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Sample records for assortative female preference

  1. Male mate preference and size-assortative mating in convict cichlids: A role for female aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A N; Estela, V J; Leese, J M; Itzkowitz, M

    2016-09-01

    Many monogamous species demonstrate size-assortative mating patterns within natural populations. To better understand the role of intersexual selection in this process, we examined the effect of male preference for female body size in the convict cichlid (Amatitlania siquia). We provided males with a choice between females that differed in size, relative to each other and in relation to the focal male. Based on previous work, we expected males to prefer the largest available female mates across all treatments. Surprisingly, males spent more time near the smaller of two available females, but only when the other female was larger than the male. Additionally, males spent little time with either of two potential female mates when both females were larger than the male. We hypothesized that while males might prefer the largest of available females, female behavior might limit males from acting on this preference. To test this, males were force paired with a smaller or larger female. Pair formation only occurred when the female was smaller than the male, and females that were larger than their male counterparts showed significantly more aggression when compared to smaller females. Together, these data suggest that in the absence of intrasexual competition, male mate preference for large females in convict cichlids might be limited by female aggression. PMID:27444247

  2. Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: Consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation.

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    Svensson, Erik I; Nordén, Anna; Waller, John T; Runemark, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here, we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect intraspecific assortment to interspecific sexual isolation by combining field observations, mate preference experiments, and enforced copulation experiments. Using canonical correlation analysis, we demonstrate multivariate intraspecific assortment for body size and body shape. Males of the smaller species mate more frequently with heterospecific females than males of the larger species, which showed less attraction to small heterospecific females. Field experiments suggest that sexual isolation asymmetry is caused by male preferences for large heterospecific females, rather than by mechanical isolation due to interspecific size differences or female preferences for large males. Male preferences for large females and male-male competition for high quality females can therefore counteract sexual isolation. This sexual isolation asymmetry indicates that sexual selection currently opposes a species boundary. PMID:27151764

  3. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

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    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  4. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

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    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21 badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG. The present investigation noted the statistically significant differences among East - zone Inter - university level male as well as female B adminton player’s preferences for specific coaching behaviour. Differences were not observed between male and female badminton players in all the dimensions together of specific coaching behaviours of preferred leadership. It is recommended that coaches a lign their coaching style to meet the needs of their teams.

  5. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

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    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  6. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

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    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  7. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

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    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD, mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average were higher in B. gargarizans (95% than in D. melanostictus (91%. Though differing in the degree of SSD, body size, breeding season, clutch size, egg size and fertilization efficiency, the two toads were similar in four aspects: (1 both showed size-assortative mating; (2 females did not tradeoff egg size against egg number; (3 male size, clutch size and clutch dry mass were greater in male-larger than in female-larger pairs after accounting for female snout-vent length (SVL; and (4 the ratio of male to female SVL did not affect fertilization efficiency. Our data show that: (1 a female preference for large males is likely not important in terms of egg fertilization success; (2 a male preference for large females is likely important because larger females are more fecund; and (3 size-assortative mating arises from a male preference for large females. Our study demonstrates that male size is not always important for egg fertilization success in anurans that show size-assortative mating [Current Zoology 59 (6: 740–746, 2013].

  8. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

  9. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

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    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  10. Parallel changes in mate-attracting calls and female preferences in autotriploid tree frogs

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    Tucker, Mitch A.; Gerhardt, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    For polyploid species to persist, they must be reproductively isolated from their diploid parental species, which coexist at the same time and place at least initially. In a complex of biparentally reproducing tetraploid and diploid tree frogs in North America, selective phonotaxis—mediated by differences in the pulse-repetition (pulse rate) of their mate-attracting vocalizations—ensures assortative mating. We show that artificially produced autotriploid females of the diploid species (Hyla c...

  11. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

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    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  12. Poeciliid male mate preference is influenced by female size but not by fecundity

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    Luis R. Arriaga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While female mate preference is very well studied, male preference has only recently begun to receive significant attention. Its existence is found in numerous taxa, but empirical research has mostly been limited to a descriptive level and does not fully address the factors influencing its evolution. We attempted to address this issue using preference functions by comparing the strength of male preference for females of different sizes in nine populations of four poeciliid species. Due to environmental constraints (water toxicity and surface versus cave habitat, females from these populations vary in the degree to which their size is correlated to their fecundity. Hence, they vary in how their size signals their quality as mates. Since female size is strongly correlated with fecundity in this subfamily, males were sequentially presented with conspecific females of three different size categories and the strength of their preference for each was measured. Males preferred larger females in all populations, as predicted. However, the degree to which males preferred each size category, as measured by association time, was not correlated with its fecundity. In addition, cave males discriminated against smaller females more than surface males. Assuming that male preference is correlated with female fitness, these results suggest that factors other than fecundity have a strong influence on female fitness in these species.

