibition of autophagy. Underlying mechanisms include (1) down-regulation of Ddit4 (disinhibiting the mTORC1/p-4EBP1 pathway) which inhibits autophagosome formation (2) down-regulation of Tp53inp1 (with reduced Tp53inp1/p62 complex formation) which inhibits autophagosome degradation. In conclusion, miRNA-221 exerts cytoprotective effects in hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in association with alterations in autophagic cell injury. Mir-221 may constitute is a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiac I/R injury. PMID:27105917

  8. MiR-221 and -222-based therapeutic approach in melanoma and GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor): in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro RNAs (miRs) are small (∼22 nucleotides) non coding RNAs involved in gene expression, as negative regulators of specific mRNA targets. Growing evidences indicated miR functional roles in all the main biological processes, including cancer where they can act as oncogenes as well as tumor suppressor genes. Several studies reported the involvement of miR- 221 and -222 in the induction and/or progression of different neoplasias. We have analyzed miR-221/-222 functional role in a panel of differently staged melanoma cell lines and primary bioptic samples, showing their capabilities to regulate two distinct, but functionally convergent pathways of melanocyte transformation through the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip and c-kit receptor. We also demonstrated the lack of the tumor suppressor gene PLZF as a direct cause of miR-221/-222 up regulation in melanoma cells. In vitro and, more important, in vivo studies confirmed that suppression of miR-221/-222 strongly reduced melanoma growth and dissemination

  9. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.;

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have id...

  10. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Dai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1 Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2 Methods: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01. Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3 Results: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  11. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenkai; Ji, Jun; Yan, Yiming; Lin, Wencheng; Li, Hongxin; Chen, Feng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-12-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) METHODS: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01). Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3) RESULTS: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection. PMID:26690468

  12. Optimisation of cheese whey enzymatic hydrolysis and further continuous production of antimicrobial extracts by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; da Silva Sabo, Sabrina; Salgado-Seara, José Manuel; Arni, Saleh Al; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey was optimised using the enzymes iZyme, Alcalase or Flavourzyme under different conditions. Hydrolysates supplemented with commercial nutrients were evaluated as fermentation broths to produce DL-3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) from phenylalanine (Phe) by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221. Optimised hydrolysates were obtained using Flavourzyme at 50 °C and 100 rpm during 12 h, and assayed in 250 ml Erlenemyer flasks using different proportions of vinasses as economic nutrient. The process was then scaled up using a 2 litres Bioreactor working under the continuous modality. Under the intermediate dilution rate of 0·0207 h-1 0·81 ± 0·026 mM of PLA and 38·8 ± 3·253 g/l of lactic acid were produced. A final evaluation revealed that lactic acid, and bacteriocins exerted the highest inhibitory effect among the extracted components of cell-free supernatants. PMID:27600978

  13. Simulation of Microstructure Evolution of Ni75A12.9V22.1 Alloy with Progressive Aging Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng LI; Zheng CHEN; Qingbo LAI; Yongxin WANG

    2008-01-01

    The interrupted aging mechanisms were applied to Ni75Al2.9V22.1 alloy by using the microscopic phase-field simulation method. For the single phase region existing at high temperature, the low content alloy was used as the study object. With the progressive aging mechanisms, the metastable phase γ' of high temperature can be obtained from the low temperature two phase regions, and the quantity of γ' phase reduces with increasing temperature. The θ single phase morphology at high temperature regions will turn to be the γ'+θ two phase morphology at low temperature with the interrupted aging method. Despite of the different precipitation paths of γ' phase, the precipitation mechanisms are the same for the low temperature aging and high temperature interrupted aging.

  14. Cardiomyocyte protection by GATA-4 gene engineered mesenchymal stem cells is partially mediated by translocation of miR-221 in microvesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRs, a novel class of small non-coding RNAs, are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and death. In this study, we found that miR-221 translocation by microvesicles (MVs plays an important role in cardioprotection mediated by GATA-4 overexpressed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult rat bone marrow MSC and neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes (CM were harvested as primary cultures. MSC were transduced with GATA-4 (MSC(GATA-4 using the murine stem cell virus (pMSCV retroviral expression system. Empty vector transfection was used as a control (MSC(Null. The expression of miRs was assessed by real-time PCR and localized using in situ hybridization (ISH. MVs collected from MSC cultures were characterized by expression of CD9, CD63, and HSP70, and photographed with electron microscopy. Cardioprotection during hypoxia afforded by conditioned medium (CdM from MSC cultures was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, MTS uptake by CM, and caspase 3/7 activity. Expression of miR-221/222 was significantly higher in MSC than in CM and miR-221 was upregulated in MSC(GATA-4. MSC overexpression of miR-221 significantly enhanced cardioprotection by reducing the expression of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. Moreover, expression of PUMA was significantly decreased in CM co-cultured with MSC. MVs derived from MSC expressed high levels of miR-221, and were internalized quickly by CM as documented in images obtained from a Time-Lapse Imaging System. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that cardioprotection by MSC(GATA-4 may be regulated in part by a transfer of anti-apoptotic miRs contained within MVs.

  15. HIV-1逆转录酶H221Y突变对Y181C突变株复制能力影响研究%Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase H221Y mutation on replication capacity of Y181C mutant viral strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽丽; 韩晓旭; 赵彬; 张旻; 安明晖; 吉阳涛; 欧阳金鸣; 尚红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the development of Y181C and H221Y mutations among HIV-1 infected patients upon antiretroviral therapy in China and to investigate the impact of H221Y mutation on replication capacity of Y181C mutant.Methods Three HIV-1 subtype B' infected patients with Y181C and H221Y mutations upon highly active antiretroviral therapy from Henan province were enrolled in this study.Follow-up blood samples collected every six months from the patients after therapy between 2004 to 2006 were detected for viral load evaluation.Fragments of pol gene were amplified by nested PCR.The purified PCR products were ligated into pMD18-T vector to construct recombinant plasmids,which were further sequenced and compared with the HIV reference strain from Stanford HIVDB for analyzing the development of Y181C and H221Y mutations.Plasmids containing Y181C mutation alone and plasmids containing Y181C and H221Y double mutations were constructed and cotransfected respectively with envelope-expression plasmid pVSV-G into HEK 293T cells to obtain HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses.Replication capacity of each pseudotyped virus was analyzed after a single-cycle infection in TZM-bl cells.Results A total of 57 TA cloned sequences from six follow-up blood samples of three patients were obtained.Y181C mutation alone was found in 46 clones and Y181C and H221Y mutations were found in 35 clones.Moreover,H221Y mutation was only found in clones in which Y181C mutation had already developed.Between two pairs of pseudotyped virus from two patients,replication capacity of those viruses containing Y181C and H221Y mutations were 1.42 and 1.62 fold higher than the viruses containing Y181C mutation alone,respectively.Conclusion H221Y mutation might be a compensatory mutation of Y181C mutation occurred to improve the replication capacity of viral strains with Y181C mutant in HIV-1 subtype B' infected patients upon antiretroviral therapy.The finding suggests that it's significantly important to further

  16. AP2α controls the dynamic balance between miR-126&126* and miR-221&222 during melanoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, N; Errico, M C; Pedini, F; Petrini, M; Puglisi, R; Bellenghi, M; Boe, A; Felicetti, F; Mattia, G; De Feo, A; Bottero, L; Tripodo, C; Carè, A

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have shown the association between aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRs) and cancer, where these small regulatory RNAs appear to dictate the cell fate by regulating all the main biological processes. We demonstrated the responsibility of the circuitry connecting the oncomiR-221&222 with the tumor suppressors miR-126&126* in melanoma development and progression. According to the inverse correlation between endogenous miR-221&222 and miR-126&126*, respectively increasing or decreasing with malignancy, their enforced expression or silencing was sufficient for a reciprocal regulation. In line with the opposite roles of these miRs, protein analyses confirmed the reverse expression pattern of miR-126&126*-targeted genes that were induced by miR-221&222. Looking for a central player in this complex network, we revealed the dual regulation of AP2α, on one side directly targeted by miR-221&222 and on the other a transcriptional activator of miR-126&126*. We showed the chance of restoring miR-126&126* expression in metastatic melanoma to reduce the amount of mature intracellular heparin-binding EGF like growth factor, thus preventing promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger delocalization and maintaining its repression on miR-221&222 promoter. Thus, the low-residual quantity of these two miRs assures the release of AP2α expression, which in turn binds to and induces miR-126&126* transcription. All together these results point to an unbalanced ratio functional to melanoma malignancy between these two couples of miRs. During progression this balance gradually moves from miR-126&126* toward miR-221&222. This circuitry, besides confirming the central role of AP2α in orchestrating melanoma development and/or progression, further displays the significance of these miRs in cancer and the option of utilizing them for novel therapeutics. PMID:26434590

  17. Induction of resistance to rice tungro virus disease in rice cultivar Pusa 2-21 through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry seeds of Pusa 2-21, a moderately resistant rice cultivar, were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 Krad (dose rate 12.3 Krad/min) radiation dosages of gamma rays to induce resistance against rice tungro virus disease. The height of M1 seedling was significantly reduced in 15 and 20 Krad treatments. However, there was no effect of gamma irradiation on seed germination. A limited population of M2 and M3 generation was screened at the rate of 3 viruliferous leafhoppers/seedling using single plant caging technique. In M2 generation 22.0, 17.6 and 25.0 percent seedlings exhibited green colour (symptomless) representing resistant reaction to the disease in 10, 15 and 20 Krad treatments, respectively. Out of 1470 seedlings in M3 generation, 2.7 percent seedlings showing no symptoms of tungro could be isolated indicating the possibility of inducing higher degree of resistance than that of the parent to RTV through irradiation for the first time. (auth.)

  18. The effects of CO2 and O3 singly and in-combination on Malaysia rice cultivar (MR 221)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous burning of fossil fuel and rapid development of industrialization have increase the atmospheric Carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric Ozone (03). The profound effects of the rising CO, and 03 in the tropospheric environment on the plants have been acknowledged due to the combination effects of CO, and 03 on plants. The seedling rice (Oryza sativa) of Malaysian cultivar (MR221) were exposed to four types of treatments namely 350 ppm C02 and 10 ppb 03 conditions, 660 ppm C02 and 10 ppb 03, and 350 ppm CO, and 33 ppb 03. The seedlings were exposed to these conditions 6 hours per day from 0900 to 1500 hours for 5 days per week for more than three months. The objectives of this study was to determine the direct effects of elevated CO, and 03 enhancement on physiological aspects and growth performances of rice. The results indicated that there was a progressive stimulation in photosynthesis of seedlings exposed to elevated C02 indicates by doubling of Pmax. Results of the growth performances showed that there were no consistent effects of ozone on plant height and tillering which differ from other related studies. (Author)

  19. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  20. Localization of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene to chromosome 21q22.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiming Chen; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Exon trapping was applied to genomic DNA from a chromosome 21-specific cosmid library (LL21NC02-Q) to clone portions of genes from this chromosome. Among a large number of trapped exons, three showed striking homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis gene (Tiam-1) at both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence levels, suggesting that these three exons are part of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene. We mapped this presumed human TIAM1 gene to chromosome 21 by using appropriate somatic cell hybrids, YACs, and cosmids. The TIAM1 gene localizes to YAC 760H5 of the I. Chumakov et al. YAC contig between markers D21S298 and D21S404 in band 21q22.1. This human gene (which is a member of the group of guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulators that modulate the activity of Rho-like proteins) may be important in the development or metastasis of malignancies that are associated with abnormalities on chromosome 21, including the various forms of leukemia frequent in trisomy 21. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  1. The investigation of the decay of the deformed 167Yb, 164Tm, 225Ac, 221Fr nuclei. Beta-spectrograph with positional-sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay of the deformed 167Yb, 164Tm, 225Ac,221Fr nuclei is investigated in this work. For 167Yb and 164Tm decays the specters of the conversion electrons were measured. 32 γ-transitions were found for 167 Yb decay, 6 of which were found for the first time. The multipolarities for 9 γ-transitions were found. For 164Tm decay 23 new γ-transitions were found. The theoretical investigations of the collective states in the nucleus were carried out. Octupole-rotatory line with k=1- was found in the measurement of conversion electrons specters of the short-life nuclei. Device' nonlinearity was 0,04%. Resolution was Δβρ/βρ 0,11%. Effective light yield was 1-2 %. The decay of 225Ac and 221Fr nuclei were investigated. The investigations of α-γ -coincidence, α-γ - rays were carried out. 24 new γ -transitions for 225Ac and 13 ones for 221Fr were found. The new levels and their intensities were defined more precisely. Intensity balance calculations were carried out and the full populations of the nuclear levels were calculated. (author). 3 tabs.; 10 figs

  2. A Pumilio-induced RNA structure switch in p27-3' UTR controls miR-221 and miR-222 accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedde, Martijn; van Kouwenhove, Marieke; Zwart, Wilbert; Oude Vrielink, Joachim A F; Elkon, Ran; Agami, Reuven

    2010-10-01

    Key regulators of 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) are microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The p27 tumour suppressor is highly expressed in quiescent cells, and its downregulation is required for cell cycle entry after growth factor stimulation. Intriguingly, p27 accumulates in quiescent cells despite high levels of its inhibitors miR-221 and miR-222 (Refs 5, 6). Here we show that miR-221 and miR-222 are underactive towards p27-3' UTR in quiescent cells, as a result of target site hindrance. Pumilio-1 (PUM1) is a ubiquitously expressed RBP that was shown to interact with p27-3' UTR. In response to growth factor stimulation, PUM1 is upregulated and phosphorylated for optimal induction of its RNA-binding activity towards the p27-3' UTR. PUM1 binding induces a local change in RNA structure that favours association with miR-221 and miR-222, efficient suppression of p27 expression, and rapid entry to the cell cycle. We have therefore uncovered a novel RBP-induced structural switch modulating microRNA-mediated gene expression regulation. PMID:20818387

  3. 南宁地区221株淋球菌对青霉素、壮观霉素的敏感性测定%Sensitivity test of 221 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nanning to penicillin and spectinomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 赵秀梅; 覃善列; 唐桂林

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解南宁地区淋球菌对青霉素、壮观霉素的敏感性。方法:我们于1996年至1999年对221株淋球菌临床分离株以琼脂稀释法测定青霉素、壮观霉素的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:7株(3.17%)为产青霉素酶淋球菌(PPNG)。青霉素MIC范围为0.008~16mg/L;2.71%菌株对青霉素敏感,36.20%为低敏,61.09%为耐药。其中1996至1999年各年耐药率分别为23.92%、37.10%、89.16%、90.00%。壮观霉素MIC范围2~>128mg/L;92.76%菌株对壮观霉素敏感,7.24%菌株为耐药;1999年未发现耐壮观霉素菌株。结论:南宁地区淋球菌对青霉素耐药比率较高,且呈逐年上升趋势。出现了耐壮观霉素的菌株。持续性监测青霉素、壮观霉素对临床合理用药十分重要。%Objective: To measure the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin and spetinomycin in Nan ning. Methods:221 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonokrrhoeae abtained from patients with gonorrhea in Nanning were tesed for their susceptiblities to penicillin and spectinomycin in vitro. The mininum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin and spectinomycin were determined by agar dilution method. Rusults: 7 strains (3.17%) were penicilinase producers (PPNG). The MIC ranges were from 0.008mg/L to 16mg/L for Penicillin. 2.71% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin,36.20% were less sensitive; 61.09% exhibited resistance to penicillin. The prevalence of resistant gonococci every year was 23.92%, 37.1%, 89.16%, 90% respectively in 1996~1999. The MIC ranges were from 2mg/L to>128mg/L for spectinomycin.92.76% of the isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin, 7.24% exhibited resistance to spectinomycin. None of the isolates were detected to be resistant of spectinomycin in 1999. Conclusion: A high proportion of goncoccal isolates remain resistant to penicillin, with the emergence of spectinomycin resistance strains in Nanning. For the

  4. Early-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran: Report of the Demographic and Clinical Features of 221 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Nourian, Sayed-Mohammadamin; Nourian, Niloofaralsadat; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Sayahi, Farnaz; Saraf, Zahra; Fereidan-Esfahani, Mahboobeh

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that early-onset multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis (early-onset multiple sclerosis) approximately incorporates 3-5% of the multiple sclerosis population. In this report on early-onset multiple sclerosis, the authors aimed to define demographic, clinical and imaging features in a case-series of true-childhood multiple sclerosis and to compare its characteristics with juvenile multiple sclerosis. The authors inspected the records of multiple sclerosis patients who were registered by Isfahan MS Society. Clinical and demographic data of children with less than 16 years of age were reviewed retrospectively. Out of 4536 multiple sclerosis patients referred to the authors' center, 221 patients (4.8%) had multiple sclerosis starting at the age of 16 or less (11 true-childhood multiple sclerosis vs 210 juvenile-onset multiple sclerosis); the female to male ratio was 4.81:1. In the mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 22 patients (10.5%) had positive family history of multiple sclerosis, 196 (88.6%) patients were classified as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the mean (± SD Expanded Disability Status Scale) was 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last evaluation. The most common initial presentation was optic nerve involvement (36.1%) and cerebellar sign and symptoms (14.6%). In all, 13 patients (5.8%) had experienced seizure in the course of multiple sclerosis. This study indicated that early-onset multiple sclerosis is not rare condition and overwhelmingly affects girls even at prepubertal onset. Physicians should consider multiple sclerosis in suspicious pediatric cases. PMID:26979097

  5. Influence on the interaction by functional groups in some series of bicyclo (2,2,1) heptane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with investigations involving the interactions of substituted groups in the bicyclo (2,2,1) heptane molecules, the chemical reactivity and some physical properties of polyfunctional compounds have been studied. A new method for preparation of β-fenchylic derivatives is presented, the first described terpenic nitroxide radical have been prepared from oxazolidinic compounds. The stereochemistry of the base induced elimination reaction of 6-exo tosyl and 6-endo tosyl oxy epi-camphor is dependent of the geometry of these compounds. On the other hand, the results indicate that the most important part of the structure is the position of the carbonyl group. Tricyclenic and camphenic derivatives are obtained with different rates. An explanation for these results involve several possible basic abstractions of acid protons, and the competition between these different reactions. The oxazolidinic compounds are obtained by reacting 2-amino 2-methyl 1-propanol with norcamphor and norbornane-2,5 dione. The geometrical configuration of the different stereoisomers is deduced from the measured dipolar interaction parameter D. The cotton effects of the γ-diketones do not show any interaction between the two carbonyl groups, in the fenchylic and bornylic series. The two carbonyl bond angles of the substituted α-diketones do not seem to be sensitive to any substitution of an alkoxy group. So, a new quadrant rule is proposed; compatible results are obtained, except for a methyl group in the α position. At least, PMR studies of terpenic polyfunctional compounds demonstrate the influence of the substitution on the geometry of the carbon skeleton. A new coupling constant 4JHH is examined. (author)

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel cold-adapted esterase, MtEst45, from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Suk eLee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase, MtEst45, was isolated from a fosmid genomic library of Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. The encoding gene is predicted to have a mass of 45,564 Da and encodes 495 amino acids, excluding a 21 amino acid signal peptide. MtEst45 showed a low amino acid identity (approximately 23–24% compared with other lipolytic enzymes belonging to Family III, a closely related bacterial lipolytic enzyme family. MtEst45 also showed a conserved GXSXG motif, G131IS133YG135, which was reported as active site of known lipolytic enzymes, and the putative catalytic triad composed of D237 and H265. Because these mutants of MtEst45, which was S133A, D237N, and H265L, had no activity, these catalytic triad essential for the enzyme catalysis. MtEst45 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and purified via His-tag affinity chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of MtEst45 were estimated to be 8.17 and 46.27°C by response surface methodology, respectively. Additionally, MtEst45 was also active between 1–15°C. The optimal hydrolysis substrate for MtEst45 among p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C18 was p-nitrophenyl butyrate, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.0998 mM and 550 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. MtEst45 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions; by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; and by β-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ did not affect the enzyme’s activity. These biochemical properties, sequence identity, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MtEst45 represents a novel and valuable bacterial lipolytic enzyme family and is useful for biotechnological applications.

  7. Rocky or Not, Here We Come: Revealing the Internal Structures of K2-21b+c Through Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Dragomir, Diana; Fabrycky, Daniel; Kreidberg, Laura; Mills, Sean; Petigura, Erik

    2015-10-01

    The provenance of planets 1.5 -- 2 times the size of the Earth is one of the biggest unresolved mysteries from the Kepler mission. Determining the nature and origins of these exoplanets relies not only on measuring their radii, but also requires knowledge about their masses, atmospheric compositions, and interior structures. With this information, we can more confidently estimate planet mass distributions from measured radii, distinguish between rocky and non-rocky compositions, and better constrain the occurrence rate of Earth-like planets. Co-I Petigura recently announced the discovery of a two-transiting-planet system, K2-21, with bodies of 1.6 and 1.9 Earth-radii. The latter is expected to have a volatile-rich atmosphere, but the former lies squarely on the rocky/non-rocky composition boundary. These exoplanets orbit their relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star in a near 5:3 resonance and likely exhibit transit timing variations (TTVs) that can be resolved by Spitzer. Knowledge about their TTVs, in turn, will reveal constraints on the planets' masses, which is important because significant stellar activity makes RV mass measurements impractical. We propose to measure precise transit times of K2-21b and K2-21c with Spitzer and combine that information with existing K2 timing constraints to determine their masses. Understanding the planets' masses is a critical, first step to ultimately determining their atmospheric compositions and internal structures. These planets will provide an excellent test to current statistical arguments that suggest there is a turning point in composition from rocky, true-to-name super-Earths to volatile-rich sub-Neptunes in the range of 1.5 -- 2 Earth-radii.

  8. Rocky or Not, Here We Come: Further Revealing the Internal Structures of K2-21b+c Through Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Dragomir, Diana; Fabrycky, Daniel; Kreidberg, Laura; Mills, Sean; Petigura, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The provenance of planets 1.5 - 2 times the size of the Earth is one of the biggest unresolved mysteries from the Kepler mission. Determining the nature and origins of these exoplanets relies not only on measuring their radii, but also requires knowledge about their masses, atmospheric compositions, and interior structures. With this information, we can more confidently estimate planet mass distributions from measured radii, distinguish between rocky and non-rocky compositions, and better constrain the occurrence rate of Earth-like planets. Last year, Co-I Petigura announced the discovery of a two-transiting-planet system, K2-21, with bodies of 1.6 and 1.9 Earth-radii. The latter is expected to have a volatile-rich atmosphere, but the former lies squarely on the rocky/non-rocky composition boundary. These exoplanets orbit their relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star in a near 5:3 resonance and, based on our successful Spitzer observations, exhibit measurable transit timing variations (TTVs). Complete knowledge about their interactions will reveal constraints on the planets' masses, which is important because significant stellar activity makes RV mass measurements impractical. We propose to continue measuring precise transit times of K2-21b and K2-21c with Spitzer and combine that information with existing K2 timing constraints to determine their masses. Understanding the planets' masses is a critical, first step to ultimately determining their atmospheric compositions and internal structures. These planets will provide an excellent test to current statistical arguments that suggest there is a turning point in composition from rocky, true-to-name super-Earths to volatile-rich sub-Neptunes in the range of 1.5 - 2 Earth-radii.

  9. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G.; Ciafrè, Silvia A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/222 expression in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, where we had previously shown their oncogenic activity. We identify two separate distal regions upstream of miR-221/222 promoter which are bound by the NF-kB subunit p65 and drive efficient transcription in luciferase reporter assays; consistently, the site-directed mutagenesis disrupting p65 binding sites or the ectopical inhibition of NF-kB activity significantly reduce luciferase activity. In the most distal enhancer region, we also define a binding site for c-Jun, and we show that the binding of this factor cooperates with that of p65, fully accounting for the observed upregulation of miR-221/222. Thus our work uncovers an additional mechanism through which NF-kB and c-Jun, two transcription factors deeply involved in cancer onset and progression, contribute to oncogenesis, by inducing miR-221/222 transcription. PMID:21245048

  10. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G; Ciafrè, Silvia A

    2011-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/222 expression in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, where we had previously shown their oncogenic activity. We identify two separate distal regions upstream of miR-221/222 promoter which are bound by the NF-kB subunit p65 and drive efficient transcription in luciferase reporter assays; consistently, the site-directed mutagenesis disrupting p65 binding sites or the ectopical inhibition of NF-kB activity significantly reduce luciferase activity. In the most distal enhancer region, we also define a binding site for c-Jun, and we show that the binding of this factor cooperates with that of p65, fully accounting for the observed upregulation of miR-221/222. Thus our work uncovers an additional mechanism through which NF-kB and c-Jun, two transcription factors deeply involved in cancer onset and progression, contribute to oncogenesis, by inducing miR-221/222 transcription. PMID:21245048

  11. A ±6 ms-Accuracy, 0.68 mm2, and 2.21 μW QRS Detection ASIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Chieh Huang; Hui-Min Wang; Wei-Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare issues arose from population aging. Meanwhile, electrocardiogram (ECG) is a powerful measurement tool. The first step of ECG is to detect QRS complexes. A state-of-the-art QRS detection algorithm was modified and implemented to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). By the dedicated architecture design, the novel ASIC is proposed with 0.68 mm2 core area and 2.21 μW power consumption. It is the smallest QRS detection ASIC based on 0.18 μm technology. In addition, the sen...

  12. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkai Dai; Jun Ji; Yiming Yan; Wencheng Lin; Hongxin Li; Feng Chen; Yang Liu; Weiguo Chen; Yingzuo Bi; Qingmei Xie

    2015-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) Methods: In vivo, the ...

  13. Down regulation of NLK by MIR-221/222 modulates chemosensitivity to glucocorticoids in pediatric normal karyotype b-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. La downregolazione di nemo-like kinase indotta dai MIR-221/222 modula chemiosensibilità ai glucocorticoidi nella pediatrico b-cell precursor leucemia linfattica acuta

    OpenAIRE

    Koh,

    2012-01-01

    Normal karyotype pediatric B-cell precursor ALL patients are heterogeneous with respect to chemotherapy response, relapse rates and prognosis and the reason is unknown. These patients are treated with a standard protocol, and stratified using MRD methodology that shows they have variable responses and predicted outcomes. This study aims to determine the reasons behind such heterogeneity. This study shows that through miRNA profiling, miR-221/222 are differentially expressed in normal karyotyp...

  14. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A; Akopov, Sergey B; Chernov, Igor P; Thomsen, Preben D; Joergensen, Claus; Collins, Andrew R; Frengen, Eirik; Nikolaev, Lev G

    2007-03-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S/MARs are located within genes and 36 (90%) in gene introns, of which 15 are in first introns of different genes. The clear tendency of S/MARs from this region to be located within the introns suggests their regulatory role. The S/MAR resource constructed may contribute to an understanding of how the genes in the region are regulated and of how the structural architecture and functional organization of the DNA are related. PMID:17188460

  15. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G.; Ciafrè, Silvia A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/...

  16. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-step chemical manipulation is described in combination with a distillation and collection process for producing At-211 comprising; a. providing a target of irradiated Bismuth coated to a predetermined thickness of a backing member, b. providing a vapor-producing still operably connected with a condenser that has a water cooled condensate collector formed of a dry silica gel mesh maintained at a temperature above the freezing point of water, and providing an effluent gas filter that is operably connected to receive effluent gas from the condenser, c. heating the target in the still at a temperature in the range of about 6300-6800C for a time period in the range of 50 to 80 minutes, to evole At-211 vapor from the target, c. providing a dry carrier gas having an oxygen concentration that is sufficient to form Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thereby to essentially preclude vaporization of Bi metal, passing the carrier gas through the still to carry the At-211 vapor to the condenser, and to carry effluent from the condenser to the effluent gas filter, e. eluting At-211 from the condensate collector of the condenser with a controlled volume of eluent containing predetermined solvents that are compatible with a given desired radiopharmaceutical procedure, and f. collecting the At-211 in the controlled volume of eluent for use in the given radiopharmaceutical procedure

  17. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25476778

  18. A Rare Interstitial Duplication of 8q22.1–8q24.3 Associated with Syndromic Bilateral Cleft Lip/Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferreira Rezek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of 8q interstitial duplication derived from maternal balanced translocations in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate in syndromic form associated with other congenital malformations. G-banding cytogenetic analysis revealed a chromosomal abnormality in the form of the karyotype 46,XX der(22t(8;22(q22.1;p11.1mat. Chromosome microarray analysis evidenced a 49 Mb duplicated segment of chromosome 8q with no pathogenic imbalances on chromosome 22. Two siblings also carry the balanced translocation. We have compared this case with other “pure” trisomies of 8q patients reported in the literature and with genome wide association studies recently published. This work highlights the involvement of chromosome 8q in orofacial clefts.

  19. A ±6 ms-Accuracy, 0.68 mm2, and 2.21 μW QRS Detection ASIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chieh Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare issues arose from population aging. Meanwhile, electrocardiogram (ECG is a powerful measurement tool. The first step of ECG is to detect QRS complexes. A state-of-the-art QRS detection algorithm was modified and implemented to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC. By the dedicated architecture design, the novel ASIC is proposed with 0.68 mm2 core area and 2.21 μW power consumption. It is the smallest QRS detection ASIC based on 0.18 μm technology. In addition, the sensitivity is 95.65% and the positive prediction of the ASIC is 99.36% based on the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database certification.

  20. Isolation of the human MOX2 homeobox gene and localization to chromosome 7p22.1-p21.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriou, M; Kastrinaki, M C; Modi, W S; Theodorakis, K; Mankoo, B; Pachnis, V; Karagogeos, D

    1995-04-10

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding a novel human homeobox gene, MOX2, the homologue of the murine mox-2 gene. The MOX2 protein contains all of the characteristic features of Mox-2 proteins of other vertebrate species, namely the homeobox, the polyhistidine stretch, and a number of potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. The homeodomain of MOX2 protein is identical to all other vertebrate species reported so far (rodents and amphibians). Outside the homeodomain, Mox-2 proteins share a high degree of identity, except for a few amino acid differences encountered between the human and the rodent polypeptides. A polyhistidine stretch of 12 amino acids in the N terminal region of the protein is also conserved among humans, rodents, and (only partly) amphibians. The chromosomal position of MOX2 was assigned to 7p22.1-p21.3. PMID:7607679

  1. Isolation of the human MOX2 homeobox gene and localization to chromosome 7p22.1-p21.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriou, M.; Theodorakis, K. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Crete (Greece); Mankoo, B. [National Institute for Medical Research, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding a novel human homeobox gene, MOX2, the homologue of the murine mox-2 gene. The MOX2 protein contains all of the characteristic features of Mox-2 proteins of other vertebrate species, namely the homeobox, the polyhistidine stretch, and a number of potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. The homeodomain of MOX2 protein is identical to all other vertebrate species reported so far (rodents and amphibians). Outside the homeodomain, Mox-2 proteins share a high degree of identity, except for a few amino acid differences encountered between the human and the rodent polypeptides. A polyhistidine stretch of 12 amino acids in the N terminal region of the protein is also conserved among humans, rodents, and (only partly) amphibians. The chromosomal position of MOX2 was assigned to 7p22.1-p21.3. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Catalytic formal [2+2+1] synthesis of pyrroles from alkynes and diazenes via TiII/TiIV redox catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Zachary W.; Hue, Ryan J.; Tonks, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroles are structurally important heterocycles. However, the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles is often challenging. Here, we report a multicomponent, Ti-catalysed formal [2+2+1] reaction of alkynes and diazenes for the oxidative synthesis of penta- and trisubstituted pyrroles: a nitrenoid analogue to classical Pauson-Khand-type syntheses of cyclopentenones. Given the scarcity of early transition-metal redox catalysis, preliminary mechanistic studies are presented. Initial stoichiometric and kinetic studies indicate that the mechanism of this reaction proceeds through a formally TiII/TiIV redox catalytic cycle, in which an azatitanacyclobutene intermediate, resulting from [2+2] alkyne + Ti imido coupling, undergoes a second alkyne insertion followed by reductive elimination to yield pyrrole and a TiII species. The key component for catalytic turnover is the reoxidation of the TiII species to a TiIV imido via the disproportionation of an η2-diazene-TiII complex.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanoid(III) complexes with 7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of coordination compounds [ML(HL)(H2O)] with M=La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+ and H2L=7-Oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-exo,3-cis-dicarboxylic acid (1) has been described. Results of IR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition are given. As a result of X-ray analyses, the four investigated lanthanoid(III) complexes are isotypic. Their stereochemistry approximates to the tri-capped trigonal prism with nine O atoms coordinating the metal atom. The bicyclic ligand acts as a tridentate chelating monoanion HL- as well as a pentadentate dianion L2-with both chelating and bridging function. One coordination place at the metal atom is occupied by a water molecule. (orig.)

  4. Pressure dependence of the stereoselectivity in the photodenitrogenation of diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene in supercritical fluids: evidence for the diazenyl diradical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Waldemar; Diedering, Manfred; Trofimov, Alexei V.

    2001-12-01

    The present study shows that the preference for the stereoselective inversion upon the photolytic nitrogen extrusion from the stereolabeled DBH derivative exo-d 2-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene ( 1) in supercritical media (sc-CO 2, sc-C 2H 6) depends on pressure. The increase of pressure up to 200 bar leads to ca. 2.3-fold decrease of the stereoselectivity ( kinv/ kret ratio) in sc-CO 2 and sc-C 2H 6. Analysis of the observed pressure dependence in terms of collisional (self-diffusion coefficient) and frictional (viscosity) effects discloses that frictional impositions by the fluid media account best for the experimental observations reported herein. This pressure-dependent viscosity effect is consistent with a stepwise denitrogenation mechanism for the photolysis of DBH in the supercritical phase, which proceeds through an unsymmetrical, nitrogen-containing transient, namely the singlet diazenyl diradical.

  5. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernest K Amankwah; Evelyn Anegbe; Hyun Park; Julio Pow-Sang; Ardeshir Hakam; Jong Y Park

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in both obesity and prostate cancer recurrence,but the association between the expression of these miRNAs and obesity in prostate cancer recurrence is unknown.In this study,we examined the effect of the interaction between obesity and miR-21,miR-221 or miR-222 expression on prostate cancer recurrence among 28 recurrent and 37 non-recurrent prostate cancer cases,miRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age at diagnosis,clinical stage and Gleason score were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for recurrence free survival.A significantly (P=0.014) higher proportion of recurrent cases (78.6%) than non-recurrent cases (48.6%) had a low expression of miR-21 and the difference was more prominent in obese than non-obese patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of miR-21 was an independent risk factor for recurrence in obese (HR=6.15,95% CI=1.04-36.48,P=0.045),but not in non-obese (HR=1.28,95% CI=0.30-5.49,P=0.74) cases.A significant association with recurrence was not observed for the expression of miR-221 and miR-222.In summary,our findings show that miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and suggest that the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases.Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  6. Enantioselective Resolution of N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)- 2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one%N-(叔丁氧羰基)-2-氮杂双环[2.2.1]庚-5-烯-3-酮的手性拆分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普瑞; 胡建建; 王晓川; 张玲玲; 王晓钟

    2015-01-01

    (-)-(1R,4S)-N-(叔丁氧羰基)-2-氮杂双环[2.2.1]庚-5-烯-3-酮是抗艾滋病药物阿巴卡韦的重要中间体。今以2-氮杂双环[2.2.1]庚-5-烯-3-酮为原料,先与(Boc)2O反应生成外消旋体(±)-N-(叔丁氧羰基)-2-氮杂双环[2.2.1]庚-5-烯-3-酮,再以固定化脂肪酶作为拆分试剂选择性拆分制得。试验中分别使用了三种酶,三种酶均表现出较好的反应活性和较高的反应收率,其中固定化酶Lipozyme RM IM的反应活性最高,对其催化的酶促反应进行了优化,得到最佳的反应条件:以异丙醚为反应溶剂,酶与底物质量投料比为1.5/2.0,反应温度为30℃,收率46.5%,对映体过量大于99%。结构经1H-NMR确证。该方法成本低,酶的选择性、催化活性和反应收率高。%(−)-(1R,4S)-N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one is an important intermediate of abacavir which is widely used in AIDS treatment. This chemical was prepared with 2-azabicyclo-[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one(2) as the starting material in this study. The starting material(2) was first reacted with (Boc)2O to give the raceme (±)-N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one(3) via amidation. The key intermediate was preparedvia a prominent turnover from the raceme(3) with immobilized lipases, and its structure was identified by1H-NMR. The optimum conditions of the enzymatic reaction were as follows: Lipozyme RM IM andisopropyl elther were used as the enzyme reaction catalyst, and reaction solvent separatively, the mass ratio of enzyme: substrate 1.5/2.0 and the reaction temperature of 30℃. The yield can reach to 46.5% under these optimal conditions with enantiomeric excess up to 99%. This synthetic process is suitable for large-scale manufacture due to the cheap available material and higher catalytic activity and selectivity of the lipase.

  7. Principy a ekonomické vyčíslení škod z porušování průmyslových práv dle zákona č. 221/2006 Sb.

    OpenAIRE

    Holub, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This diploma thesis examines evaluation of damages according to the law Nr. 221/2006. Industrial rights, whose damages are enforced according to the law Nr. 221/2006, are described. Analysis of laws and judicial decisions in relation to the enforcement of damages and analysis of the law Nr. 221/2006 are made. The thesis examines sequences, important problems and aspects in relation to each method of the evaluation of damages. At the end of the thesis a study of a hypotetical case is carried o...

  8. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  9. Differential cross-section measurements for inelastic scattering of 22.1 keV photons by elements with 4<=Z<=69

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, A; Puri, S; Mehta, D; Singh, N

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering differential cross-sections for the 22.1 keV photons have been measured in Be, C, Mg, Al, S, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Y, Zr, Ag, In, Sn, Te, Gd, Dy, Ho and Tm elements at an angle of 133 deg. . The measurements were performed under vacuum using an annular source of sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope as photon source and a planar HPGe detector. The measured inelastic scattering cross-sections are compared with those calculated using the Klein-Nishina cross-section for Compton scattering by stationary free electrons and the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock incoherent-scattering function. A good agreement is found for all the elements under investigation except for sub 3 sub 9 Y (B sub K =17.038 keV) and sub 4 sub 0 Zr (B sub K =17.998 keV) elements, where the measured cross-sections are approx 25% lower than the calculated ones; B sub K is the K-shell binding energy of the element.

  10. Stereochemistry and mechanism of the reduction of some bicyclo (2-2-1-) heptane-2-ones by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic experimental study of the reduction of four bicyclo(2-2-1)hepta n-2-ones by dissolved alkaline and alkaline-earth metals in liquid ammonia is reported. Chapter one: models of metal-ammonia solutions and mechanisms of the reduction of ketones by these solutions are rapidly recalled. Chapter two: results obtained in the thermodynamic equilibration of three pairs of epimeric alcohols which formally derive from three of the starting ketones are presented. Chapter three: deals with the results obtained in the reduction of the ketones in the absence or the presence of a proton source. A new interpretation of these results is given and is based upon two different effects: - the torsional interaction created by the bridgehead substituent on the C-O bond which favours the formation of the endo alcohol; - the difference of steric hindrance between the two sides (exo and endo) defined by the plane of the carbonyl group of the starting molecule, which favours the attack of the metal cation from one side or the other, and therefore the formation of the exo or the endo epimer. This mechanism is generalised in a model which is tested by means of some examples published in the literature. It then appears able to construe correctly the obtained results. (author)

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL STABILITY OF PMR POLYIMIDES USING 7-OXA-BICYCLO[2,2,1]HEPT-5-ENE-2, 3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE AS END CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-liang Gong; Yan-feng Li; Hai-xia Yang; Xiao-long Wang; Shu-jiang Zhang; Shi-yong Yanga

    2011-01-01

    An anhydride monomer containing ether oxide bridge,7-oxa-bicyclo[2,2,1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride (ONA),was successfully synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of furan and maleic anhydride.The ONA was also studied as an end-cap for the polymerization of monomer reactant (PMR) type polyimides.Three molecular weight levels of the ONA end-capped PMR resins were evaluated.The effects of process conditions of these novel PMR resins on thermal and mechanical properties were investigated.It was demonstrated that the imidized prepolymers using the end-cap have good processability,and the cured polyimide specimens exhibited good thermal stability.The initial decomposition temperature,Td (ca.580℃) and glass transition temperature,Tg (330℃) of the novel resin (PI-20),prepared under optimum process conditions,compare favorably with the Td (ca.620℃) and Tg (ca.348℃) of the state-of-the-art resin (PI'-20),respectively.

  12. Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand [2.2.1] and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a cryptand [2.2.1] (CRY) and carbon nanotube (CNT) modified paste electrode (CRY-CNT-PE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of bismuth. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronocoulometry (CC). It was observed that by employing CRY-CNT-PE, a 9-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s/V) was proportional to the Bi(III) concentration in the range of 5.55 x 10-8 to 9.79 x 10-11 M (r = 0.9990) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 3.17 x 10-11 M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as a simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for bismuth analysis in commercial and real samples using CRY-CNT-PE and those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of some lanthanide(III nitrate complexes of ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEMPAKAM JANARDHANAN ATHIRA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate was synthesized by coupling diazotized ethyl 2-amino-4,5-dimethylthiophene-3-carboxylate with acetylacetone. Based on various spectral studies and elemental analysis, an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded azo-enol structural form was assigned for the ligand. This ligand is versatile in forming a series of lanthanide(III complexes, viz., lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III and gadolinium(III, which were characterized through various spectral studies, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as a neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through one of the azo nitrogen atoms, the ester carbonyl and the enolic oxygen of the acetylacetone moiety, without deprotonation. Molar conductance values adequately supported their non-electrolytic nature. The ligand and lanthanum(III complex were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies. In addition, the lanthanum(III complex underwent a facile transesterification reaction on refluxing with methanol for a long period. The thermal behaviour of the lanthanum(III complex was also examined

  14. Synthesis, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanoid(III) complexes with 7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid; Synthese, Kristallstrukturen und Eigenschaften von Lanthanoid(III)-Komplexen mit 7-Oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2,3-dicarbonsaeure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuechner, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Allgemeine Chemie; Fechtel, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Allgemeine Chemie; Baumeister, U. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Hartung, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    1996-08-01

    The synthesis of coordination compounds [ML(HL)(H{sub 2}O)] with M=La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}L=7-Oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-exo,3-cis-dicarboxylic acid (1) has been described. Results of IR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition are given. As a result of X-ray analyses, the four investigated lanthanoid(III) complexes are isotypic. Their stereochemistry approximates to the tri-capped trigonal prism with nine O atoms coordinating the metal atom. The bicyclic ligand acts as a tridentate chelating monoanion HL{sup -} as well as a pentadentate dianion L{sup 2-} with both chelating and bridging function. One coordination place at the metal atom is occupied by a water molecule. (orig.)

  15. Synthesis of 2-Azabicyclo[2,2,1]hept-5-en-3-one as an Intermediate for Abacavir%阿巴卡韦中间体2-杂氮双环[2,2,1]庚-5-烯-3-酮的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灿; 郭莉娜; 李宏伟; 侯仲轲

    2006-01-01

    采用一步法由对甲基苯亚磺酸钠与氯化氰及1,3-环戊二烯合成目标物2-杂氮双环[2,2,1]庚-5-烯-3-酮.反应条件为:n(对甲基苯亚磺酸钠):n(氯化氰):n(1,3-环戊二烯)=0.48:1.05:1,反应温度控制在15℃,反应7h,反应中控制pH=5,可得纯度为95%的产品,收率由文献报道的64%提高到78%.

  16. Metformin Causes G1-Phase Arrest via Down-Regulation of MiR-221 and Enhances TRAIL Sensitivity through DR5 Up-Regulation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoichi; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro; Horinaka, Mano; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many chemotherapeutic strategies against cancer have been developed, pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and intractable types of malignancies. Therefore, new strategies and anti-cancer agents are necessary to treat this disease. Metformin is a widely used drug for type-2 diabetes, and is also known as a promising candidate anti-cancer agent from recent studies in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of metformin's anti-cancer effects have not been elucidated. We demonstrated that metformin suppressed the expression of miR-221, one of the most well-known oncogenic microRNAs, in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. Moreover, we showed that the down-regulation of miR-221 by metformin caused G1-phase arrest via the up-regulation of p27, one of the direct targets of miR-221. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is also a promising agent for cancer treatment. While recent studies showed that treatment with only TRAIL was not effective against pancreatic cancer cells, the present data showed that metformin sensitized p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Metformin induced the expressions of death receptor 5 (DR5), a receptor for TRAIL, and Bim with a pro-apoptotic function in the downstream of TRAIL-DR5 pathway. We suggest that the up-regulation of these proteins may contribute to sensitization of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination therapy of metformin and TRAIL could therefore be effective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25955843

  17. A genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Gloria M.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Fuchs, Charles S; Kraft, Peter; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Klein, Alison P; LaCroix, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in 3,851 cases and 3,934 controls drawn from twelve prospective cohort studies and eight case-control studies. Based on a logistic regression model for genotype trend effect that was adjusted for study, age, sex, self-described ancestry and five principal components, we identified eight SNPs that map to three loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33. Two correlated SNPs, rs9543325 (P=3.27×10−11; per allele odds ra...

  18. Cytogenetic and clinical studies in gonadal dysgenesis with 46,X,Xt(qter leads to p221::p223 leads to qter) karyotype: review and phenotype/karyotype correlations.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferraro; de Capoa, A.; Mostacci, C; Pelliccia, F; Zulli, P; Baldini, M A; Di Nisio, Q

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome analysis by Q, R, and C banding was performed in a case diagnosed clinically as gonadal dysgenesis and the karyotype was shown to be 46,X,Xt(qter leads to p221::p223 leads to qter). Localisation of the breakpoints in the fused X chromosomes and replication studies have led to a hypothesis on the origin of the translocation. A comparison of clinical and cytogenetical findings in this and other published cases has also been made in an attempt to detect some phenotype/karyotype correl...