  13. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention.

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    Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K

    2012-05-01

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience. PMID:22158959

  14. Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate

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    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating pref...

  15. Cross-Fostering of Male Mice Subtly Affects Female Olfactory Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Li, Lai-Fu; Du, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-01-01

    The maternal environment has been shown to influence female olfactory preferences through early chemosensory experience. However, little is known about the influence of the maternal environment on chemosignals. In this study, we used two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and explored whether adoption could alter male chemosignals and thus influence female olfactory preferences. In Experiment 1, C57 pups were placed with BALB dams. Adult BALB females then served as the sub...

  16. Preferred leadership prototypes of male and female leaders in 27 countries

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    Lori D Paris; Jon P Howell; Peter W Dorfman; Hanges, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males. Contrary to popular belief, both males and females valued humane-oriented leadership equally. Gender egalitarianism and industry type were import...

  17. Context‐dependent female preference for multiple ornaments in the bearded reedling

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    Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert; Lukasch, Barbara; Pilastro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While it is well established that females prefer to mate with well‐ornamented males, the influence of perceptive and cognitive processes on the expression of female mate choice is still poorly known. It has been suggested that the female perception of a male's attractiveness is not absolute, but depends on the other males with which he is compared that have been previously encountered (comparative evaluation). We investigated whether mate preference in bearded reedlings ( Panurus bia...

  18. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

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    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences. PMID:27026021

  19. Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate.

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    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating preferences. We here provide (to our knowledge) the first example where an experimental manipulation of female quality induced a mating preference for low-quality males. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reared in small or large experimental broods became high- or low-quality adults, respectively. Only high-quality females preferred high-quality males' mate-advertising songs, while all low-quality females preferred low-quality males' song. Subsequent breeding trials confirmed this pattern: latency until egg laying was shortest in quality-matched pairs, indicating that quality-matched birds were accepted faster as partners. Females produced larger eggs when mated with high-quality males, regardless of their own quality, indicating consensus regarding male quality despite the expression of different choices. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the development of mating preferences to understand their within-population variation and environmentally induced change. PMID:19812084

  20. Context-dependent female preference for multiple ornaments in the bearded reedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert; Lukasch, Barbara; Pilastro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    While it is well established that females prefer to mate with well-ornamented males, the influence of perceptive and cognitive processes on the expression of female mate choice is still poorly known. It has been suggested that the female perception of a male's attractiveness is not absolute, but depends on the other males with which he is compared that have been previously encountered (comparative evaluation). We investigated whether mate preference in bearded reedlings (Panurus biarmicus) is dependent on or independent of social context in relation to two different traits: beard and tail lengths. Each female had a choice between two to three males with different modifications of beard and tail. For each female, three different experiments were conducted (one binary and two trinary tests). We found that when females are presented with options that vary antagonistically with respect to two ornaments (binary test), some individuals prefer one trait while others the other trait. This indicates that in our bearded reedlings population exists a mate preference polymorphisms. Moreover, we found that the presence of a third stimulus, irrespective of the initial preference, reduced the strength of the initial preference - what we can call a "preference dilution effect." Our results suggest that the female's choice may be constrained by her cognitive abilities when she is simultaneously presented with several options varying for two uncorrelated traits. PMID:26843933

  1. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von;

    2015-01-01

    are able to learn to associate olfactory and gustatory cues with female receptivity, but the role of more arbitrary, visual cues in mate choice learning has been overlooked to date in this species. We therefore carried out a series of experiments to determine: 1) whether males had a baseline...... preference for female eye color (red versus brown), 2) if males could learn to associate an eye color cue with female receptivity, and 3) whether this association disappeared when the males were unable to use this visual cue in the dark. We found that naïve males had no baseline preference for females of...... either eye color, but that males which were trained with sexually receptive females of a given eye color showed a preference for that color during a standard binary choice experiment. The learned cue was indeed likely to be truly visual, since the preference disappeared when the binary choice phase of...