  19. A genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gloria M.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Fuchs, Charles S.; Kraft, Peter; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Klein, Alison P.; LaCroix, Andrea; Li, Donghui; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Bamlet, William R.; Berg, Christine D.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Bracci, Paige M.; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Cotterchio, Michelle; de Andrade, Mariza; Duell, Eric J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hassan, Manal; Howard, Barbara; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; Lynch, Shannon M.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Parikh, Hemang; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Riboli, Elio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Zhaoming; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in 3,851 cases and 3,934 controls drawn from twelve prospective cohort studies and eight case-control studies. Based on a logistic regression model for genotype trend effect that was adjusted for study, age, sex, self-described ancestry and five principal components, we identified eight SNPs that map to three loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33. Two correlated SNPs, rs9543325 (P=3.27×10−11; per allele odds ratio, OR 1.26, 95% CI=1.18-1.35) and rs9564966 (P=5.86×10−8; per allele OR 1.21, 95% CI=1.13-1.30) map to a non-genic region on chromosome 13q22.1. Five SNPs on 1q32.1 map to NR5A2; the strongest signal was rs3790844 (P=2.45×10−10; per allele OR 0.77, 95% CI=0.71-0.84). A single SNP, rs401681 (P=3.66×10−7; per allele OR 1.19, 95% CI=1.11-1.27) maps to the CLPTM1L-TERT locus on 5p15.33, associated with multiple cancers. Our study has identified common susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer that warrant follow-up studies. PMID:20101243

  20. Synthesis, structure, photoluminescence and antitumour activity of zinc complex based on 2-(2-(1H-benzo-[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzyl)-1H-benzo-[d]imidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhijian; Wang, Shaoxiang; Liu, Shenggui; Li, Guobi; Wu, Qiting; Lin, Chunyu; Kong, Linglang; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A new complex [Zn(bbb)Cl2]·DMF, where bbb is 2-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, was synthesized and characterized by element analysis, 1H NMR and X-ray single crystal structure analyses. For complex: crystal system, triclinic, space group, P-1, a = 9.4661(13), b = 10.3534(14), c = 13.0025(18) Å, α = 73.477(2), β = 80.743(2), γ = 88.658(2)°, V = 1205.5(3) Å3, Z = 2. In this complex, the Zn2+ distorted tetrahedron geometry is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms from 2-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and two Cl-. The complex emits yellow green luminescence with the maximal emission peak at 550 nm in DMF solution. The complex exhibits inhibition on the growth of Eca109 cancer cell with IC50 value of 8.9 ± 1.1 μM, which was lower than that of cisplatin (14.3 ± 1.4 μM). This complex has potential application in treatment of esophageal cancer.

  1. Crystal structures of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper and chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Paholnitcaia, A. Yu. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Petrenko, P. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Tsapkov, V. I., E-mail: vtsapkov@gmail.com [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Poirier, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (Canada); Gulea, A. P. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Two crystal modifications of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper (I and II) and two modifications of chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper (III and IV) have been synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. In structures I and II, the copper atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated molecule of the organic ligand, nitrate ions, and a water molecule. In crystals of I, the complexes are monomeric, whereas complexes II are linked via nitrate ions to form polymeric chains. In both structures the coordination polyhedron of the copper atom can be described as a distorted tetragonal bipyramid—(4 + 1 + 1) in I and (4 + 2) in II. These coordination polyherdra have different compositions. In structures III and IV, the metal atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated (2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazole molecule and chloride ions. In III the complex-forming ion has square-planar coordination geometry, whereas structure IV consists of centrosymmetric dimers with two bridging chlorine atoms. It was found that nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper possesses antitumor activity.

  2. 北京市东城区221名1~12岁健康儿童肺炎链球菌携带状况研究%Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 221 healthy children aged 1 - 12 years in Dongcheng district, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸明芝; 吴疆; 黄辉; 吕敏; 张玉萍; 周云; 李侠; 闫威; 翟力军; 孙宏莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nasopharyngeal carriage status of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children aged 1-12 years and the serotype and the antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Methods From October 2010 to June 2011 ,nasopharyngeal swabs were collected every two months from randomly selected 221 healthy children aged 1-12 years in Dongcheng district to isolate Streptococcus pneumoniae and identify the serotypes and test antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Results A total of 220 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 32 serotypes were isolated, the cumulative carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the healthy children was 57. 47% . The serotype coverage rate of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine was 36. 82% and the serotype coverage rate of polysaccharide polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine was 64.55%. The antibiotic resistant strains accounted for 3.64%. Conclusion Healthy children aged 1-12 years are at high risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. It is necessary to establish effective surveillance system and develop Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine which is suitable to use in China.%目的 了解1 ~12岁健康儿童鼻咽部肺炎链球菌携带情况,及该菌血清型、耐药情况,为制定防治策略提供参考依据.方法 2010年10月至2011年6月,选取北京市东城区221名1~12岁健康儿童,每2个月采集鼻咽拭子标本1次,进行肺炎链球菌培养、血清分型及耐药性检测.结果 1 ~12岁健康儿童肺炎链球菌累计携带率为57.47%;分离到32个血清型共220株肺炎链球菌,7价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的血清型覆盖率为36.82%,23价肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖疫苗的血清型覆盖率为64.55%;耐药菌株占3.64%.结论 1~ 12岁健康儿童存在着较高肺炎链球菌疾病的风险,有必要建立科学的监测体系,研制出适合国情的肺炎链球菌疫苗.

  3. New ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces and bound state calculations for the singlet ground X˜ 1A1 and excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2016-05-01

    We report new and more accurate adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the ground X˜ 1A1 and electronically excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of the SO2 molecule. Ab initio points are calculated using the explicitly correlated internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI-F12) method. A second less accurate PES for the ground X ˜ state is also calculated using an explicitly correlated single-reference coupled-cluster method with single, double, and non-iterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]. With these new three-dimensional PESs, we determine energies of the vibrational bound states and compare these values to existing literature data and experiment.

  4. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a recurrent unbalanced translocation (4;21) (p16.3;q22.1): Relevance to the Wolf-Hirschhorn and Down syndrome critical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastio, G.; Perone, L.; Guzzetta, V. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on an aneuploidy syndrome due to the unbalanced segregation of a familial translocation (4;21)(p16.3;q22.1) causing a partial 4p monosomy and a partial 21q trisomy. The three affected children presented with severe failure to thrive, short stature, microcephaly, profound hypotonia, and mental retardation. The face, very similar in the three children, is characterized by frontal bossing, upslanting of the palpebral fissures, short nose, and deep set ears, giving the overall appearance of the Down syndrome. The molecular study has defined the aneuploid segment on both 4p and 21q. Most of the Down syndrome critical region was found to be trisomic, while only part of the candidate Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region was deleted, suggesting that this region is not critical for the major malformations characteristic for WHS. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid H.; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M.; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G.; Shalaby, Azhar G.; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K.; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge. PMID:27304069

  6. Efficient transport of Am(III) from nitric acid medium using a new conformationally constrained (N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl)7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamide across a supported liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Panja, S; Ghosh, S K; Dhami, P S; Gandhi, P M

    2016-03-15

    Am(III) is one of the most hazardous radionuclide present in nuclear fuel cycle. A new conformationally constrained diamide, (N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl)7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamide (OBDA) was studied for Am(III) transport from HNO3 medium across a Supported Liquid Membrane. Transport rate was observed to be significantly fast with ∼95% transport of Am(III) within 1h using 0.1M OBDA in the presence of 15% isodecyl alcohol (IDA)/n-dodecane as carrier. The mechanism of transport was investigated by studying various parameters like feed HNO3/NaNO3 concentration, OBDA concentration in the membrane, membrane pore size, membrane thickness etc. From these studies, the mechanism of transport was found to be diffusion controlled with diffusion co-efficient value of 5.1×10(-6)cm(2)/s. The membrane was found to be highly selective for tri- and tetra-valent actinides, and trivalent lanthanides. OBDA based membrane was found to be stable for at least for ten consecutive cycles of operation. PMID:26685064

  7. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  8. Cloning of the cDNA for the human ATP synthase OSCP subunit (ATP5O) by exon trapping and mapping to chromosome 21q22.1-q22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiming [Geneva Univ. Medical School (Switzerland); Morris, M.A.; Rossier, C. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Exon trapping was used to clone portions of potential genes from human chromosome 21. One trapped sequence showed striking homology with the bovine and rat ATP synthase OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein) subunit. We subsequently cloned the full-length human ATP synthase OSCP cDNA (GDB/HGMW approved name ATP50) from infant brain and muscle libraries and determined its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence (EMBL/GenBank Accession No. X83218). The encoded polypeptide contains 213 amino acids, with more than 80% identity to bovine and murine ATPase OSCP subunits and over 35% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sweet potato sequences. The human ATP5O gene is located at 21q22.1-q22.2, just proximal to D21S17, in YACs 860G11 and 838C7 of the Chumakov et al. YAC contig. The gene is expressed in all human tissues examined, most strongly in muscle and heart. This ATP5O subunit is a key structural component of the stalk of the mitochondrial respiratory chain F{sub 1}F{sub 0}-ATP synthase and as such may contribute in a gene dosage-dependent manner to the phenotype of Down syndrome (trisomy 21). 39 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Evaluation of a Wet Chemistry Method for Isolation of Cyclotron Produced [211At]Astatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Watanabe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A “wet chemistry” approach for isolation of 211At from an irradiated bismuth target is described. The approach involves five steps: (1 dissolution of bismuth target in conc. HNO3; (2 removal of the HNO3 by distillation; (3 dissolution of residue in 8 M HCl; (4 extraction of 211At from 8 M HCl into DIPE; and (5 extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH. Results from 55 “optimized” 211At isolation runs gave recovery yields of approximately 78% after decay and attenuation corrections. An attenuation-corrected average of 26 ± 3 mCi in the target provided isolated (actual yields of 16 ± 3 mCi of 211At. A sixth step, used for purification of 211At from trace metals, was evaluated in seven runs. In those runs, isolated 211At was distilled under reductive conditions to provide an average 71 ± 8% recovery. RadioHPLC analyses of the isolated 211At solutions, both initial and after distillation, were obtained to examine the 211At species present. The primary species of 211At present was astatide, but astatate and unidentified species were also observed. Studies to determine the effect of bismuth attenuation on 211At were conducted to estimate an attenuation factor (~1.33 for adjustment of 211At readings in the bismuth target.

  10. Final Report for grant entitled "Production of Astatine-211 for U.S. Investigators"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott

    2012-12-12

    Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides hold great promise in the therapy of cancer, but few alpha-emitters are available to investigators to evaluate. Of the alpha-emitters that have properties amenable for use in humans, 211At is of particular interest as it does not have alpha-emitting daughter radionuclides. Thus, there is a high interest in having a source of 211At for sale to investigators in the US. Production of 211At is accomplished on a cyclotron using an alpha-particle beam irradiation of bismuth metal. Unfortunately, there are few cyclotrons available that can produce an alpha particle beam for that production. The University of Washington has a cyclotron, one of three in the U.S., that is currently producing 211At. In the proposed studies, the things necessary for production and shipment of 211At to other investigators will be put into place at UW. Of major importance is the efficient production and isolation of 211At in a form that can be readily used by other investigators. In the studies, production of 211At on the UW cyclotron will be optimized by determining the best beam energy and the highest beam current to maximize 211At production. As it would be very difficult for most investigators to isolate the 211At from the irradiated target, the 211At-isolation process will be optimized and automated to more safely and efficiently obtain the 211At for shipment. Additional tasks to make the 211At available for distribution include obtaining appropriate shipping vials and containers, putting into place the requisite standard operating procedures for Radiation Safety compliance at the levels of 211At activity to be produced / shipped, and working with the Department of Energy, Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program, to take orders, make shipments and be reimbursed for costs of production and shipment.

  11. Astatination of nanoparticles containing silver as possible carriers of 211At

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin; Koňák, Čestmír; Kozempel, Ján

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, - (2006), s. 201-206. ISSN 0969-8043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4048302; GA AV ČR KJB4050408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : nanoparticles * 211AT * Atalpha particle therapy Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2006

  12. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, Michael [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major subsystems that comprise the CS-30 Cyclotron. With these modifications in place, routine production of ≥200 mCi of At-211 should be readily achievable, given our methodological development of At-211 target preparation, internal target irradiation and dry distillation to recover the radionuclide.

  13. A rare mosaic interstitial deletion of 7q, 46,XX/46,XX,del(7)(q22.1q31.33), results in a mild clinical phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, S.K.; Kochanek, S.; Shaffer, L.G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Constitutional mosaic structural rearrangements, including deletions, are extremely rare in the population. We present a case of mosaicism for a deletion of chromosome 7q. The patient`s phenotype is much milder than that of non-mosaic patients with a similar deletion of 7q. A 6 and 9/12-year-old Caucasian girl was evaluated because of attention deficit disorder and speech delay. She was born at 38 weeks gestation to her 37 year old G2P2 mother. Her birth weight was 2.2 kg (3rd centile), length was 47 cm (10th-25th centile), and OFC was 30.5 cm (<10th centile). Her motor development was normal. Her speech development was profoundly delayed with her first words spoken at 3 years, and 2-3 word sentences spoken at 5-6 years. At 6 and 9/12 years, she manifested mild mental retardation and profound speech delay, but only mildly dysmorphic features (protuberant ears with under-developed antihelices, flattened forehead, moderate micro-retrognathia). Height, weight, and OFC were at the 10th centile. Chromosomal analysis showed the presence of two cell lines, with 66% of the lymphocytes having a 46,XX pattern and 33% having a 46,XX,del(7)(q22.1q31.33) karyotype. Less than 20 cases of interstitial 7q deletions extending from bands 7q21 or 7q22 to 7q31 or 7q32 have been reported. Our patient represents the first documented case with a mosaic interstitial deletion of chromosome 7q. Furthermore, the deletion resulted in a relatively mild phenotype when compared to reported non-mosaic interstitial 7q deletions, and thus expands the range of clinical heterogeneity that can be anticipated in interstitial deletion patients.

  14. Inquiry of the electron density transfers in chemical reactions: a complete reaction path for the denitrogenation process of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safont, Vicent S; González-Navarrete, Patricio; Oliva, Mónica; Andrés, Juan

    2015-12-28

    A detailed study on all stages associated with the reaction mechanisms for the denitrogenation of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene derivatives (DBX, with X substituents at the methano-bridge carbon atom, X = H and OH) is presented. In particular, we have characterized the processes leading to cycloalkene derivatives through migration-type mechanisms as well as the processes leading to cyclopentil-1,3-diradical species along concerted or stepwise pathways. The reaction mechanisms have been further analysed within the bonding evolution theory framework at B3LYP and M05-2X/6-311+G(2d,p) levels of theory. Analysis of the results allows us to obtain the intimate electronic mechanism for the studied processes, providing a new topological picture of processes underlying the correlation between the experimental measurements obtained by few-optical-cycle visible pulse radiation and the quantum topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) in terms of breaking/forming processes along this chemical rearrangement. The evolution of the population of the disynaptic basin V(N1,N2) can be related to the experimental observation associated with the N=N stretching mode evolution, relative to the N2 release, along the reaction process. This result allows us to determine why the N2 release is easier for the DBH case via a concerted mechanism compared to the stepwise mechanism found in the DBOH system. This holds the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of the electrons making/breaking the bonds while the bonds change. PMID:26584857

  15. 46 CFR 221.83 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Witnesses. A Party may present the testimony of any witness either through a personal appearance or through... personal appearance of a witness. The request must be in writing and state the reasons why a written statement would be inadequate, the issue or issues to which the testimony would be relevant, and...

  16. 14 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) related element associated with that tariff price or charge. SFFL means the Standard Foreign Fare Level as..., including the Territorial waters and the overlying air space thereof. Warsaw Convention means the...

  17. 39 CFR 221.6 - Field organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... functional units responsible for finance, human resources, marketing, and operations support. (2) Reporting... support, finance, human resources, information technology, administrative support, and marketing. (2... assigned, Headquarters field units are responsible for legal services, corporate relations, human...

  18. 49 CFR 107.221 - Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... considering the application and other relevant information received or obtained during the proceeding, the...) The determination includes a written statement setting forth relevant facts and legal bases and... achieves its stated purpose. (4) Whether there is need for uniformity with regard to the subject...

  19. 44 CFR 206.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public, and such facilities on Indian reservations. Further definition is as follows: (1) Educational... support, which are used to provide institutional care for persons who require close supervision and...

  20. Sentencia no. c-221/94

    OpenAIRE

    Constitucional, Corte

    2010-01-01

    Drogradicción. Comportamiento personal. Dentro de un sistema penal liberal y democrático, como el que tiene que desprenderse de una Constitución del mismo sello, debe estar proscrito el peligrosismo, tan caro al positivismo penal, hoy por ventura ausente de todos los pueblos civilizados. Porque a una persona no pueden castigarla por lo que posiblemente hará, sino por lo que efectivamente hace. A menos que el ser drogadicto se considere en sí mismo punible, así ese comportamiento no trascienda...

  1. 46 CFR 221.63 - Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... investigate the matter and decide whether there is sufficient evidence to establish a prima facie case that a violation occurred. (b) If that Officer decides there is a prima facie case, then that Officer may...

  2. QTL Information Table: 221 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qALSRL-9 Resistance or Tolerance Other soil stress tolerance stress root length Mixture C)Interv ... g of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in rice: comparison ... of different genetic backgrounds. Mol Genet Genomi ...

  3. 22 CFR 221.01 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Government. (l) Guarantee payment date means a Business Day not more than three (3) Business Days after the... Eligible Notes required to be maintained by the Fiscal Agent. (d) Borrower means the Government of Israel... government or any agency or political subdivision thereof....

  4. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... homogeneous material or from a single piece of composite material such as plywood. Body panel means a body... component, including but not limited to floor panels, and body panels made of composite materials such as... that encloses the bus occupant space, including the floor, but excluding the bumpers and chassis...

  5. Identification of 2-(2-(1-naphthoyl)-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid (setipiprant/ACT-129968), a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Heinz; Valdenaire, Anja; Pothier, Julien; Hilpert, Kurt; Gnerre, Carmela; Peter, Oliver; Leroy, Xavier; Riederer, Markus A

    2013-06-27

    Herein we describe the discovery of the novel CRTh2 antagonist 2-(2-(1-naphthoyl)-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid 28 (setipiprant/ACT-129968), a clinical development candidate for the treatment of asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. A lead optimization program was started based on the discovery of the recently disclosed CRTh2 antagonist 2-(2-benzoyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid 5. An already favorable and druglike profile could be assessed for lead compound 5. Therefore, the lead optimization program mainly focused on the improvement in potency and oral bioavailability. Data of newly synthesized analogs were collected from in vitro pharmacological, physicochemical, in vitro ADME, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in the rat and the dog. The data were then analyzed using a traffic light selection tool as a visualization device in order to evaluate and prioritize candidates displaying a balanced overall profile. This data-driven process and the excellent results of the PK study in the rat (F = 44%) and the dog (F = 55%) facilitated the identification of 28 as a potent (IC50 = 6 nM), selective, and orally available CRTh2 antagonist. PMID:23721423

  6. 24 CFR 221.325 - Cancellation of hazard insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of hazard insurance... Cancellation of hazard insurance. The provisions of § 203.382 of this chapter are incorporated by reference and shall apply to hazard insurance policies carried solely for the family unit....

  7. 24 CFR 884.221 - Continued family participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued family participation. A Family must continue to occupy its approved unit to remain eligible for participation in the Housing Assistance Payments Program except that if the Family (a) wishes to vacate its unit... unit, the Family should give reasonable notice of the circumstances to HUD or to the PHA,...

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) 221 T sodium tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the transport of approximately 820 kg (1800 lb) of solid sodium between the 200 W Area and the 337 Building in the 300 Area of Hanford to be processed for disposal. This SEP authorizes a one-time shipment

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHG221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CO) mRNA, complete cds. 66 1e-33 6 AY250116 |AY250116.1 Lycopersicon pennellii aconitase mRNA, partial cds. ...60 7e-26 5 AY250115 |AY250115.1 Lycopersicon pennellii aconitase mRNA, partial cds. 60 2e-21 5 D29629 |D2962...925204.1 EST545093 tomato flower, buds 0-3 mm Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cTOA25H12 5' end, mRNA sequ...ence. 58 8e-19 3 BI930520 |BI930520.1 EST550409 tomato flower, 8 mm to preanthesis buds Lycopersicon esculen...ame C: f*fi*itlllkddnk*si**skgcikitrsnl*fl*sfktsrpkn*kitilh*nsfgiss s*l**l*strkrc*kylklgkhck*s*nsfqtsksiitrfywctssc*scsner

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFH221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2001. 6. 1 Translated Amino Acid sequence *TTMGKEKTHINIVVIGHVDAGKSTTT... 240 4e-63 VFO873 (VFO873Q) /CSM/VF/VFO8-D/VFO873Q.Seq.d/ 240 4e-63 own update 2002.12.17 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences produci...; Short... 77 1e-13 FB784589_1( FB784589 |pid:none) Sequence 3862 from Patent WO200803... 77 1e-13 FB784751_...1( FB784751 |pid:none) Sequence 4024 from Patent WO200803... 77 1e-13 BT070606_1( BT070606 |pid:none) Picea sitchen...sis clone WS02736_O15... 77 1e-13 FB784741_1( FB784741 |pid:none) Sequence 4014 from Patent WO200803...

  11. 7 CFR 1280.221 - Prohibition on use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments... to undertake any action for the purpose of influencing legislation or governmental action or...

  12. 24 CFR 221.753 - Termination of mortgage insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of mortgage insurance... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and...

  13. 22 CFR 22.1 - Schedule of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... site (22 CFR 51.56(b)) (not applicable abroad) 60 4. Exemptions: The following applicants are exempted... for A, G, C-3, NATO and diplomatic visas as defined in 22 CFR 41.26 No fee. (b) Applicants for J visas... by an order of Federal court on behalf of an indigent party No fee. (Items nos. 54 through 60...

  14. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHG221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vreelscritgl*vyltk**paatirwimaerl*vrihsrnanqml*svnvvg nirllvgdhfql*ti*liavtlqfpsg...stlnhminrcytavsfrllwwvakf*fissfrstlrl*ttik*trccklp ssvqlrgveafplvlkmancckccktkdscncckdscscpkeqqieckcsscscent...qgt*agfrps*drlvlpyccqlf a***hdlvreelscritgl*vyltk**paatirwimaerl*vrihsrnanqml*svnvvg nirllvgdhfql*ti*liavtlq...nrm*mlfmlm*khm*q nmwmdkkcvqn Frame B: camknrss*waifgkqnwrcglnqilg*dv*hslidttkgvsslrqqdgghgsryplrsv *qltcqmdx...OGRESS ***, 13 unordered pieces. 248 0.0 9 AL158197 |AL158197.26 Human DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRE

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHB221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ykisyigyvvyfcvwvdfiiylf*ssflfviyfifitqnthkththknthshin kytiikeerkwrkerv...xlq*ink*i Frame C: f**qsnirflildtwctfvfgwillfiyfnhhfyl*yisflshkthtkhtltkththt*i ntq**kkkengekkeyifck***r*yii...il*tsngri *tkdrttlitrclysrgssrq**tttnstsir**yw*ikeieiitq*ke*rylfdstlsr *itiscrtitisktic*iirtk*feinrnqtilynlq...lvn*rn*nyysikrieisl*fnvism nyhlvpnyynikdnllnypnkvvrn*pkpdntiqptiplkirkhf*kmnsqfsiqfnpni a*lclqqiiknyslnqwik...yflqmivkiihhqei*vvlqnvvqlhqvrlqmhvkesyhk*lml nrnrnikkllnf*lqvvilehvfqvyhhlikllvawlgqsllqmlmltliy

  17. 34 CFR 685.221 - Income-based repayment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poverty guideline for the borrower's family size; or (ii) For a married borrower who files a joint Federal... for the borrower's family size. (5) Poverty guideline refers to the income categorized by State and family size in the poverty guidelines published annually by the United States Department of Health...

  18. 47 CFR 1.221 - Notice of hearing; appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resubmitted with the FRN within ten (10) business days of the date of notification. (g) In comparative... specified at a later date.) (4) A statement as to the legal authority and jurisdiction under which...

  19. 14 CFR 93.221 - Transfer of slots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC... of this paragraph (e), notice to ATC shall be submitted in writing to: Director, Air Traffic System Management, ATM-1, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591....

  20. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any employee called back to work outside his scheduled hours. The employees covered by the agreement, who are entitled to overtime pay after 40 hours a week, normally work 8 hours each day, Monday through... which an employee receives on infrequent and sporadic occasions when, after his scheduled hours of...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHF221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available --- ---*inclpxylrtnllsrnycprkrywwylictqss*rycyw*rtsyrfpiiicqssft sirixrfhr*ftfphcrssfptmclrslg...9) RecName: Full=Elongation factor 2; Short=EF-2;... 228 2e-58 DQ357217_1( DQ357217 |pid:none) Leishmania brazili...ensis elongation... 227 5e-58 AM494972_26( AM494972 |pid:none) Leishmania brazili...*ificitslrnakgrqitswlyftrifnqsyrfprsr*fq frsnccppcy*wcfsryrlrrrclrtnrncitssrr*tyqtslirqqsrsflir...7e-58 CT005272_19( CT005272 |pid:none) Leishmania major strain Friedlin,... 226 7e-58 protein update 2009. 7

  3. Astatine-211 conjugated to an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody eradicates disseminated B-cell lymphoma in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Damian J.; Shadman, Mazyar; Jones, Jon C.; Frayo, Shani; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Hylarides, Mark; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Balkan, Ethan R.; Lin, Yukang; Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sophia; Gopal, Ajay K.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Gooley, Ted; Laird, Kelley L.; Till, B. G.; Back, Tom; Sandmaier, B. M.; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-03-26

    Alpha emitting radionuclides release a large amount of energy within a few cell diameters and may be particularly effective for radioimmunotherapy targeting minimal residual disease (MRD) conditions in which micrometastatic disease satellites are broadly distributed. To evaluate this hypothesis, 211At conjugated 1F5 mAb (anti-CD20) was studied in both bulky lymphoma tumor xenograft and MRD animal models. Superior treatment responses to 211At conjugated 1F5 mAb were evident in the MRD setting. Lymphoma xenograft tumor bearing animals treated with doses of up to 48µCi of anti-CD20 211At-decaborate [211At-B10-1F5] experienced modest responses (0% cures but 2-3-fold prolongation of survival compared to negative controls). In contrast, 70% of animals in the MRD lymphoma model demonstrated complete eradication of disease when treated with 211At-B10-1F5 at a radiation dose that was less than one-third (15 µCi) of the highest dose given to xenograft animals. Tumor progression among untreated control animals in both models was uniformly lethal. After 130 days, no significant renal or hepatic toxicity is observed in the cured animals receiving 15 µCi of 211At-B10-1F5. These findings suggest that in a MRD lymphoma model, where isolated cells and tumor microclusters prevail, α-emitters may be uniquely efficacious.

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE,CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spec...

  5. Inactivation of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro by {sup 211}At-TP-3 monoclonal antibody: Comparison with astatine-211 and external-beam X rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.H. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)]|[Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Bruland, O.S. [Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Hoff, P.; Alstad, J. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Lindmo, T. [Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Rofstad, E.K. [Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-08-01

    The potential usefulness of {alpha}-particle radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of osteosarcoma was studied in vitro by using the monoclonal antibody TP-3 and cells of three human osteosarcoma cell lines (OHS, SAOS and KPDX) differing in antigen expression. Cell survival curves were established after treatment with (a) {sup 211}At-TP-3 of different specific activities, (b) {sup 211}At-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA), (c) free {sup 211}At and (d) external-beam X rays. The three osteosarcoma cell lines showed similar survival curves, whether treated with external-beam X rays, {sup 211}At-BSA or free {sup 211}At. The D{sub o}`s were lower for free {sup 211}At than for {sup 211}At-BSA. The survival curves for {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment, on the other hand, differed significantly among the cell lines, suggesting that sensitivity to {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment was governed by cellular properties other than sensitivity to external-beam X rays. The cellular property most important for sensitivity to {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment was the antigen expression. Cell inactivation after {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment increased substantially with increasing specific activity of the {sup 211}At-TP-3. At high specific activities, the cytotoxic effect of {sup 211}At-TP-3 was significantly higher than that of {sup 211}At-BSA. In conclusion, {sup 211}At-TP-3 has the potential to give clinically favorable therapeutic ratios in the treatment of osteosarcoma. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 49 CFR 375.221 - May I use a charge or credit card plan for payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I use a charge or credit card plan for... card plan for payments? (a) You may provide in your tariff for the acceptance of charge or credit cards for the payment of freight charges. Accepting charge or credit card payments is different...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 06460. FRA identification Nos. FRA-ATK-TL-3895-1, FRA-ATK-TL-4491-2, FRA-ATK-TL-4491-3, and FRA-ATK-TL... Parkway, Plano, Tex. 75074. FRA identification No. FRA-ATK-LUM-0101890-001. Manufacturer: (c) Whelen Engineering Co., Inc., Deep River, Conn. 06417. FRA identification No. FRA-ATK-WHE-WERT-12....

  8. SU-E-T-221: Investigation of Lower Energy (< 6 MV) Photon Beams for Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Ming, X [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Feng, Y [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); East Carolina University, Rockville, MD (United States); Zhou, L [New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Ahmad, M; Deng, J [New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Nguyen, K; Griffin, M [William Backus Hospital, Norwich, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the potential applications of the lower energy (< 6MV) photon beams in the radiotherapeutic management of pediatric cancer and lung cancer patients. Methods: Photon beams of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6MV were first simulated with EGS4/BEAM and then used for Monte-Carlo dose calculations. For four pediatric patients with abdominal and brain lesions, six 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans were generated using single photon energy (2 to 6MV) or mixed energies (3 and 6MV). Furthermore, a virtual machine of 3 and 6MV was commissioned in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on Monte-Carlo simulated data. Three IMRT plans of a lung cancer patient were generated on this virtual machine. All plans were normalized to D95% of target dose for 6MV plan and then compared in terms of integral dose and OAR sparing. Results: For the four pediatric patients, the integral dose for the 2, 3, 4 and 5MV plans increased by 9%, 5%, 3.5%, 1.7%, respectively as compared to 6MV. Almost all OARs in the 2MV plan received more than 10% more doses than 6MV. Mixed energy 3DCRT plans were of the same quality as 6MV plans. For the lung IMRT plans, both the 3MV plan and the mixed beam plan showed better OAR sparing in comparison to 6MV plan. Specifically, the maximum and mean doses to the spinal cord in the mixed energy plan were lower by 21% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Single lower energy photon beam was found to be inferior to 6MV in the radiotherapy of pediatric patients and lung cancer patients when the integral doses and the doses to the OARs were considered. However, mixed energy plans combining low with high energy beams showed significant OAR sparing while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Investigation with more patient data is ongoing for further confirmation.

  9. Textural parameters distribution in sediments surface of the Uruguay river background between km 221 and 254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution of textural statistical parameters and spatial variation in the morphology of the sediment areas. The geology of the area comprises alluvial and alluvial deposits of variable thicknesses overlying deposits of Fray Bent os, Salto and Guichon formations that occasionally emerge in the river bed

  10. 37 CFR 1.221 - Voluntary publication or republication of patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES... published under § 1.211, must include a copy of the application in compliance with the Office electronic... or the copy of the application does not comply with the Office electronic filing system...

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 2.2-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) of monthly mean High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) flux at the top of the atmosphere...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) This section does not apply to the escort of non-violent detainees of the Immigration and... enforcement agency, and charged with, or convicted of, a violent crime. (2) “Low risk prisoner” means...

  13. SU-E-T-221: Investigation of Lower Energy (< 6 MV) Photon Beams for Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the potential applications of the lower energy (< 6MV) photon beams in the radiotherapeutic management of pediatric cancer and lung cancer patients. Methods: Photon beams of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6MV were first simulated with EGS4/BEAM and then used for Monte-Carlo dose calculations. For four pediatric patients with abdominal and brain lesions, six 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans were generated using single photon energy (2 to 6MV) or mixed energies (3 and 6MV). Furthermore, a virtual machine of 3 and 6MV was commissioned in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on Monte-Carlo simulated data. Three IMRT plans of a lung cancer patient were generated on this virtual machine. All plans were normalized to D95% of target dose for 6MV plan and then compared in terms of integral dose and OAR sparing. Results: For the four pediatric patients, the integral dose for the 2, 3, 4 and 5MV plans increased by 9%, 5%, 3.5%, 1.7%, respectively as compared to 6MV. Almost all OARs in the 2MV plan received more than 10% more doses than 6MV. Mixed energy 3DCRT plans were of the same quality as 6MV plans. For the lung IMRT plans, both the 3MV plan and the mixed beam plan showed better OAR sparing in comparison to 6MV plan. Specifically, the maximum and mean doses to the spinal cord in the mixed energy plan were lower by 21% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Single lower energy photon beam was found to be inferior to 6MV in the radiotherapy of pediatric patients and lung cancer patients when the integral doses and the doses to the OARs were considered. However, mixed energy plans combining low with high energy beams showed significant OAR sparing while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Investigation with more patient data is ongoing for further confirmation

  14. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Death Puzzle at 221B Baker Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-04-01

    This story describes a chemical mystery with an emphasis on medicinal chemistry and qualitative analysis. It is the tenth article in a series presenting a scientific problem in mystery format in the context of the popular and beloved characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. There is a break in the story where the reader (students and teachers) can ponder and solve the mystery. Sherlock Holmes then provides his solution.

  15. 7 CFR 2.21 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Under Secretary for Research, Education, and...

  16. 12 CFR 221.124 - Purchase of debt securities to finance corporate takeovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... securities to finance corporate takeovers. (a) Petitions have been filed with the Board raising questions as... margin stock. See Federal Reserve Regulatory Service 5-917.12. (See 12 CFR 261.10(f) for information on... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of debt securities to...

  17. People and things. CERN Courier, January-February 1982, v. 22(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on achievements of various people, staff changes and position opportunities within the CERN organization and contains news updates on upcoming or past events. The project to build a large electron- positron storage ring, LEP, at CERN already had the backing of the twelve CERN Member States, but three votes remained subject to conditions. At a CERN Council meeting in December this 'ad referendum' was lifted by the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. The LEP project thus has the unconditional support of all Member States.New members of the IUPAP International Commission on Particles and Fields have been elected. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) held its sixth meeting at Protvino, USSR, on the occasion of the ICFA Workshop on very high field (10 Tesla) superconducting magnets

  18. 50 CFR 221.71 - How do I propose an alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... project works for electricity production; (4) An explanation of how the alternative will affect: (i..., including any assumptions you are making (e.g., regarding the cost of energy or the rate of inflation)....

  19. 24 CFR 221.795 - Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amended (URA) (42 U.S.C. 4201-4655) and implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24. A “displaced person... property for a project is subject to the URA and the requirements described in 49 CFR part 24, subpart B... assurance of compliance as required by 49 CFR part 24) that the Owner will comply with the URA,...

  20. 12 CFR 221.118 - Bank arranging for extension of credit by corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporation of an “unsecured” bank loan to exercise an option to purchase stock of the corporation is an... of their options through an unsecured bank loan guaranteed by the company, thereby facilitating the... exercise his option could obtain a loan for the purchase price of the stock by executing an unsecured...

  1. 12 CFR 221.112 - Loans by bank in capacity as trustee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations which was published at page 874 of the 1946 Federal Reserve Bulletin (See 12 CFR 261.10(f) for... loan, the purpose being to avoid cumbersome procedures. (c) Loans are secured by the credit balance of... urged that loans under the plan are not subject to this part because a loan should not be considered...

  2. tert-Butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Didierjean

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H15NO4, also known as N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-allohydroxy-l-proline lactone, is quite similar to N-acetyl-allohydroxy-l-proline lactone [Lenstra, Petit & Geise (1979. Cryst. Struct. Commun. 8, 1023–1029], whereby both carbonyl groups point roughly in the same direction because of the trans conformation of the peptide bond.

  3. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes in all regular nonappropriated fund wage surveys: 2007 NAICS codes 2007 NAICS industry titles 42312 Motor vehicle supplies and new parts merchant... Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers. 42445 Confectionery merchant wholesalers....

  4. Jesus, Maria, Joseph and the Fourteen Holy Helpers. Cat. No. III.2.21

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Štěpán

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2006 - (Niedzielenko, A.; Vlnas, V.), s. 344-347 ISBN 80-7035-334-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Fourteen Holy Helpers * Michal Leopold Willmann * Silesia Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Autophosphorylation of JAK2 on tyrosines 221 and 570 regulates its activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, Lawrence S; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan; Jensen, Ole N; Carter-Su, Christin

    2004-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase JAK2 is a key signaling protein for at least 20 receptors in the cytokine/hematopoietin receptor superfamily and is a component of signaling by insulin receptor and several G-protein-coupled receptors. However, there is only limited knowledge of the physical structure of JAK2 ...

  6. 14 CFR 221.120 - Grounds for approving or denying Special Tariff Permission applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission To... forth in § 399.35 of this chapter. (5) Lowered fares and charges. The prospective lowering of fares...

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL189W, YGL221C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urified mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey as bait ...a factor (rpoD gene product); the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studie

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YML064C, YGL221C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey...ied mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows

  9. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...). The Boeing Company Transport Airplane. Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Transport...

  10. Sistem Pengolahan Limbah Cair Rumah Sakit Menggunakan Bakteri Inola 221 Dan EM 4

    OpenAIRE

    Akita, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    The activity of a hospital produces a lot of waste potentially. one of the waste produced by the activity of hospital is the waste water. Water waste can bring out the hazard environment if well,such polutions in surface water and ground water.therefore, a hospital must have an unite of waste water treatment or waste water treatment instalation and control, monitor, and take note of waste water prodiced. The prupose of this reseach is to know the description of waste water treatment system...

  11. Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Ellen; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature;…

  12. miR-221/222 Target the DNA Methyltransferase MGMT in Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Quintavalle; Davide Mangani; Giuseppina Roscigno; Giulia Romano; Angel Diaz-Lagares; Margherita Iaboni; Elvira Donnarumma; Danilo Fiore; Pasqualino De Marinis; Ylermi Soini; Manel Esteller; Gerolama Condorelli

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regula...

  13. Radiostatine and radioiodine uptake characterization in sodium iodine symporter-expressing cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer gene therapy. Here we investigated NIS-mediated transport of the high LET α-emitter astatine, 211At, in comparison to radioiodine. A constitutive expression vector harbouring the human NIS cDNA was used in combination with reporter gene vectors for transient transfection of 13 different human cancer cell lines. Radioiodine uptake was measured as well as transfection efficiencies. Six stable NIS-expressing cell lines (3 derived from thyroid carcinomas, 2 colon carcinoma, 1 glioblastoma) were generated by antibiotic selection. NIS expression was monitored by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Subsequently the radioastatine and radioiodine uptake characteristics of genetically modified cells were studied in comparison to the respective control cells. After xenotransplantation in nude mice in vivo tumor imaging by scintigraphy and biodistribution studies following organ removal were performed. Transient transfection of NIS cDNA led to high specific sodium perchlorate-sensitive radioiodine uptake in NIS-expressing cells that roughly correlates to transfection efficiencies. Similarly, stable NIS-expressing cell lines were able to concentrate high levels of radioiodine and in addition showed comparable transport capacity for radioastatine. Accumulation of 211At was inhibited by sodium perchlorate like iodide uptake and displayed dependency an extracellular Na+- and I--ions as well. Compared to wash-out experiments in cell culture the effective half life of radioiodine and radioastatine in vivo was significantly prolonged. Preliminary dose calculations by MIRD concepts indicated higher tumor radiation doses for 211At compared to 131I. Tumor cells of different origins transfected with the NIS-expression vector specifically and significantly take-up radioiodine and radioastatine in vitro and in vivo. The data provide direct evidence that the NIS efficiently transports the high

  14. Shelf-Life of ɛ-Lysyl-3-(Trimethylstannyl)Benzamide Immunoconjugates, Precursors for 211At Labeling of Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Aneheim, Emma; Halleröd, Jenny; Albertsson, Per; Jensen, Holger; Holgersson, Stellan; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    Astatine-211 is possibly the most promising radionuclide for targeted α-particle therapy when it comes to the treatment of occult disseminated cancer. Preclinical research has proven effective, and patient studies have been initiated based on these results. However, a lack of production capacity and the complex radiochemistry of 211At are major obstacles for research and prospective clinical applications. In the present study, astatination of immunoconjugates, already prepared well in advance...

  15. HTGT-Turbotech II. Subproject 1.221: aerodynamic excitation of transonic turbine stages. Final report; HTGT-Turbotech II. Teilprojekt 1.221: Aerodynamische Anregung von transsonisch durchstroemten Turbinenstufen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetter, H.; Urban, B.; Bauer, H.

    1999-12-01

    For experimental investigations on shock-induced flutter in a linear transonic turbine cascade an elastic suspension system has been developed so that only aerodynamic coupling occurs in the system. The test facility uses super-heated steam as working fluid and enables Mach and Reynolds numbers to vary independently. The investigated cascade consists of seven prismatic blades. The profiles are taken from the tip section of a transonic low pressure steam turbine blade. Each blade is suspended by an elastic spring system which allows the respective blade to vibrate in a mode similar to the real blade's first bending mode. The examination mainly deals with the oscillatory behavior of the blades with respect to a variation in the isentropic outlet Mach number. In addition, the complex shock-boundary-layer interactions on the blades' suction sides are described. Flow computations are run by a finite volume Navier-Stokes solver that accounts for moving boundaries. A volume grid generator is integrated into the flow solver producing combined O- and H-type grids. Turbulence is modeled by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model using wall functions because of performance reasons. Some acceleration techniques for unsteady flow computations are investigated. Shock oscillations which occur on a DCA profile are simulated. For the simulation of the experimental setup the blade motions are prescribed. (orig.) [German] Fuer ein Spitzenschnittprofil einer ND-Endstufenschaufel sowie eine Gasturbinenschaufel wurden lineare Gitter bestehend aus jeweils sieben elastisch aufgehaengten Schaufeln entwickelt. Die Konstruktion der Aufhaengung gewaehrleistet, dass die Schaufeln lediglich durch aerodynamische Effekte zu freien Schwingungen angeregt werden koennen und in ihrem Schwingungsverhalten der ersten Biegeschwingung ihrer Originalschaufeln entsprechen. Ein gestimmtes und ungestimmtes ebenes Gitter wurde in einem Dampfversuchsstand mit Heissdampf durchstroemt, wobei das Flatterverhalten der Schaufeln von Dehnungsmessstreifen auf den Schaufeltraegern und die auftretenden Stossoszillationen mit Hilfe einer Hoch-Geschwindigkeits-Schlierenoptik, einer Laserschranke, applizierten Foliensensoren und instationaeren Drucksensoren erfasst wurde. Im transsonischen Bereich tritt beim ND-Spitzenschnittprofil ein hohes Anregungspotential durch Stossbewegungen auf. Beim Gasturbinengitter sind die Schwingungsamplituden auf Grund einer hohen Daempfung der elastischen Schaufelhalter geringer. Ein Rechenprogramm zur Simulation der transsonischen, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung durch axiale Turbomaschinen wurde auf die Behandlung bewegter Profile angepasst und fuer instationaere Stroemungssimulationen beschleunigt. Ein k-{epsilon}-Turbulenzmodell mit Wandfunktionen wurde implementiert und ein elliptisches 3D-Gittergenerierungsverfahren in den Stroemungsloeser integriert. An einem Doppelkreisbogenprofil wurden Stossoszillationen nachgerechnet. Die experimentell ermittelten Messdaten dienen als Validierungsgrundlage fuer die numerische Simulation der instationaeren Stroemung durch Schaufelreihen mit schwingenden Profilen. (orig.)

  16. Genome-wide association study of migraine implicates a common susceptibility variant on 8q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Verneri; Stefansson, Hreinn; Kallela, Mikko; Todt, Unda; Terwindt, Gisela M; Calafato, M Stella; Nyholt, Dale R; Dimas, Antigone S; Freilinger, Tobias; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Artto, Ville; Inouye, Michael; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Kaunisto, Mari A; Hämäläinen, Eija; de Vries, Boukje; Stam, Anine H; Weller, Claudia M; Heinze, Axel; Heinze-Kuhn, Katja; Goebel, Ingrid; Borck, Guntram; Göbel, Hartmut; Steinberg, Stacy; Wolf, Christiane; Björnsson, Asgeir; Gudmundsson, Gretar; Kirchmann, Malene; Hauge, Anne; Werge, Thomas; Schoenen, Jean; Eriksson, Johan G; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars; Wichmann, H-Erich; Meitinger, Thomas; Alexander, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Schreiber, Stefan; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Breteler, Monique M B; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Lucae, Susanne; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Barrett, Jeffrey; Kaprio, Jaakko; Färkkilä, Markus; Peltonen, Leena; Stefansson, Kari; Zwart, John-Anker; Ferrari, Michel D; Olesen, Jes; Daly, Mark; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Dichgans, Martin; Kubisch, Christian; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Frants, Rune R; Palotie, Aarno

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder, typically presenting with recurrent attacks of severe headache and autonomic dysfunction. Apart from rare monogenic subtypes, no genetic or molecular markers for migraine have been convincingly established. We identified the minor allele of rs1...... lymphoblastoid cell lines, transcript levels of the MTDH were found to have a significant correlation to rs1835740 (P = 3.96 × 10⁻⁵, permuted threshold for genome-wide significance 7.7 × 10⁻⁵. To our knowledge, our data establish rs1835740 as the first genetic risk factor for migraine....

  17. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. Results The results showed that, during the 1 year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (Pejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. Conclusions In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  18. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency ...

  19. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus : a cadaver study after intravenous Araldite CY 221 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Groenewegen, H J; van Alphen, H A; Hoogland, P V

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on the vascular anatomy of the spinal epidural space, it appeared that the knowledge of the internal vertebral venous plexus is limited. Injection studies of the entire internal vertebral venous plexus after application of modern techniques, to the best of our knowledge, hav

  20. 12 CFR 335.221 - Forms for registration of securities; optional forms for small business issuers; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Industry Guide 3, Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies, is codified at 17 CFR 229.802. (c) A... applicable forms for registration of securities and similar matters are codified in subpart C of 17 CFR part... Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). Banks may also refer to the instructions for FFIEC Reports of Income...

  1. Abrahamova vjera kao izvor nevjere? Post 22,1 -19 u perspektivi novog ateizma i moralne teologije (l. dio)

    OpenAIRE

    Polgar, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Članak detektira ulogu Post 22,1-19 kao omiljene teme unutar diskursa novih ateista, usprkos činjenici da je spomenuti tekst zasigurno bitna orijentacijska točka triju monoteističkih religija. Okvirni razlog te situacije, iz koje proizlaze potpuno oprečne interpretacije tog teksta, autor pronalazi u polemičkoj naravi odnosa nove religioznosti i novog ateizma te, odbijajući korisnost takvog pristupa, poseže za, čini se, u ovom kontekstu zaboravljenom važnošću dijaloga i hermeneutike velikodušn...

  2. The microwave spectrum, structure and dipole moment of cyclobutene ozonide (2,3,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borseth, Donald G.; Lorenčak, Primož; Badawi, Hassan M.; Hillig, Kurt W.; Kuczkowski, R. L.; Mendenhall, G. David

    1988-11-01

    Cyclobutene ozonide containing deuterium, 13C and 18O enrichment was prepared by ozonolysis of cyclobutene and via singlet molecular oxygen addition to furan. It was established that the ozonide has Cs symmetry. The structure was determined from the assignment of the microwave spectra of eight isotopic species. The peroxy bond distance of 1.492(5) Å is increased by about 0.03 Å compared with less strained monocyclic ozonides. The ring strain is also evident in several other bond distances and angles when compared with cyclopentene ozonide. The dipole moment is 2.857(2) debye.

  3. 12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution to joint venture as extension of... joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered the question whether a joint...

  4. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  5. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  6. Interdisciplinarity in work process at a Psychosocial Attention Center - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Bessa Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the work process of mental health professionals from a Psychosocial Attention Center (CAPS, from the knowledge and the practices applied in the production of care and its interface with user’s demands and the service offering. Methods: A case study with qualitative approach. Twenty-eight subjects joined in and were divided into three groups: I (eleven mental health workers, II (eleven users e III (six family members. The semistructured interview was used besides systematic observation, in the search for data about the work process of the professionals of the Psychosocial Attention Center, the relationship between team and user, offering and demand, access, technologies of care, knowledge and practices and interdisciplinarity. The investigation was based upon critical content analysis and was oriented by the flowchart analyzer. Results: The service organization and its work process are directed to the immediate supply of the population’s demands, which depicts a care based on prescriptive practices. Thus, the flow of assistance and the service offering complement each other in the need of a procedure and in its exhaustive offering by the service, dissolving interdisciplinary conductions of intervention shared with the user. Conclusion: Mental health care is still surrounded by biomedical hegemony centered in procedures directed to pharmacological prescription. Despite this reality, the work centered on the user and the utilization of soft technologies – communication, link, welcoming – begin to take part of the daily CAPS service offering, although it is only present in specific activities of certain procedures.

  7. Moessbauer study of fired Lishan clay and terra-cotta warriors and horses of Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sherds of terracotta warriors and horses and Lishan clay were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, XRF, NAA, thermal and chemical analyses. Lishan clay was testified as the original material of terracotta warriors and horses, the kilning of these warriors and horses was first carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere, and then changed to a predominantly reducing atmosphere. With refiring experiments, the temperatures of Q3 and Q4 samples were determined to be 830 ± 50 and 980 ± 50degC respectively. Transformations of Lishan clay were determined by firing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The Moessbauer parameters of Lishan clay, which was taken after 2-24h firing, were changing up to 12h. (orig.)

  8. 26 CFR 1.221-1 - Deduction for interest paid on qualified education loans after December 31, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part of the internship program, the non-profit organization makes an interest payment on behalf of... institution that conducts an internship or residency program leading to a degree or certificate awarded by an... double benefit. No deduction is allowed under this section for any amount for which a deduction...

  9. 26 CFR 1.221-2 - Deduction for interest due and paid on qualified education loans before January 1, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... C's loan is in deferment and Student C makes no interest payments. As part of the internship program... conducts an internship or residency program leading to a degree or certificate awarded by an institution, a... education expenses, the loan is not a qualified education loan. (g) Denial of double benefit. No...

  10. Waste management in three public hospitals of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Tivirolli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the management of health service waste generated in three public hospitals of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil, including qualitative and quantitative parameters. Methods: This was an observational and descriptive study. We assessed the waste management in two large public hospitals (HG1, 240 hospital beds and HG2, 343 beds and in a small sized one (HP, 35 hospital beds. The data were collected in situ, by direct observation of the procedures for waste management and by quantifying the mass of waste generated by working sector in the three hospitals. Results: The study revealed that the internal management of waste generated in the three health care unities was not adequate, and that their workers were not trained on the proper management of waste and the use of personal protective equipment. The average rates of waste generation determined in HG1, HG2 and HP were, respectively, 4.7, 4.8 and 2.4 Kg.hospital bed-1.day-1, that fit the range of values reported in the literature. Conclusion: The detected inadequacies directly put at risk the health of workers and others who attend the three assessed hospitals and the outside comunity, which may be exposed to pathogens or toxic agents present in such waste.

  11. 40 CFR 180.221 - O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Beet, sugar, tops 0.1 Do. Corn, field, forage 0.1 Do. Corn, field, grain 0.1 Do. Corn, field, stover 0.1 Do. Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Do. Corn, pop, stover 0.1 Do. Corn, sweet, forage 0.1 Do. Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.1 Do. Corn, sweet, stover 0.1 Do. Peanut 0.1 Do. Peanut, hay 0.1...

  12. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 ''Acceptable Knowledge'' from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge

  13. Thermal decomposition of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) dissolved in benzene. Experimental study and mechanism investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Fr{é}d{é}rique; Fournet, Ren{é}; Marquaire, Paul-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of norbornane (dissolved in benzene) has been studied in a jet stirred reactor at temperatures between 873 and 973 K, at residence times ranging from 1 to 4 s and at atmospheric pressure, leading to conversions from 0.04 to 22.6%. 25 reaction products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography, amongst which the main ones are hydrogen, ethylene and 1,3-cyclopentadiene. A mechanism investigation of the thermal decomposition of the norbornane - benzene binary mixture has been performed. Reactions involved in the mechanism have been reviewed: unimolecular initiations 1 by C-C bond scission of norbornane, fate of the generated diradicals, reactions of transfer and propagation of norbornyl radicals, reactions of benzene and cross-coupling reactions.

  14. Analisa Efisiensi Combined Cycle 2-2-1 dan 1-1-1 PLTGU Block 1 Sicanang Belawan

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increasingly require substantial electricity power, it is necessary to constantly strive to increase efficiency in everything, including the operating efficiency of power generation. Efforts to improve the efficiency of this operation is done in various ways, including by improving power plant (Open Cycle) to PLTGU (Combined Cycle). Combined cycle is a cycle that utilizes exhaust heat from the go turbine to water in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG), then steam is used to...

  15. 12 CFR 221.122 - Applicability of margin requirements to credit in connection with Insurance Premium Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funding program, a borrower acquires mutual fund shares for cash, or takes fund shares which he already..., the participant is required to put up mutual fund shares equivalent to 250 percent of the premium or...) Clarify an earlier 1969 Board interpretation to show that the public offering price of mutual fund...

  16. 12 CFR 250.221 - Issuance and sale of short-term debt obligations by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bulletin 485, 12 CFR 218.104, 12 CFR 218.105 and 12 CFR 218.101.) (e) In reaching this conclusion, the... (17 CFR 231.4412). The reasons for such exemption, taken together with the abuses that gave rise to... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance and sale of short-term...

  17. Genome-wide association study of migraine implicates a common susceptibility variant on 8q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Verneri; Stefansson, Hreinn; Kallela, Mikko; Todt, Unda; Terwindt, Gisela M; Calafato, M Stella; Nyholt, Dale R; Dimas, Antigone S; Freilinger, Tobias; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Artto, Ville; Inouye, Michael; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Kaunisto, Mari A; Hämäläinen, Eija; de Vries, Boukje; Stam, Anine H; Weller, Claudia M; Heinze, Axel; Heinze-Kuhn, Katja; Goebel, Ingrid; Borck, Guntram; Göbel, Hartmut; Steinberg, Stacy; Wolf, Christiane; Björnsson, Asgeir; Gudmundsson, Gretar; Kirchmann, Malene; Hauge, Anne; Werge, Thomas; Schoenen, Jean; Eriksson, Johan G; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars; Wichmann, H-Erich; Meitinger, Thomas; Alexander, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Schreiber, Stefan; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Breteler, Monique M B; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Lucae, Susanne; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Barrett, Jeffrey; Kaprio, Jaakko; Färkkilä, Markus; Peltonen, Leena; Stefansson, Kari; Zwart, John-Anker; Ferrari, Michel D; Olesen, Jes; Daly, Mark; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Dichgans, Martin; Kubisch, Christian; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Frants, Rune R; Palotie, Aarno

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder, typically presenting with recurrent attacks of severe headache and autonomic dysfunction. Apart from rare monogenic subtypes, no genetic or molecular markers for migraine have been convincingly established. We identified the minor allele of rs1...

  18. SU-E-J-221: A Novel Expansion Method for MRI Based Target Delineation in Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare a novel bladder/rectum carveout expansion method on MRI delineated prostate to standard CT and expansion based methods for maintaining prostate coverage while providing superior bladder and rectal sparing. Methods: Ten prostate cases were planned to include four trials: MRI vs CT delineated prostate/proximal seminal vesicles, and each image modality compared to both standard expansions (8mm 3D expansion and 5mm posterior, i.e. ∼8mm) and carveout method expansions (5mm 3D expansion, 4mm posterior for GTV-CTV excluding expansion into bladder/rectum followed by additional 5mm 3D expansion to PTV, i.e. ∼1cm). All trials were planned to total dose 7920 cGy via IMRT. Evaluation and comparison was made using the following criteria: QUANTEC constraints for bladder/rectum including analysis of low dose regions, changes in PTV volume, total control points, and maximum hot spot. Results: ∼8mm MRI expansion consistently produced the most optimal plan with lowest total control points and best bladder/rectum sparing. However, this scheme had the smallest prostate (average 22.9% reduction) and subsequent PTV volume, consistent with prior literature. ∼1cm MRI had an average PTV volume comparable to ∼8mm CT at 3.79% difference. Bladder QUANTEC constraints were on average less for the ∼1cm MRI as compared to the ∼8mm CT and observed as statistically significant with 2.64% reduction in V65. Rectal constraints appeared to follow the same trend. Case-by-case analysis showed variation in rectal V30 with MRI delineated prostate being most favorable regardless of expansion type. ∼1cm MRI and ∼8mm CT had comparable plan quality. Conclusion: MRI delineated prostate with standard expansions had the smallest PTV leading to margins that may be too tight. Bladder/rectum carveout expansion method on MRI delineated prostate was found to be superior to standard CT based methods in terms of bladder and rectal sparing while maintaining prostate coverage. Continued investigation is warranted for further validation

  19. The hydrotherapy in the treatment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gadelha Severino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a serious, disabling disease, presenting the pulmonary function test with abnormalities in the expiratory flow. Under this denomination, it comprises the chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The hydrotherapy involves the physical therapy with aquatic exercises and has being used because it is a pleasant activity with positive results. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare the performance of the patients with COPD treated with hydrotherapy associated to pulmonary rehabilitation with those treated only with pulmonary rehabilitation, being held in the cardiopulmonary rehabilitation center of Messejana Hospital, in Fortaleza - Ceará. The sample consisted of 10 patients, independently of sex and age, randomly divided into two groups. The evaluation instrument was the upper limbs incremental test observing the following parameters: the cardiac frequency (FC, the respiratory frequency (f, the degree of dyspnea, the tiredness of the upper limbs, the maximum burden reached and the oxygen saturation (SatO2. The parameters FC (p=0.04, f (p=0.046 e SatO2 (p=0.008 presented an average improvement of 33.33% above those of the patients that were just in the pulmonary rehabilitation. The other evaluated parameters also presented positive results, but with p>0.05. In conclusion, the results obtained with the pulmonary rehabilitation associated to the hydrotherapy overcome those found just with the pulmonary rehabilitation treatment, allowing an increase in the physical conditioning and improvement in the functional activities; although, due to the reduced number of cases, new researches should be held to confirm this exploratory study.

  20. The hydrotherapy in the treatment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p221

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Gadelha Severino; Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa Morano; Juliana Maria de Sousa Pinto

    2012-01-01

    The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a serious, disabling disease, presenting the pulmonary function test with abnormalities in the expiratory flow. Under this denomination, it comprises the chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The hydrotherapy involves the physical therapy with aquatic exercises and has being used because it is a pleasant activity with positive results. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare the performance of the patients with COPD trea...

  1. Generalized Polarization Effect and B(E2,2+1→0+g.s.) in Neutron Rich Even Carbon Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The generalized polarization effects on electric quadrupole transitions is proposed and studied by the microscopic particle-vibration model. The static polarization effects on neutron and proton vertex are

  2. 5-[(1R,2R,4R-2-Methoxy-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-1H-tetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. Bats

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H20N4O, undergoes a phase transition on cooling. The room-temperature structure is tetragonal (P43212, Z′ = 1, with the methoxybornyl group being extremely disordered. Below 213 K the structure is orthorhombic (P212121, Z′ = 2, with ordered molecules. The two independent molecules (A and B have very similar conformations; significant differences only occur for the torsion angles about the Cbornyl—Ctetrazole bonds. The independent molecules are approximately related by the pseudo-symmetry relation: xB = −1/4 + yA, yB = 3/4 - xA and zB = 1/4 + zA. In the crystal, molecules are connected by N—H...N hydrogen bonds between the tetrazole groups, forming a pseudo-43 helix parallel to the c-axis direction. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin with a refined twin fraction value of 0.231 (2.

  3. 3p22.1p21.31 microdeletion identifies CCK as Asperger syndrome candidate gene and shows the way for therapeutic strategies in chromosome imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Voinova, Victoria Y.; Yurov, Yuri B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to other autism spectrum disorders, chromosome abnormalities are rare in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism. Consequently, AS was occasionally subjected to classical positional cloning. Here, we report on a case of AS associated with a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3. Further in silico analysis has identified a candidate gene for AS and has suggested a therapeutic strategy for manifestations of the chromosome rearrangement. Results Using array c...

  4. 2.2.1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and crystal structure of [ReV(O2(pyz4][ReII(NOBr4(pyz] (pyz = pyrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pacheco, Alicia Cuevas, Javier González-Platas, Carlos Kremer*

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A novel Re(V-Re(II nitrosyl complex, [Re(O2(pyz 4][Re(NOBr4(pyz] (pyz = pyrazine was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra. This product is obtained in the initial steps of the reaction of (NBu4[Re(NOBr4(EtOH] with pyrazine. Both, the cation and the anion are mononuclear complexes. The Re(V atom in the cation is six-coordinate with four nitrogen atoms from pyrazine ligands, and two oxo ligands. The Re(II anion is also six-coordinate, with four bromide ligands, a linear nitrosyl group and one nitrogen from pyrazine. The spectroscopic studies are discussed and compared with those already reported separately for the cation and the anion. Supporting information: X-Ray (CIF file

  5. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  6. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  7. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....

  8. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using as dependent variable the skin cancer diagnosis. Results: In 2009 and 2010, this campaign was responsible for 1141 consultations, diagnosing 122 (10.7% cases of skin cancer: 108 basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 10 squamous cell (SCC and four melanomas. Of those examined, 35.4% were male, 73.1% reported inadequate sun protection, 16.4% had a family history of skin cancer and 7.2% had personal history. Those with history of skin cancer were 5.24 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of cancer, while those presenting non-black skin were 4.91 times more likely to diagnosis. Conclusion: Personal or family history of epithelial neoplasia, non-colored black skin and the male gender were associated to higher chances of developing skin cancer. In addition, unprotected sun exposure remains routine

  9. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

  10. 40 CFR 721.7160 - 2-Oxepanone, polymer with 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol and 2,2-[(1-methylethylidene)bis(4,1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Oxepanone, polymer with 4,4â²-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol and 2,2- -bi-sox-i- rane, graft. 721.7160 Section 721.7160 Protection of Environment...-methylethylidene)bisphenol and 2,2- -bi-sox-i- rane, graft. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  11. 2-{[2-(1-Methyl-2,2-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazin-4-ylidenehydrazin-1-ylidene]methyl}phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H15N3O3S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 8.18 (11° and the C=N—N=C torsion angle is 178.59 (14°. The conformation of the thiazine ring is an envelope, with the S atom displaced by 0.8157 (18 Å from the mean plane of the other five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.045 Å. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, weak C—H...O interactions link the molecules, with all three O atoms acting as acceptors.

  12. Untersuchungen zur Photofragmentierung in Edelgasmatrizen: Vergleich von tert-Butylnitrit und tert-Butylthionitrit; Untersuchung von 2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-en

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Tanja Roswitha

    2005-01-01

    Untersuchungen mit Hilfe der Matrixisolationsspektroskopie ermöglichen den Nachweis instabiler oder kurzlebiger Intermediate. Es wurden drei verschiedene Substanzen mit Hilfe spektroskopischer Methoden in Edelgasmatrizen und in Lösung untersucht. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden tert-Butylnitrit und tert-Butylthionitrit betrachtet. Beide Verbindungen gehen bei Belichtung eine Photofragmentierung unter Abspaltung von NO ein, bei der in Edelgasmatrizen eine cis-trans-Isomerisierung als Konkurre...

  13. Erzeugung und Folgechemie von Bicyclo[2.1.1]hex-1-ylhalogen- und Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-1-ylhalogencarbenen

    OpenAIRE

    Dorok, Sascha

    2003-01-01

    Der Zugang zu 1,4-disubstituierten Bicyclo[2.1.1]hexanen konnte verbessert werden. Ausgehend von Cyclopentan-1,3-dicarbonsäuredimethylester konnte Bicyclo[2.1.1]hexan-1,4-dicarbonsäuredimethylester mit Ausbeuten bis zu 58% synthetisiert werden. Hierbei wurde das Bis-Enolat des Diesters in einem Eintopf-Verfahren mit Diiodmethan zweifach alkyliert. Diese Methode zeigt eine hohe Empfindlichkeit gegenüber Veränderungen verschiedener Parameter. Das Verhalten von bicyclo[2.1.1]hexyl-substituierte...

  14. 33 CFR 221.1 - Investigation and supervision of hydropower projects under the Federal Power Act (ER 1140-2-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. (3) ER 1145-2-303 (33 CFR 209.120), 2 Permits for Activities in Navigable Waters or Ocean Waters. 2 33 CFR 209.120 was removed at 42 FR 37133... full public interest review pursuant to 33 CFR part 320 and the application of the...

  15. Crystal structure of tetrabutylammonium bromide–1,2-diiodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene–dichloromethane (2/2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,2-diiodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (o-DITFB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (n-Bu4NBr from dichloromethane yielded pure white crystals of a halogen-bonded compound, C16H36N+·Br−·C6F4I2·0.5CH2Cl2 or [(n-Bu4NBr(o-DITFB]·0.5CH2Cl2. The compound may be described as a quaternary system and may be classified as a salt–cocrystal solvate. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of solvent, two o-DITFB molecules, two cations (n-Bu4N+ and two crystallographically distinct bromide ions [θI...Br-...I = 144.18 (1 and 135.35 (1°]. The bromide ion is a bidentate halogen-bond acceptor which interacts with two covalently bonded iodines (i.e. halogen-bond donors, resulting in a one-dimensional polymeric zigzag chain network approximately along the a axis. The observed short contacts and angles are characteristic of the non-covalent interaction [dC—I...Br = 3.1593 (4–3.2590 (5 Å; θC—I...Br = 174.89 (7 and 178.16 (7°]. It is noted that iodine acts as both a halogen-bond donor and a weak CH hydrogen-bond acceptor, while the bromide ions act as acceptors for weak CH hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds.

  16. Regioselective palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1-substituted oxabicyclo[2,2,1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Michael; Raheem, Mohammed Abdul; Boutin, Rebecca; Tait, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1 substituted 7-oxanorbornadiene derivatives with aryl iodides were investigated. The optimal conditions for this reaction were found to be PdCl2(PPh3)2, ZnCl2, Et3N and Zn in THF. Both steric and electronic factors played a role in the outcome of the reaction as increasing the steric bulk on the bridgehead carbon decreased the yield. These reactions were found to be highly regioselective, giving only one of the two possible regioisomers in all cases. A diverse collection of novel, highly substituted biphenyl derivatives were obtained. PMID:26977182

  17. Relaciones militares y diplomáticas de Cartago en el Mediterráneo Occidental (410 - 221 a.n.e.)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Vargas, Roger

    2016-01-01

    La tesis doctoral que se presenta a continuación tiene como propósito investigar la red diplomática y las relaciones de índole militar que se establecieron en el Mediterráneo Occidental a través de la ciudad de Cartago. El marco cronológico se enmarca entre los siglos V y III a.n.e., coincidiendo con el momento de mayor apogeo político de la ciudad. Es, por tanto, un estudio de amplio espectro cronológico y espacial, que abarca este fenómeno desde sus inicios hasta su culminación en época de ...

  18. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.221∼q11.222) in a Syrian Family

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Achkar, W; Wafa, A; Al-Ablog, A; Moassass, F; Liehr, T

    2013-01-01

    Constitutional chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of miscarriage, infertility, congenital anomalies and mental retardation in humans. Pericentric inversions of the human Y-chromosome [inv(Y)] are rather common and show an estimated incidence of 0.6–1:1,000 in males in the general population. Most of the reported cases with inv(Y) are familial. For carriers of pericentric inversions the risk of mental retardation or multiple abortions is not apparently increased and there is no r...

  19. catena-Poly[[diaqua­manganese(II)]-μ-7-oxabicyclo­[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wang; Jie Feng; Dong-Hang Wang; Qiu-Yue Lin

    2010-01-01

    In the title polymer, [Mn(C8H8O5)(H2O)2]n, the MnII atom is in a distorted octahedral coordination mode, binding to the bridging O atom of the bicycloheptane unit, two O atoms from corresponding carboxylate groups, one carboxylate O atom from a symmetry-related bridging ligand and two water O atoms. This arrangement leads to the formation of polymeric chains propagating parallel to [001]. The crystal structure is stabilized by several O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving ...

  20. Shelf-life of ɛ-lysyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide immunoconjugates, precursors for 211At labeling of antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Halleröd, Jenny; Albertsson, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Astatine-211 is possibly the most promising radionuclide for targeted α-particle therapy when it comes to the treatment of occult disseminated cancer. Preclinical research has proven effective, and patient studies have been initiated based on these results. However, a lack of production capacity ...

  1. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Final performance report, March 1992--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research is described in the following areas: development and evaluation quantitatively of reconstruction algorithms with improved compensations for attenuation, scatter, and geometric collimator response; evaluation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantification of iodine 123 and astatine 211; and the development and evaluation of SPECT pinhole imaging for low and medium energy photons.

  2. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Final performance report, March 1992--November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is described in the following areas: development and evaluation quantitatively of reconstruction algorithms with improved compensations for attenuation, scatter, and geometric collimator response; evaluation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantification of iodine 123 and astatine 211; and the development and evaluation of SPECT pinhole imaging for low and medium energy photons

  3. Separation of 211At from irradiated bismuth target and labelling of a model protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine-211 is a promising radionuclide for therapeutic use in nuclear medicine. An efficient method (70%) for radiochemical separation from the irradiated Bi-target has been described. The level of Bi contamination in the purified 2'11At-solution was estimated. Finally labelling of a model protein has been tried. (author). 14 refs

  4. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221 Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Izumi Sakamoto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveis estudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%, espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commercial laying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400 ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day- 1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical composition of hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the diet resulted in similar productive performance and egg quality compared to the control diet.

  5. Hurdles for a Broader Use of 211At and for the Synthesis of 211At-Labelled Radiopharmaceuticals at High Activities for Clinical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key impediments to the use of 211At is the very well known deleterious effect of high radiation fields caused by its alpha particles on the synthesis of 211At-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. This is problematic because radiolysis-mediated effects can produce diminishing efficiency of electrophilic astatination reactions due to increasing deposition of radiation dose with increasing activities and with the passage of the time. Astatine-211 has chemical properties that permit complex labelling strategies and a longer half-life than 213Bi that makes it more suitable when the targeting molecule does not gain immediate access to the tumour cells. The first clinical evaluation was published in 2001 [2] in patients with brain tumour. Although this study circumvents many of the challenges to entering clinical studies with 211At and many obstacles had to be surmounted before clinical studies could be initiated, several problems were encountered in maintaining efficient labelling with escalating radiation dose of α-particle even with fresh 211At elution [3]. Astatine-211 also has an additional hurdle to overcome before to its clinical application in labelled radiopharmaceuticals related with its production and distribution. Among the potential group of promising α- emitter it is the only one produced by cyclotrons, but due to the scarcity of cyclotrons equipped with 25−30 MeV α-particle beams, it will of necessity be utilized in distant locations from the site of production. It presents a major chemical challenge because the diminishing efficiency of electrophilic astatination reactions with the passage of the time is well known, a problem likely related to the radiolysis produced by the high LET (linear energy transfer) meaning that large amounts of energy are deposited in a highly localized manner. This problem has been most comprehensively investigated to understand and evaluate the role of the radiolysis effects of astatine alpha particles in the synthesis

  6. $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with radioactive At beams

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and radioactive decay of the newly available pure beams of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich astatine (Z=85) isotopes. The fission probability and the fission fragment distribution of the even-even isotopes $^{194,196}$Po following the $\\beta$-decay of the isotopes $^{194,196}$At will be studied with the Windmill setup. In-source laser spectroscopy will be performed on the entire astatine isotopic chain, using a combination of the Windmill setup, ISOLTRAP MR-ToF and ISOLDE Faraday. Radioactive decay data will be acquired at the Windmill setup throughout those studies and contribute to the global understanding of the phenomenon of shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region.

  7. Production cross section of At radionuclides from $^{7}$Li+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Pb and $^{9}$Be+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Tl reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Moumita

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we reported theoretical studies on the probable production of astatine radionuclides from $^{6,7}$Li and $^{9}$Be-induced reactions on natural lead and thalliun targets, respectively. For the first time, in this report, production of astatine radionuclides has been investigated experimentally with two heavy ion induced reactions: $^{9}$Be+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Tl and $^{7}$Li+$^{\\textrm{nat}}$Pb. Formation cross sections of the evaporation residues, $^{207,208,209,210}$At, produced in (HI, xn) channel, have been measured by the stacked-foil technique followed by the off-line $\\gamma$-spectrometry at the low incident energies ($<$50 MeV). Measured excitation functions have been explained in terms of compound nuclear reaction mechanism using Weisskopf-Ewing and Hauser-Feshbach model. Absolute cross section values are lower than the respective theoretical predictions.

  8. Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Targeted Radiopharmaceutics. Synthesis of 211At-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals at High Activities for Clinical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeted α-particle radiotherapy is an appealing approach to cancer treatment because of the potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to tumor with minimal damage to normal tissue due to a range equivalent to only a few cell diameters. Compared with β-emitters they have significant advantages from a radiobiological perspective. The LET of 211At α-particles is more than 400 times higher than the β-particles emitted by 90Y, in addition the distance between ionizing events is almost the same as that between the two strands of DNA, yielding a high probability of creating non-repairable DNA damage. It gives the ability to kill cancer cells not compromised by hypoxia, dose rate effects or cell cycle position, enhancing their attractiveness for targeted radiotherapy. However, translation of the concept to the clinic has been slow, many obstacles had to be surmounted before clinical studies could be initiated, the first clinical evaluation of a 211At- labeled mAb was made in 2001. This study circumvents many of the challenges to entering clinical studies with 211At. But several problems were encountered in maintaining efficient labeling with escalating radiation dose of alpha-particle likely related to radiolysis. The impact of the radiolysis produced by the α-particle over the labeling chemistry is much higher in comparison with typical β-emitters due to a deposition of energy in the solvent in a highly localized manner two orders of magnitude per unit volume higher than 90Y or 131I. Due to these difficulties a comprehensive basic science study about the radiolytic effects of astatine alpha-particles over the synthesis of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals was carried out. Its main goal was overcoming the problem of the synthesis of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals at the high activities necessaries for therapy and also to extend the shelf life of astatine elutions. Briefly this study held several steps, the first one was to study the role of solvent

  9. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  10. Multibeam collection for KN221-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-07-06 to 2014-08-01, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for KN221-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-09-07 to 2014-09-28, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for KN221-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-06-19 to 2014-07-03, departing from Woods Hole, MA and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for KN221-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-08-03 to 2014-09-02, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Safety Study of AG-120 or AG-221 in Combination With Induction and Consolidation Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia With an IDH1 and/or IDH2 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Untreated AML; AML Arising From Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); AML Arising From Antecedent Hematologic Disorder (AHD); AML Arising After Exposure to Genotoxic Injury

  15. Identification of microRNA-221/222 and microRNA-323-3p association with rheumatoid arthritis via predictions using the human tumour necrosis factor transgenic mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Pandis, Ioannis; Ospelt, Caroline; Karagianni, Niki; Denis, Maria C.; Reczko, Martin; Camps, Carme; Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Gay, Steffen; Kollias, George

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify novel microRNA (miR) associations in synovial fibroblasts (SF), by performing miR expression profiling on cells isolated from the human tumour necrosis factor (TNF) transgenic mouse model (TghuTNF, Tg197) and patients biopsies.METHODS: miR expression in SF from TghuTNF and wild-type (WT) control mice were determined by miR deep sequencing (miR-seq) and the arthritic profile was established by pairwise comparisons. Quantitative PCR analysis was utilised for profile valid...

  16. http://www.seasinop.com.br/revista/index.php?journal=SEA&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=221&path%5B%5D=pdf_93

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Escobar; C. R. Andrighetti; E.B. Ribeiro; D. M. S. Valladão

    2016-01-01

    The bar soap is a cosmetic personal care product most consumed in the world. The incorporation of actives to these products provides greater refinement to the formulation. Oils are incorporated in order to increase the moisturize and hydration of the skin. Stability tests are conducted to demonstrate the product's behavior during its period of validity and are essential when there is development of new formulations. The objective of this work was to produce bar soaps containing pe...

  17. http://www.seasinop.com.br/revista/index.php?journal=SEA&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=221&path%5B%5D=pdf_93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Escobar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bar soap is a cosmetic personal care product most consumed in the world. The incorporation of actives to these products provides greater refinement to the formulation. Oils are incorporated in order to increase the moisturize and hydration of the skin. Stability tests are conducted to demonstrate the product's behavior during its period of validity and are essential when there is development of new formulations. The objective of this work was to produce bar soaps containing pequi oil and evaluate its stability through physicochemical testing. They developed three primary formulations with different pequi oil concentrations (1, 3 and 5% w/w, which were evaluated for strength and absorption to water, durability, melting, foaming, crack formation and pH . The best results were obtained with the incorporation of 3% (w/w of oil. After determination of the optimal concentration of oil, a new formulation was developed containing 3% of pequi oil and the stability tests were remade. It was found that the soaps showed good stability. Thus, it can be shown that the pequi oil can be used for preparation of bar soaps and that they have stability within the parameters studied

  18. Juan Manuel Palacio; Magdalena Candioti (compiladores). 2007. Justicia, política y derechos en América Latina : Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros. 221 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Stagnaro, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    El ejercicio propuesto por la obra que compilan Juan Manuel Palacio y Magdalena Candioti de pensar y poner en perspectiva histórica los problemas y desafíos que atañen a los sistemas de administración de justicia es una propuesta interesante que intenta dar cuenta de la centralidad que los estudios en torno a la justicia, la ley y el derecho han adquirido recientemente en las ciencias sociales como la historia, la antropología o la sociología.

  19. Stereochemistry of ring-opening/cross metathesis reactions of exo- and endo-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carbonitriles with allyl alcohol and allyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wałejko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ROCM reactions of exo- and endo-2-cyano-7-oxanorbornenes with allyl alcohol or allyl acetate promoted by different ruthenium alkylidene catalysts were studied. The stereochemical outcome of the reactions was established. The issues concerning chemo- (ROCM vs ROMP, regio- (1-2- vs 1-3-product formation, and stereo- (E/Z isomerism selectivity of reactions under various conditions are discussed. Surprisingly good yields of the ROCM products were obtained under neat conditions.

  20. Aza-Quaternary Scaffolds from Selective Bond Cleavage of Bridgehead-Substituted 7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane: Total Synthesis of (+)-Cylindricines C-E and (-)-Lepadiformine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ganesh; Janakiram, Vaitla

    2015-09-01

    A novel bridgehead-substituted aza-bicyclic framework has been designed and developed in both enantiomeric forms through an asymmetric desymmetrization reaction. Strategic exploitation of the ring strain in the aza-bicyclic framework has been utilized for the construction of the chiral aza-quaterenary scaffolds by selective bond fragmentation processes. Furthermore, a strategically designed precursor is employed for selective bond cleavage to initiate a cascade rearrangement for the total synthesis of the 1-azaspirotricyclic marine alkaloids (+)-cylindricines C, D, and E, as well as (-)-lepadiformine A. An oxidation/retro-aldol/aza-Michael sequence generated three new chiral centers with the required configuration in one pot. PMID:26220441

  1. Zpracování výsledků studentů v předmětu 6MI221 - Statistika pro manažery

    OpenAIRE

    Tesařová, Šárka

    2008-01-01

    The work is described and evaluated the results in the summer semester of academic year 2007/2008 the course "Statistics for Managers". Data that we have to use, was collected Department of Information Management in Jindřichův Hradec at the Faculty of Management, University of Economics Prague. There are applied methods of descriptive statistics and appropriate statistical tests. Based on the data we have analyzed the interdependence of individual variables. Finally, work is to evaluate the s...

  2. R22(8 motifs in Aminopyrimidine sulfonate/carboxylate interactions: Crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate (2:2:1 and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate (4:2:2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Packianathan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrimethamine [2,4-diamino-5-(p-chlorophenyl-6-ethylpyrimidine] is an antifolate drug used in anti-malarial chemotherapy. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically important compounds owing to their natural occurrence as components of nucleic acids. Results In the crystal structures of two organic salts, namely pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate 1 and 2-amino-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidinium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate dihydrate 2, pyrimethamine (PMN and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (AMPY are protonated at one of the nitrogens in the pyrimidine rings. In both the PMN and AMPY sulfonate complexes, the protonated pyrimidine rings are hydrogen bonded to the sulfonate groups, forming a hydrogen-bonded bimolecular ring motif with graph-set notation R22(8. The sulfonate group mimics the carboxylate anion's mode of association, which is more commonly seen when binding with 2-aminopyrimidines. In compound 1, the PMN moieties are centrosymmetrically paired through a complementary DADA array of hydrogen bonds. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. Furthermore, this compound is stabilized by intra and intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. Conclusion The crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate have been investigated in detail. In compound 1, the R22(8 motif involving the sulfonate group is present. The role the sulfonic acid group plays in mimicking the carboxylate anions is thus evident. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. In both the compounds base pairing also occurs. Thus homo and hetero synthons are present.

  3. (3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-olato-κ2O,Obis[2-(2-pyridylphenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ir(C11H8N2(C17H19O2], has an octahedral coordination geometry around the IrIII atom, retaining the cis-C,C,trans–N,N chelate disposition of the two 2-phenylpyridine ligands. The chelate rings are nearly mutually perpendicular [the interplanar angles range from 85.48 (17 to 89.17 (19°]. The two 2-(2-pyridylphenyl ligands are approximately planar, with the plane of the phenyl ring being inclined to that of the pyridine ring by 2.3 (3 and 5.1 (3° in the two ligands. The interplanar angle between the phenyl ring in 3-benzoyl-camphor and the IrO2C3 chelate ring is 35.5 (2°.

  4. 4-tert-Butyl­pyridinium chloride–4,4′-(propane-2,2-di­yl)bis­(2,6-di­methyl­phenol)–toluene (2/2/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Alastair J. Nielson; Waters, Joyce M.

    2014-01-01

    In the title solvated salt, C9H14N+·Cl−·C19H24O2·0.5C7H7, two mol­ecules of 4,4′-(propane-2,2-di­yl)bis­(2,6-di­methyl­phenol) are linked via O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to two chloride ions, each of which is also engaged in N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding to a 4-tert-butyl­pyridinium cation, giving a cyclic hydrogen-bonded entity centred at 1/2, 1/2, 1/2. The toluene solvent mol­ecule resides in the lattice and resides on an inversion centre; the disorder of the methyl group requires it to have a site-occ...

  5. 4-tert-Butyl-pyridinium chloride-4,4'-(propane-2,2-di-yl)bis-(2,6-di-methyl-phenol)-toluene (2/2/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Alastair J; Waters, Joyce M

    2014-04-01

    In the title solvated salt, C9H14N(+)·Cl(-)·C19H24O2·0.5C7H7, two mol-ecules of 4,4'-(propane-2,2-di-yl)bis-(2,6-di-methyl-phenol) are linked via O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to two chloride ions, each of which is also engaged in N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding to a 4-tert-butyl-pyridinium cation, giving a cyclic hydrogen-bonded entity centred at 1/2, 1/2, 1/2. The toluene solvent mol-ecule resides in the lattice and resides on an inversion centre; the disorder of the methyl group requires it to have a site-occupancy factor of 0.5. No crystal packing channels are observed. PMID:24826127

  6. The earliest high-fired glazed ceramics in China: the composition of the proto-porcelain from Zhejiang during the Shang and Zhou periods (c. 1700-221 BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, M; Rehren, T.; Zheng, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Bodies and glazes of 54 proto-porcelain sherds and 18 non proto-porcelain samples from Shang and Zhou periods production sites in Deqing, Zhejiang province were analysed by EPMA-WDS. The results indicate that the bodies of all samples were made from local raw material porcelain stone, with the proto-porcelain samples being made from clay of higher quality. Wood ashes, high in lime and low in potash, were intentionally applied to the proto-porcelain samples, resulting in the formation of lime-...

  7. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(2-{1-[N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-oxo-2-phenylacetamido]-2-tert-butylamino-2-oxoethyl}-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Moriguchi; Venkataprasad Jalli; Suvratha Krishnamurthy; Akihiko Tsuge; Kenji Yoza

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C28H30BrN3O5, there is an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond and an intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond, both forming S(9) ring motifs. The planes of the 4-bromophenyl ring and the phenyl ring are inclined to that of the pyrrole ring by 48.05 (12) and 77.45 (14)°, respectively, and to one another by 56.25 (12)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1).

  8. Metformin Causes G1-Phase Arrest via Down-Regulation of MiR-221 and Enhances TRAIL Sensitivity through DR5 Up-Regulation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi Tanaka; Mitsuhiro Tomosugi; Mano Horinaka; Yoshihiro Sowa; Toshiyuki Sakai

    2015-01-01

    Although many chemotherapeutic strategies against cancer have been developed, pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and intractable types of malignancies. Therefore, new strategies and anti-cancer agents are necessary to treat this disease. Metformin is a widely used drug for type-2 diabetes, and is also known as a promising candidate anti-cancer agent from recent studies in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of metformin's anti-cancer effects have not been elucidated. We de...

  9. Radiohalogenation of biomolecules. An experimental study on radiohalogen preparation, precursor synthesis, radiolabeling and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiohalogens are widely used in nuclear medicine, both as tool for diagnostic in vivo imaging, and in radionuclide therapy. This study deals with the use of radiohalogens; separation, precursor synthesis, labeling and biological behavior. The focus is on 211At and 124I, the former being a candidate for nuclide therapy and the latter potentially useful for diagnostic imaging and Auger-electron based radiotherapy. For astatine the separation, labeling and some biological behavior is described, and for iodine the latter two. Astatine was separated from an irradiated bismuth target by dry distillation. A novel cryotrap was developed for the isolation of astatine and subsequent synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. 5-[211At]astato-2'-deoxyuridine (AUdR) and N-succinimidyl-4-[211At]astatobenzoate (SAB) were synthesized in 95% respectively 90% radiochemical yields. The former is incorporated into DNA of proliferating cells and can therefore be used as an endoradiotherapeutic agent. The latter is a conjugate for the astatination of proteins. Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) was tagged with astatine using three approaches: a) direct labeling of native hEGF, b) conjugation with SAB, and c) direct labeling of an hEGF - 7-(3-aminopropyl)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate(1-) conjugate. The overall labeling yields were 3.5% for direct labeling, 44% for SAB and 70% for the hEGF-nido-carborane conjugate. A new route to N-succinimidyl 3- and 4- [124I]iodobenzoate, two reagents for radioiodination of proteins is described affording 90% radiochemical yield. Three radioiodinated analogs of PK11195, 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)isoquinoline-3-carboxyam ide, a peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, were synthesized. All three analogs were obtained in >90% radiochemical yield. Synthesis and application of 5-[124I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) is presented. The closo-dodecaborate anion was evaluated as prosthetic group for radioiodination of macromolecules

  10. 211At production and recovery: first results of a new start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 211At is the only alpha-emitting isotope which can be introduced into organic molecular structures by covalent chemical binding and possesses superior decay characteristics for therapeutic applications when compared with other alpha emitters. However, its production requires a minimum of 27,5 MeV alpha-particles, which are relatively rarely available. In view of the revival of alpha-therapy approaches a production of 211At has been set up at the MHH cyclotron (MC-35). The first aim of this project was to establish a target- and work-up-system for the reliable production of several ten MBq-quantities of 211At for animal- and cell-research. An aluminum-target-system holds a 1.3 cm diameter Bi-disc of 0.25 mm thickness. The disk is pressed onto a the aluminum backing with 2 tons/cm2. The front is covered with a 125 μm Al foil, cooled by a He jet which is separated from the vacuum by a 250 μm Ti foil. Starting with 27.5 MeV alpha-particles the resulting target-energy is 25 MeV. This relatively low energy is chosen to avoid any contamination with 210At and 210Po in the first experimental period. A beam current of 10 μA for 15 min (9 mCoulomb) yields 16.4 MBq 211At theoretically. Astatine is recovered from the target by a dry distillation technique, using various gases as a transport support-medium. The small all-quartz distillation-apparatus is heated up to 900 oC. Astatine is recovered in a small cool able vessel containing various trapping media. Distillation and trapping can be monitored with small radioactivity monitors. The whole system fits in a cubical 0.5 m glove box. Continuous monitoring of the distillation process allowed to optimize the heating rate, the transport support-medium and its flow-rate. Various trapping solutions were tested for their efficiency. Different beam dispersion in the target seems to influence the release and distillation of astatine from the molten bismuth-target. Two different release patterns were observed. The first

  11. 14 CFR 292.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adherence to filed tariffs in 49 USC 41510 and the related provisions of 14 CFR part 221 as of November 30... well as under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 221, and they are canceled by operation of law. (b) As of... under 49 USC 41504 and the provisions of 14 CFR part 221, and are cancelled by operation of law....

  12. Inclusive measurement of (p,πsup(-)xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth from threshold to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of the total angle-integrated cross section for the production of astatine isotopes from (p,πsup(-)xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth (sup(209)Bi) was measured from 120 to 800 MeV using activation and radiochemical techniques. Chemical yields were estimated by direct radioassaying of sup(211)At activity in thin (approximately 1 mg/cmsup(2)), irradiated bismuth targets. Calculations of the contributions of secondary (2-step) reactions to these measured astatine yields were performed, based partially upon the observed sup(211)At activity although even at the highest energies, the contribution to products lighter than sup(207)At was negligible. These data for products with as many as 7 neutrons removed from the doubly coherent product (sup(210)At) display nearby gaussian shapes for the mass distributions of the astatine residues with the maximum occurring for about sup(204)At. The most probable momentum transfer deduced from these distributions for the initial πsup(-) production step was 335 MeV/c. The observed excitation functions display a behaviour similar to that observed for the yield of sup(210)Po from a (p,πsup(O)) reaction on sup(209)Bi, but radically different from that observed for inclusive πsup(-) reactions on a heavy nucleus. These data are discussed in terms of recent theoretical approaches to negative pion production from bismuth. In addition, a simple, schematic model is developed to treat the rapidly decreasing percentage of the total inclusive πsup(-) emission which is observed for this double charge exchange reaction. This model reflects the capacity of a nucleus to a source of internal energetic protons

  13. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MARTENSITE AND LOADING RATE ON DUAL PHASE STEELS

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAM, Ali

    1998-01-01

    In this study, steel sheet materials were used in order to obtain dual-phase steel. Specimens for this purpose have been annealed in ferrite + astatine regions at the temperatures of 740, 760, 800 and 820 °C. The specimens were annealed at the different temperatures with corresponding times 20, 40 and 60 minutes and quenched into water. As a result of this dual-phase steels at different ferrite + martensite ratio were produced. Sheet specimens were tested at the range of loading rates of 1...

  14. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of Dr. Patricia Wallace Durbin, Ph.D., conducted November 11, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Patricia Wallace Durbin by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research. Dr. Durbin was selected for this interview because of her knowledge of the human plutonium injections and her recollections of key figures, especially Joseph Hamilton. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Durbin discusses her loss of research funding from DOE, her recollections concerning research into strontium metabolism as part of Project Sunshine, her recollections relating to the rationale for studies of human metabolism of radionuclides, her remembrances of Dr. Hamilton's Astatine and Plutonium research, and her experiences in gathering archival records concerning these researches

  15. The promoter for a variant surface glycoprotein gene expression site in Trypanosoma brucei.

    OpenAIRE

    Zomerdijk, J C; Ouellette, M; ten Asbroek, A L; Kieft, R.; Bommer, A M; Clayton, C E; Borst, P

    1990-01-01

    The variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene 221 of Trypanosoma brucei is transcribed as part of a 60 kb expression site (ES). We have identified the promoter controlling this multigene transcription unit by the use of 221 chromosome-enriched DNA libraries and VSG gene 221 expression site specific transcripts. The start of transcription was determined by hybridization and RNase protection analysis of nascent RNA. The 5' ends of the major transcripts coming from the initiation region m...

  16. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010). A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3), 221-228.

    OpenAIRE

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-01-01

    Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1) the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2) strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3) use of personalized information services; 4) determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5) personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative st...

  17. Sherlock Holmes á skjánum: Hinsegin rökvísi, samkynhneigð skelfing og nútími í tveimur þáttaröðum um íbúana á 221b Baker Street

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarndís Helga Tómasdóttir 1982

    2015-01-01

    Í þessari ritgerð verður litið til kvikmynda- og sjónvarpsaðlagana á verkum Sir Arthurs Conan Doyle um sérlundaða spæjarann Sherlock Holmes og lækninn John Watson. Þeirri spurningu er velt upp hvaða þýðingu persóna Holmes hefur fyrir nútímann frá sjónarhorni hinsegin fræða. Notast er við kenningar Wolfang Iser um eyður í texta til þess að gera grein fyrir hinsegin túlkunarrými í verkum Doyles. Í framhaldi er áhersla lögð á að greina ákveðinn flótta eða afneitun á hinsegin túlkun í þeim aðlögu...

  18. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225.The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226. Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available. Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to search for online content. Due to the complexity of finding article content, they use web search tools like Google and Google Scholar to get to what they need faster. The authors of this study believe research should be conducted on the use of the Consortium’s metasearch tool to reduce the complexity. Research should also be conducted on value-added features of search interfaces for particular disciplines.

  19. 宁夏城市居民营养素摄入量与代谢综合征相关危险因素调查及分析%Relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among urban populations in Ningxia, China . Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric . & Life Sci .), 2013,39(2):215-221

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏宇; 张娜; 李琳; 陶秀娟; 杨建军; 张毓洪; 赵燚

    2013-01-01

    Summary It is well documented that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of metabolic syndrome ( MS) remains inconclusive . Several studies on the relationship between MS and energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet ( proteins , fats , carbohydrates) may play an important contributing role to MS in adults . So , this study aims to investigate the possible relationship between MS and energy intake , percentage energy intake from macronutrients among urban populations in Ningxia , China . According to different economic levels from 2011 to 2012 , 2 465 subjects ( age:18‐75 years) were selected using stratified cluster random sampling in Yinchuan , Wuzhong , Zhongwei , Guyuan , and Shizuishan in Ningxia , China . Dietary intake was assessed using 24‐h food records and a validated food frequency questionnaire . Body mass , height , waist circumference , blood pressure , triglyceride ( TG ) , high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL‐C ) , and blood glucose were measured . Logistic regression models were adjusted for age , smoking , drinking , and physical activity factors . The results showed that there were 647 MS cases in all subjects . According to the diagnosis criteria of MS , the incidence of MS was 26 .2% ( men:281 cases (25% ) ;women:366 cases ( 27 .3% ) ) , no significant difference in sex composition ( P>0 .05) . As a way of lifestyle , there was no significant difference in smoking , drinking , exercise between MS group and control group ( P>0 .05) ;significant difference was found in tertian dietary intake of protein and fat energy percentage between MS group and control group ( P0.05);MS组与对照组间吸烟、饮酒、锻炼等生活方式构成的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);MS组与对照组间日膳食摄入蛋白质及脂肪能量百分比差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);MS组与对照组间的体质指数、腰围、收缩压、舒张压、空腹血糖、胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白差异有统计学意义( P<0.05). Logistic多因素分析表明,蛋白质、脂肪及碳水化合物的能量占总摄入能量的百分比过多是城市居民代谢综合征的重要危险因素,其中高蛋白质组:相对危险程度比值比( odds ratio , OR)=1.417;高脂肪组:OR=1.647;高碳水化合物组:OR=1.810;因此,应采取膳食营养干预措施来有效预防MS .

  20. Crystal structure of cis-bis-{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri-methyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio-semicarbazidato-κ(3) O,N (1),S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol-ecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-12-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl-thio-semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The Cd(II) ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral environment by two deprotonated thio-semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected via pairs of N-H⋯S and C-H⋯S inter-actions, building centrosymmetric dimers. One of the ligands is disordered in the campher unit over two sets of sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.7 and 0.3. The structure contains additional solvent mol-ecules, which are disordered and for which no reasonable split model was found. Therefore, the data were corrected for disordered solvent using the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. Since the disordered solvents were removed by data processing, and the number of solvent entities was a suggestion only, they were not considered in the chemical formula and subsequent chemical or crystal information. PMID:26870441

  1. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-[(R/S-1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenylethyl]phenyl [(1R,4S-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C40H60O5S, comprises two diastereomers related, except for the chiral camphor groups, by a pseudo-inversion centre. In both diasteromers, the camphor sulfate moiety maintained the absolute configuartion (R,S of the precursor. However, the absolute configurations at the methine C atoms are of opposite chirality. Both molecules reveal intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, whereas van der Waals interactions define the crystal packing.

  2. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(2-{1-[N-(4-bromo­phen­yl)-2-oxo-2-phenyl­acetamido]-2-tert-butyl­amino-2-oxo­ethyl}-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Tsuge, Akihiko; Yoza, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C28H30BrN3O5, there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond and an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, both forming S(9) ring motifs. The planes of the 4-bromo­phenyl ring and the phenyl ring are inclined to that of the pyrrole ring by 48.05 (12) and 77.45 (14)°, respectively, and to one another by 56.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1).

  3. Role of juvenile hormone in the hypermetabolic production of water revealed by the O2 consumption and thermovision images of larvae of insects fed a diet of dry food

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 221-230. ISSN 1210-5759 Grant ostatní: Ministerstvo zemědělství(CZ) MZe0002700604 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Galleria mellonella * Coleoptera Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/110/2/221

  4. Recent developments in generation of volatile species and in their atomization for atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědina, Jiří; Arslan, Y.; Mester, Z.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Kratzer, Jan; Matoušek, Tomáš; Musil, Stanislav; Svoboda, Milan

    2014. s. 221-221. [Rio Symposium on Atomic Spectrometry /13./. 19.10.2014-24.10.2014, Merida, Yucatan] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311202; GA ČR GA14-23532S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Arsenic * speciation analysis * sapphire tube atomizer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  6. 7 CFR 2.63 - Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Economics. 2.63 Section 2.63 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.63 Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. Pursuant to § 2.21(a), subject to reservations in § 2.21(b), and subject to...

  7. 24 CFR 248.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 5. Adjusted Income. Annual income, as specified in § 251.21 of this chapter, less... Commissioner under part 221 of this chapter and bearing a below market interest rate as provided under § 221... allowable distributions. Return on Investment. The amount of allowable distributions, tax benefits,...

  8. Conformation analysis of Se and Te containing nucleoside analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Kleinpeter, E.; Pohl, Radek

    Santiago de Compostela : -, 2013. s. 221-221. [SMASH 2013. 22.9.2013-25.9.2013, Santiago de Compostela] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : low-temperature NMR * DFT * nucleoside analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Kvaalide kvainimine / Daniel C. Dennett ; tõlk. Bruno Mölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dennett, Daniel C., 1942-

    1997-01-01

    Järgneb Akadeemia 1998, nr. 1, lk. 189-221. Lk. 209-221 järelsõna: B. Mölder. Dennett ja kvaalid. Sisald. bibliogr. Tõlke allikas: Quining Qualia. In: Conciousness in Contemporary Science. - Oxford, 1988, lk. 42-77

  10. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Can Uncover Mistakes in Self-Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Urbanová, J.; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Doničová, V.; Brabec, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Supplement 1 (2014), A221-A221. ISSN 0012-1797. [American Diabetes Association. Scientific Sessions /74./. 13.06.2014-17.06.2014, San Francisco] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : continuous monitoring * type I diabetes * semiparametric modeling Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  11. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MARTENSITE AND LOADING RATE ON DUAL PHASE STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BAYRAM

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, steel sheet materials were used in order to obtain dual-phase steel. Specimens for this purpose have been annealed in ferrite + astatine regions at the temperatures of 740, 760, 800 and 820 °C. The specimens were annealed at the different temperatures with corresponding times 20, 40 and 60 minutes and quenched into water. As a result of this dual-phase steels at different ferrite + martensite ratio were produced. Sheet specimens were tested at the range of loading rates of 10, 50 and 259 mm/min. Strength properties of dual-phase steels were investigated depending on annealing temperature, ratio of martensite and loading rate.

  12. A route for polonium 210 production from alpha-particle irradiated bismuth-209 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for production of polonium-210 via the 209Bi(α,3n)210 At nuclear reaction. Bombardment of a bismuth-209 target was performed with a 37 MeV alpha-particle beam that leads to the production of astatine-210 (T1/2 = 8.1 h), which decays to polonium-210. It is purified from the bismuth target matrix by employing liquid-liquid extraction using tributyl phosphate (TBP) in para-xylene from 7 M hydrochloric acid. Back extraction of polonium-210 was performed by 9 M nitric acid. This method allows to purify a tracer amount of Po-210 (2.6 x 10-13 mol) from macroscopic amount of Bi (2.8 x 10-2 mol).

  13. Effective bond orders from two-step spin–orbit coupling approaches: The I{sub 2}, At{sub 2}, IO{sup +}, and AtO{sup +} case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, Rémi, E-mail: remi.maurice@subatech.in2p3.fr; Montavon, Gilles [SUBATECH, CNRS UMR 6457, IN2P3/EMN Nantes/Université de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie [Laboratoire PhLAM, CNRS UMR 8523, Université de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Galland, Nicolas [CEISAM, UMR CNRS 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-03-07

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin–orbit wave functions resulting from spin–orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin–orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I{sub 2}, At{sub 2}, IO{sup +}, and AtO{sup +} species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin–orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At{sub 2} even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin–orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  14. Effective bond orders from two-step spin–orbit coupling approaches: The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin–orbit wave functions resulting from spin–orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin–orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin–orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin–orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems

  15. Different ways to improve the clinical effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy in solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatal Jean-Francois

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT has been proven effective in the treatment of radiosensitive non-Hodgkin lymphoma but, for radioresistant solid tumors, new approaches are necessary to improve the clinical effectiveness. A real improvement has been the introduction of the pretargeting technology which appeared to be able to significantly increase tumor-to-normal organ uptake ratios.Another very promising approach consists in associating RIT with other treatment modalities. Finally the use of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides such as astatin-211 or bismuth-213 (alpha-RIT should allow to efficiently eradicate disseminated microscopic clusters of tumor cells or isolated tumor cells which fit well with the short path length of alpha particles.

  16. Sequential radioimmunotherapy with 177Lu- and 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody BR96 in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Bäck, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Alpha-particle emitters, such as astatine-211 (211At), are generally considered suitable for the treatment of small cell clusters due to their short path length, while beta-particle emitters, for example, Lutetium-177 (177Lu), have a longer path length and are considered better for...... small, established tumors. A combination of such radionuclides may be successful in regimens of radioimmunotherapy. In this study, rats were treated by sequential administration of first a 177Lu-labeled antibody, followed by a 211At-labeled antibody 25 days later. METHODS: Rats bearing solid colon...... carcinoma tumors were treated with 400 MBq/kg body weight 177Lu-BR96. After 25 days, three groups of animals were given either 5 or 10 MBq/kg body weight of 211At-BR96 simultaneously with or without a blocking agent reducing halogen uptake in normal tissues. Control animals were not given any 211At-BR96...

  17. New developments of the in-source spectroscopy method at RILIS/ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B A; Imai, N; Seliverstov, M D; Rothe, S; Sels, S; Capponi, L; Rossel, R E; Franchoo, S; Wendt, K; Focker, G J; Kalaninova, Z; Sjoedin, A M; Popescu, L; Nicol, T; Huyse, M; Radulov, D; Atanasov, D; Kesteloot, N; Borgmann, Ch; Cocolios, T E; Lecesne, N; Ghys, L; Pauwels, D; Rapisarda, E; Kreim, S; Liberati, V; Wolf, R N; Andel, B; Schweikhard, L; Lane, J; Derkx, X; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Zemlyanoy, S G; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Rosenbusch, M; Van Duppen, P; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Barzakh, A E; Andreyev, A N; Truesdale, V; Flanagan, K T; Molkanov, P L; Koester, U; Van Beveren, C; Wienholtz, F; Goodacre, T Day; Antalic, S; Bastin, B; De Witte, H; Fink, D A; Fedorov, D V

    2013-01-01

    At the CERN ISOLDE facility, long isotope chains of many elements are produced by proton-induced reactions in target materials such as uranium carbide. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is an efficient and selective means of ionizing the reaction products to produce an ion beam of a chosen isotope. Coupling the RILIS with modern ion detection techniques enables highly sensitive studies of nuclear properties (spins, electromagnetic moments and charge radii) along an isotope chain, provided that the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure splitting of the atomic transitions can be resolved. At ISOLDE the campaign to measure the systematics of isotopes in the lead region (Pb, Bi, Tl and Po) has been extended to include the gold and astatine isotope chains. Several developments were specifically required for the feasibility of the most recent measurements: new ionization schemes (Po, At); a remote controlled narrow line-width mode of operation for the RILIS Ti:sapphire laser (At, Au, Po); isobar fr...

  18. Development of 211At Chemistry for Labelling Biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies have demonstrated that high recovery of 211At can be obtained using a “wet chemistry” approach to isolation from the bismuth target. We have also demonstrated that direct labelling of antibody-B10 conjugates with 211At can be performed in high yields, and that the astatinated antibodies are stable to in vivo deastatination. While these results will allow us to enter clinical studies with 211At-labelled antibodies, the chemistry associated with 211At is not fully understood. Therefore, it is important that many more basic studies to be conducted with 211At, so the optimal labelling reagent for each type of disease-targeting agent becomes apparent

  19. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena;

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same...... levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels...... cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles....

  20. An improved synthesis of an 125I and 211At labelled benzamide for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have indicated that benzamides can exhibit affinity for malignant melanoma and may be exploited diagnostically in the treatment of this cancer. Radioiodinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[123I/131I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (*I-IMBA) is a benzamide with promising diagnostic properties. A new synthesis procedure was developed to obtain 125I-IMBA suitable for use in vivo. The assets of the procedure include the use of less toxic reagents and better reproducible results when radiolabelling the precursor. The procedure also facilitates the synthesis of the astatinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[211At]astatine-4-methoxybenzamide (211At-AMBA), a new benzamide with a therapeutic potential. The regiospecific no-carrier-added 125I- and 211At-labeling of the benzamide is performed by demetalation of an organotin precursor. Using tributylstannyl as a leaving group, the radiochemical yield obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was 70 %-90 % for both 125I-IMBA and 211At-AMBA. The labelling was performed in a solution of MeOH:AcOH with NCS as the oxidising agent. The organotin precursor N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide was synthesized from 3-bromo-4-methoxybenzoic acid, with n-BuLi (2 eq) and Bu3SnCl (1 eq) in THF, giving 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The amide function was introduced by converting the acid group into an active N-succinimidyl-ester, a good leaving group in the reaction with 2-(diethylamino)ethylamine. The overall yield of the organotin precursor was 65 %

  1. New developments of the in-source spectroscopy method at RILIS/ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, B.A., E-mail: bruce.marsh@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Andel, B. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Andreyev, A.N. [University of York, Department of Physics, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Antalic, S. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Atanasov, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barzakh, A.E. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Bastin, B. [Grand Accérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL), Bd Henri Becquerel, F-14076 Caen (France); Borgmann, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Capponi, L. [KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cocolios, T.E.; Day Goodacre, T. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dehairs, M. [KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Derkx, X. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); De Witte, H. [KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedorov, D.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V.N.; Focker, G.J. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Fink, D.A. [Ruprecht-Karls Universität, Seminarstr. 2, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Flanagan, K.T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Franchoo, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Upgrade of the lasers, detectors and data acquisition for in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy at ISOLDE. • First use of the ISOLTRAP MR-ToF MS in combination with laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE. • Resonance ionization of astatine for the study of its nuclear structure. -- Abstract: At the CERN ISOLDE facility, long isotope chains of many elements are produced by proton-induced reactions in target materials such as uranium carbide. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is an efficient and selective means of ionizing the reaction products to produce an ion beam of a chosen isotope. Coupling the RILIS with modern ion detection techniques enables highly sensitive studies of nuclear properties (spins, electromagnetic moments and charge radii) along an isotope chain, provided that the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure splitting of the atomic transitions can be resolved. At ISOLDE the campaign to measure the systematics of isotopes in the lead region (Pb, Bi, Tl and Po) has been extended to include the gold and astatine isotope chains. Several developments were specifically required for the feasibility of the most recent measurements: new ionization schemes (Po, At); a remote controlled narrow line-width mode of operation for the RILIS Ti:sapphire laser (At, Au, Po); isobar free ionization using the Laser Ion Source Trap, LIST (Po); isobar selective particle identification using the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS) of ISOLTRAP (Au, At). These are summarized as part of an overview of the current status of the in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy setup at ISOLDE.

  2. From microRNA functions to microRNA therapeutics: novel targets and novel drugs in breast cancer research and treatment (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Roberta; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Gambari, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a family of small non‑coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by the sequence-selective targeting of mRNAs, leading to translational repression or mRNA degradation, depending on the degree of complementarity with target mRNA sequences. miRNAs play a crucial role in cancer. In the case of breast tumors, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between: i) the expression profile of oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs) and tumor suppressor miRNAs; and ii) the tumorigenic potential of triple-negative [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2/neu] primary breast cancers. Among the miRNAs involved in breast cancer, miR-221 plays a crucial role for the following reasons: i) miR-221 is significantly overexpressed in triple-negative primary breast cancer; ii) the oncosuppressor p27Kip1, a validated miR-221 target is downregulated in aggressive cancer cell lines; and iii) the upregulation of a key transcription factor, Slug, appears to be crucial, since it binds to the miR-221/miR-222 promoter and is responsible for the high expression of the miR-221/miR-222 cluster in breast cancer cells. A Slug/miR-221 network has been suggested, linking miR-221 activity with the downregulation of a Slug repressor, leading to Slug/miR-221 upregulation and p27Kip1 downregulation. Interference with this process can be achieved using antisense miRNA (antagomiR) molecules targeting miR-221, inducing the downregulation of Slug and the upregulation of p27Kip1. PMID:23939688

  3. Dicty_cDB: AHA802 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yostelium discoideum strain QS... 225 9e-80 FJ374891_1( FJ374891 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum stra...in QS... 225 2e-79 FJ374901_1( FJ374901 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum stra...in QS... 225 5e-79 FJ374895_1( FJ374895 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum strain QS... 221 6e-...79 FJ374893_1( FJ374893 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum strain QS... 221 6e-79 FJ374915_1( FJ374915 |pid:none) Dict...yostelium discoideum strain QS... 221 2e-78 FJ374902_1( FJ374902 |pid:none) Dict

  4. Optimisation of trierucin content in oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Neelu

    2005-01-01

    High erucic acid rapeseed (HEAR) cultivars have regained interest for industrial purposes because erucic acid (22:1) is a valuable feedstock with a wide range of applications especially if it is available in sufficient quantities and in sufficiently pure form. In HEAR oil, however, the 22:1 content is limited to 67% because 22:1 is excluded from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. To overcome this theoretical limit in HEAR oil and, thus, to improve its oleochemical properties combined...

  5. Miasis cutánea por Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Díptera: Calliphoridae) en el Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Díptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Santos; Esther Díaz; Lila Visbal; Luis Eduardo Castro; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M.E.

    2009-01-01

    221e1f;">221e1f;">

    La miasis humana es el parasitismo de órganos y tejidos producido por especies de larvas del orden Díptera.

    221e1f; font-family: Helvetica,Helvetica;">El diagnóstico se realiza con base en hallazgos clínicos ...

  6. A porphyrin-based metal-organic framework as a pH-responsive drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxin; Hu, Quan; Jiang, Ke; Yang, Yanyu; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    A low cytotoxic porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-221, which exhibited high PC12 cell viability via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, was selected as an oral drug carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) was chosen as the model drug molecule which was absorbed into inner pores and channels of MOFs by diffusion. PCN-221 showed high drug loading and sustained release behavior under physiological environment without "burst effect". The controlled pH-responsive release of drugs by PCN-221 revealed its promising application in oral drug delivery.

  7. O przyczynach braku wyobrażeń miłości fizycznej w literaturze górnołużyckiej i kaszubskiej

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derlatka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2015), s. 221-229. ISSN 0137-1150 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Cassubian literature * Upper Lusatian literature * sexuality in literature Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  8. Exacerbation of substrate toxicity by IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) carrying a synthetic metabolic pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Chrást, L.; Nikel, P.; Fedr, Radek; Souček, Karel; Sedláčková, M.; Chaloupková, R.; Lorenzo, V.; Prokop, Z.; Damborský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 201 (2015). ISSN 1475-2859 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Metabolic burden * Substrate toxicity * Escherichia coli Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.221, year: 2014

  9. CCD-Photometry and Pole Coordinates for Eight Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. G.; Tungalag, N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Krugly, Y. N.; Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.

    2012-05-01

    The long time photometric observations were carried out for eight asteroids: (122) Gerda, (153) Hilda, (190) Ismene, (221) Eos, (411) Xanthe, (679) Pax, (700) Auravictrix, (787) Moskva. For the observed asteroids were determined new pole coordinates.

  10. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at an Savannah River Site (SRS)

  11. Empaatiline või ahistav Teise pilk / Vappu Vabar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vabar, Vappu, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    Teemad: Medusa pilk. Apoteoos nägemisele. Pilt - ühtne ja paljukordne olemine. Täiendava kirjanduse loetelu: 11 nimetust. Ilmunud ka Vappu Thurlowi kogumikus "Lähenemised", Tallinn, 2006, lk. 221-226

  12. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  13. Mammoth bone deposits and subsistence practices during Mid-Upper Palaeolithic in Central Europe: three cases from Moravia and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Péan, S.; Wojtal, P.

    126-128, - (2005), s. 209-221. ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Moravia, Poland * gravettian * Mammuthus primigenius Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.210, year: 2005

  14. Commuting patterns of Czech households exposed to flood risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, D.; Stojanov, Robert; Duží, Barbora; Jakubínský, Jiří

    Bielefeld: COMCAD, 2009, s. 2-21. ISBN N. [Tracing Social Inequalities in Environmentally-Induced Migration. Bielefeld (DE), 9.12.2012-13.12.2012] Institutional support : RVO:67179843 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Geographic variation in diapause response of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madder, M.; Speybroeck, N.; Brandt, J.; Tirry, L.; Hodek, Ivo; Berkvens, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 277, - (2002), s. 209-221. ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Diapause * Life cycle * Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2002

  16. Disease: H00090 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00090 NK cell defects, including the following disease: CD16 deficiency A patient with a mutati ... he patient also had severe clinical problems after BCG ... vaccination. Primary immunodeficiency hsa04650(221 ...

  17. 17 CFR 242.402 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (12 CFR parts 220, 221, and 224...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer...

  18. RAP-PCR fingerprinting reveals time-dependent expression of development-related genes following differentiation process of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, T.; Yu, X.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2015), s. 683-690. ISSN 0008-4166 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * development * RNA arbitrarily primed PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.221, year: 2014

  19. Effect of a phenyl group on excited-state properties of carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Chábera, P.; Pšenčík, J.; Župčanová, Anita; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    Göteborg : Chalmers University of Technology, 2008. s. 221. [IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry /22./. 27.07.2008-01.08.2008, Göteborg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 221-232. ISSN 0931-8658 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Stackelberg leadership * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2012

  1. Hor - A Sedentarisation Success for Tibetan Pastoralists in Qinghai?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáčková, Jarmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-240. ISSN 0822-7942 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Sedentarisation, resettlement, Tibetan pastoralists, grassland development, vocational training Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. 18 CFR 270.401 - Jurisdictional agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency (30 CFR part 221); and (3) All Indian lands which are under the supervision of the Osage Indian...) Washington—Department of Natural Resources, Geology and Earth Resources Division, PO Box 47001, Olympia,...

  3. How to Be a Good Visitor to a Healthcare Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use text based ads over picture based mostly advertisements. Flashy ads with photographs and videos are effective ... written articles. Cheers for sharing your web page. facebook password hacker September 11, 2016 at 2:21 ...

  4. 77 FR 30530 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    .... Interfreight Harmonized Logistics Inc. (NVO & OFF), 221 Sheridan Blvd., Inwood, NY 11096, Officers: Thomas E... NVO License. Ruky International Shipping Line LLC (NVO & OFF), 100 Menlo Park, Suite 310, Edison,...

  5. Lebensbeschreibungen berühmter Männer aus den Zeiten der Wiederherstellung der Wissenschaften : zweyter Band

    OpenAIRE

    Meiners, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    S. 3-110 : Ueber das Leben und die Schriften des Grafen Johannes Picus von Mirandula. S. 111-221 : Leben des Angelus Politianus nebst Beurtheilung seiner Verdienste und Schriften / Angelo Poliziano Insgesamt 393 S. in Bd. 2

  6. Gclust Server: 133137 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 133137 SCE_YER018C=SPC25 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(3) 221 Component of the evolution...21 Representative annotation Component of the evolutionarily conserved kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex

  7. Reliability of diagnostic techniques for Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokošková, B.; Mráz, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 217-221. ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : diagnostic techniques * plant diseases Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  8. Euneidese kai pneume. He Fainomenologia tu pneumatos tu Chegkel de sugkrise me tis antilepseis tu Giakompi kai tu hysteron Fichte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan

    Athény: Alexandria, 2009 - (Kavoulakos, K.), s. 39-60 ISBN 978-960-221-455-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel * consciousness * absolute Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (221 K) Acetaminophen Safety (Podcast) On this page Overdosing Has Been ...

  10. Looking a gift horse in the mouth: Evaluation of wide-field asteroid photometric surveys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, A. W.; Pravec, Petr; Warner, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 1 (2012), s. 226-235. ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2012

  11. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  12. q-deformed conformal superalgebra and its Hopf subalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in detail a Hopf superalgebra Uq(su(2,2/2)) which is a q-deformation of the conformal superalgebra su(2,2/1). The superalgebra Uq(su(2,2/1)) contains as a subalgebra a q-deformed super-Poincare algebra and as Hopf subalgebras two conjugate 16-generator q-deformed super-Weyl algebras, which are q-deformation of parabolic subalgebras of su(2,2/1). We use several (anti-) involutions, including the standard Cartan involution and a *-antiinvolution under which the super-Weyl algebras are *-subalgebras of Uq(su(2,2/1)). The q-deformed Lorentz algebra is Hopf subalgebra of both Weyl algebras and is preserved by all (anti-) involutions considered. (author). 26 refs

  13. The Way We Applauded: How popular culture stimulates collective memory of the socialist past in Czechoslovakia - the case of the television serial Vyprávěj and its viewers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carpentier-Reifová, I.; Gillárová, K.; Hladík, Radim

    London: Routledge, 2011 - (Imre, A.; Havens, T.; Lustyik, K.), s. 199-221 ISBN 978-0-415-89248-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : memory * nostalgia * trauma * post-socialism * television Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Incidence vrozených srdečních vad v České republice - aktuální data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, A.; Gregor, V.; Šípek jr., A.; Hudáková, J.; Horáček, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Skibová, J.; Langhammer, P.; Petržílková, L.; Klímová, B.; Peřinová, B.; Wiesnerová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2010), s. 221-242. ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : congenital heart defect * incidence * prenatal diagnostics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth

  15. 7 CFR 1767.23 - Interest charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.23 Interest... long-term debt issued or assumed by the utility, the liability for which included in Account 221,...

  16. Irenická idea - Irenej, Řehoř z Nyssy, Komenský a současnost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajchl, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 80 (2008), s. 221-224. ISSN 0323-2220 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : cross complementarity * triadicity * relations between members Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  17. Biosphere reserves – learning sites of sustainable development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 221-234. ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * learning sites * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  18. Il commento di Bartolomeo di Bruges al De inundatione Nili. Edizione del testo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 33 (2008), s. 221-264. ISSN 0391-2566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Aristotle * medieval philosophy * aristotelianism * commentaries * Nile * Egypt Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. AcEST: DK947077 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0014_L12 412 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0014_L12. 5' end seq ... synthase, chloroplastic OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=CSR ... 1.2 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 670 Score = 89.7 bits (221) ... H Acetolactate synthase OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=CSR 1 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 670 Score = 89.7 bits (221), E ...

  20. AcEST: BP920703 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000140_D08 408 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000140_D08. BP920703 CL774Co ... = -3 Query: 400 VKLGCCDWYSKRIEKVALLEFDRSRKSMGVIVRTPSG ANKLLVKGAVENVLERSSHLQLA 221 VKLGCCDW+ KR ++VA LEFDR ... = -3 Query: 400 VKLGCCDWYSKRIEKVALLEFDRSRKSMGVIVRTPSG ANKLLVKGAVENVLERSSHLQLA 221 VKL CCDW++KR +KVA LEFDR ... me = -3 Query: 394 LGCCDWYSKRIEKVALLEFDRSRKSMGVIVRTPSG ANKLLVKGAVENVLERSSHLQLANG 215 L CC +S+ +++A LEFDR R ... me = -3 Query: 394 LGCCDWYSKRIEKVALLEFDRSRKSMGVIVRTPSG ANKLLVKGAVENVLERSSHLQLANG 215 L CC +S+ +++A LEFDR R ...

  1. GETDB: 113188 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 113188 Link to Original w[*]; P{GawB}NP3265 / CyO, P{UAS-lacZ.UW14}UW14 23D1 Link to DGRC Genome ... abd blood calls lethal - comment1:C, comment2:21C1-C4 ... - - - - Show 113188 DGRC Number 113188 Link to Ori ... n as - Original Comments comment1:C, comment2:21C1-C4 ... Disc (Image) - Disc (number) 0 Embryo (Image) - Em ...

  2. EST Table: FS790069 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS790069 E_FL_ffbm_02I12_F_0 10/09/28 45 %/221 aa ref|NP_001153726.1| glyoxylate reductase/hydro ... tase-like [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA08834.1| LOW QUALITY ... PROTEIN: hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006532 [Tr ... /09/10 45 %/221 aa gi|270012386|gb|EFA08834.1| LOW QUALITY ... PROTEIN: hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006532 [Tr ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09672-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ore = 704 bits (355), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 355/355 (100%) Strand = Plus / Pl... = e-132 Identities = 240/240 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 tttaaatggatgtgatnaacttttacagctgaactagataa... (140), Expect = 1e-74 Identities = 221/221 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 69...Expect = 1e-06 Identities = 32/32 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 967 tattnctnccgactgtgtatataataataaat 99..., Expect = 5e-06 Identities = 43/49 (87%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 426 atcttcttcctctacatcaccaccaccaactaca

  4. 17 CFR 240.3b-8 - Definitions of “Qualified OTC Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Maker” and “Qualified Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customer (other than a partner or a joint venture or other entity in which a partner, the dealer, or a... “Qualified Block Positioner”. For the purposes of Regulation U under the Act (12 CFR part 221): (a) The term... Security” (as that term is defined in section 2(j) of Regulation U (12 CFR 221.2(j)) who (1) is a broker...

  5. beta-Casein mRNA sequesters a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein which negatively regulates the beta-casein gene promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Altiok, S; Groner, B

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells is under the control of the lactogenic hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, and prolactin. The hormonal control affects gene transcription, and several regulatory elements in the beta-casein gene promoter between positions -80 and -221 have previously been identified. A region located in the promoter between positions -170 and -221 contains overlapping sequences for negative and positive regulatory elements. A sequence-specific single-str...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10201-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available melanogaster chromos... 221 5e-56 (Q99LC5) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein...e) Rat electron transfer flavoprotein (ET... 154 6e-36 AM412317_3290( AM412317 |pid:none) Clostridium botul...13_610( CP000713 |pid:none) Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, comple... 202 8e-86 (Q9HZP7) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...g VV78X021543.... 194 6e-59 (A2XNR6) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...t... 221 4e-56 ( P13804 ) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit al... 221 4e

  7. Role of Ca2+ and L-Phe in regulating functional cooperativity of disease-associated "toggle" calcium-sensing receptor mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR regulates Ca(2+ homeostasis in the body by monitoring extracellular levels of Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+]o and amino acids. Mutations at the hinge region of the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain (VFTD produce either receptor inactivation (L173P, P221Q or activation (L173F, P221L related to hypercalcemic or hypocalcemic disorders. In this paper, we report that both L173P and P221Q markedly impair the functional positive cooperativity of the CaSR as reflected by [Ca(2+]o-induced [Ca(2+]i oscillations, inositol-1-phosphate (IP1 accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 activity. In contrast, L173F and P221L show enhanced responsiveness of these three functional readouts to [Ca(2+]o. Further analysis of the dynamics of the VFTD mutants using computational simulation studies supports disruption in the correlated motions in the loss-of-function CaSR mutants, while these motions are enhanced in the gain-of-function mutants. Wild type (WT CaSR was modulated by L-Phe in a heterotropic positive cooperative way, achieving an EC50 similar to those of the two activating mutations. The response of the inactivating P221Q mutant to [Ca(2+]o was partially rescued by L-Phe, illustrating the capacity of the L-Phe binding site to enhance the positive homotropic cooperativity of CaSR. L-Phe had no effect on the other inactivating mutant. Moreover, our results carried out both in silico and in intact cells indicate that residue Leu(173, which is close to residues that are part of the L-Phe-binding pocket, exhibited impaired heterotropic cooperativity in the presence of L-Phe. Thus, Pro(221 and Leu(173 are important for the positive homo- and heterotropic cooperative regulation elicited by agonist binding.

  8. Residues R199H200 of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R199H200 and R221R222R223 that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R221R222R223, but not R199H200, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R221R222R223 in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R199H200 residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223. Collectively, our findings suggest that R199H200 directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R221R222R223 residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R199H200 residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223

  9. Palleronia abyssalis sp. nov., isolated from the deep Mediterranean Sea and the emended description of the genus Palleronia and of the species Palleronia marisminoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Luciana; França, Luís; Taborda, Marco; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-02-01

    Three strains designated 221-F1(T), 221-F2 and 3030-F1 were isolated from the Matapan Vavilov Deep canyon, also known as Calypso Deep in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, at a depth of 4,908 m. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis these strains were found to be most closely related to Palleronia marisminoris and Hwanghaeicola aestuarii, with 16S rRNA gene pairwise sequence similarity of 95.3 and 94.7 % respectively, belonging to the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strains were observed to be red-pigmented and to form non-motile cocci or pleomorphic cells. The cells were found to stain Gram-negative, to be strictly aerobic, oxidase and catalase positive. Strains 221-F1(T), 221-F2 and 3030-F1 were found to be mesophilic and to grow in medium containing up to 13 % NaCl. The major polar lipids of the three strains were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified aminolipid. Ubiquinone 10 (U-10) was found to be the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content of strain 221-F1(T) was determined to be 64.7 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical characteristics we describe a new species represented by strain 221-F1(T) (=CECT 8504(T) = LMG 27977(T)) for which we propose the name Palleronia abyssalis sp. nov. We also propose to emend the description of the genus Palleronia and the species P. marisminoris to reflect new results obtained in this study. PMID:25524421

  10. The biokinetics of alpha-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past two decades have seen wide interest in the application of alpha-particle emitting radionuclides for targeted endoradiotherapy and a large number of compounds labeled with 211At (T1/2 7.21 h), 212Bi (T1/2 1 h) or 213Bi (T1/2 0.78 h) have been studied. Knowledge of the biokinetic behaviour of such agents is important both for their optimal clinical exploitation and for general radiological protection purposes. Animal studies of the distribution and retention of 211At compounds, including ionic astatide, substituted aromatic compounds and labelled monoclonal antibodies, have provided new information on the biochemistry of astatine. With respect the thyroid gland the uptake of the astatide ion has been shown to be very much lower than that of the iodide ion. Less information is available for 212Bi-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. The available data for both 211At and 212Bi radiopharmaceuticals are reviewed. Cautious generic biokinetic models for inorganic and simple organic compounds of 211At and 212Bi; for [211At]-, and [212Bi]-biphosphonates and for [211At]-, and [212Bi]-monoclonal antibodies, are proposed for use in general radiological protection when compound-specific data are not available. (orig.)

  11. The radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy: current state and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibodies can be satisfactorily labelled with technitium-99 m or indium-111 for tumor immunoscintigraphy. The immunoscintigraphy is not useful for the primary tumor diagnosis. It can be useful for the diagnosis of the some cancer extension and for recurrent tumor visualization. The immunoscintigraphy is widely competed with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which gives accurate results. In the future the immunoscintigraphy, in pre-therapeutic stage, contribute to the estimation of the dose delivered to the tumor and to normal organs for adopting or not a radioimmunotherapy. The antibodies can also be labeled with Iodine-131 for an application in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The RIT is efficient in the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment because of their great radiosensitivity. Until now the results have been very modest in solid tumor treatment but methodological and biotechnological progresses have to improve the efficiency especially for the small tumors. In the future iodine-131 which requires the confinement (very expensive) of patients will be substituted by yttrium-90 beta emitter, more energetic than iodine-131 and can be injected in walking case. In the long term, the alpha emitter radionuclides (astatine-211 or bismuth-213) can be used for hematologic cancer treatment. In conclusion the future of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies is essentially therapeutic. The radioimmunotherapy associated to the chemotherapy give promising perspectives for the radiosensitive cancer treatment and in general small solid tumor treatment (F.M.)

  12. Biological toxicity of intracellular radionuclide decay. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation biology of Auger emitters and their therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal radiotherapy should be performed with short-lived radionuclides which emit high LET radiation and short ranged radiation, and accumulated within cancers. Based on these considerations, several radionuclides (tritium, copper-64, gallium-67, iodine-123, iodine 125, iodine-131 and astatine-211) were chosen and their toxicity was assessed using cell division in mammalian cultured cells as a criterion. It was apparent that the toxic effects obtained with 125I greatly exceeded those observed in cells treated with any other radionuclides. The possible hypotheses to explain the excessive radiosensitivity of 125I were discussed in relation to microdosimetry calculation. It was also found that the division delay induced by radionuclide decay is primarily due to damage to the cell nucleus but not to the plasma membrane. The key problem remains the development of agents which can serve as carriers for radionuclide accumulation within tumors. Although several promising approaches (Synkavit, tamoxifen, iododeoxyuridine, antibodies, liposomes) were investigated, only 125I-labelled Synkavit would be desirable for clinical application

  13. Study of Neutron-Deficient $^{202-205}$Fr Isotopes with Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Schepper, Stijn; Cocolios, Thomas; Budincevic, Ivan

    The scope of this master’s thesis is the study of neutron-deficient $^{202−205}$Fr isotopes. These isotopes are inside the neutron-deficient lead region, a region that has shown evidence of shape coexistence. For this thesis, this discussion is limited to the phenomenon where a low lying excited state has a different shape than the ground state. Shape coexistence is caused by intruder states. These are single-particle Shell Model states that are perturbed in energy due to the interaction with a deformed core. In the neutron-deficient lead region the main proton intruder orbit is the 3s$_{1/2}$orbit. When going towards more neutron-deficient isotopes, deformation increases. The $\\pi3s_{1/2}$orbit will rise in energy and will eventually become the ground state in odd- A bismuth (Z=83) isotopes. It is also observed in odd-A astatine (Z=85) isotopes, already in less neutron-deficient nuclei. The same phenomenon is expected to be present francium (Z=87) isotopes already at $^{199}$Fr. Although it is currently ...

  14. The biokinetics of alpha-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom); Duffield, J.R. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Univ. of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The past two decades have seen wide interest in the application of alpha-particle emitting radionuclides for targeted endoradiotherapy and a large number of compounds labeled with {sup 211}At (T{sup 1}/{sub 2} 7.21 h), {sup 212}Bi (T{sup 1}/{sub 2} 1 h) or {sup 213}Bi (T{sup 1}/{sub 2} 0.78 h) have been studied. Knowledge of the biokinetic behaviour of such agents is important both for their optimal clinical exploitation and for general radiological protection purposes. Animal studies of the distribution and retention of {sup 211}At compounds, including ionic astatide, substituted aromatic compounds and labelled monoclonal antibodies, have provided new information on the biochemistry of astatine. With respect the thyroid gland the uptake of the astatide ion has been shown to be very much lower than that of the iodide ion. Less information is available for {sup 212}Bi-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. The available data for both {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Bi radiopharmaceuticals are reviewed. Cautious generic biokinetic models for inorganic and simple organic compounds of {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Bi; for [{sup 211}At]-, and [{sup 212}Bi]-biphosphonates and for [{sup 211}At]-, and [{sup 212}Bi]-monoclonal antibodies, are proposed for use in general radiological protection when compound-specific data are not available. (orig.)

  15. Effect of cetuximab in combination with alpha-radioimmunotherapy in cultured squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The monoclonal antibody cetuximab, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is a promising molecular targeting agent to be used in combination with radiation for anticancer therapy. In this study, effects of cetuximab in combination with alpha-emitting radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in a panel of cultured human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were assessed. Methods: SCC cell lines were characterized and treated with cetuximab in combination with anti-CD44v6 RIT using the astatinated chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 (211At-cMAb U36). Effects on 211At-cMAb U36 uptake, internalization and cell proliferation were then assessed in SCC cells. Results: Cetuximab in combination with 211At-cMAb U36 mediated increased growth inhibition compared to RIT or cetuximab alone in two cell lines. However, cetuximab also mediated radioprotective effects compared to RIT alone in two cell lines. The radioprotective effects occurred in the cell lines in which cetuximab clearly inhibited cell growth during radiation exposure. Cetuximab treatment also influenced 211At-cMAb-U36 uptake and internalization, suggesting interactions between CD44v6 and EGFR. Conclusions: Results from this study demonstrate the vast importance of further clarifying the mechanisms of cetuximab and radiation response, and the relationship between EGFR and suitable RIT targets. This is important not only in order to avoid potential radioprotective effects, but also in order to find and utilize potential synergistic effects from these combinations.

  16. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  17. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  18. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  19. Silver impregnated nanoparticles of titanium dioxide as carriers for {sup 211}At

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedrowska, Edyta; Lyczko, Monika; Piotrowska, Agata; Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Stolarz, Anna; Trcinska, Agnieszka [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Heavy Ion Lab.; Szkliniarz, Katarzyna [Silesia Univ. Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Was, Bogdan [Polish Academy of Science, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2016-08-01

    The {sup 211}At radioisotope exhibits very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately use of {sup 211}At is limited, because astatine as the heaviest halogen forms weak bond with carbon atoms in the biomolecules which makes {sup 211}At bioconjugates unstable in physiological conditions. In our work we propose a new solution for binding of {sup 211}At which consists of using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide modified with silver atoms as carriers for {sup 211}At. Ag{sup +} cations have been absorbed on the nanometer-sized TiO{sub 2} particles (15 and 32 nm) through ion exchange process and were reduced in Tollens' reaction. The obtained TiO{sub 2}-Ag nanoparticles were labeled with {sup 211}At. It was found that labeling yields were almost quantitative under reducing conditions, while under oxidizing conditions they dropped to about 80%. The labeled nanoparticles exhibited very high stability in physiological salt, PBS buffer, solutions of peptides (0.001 M cysteine, 0.001 M glutathione) and in human blood serum. To make TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanoparticles well dispersed in water and biocompatible their surface was modified with a silane coupling agent containing poly(ethyleneglycol) molecules. The developed functionalization approach will allow us to attach biomolecules to the TiO{sub 2}/Ag surface.

  20. Development and radiotherapeutic application of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with developing the potential of alpha-emitting radionuclides as agents for radiotherapy. Alpha-emitters seem ideally suited for his application because their high linear energy transfer and short range permit the deposition of considerable energy in a very small volume of tissue. Unlike the beta particles of 131I which have a range of about 1 to 2 mm in tissue, 5 to 7 MeV alpha particles would traverse only a few cell diameters. Among the available alpha-emitters, 211At appears most promising for therapeutic applications because, (1) it has some chemical similarities to iodine, an element that can readily be incorporated into numerous proteins and peptides, (2) it has a half-life that is long enough to permit chemical manipulation yet short enough to minimize destruction of healthy cells due to degradation of the label over time, (3) it can be produced conveniently using a cyclotron, and (4) alpha emission is associated with 100% of its decays with no accompanying beta emission. In the past year the evaluation of an astatine-tellurium colloid as an agent for the destruction of malignant ascites has been completed. The therapeutic efficacy of 211At-tellurium colloid has been compared with that of several beta-emitting radiocolloids. Studies on the application of monoclonal antibodies as carriers for selective delineation and destruction of malignant cell populations have also been initiated