  2. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-01-01

    Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21) badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women) tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG). The present investigation noted ...

  3. Preferences of Male and Female Students for TSA Competitive Events

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    Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III

    2010-01-01

    Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…

  4. Females prefer the scent of outbred males: good-genes-as-heterozygosity?

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    Thoß Michaela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest to determine the relative importance of non-additive genetic benefits as opposed to additive ones for the evolution of mating preferences and maintenance of genetic variation in sexual ornaments. The 'good-genes-as-heterozygosity' hypothesis predicts that females should prefer to mate with more heterozygous males to gain more heterozygous (and less inbred offspring. Heterozygosity increases males' sexual ornamentation, mating success and reproduction success, yet few experiments have tested whether females are preferentially attracted to heterozygous males, and none have tested whether females' own heterozygosity influences their preferences. Outbred females might have the luxury of being more choosey, but on the other hand, inbred females might have more to gain by mating with heterozygous males. We manipulated heterozygosity in wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus through inbreeding and tested whether the females are more attracted to the scent of outbred versus inbred males, and whether females' own inbreeding status affects their preferences. We also tested whether infecting both inbred and outbred males with Salmonella would magnify females' preferences for outbred males. Results Females showed a significant preference for outbred males, and this preference was more pronounced among inbred females. We found no evidence that Salmonella infection increased the relative attractiveness of outbred versus inbred males; however, we found no evidence that inbreeding affected males' disease resistance in this study. Conclusion Our findings support the idea that females are more attracted to outbred males, and they suggest that such preferences may be stronger among inbred than outbred females, which is consistent with the 'good-genes-as-heterozygosity' hypothesis. It is unclear whether this odour preference reflects females' actual mating preferences, though it suggests that future studies

  5. Coevolution of Male and Female Response Preferences to Sexual Signals in Music Frogs

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    Jianguo CUI; Jichao WANG; Guangzhan FANG; Xiaowei SONG; Steven E BRAUTH; Yezhong TANG

    2016-01-01

    Male signaling influences both female choice and male-male competition. Although male signaling characteristics and female preferences have been shown to coevolve in many species, few studies have examined whether male signal characteristics and male receiver responses related to male-male competition also coevolve. The present study tested the hypothesis that male and female signal receiver preferences may coevolve in parallel for frogs in the genus Babina by comparing the acoustic structure of male advertisement calls of four closely related and geographically isolated Babina species. Then we assessed the behavioral responses of both male and female B. daunchina (Emei music frog) to male call playbacks from each of the four species. The results support the hypothesis that male and female signal receiver preferences have coevolved in this species. Specifically, both male and female B. daunchina respond strongly to the heterospecific calls of B. hainanensis, suggesting that preexisting biases exist in both females and males. Both male and female individuals showed a slight response to the calls of B. adenopleura while no response was evoked by the calls of B. lini. The manifestation of similar response profiles in male and female B. daunchina to the calls of the four species support the idea that male and female signal receiver preferences evolved in parallel and that the origin of these receiver biases reflects adaptations dependent on the same neural and cognitive systems in both sexes.

  6. Sexual responsiveness is condition-dependent in female guppies, but preference functions are not

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    Brooks Robert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata, and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection.

  7. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

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    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  8. Stimulus qualities of a preferred female partner and sexual behavior of old rhesus males.

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    Phoenix, C H; Jensen, J N; Chambers, K C

    1986-01-01

    A vaginal lavage from a preferred female sexual partner (donor) with whom old (21-27 yr) rhesus males readily copulated or a distilled water lavage was applied to the perineum of non-preferred females (N = 8) with whom old males rarely copulated. The donor and recipients were ovariectomized and were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) before being tested. Sexual performance of the males did not differ under the two conditions of testing, but the rate of sexual solicitation by the females was significantly higher when treated with the vaginal lavage. One month later the non-preferred females were again treated with EB and paired with the old males. In these tests the preferred female was present in a cage adjacent to and in view of the test pairs. Sexual behavior was not altered significantly, but whereas these males had never threatened or aggressed their partners in previous tests, there was a significant increase in the rate at which they threatened their partners and aggression occurred for the first time. When paired with the preferred female, males ejaculated in 100% of the tests and the average ejaculation latency was less than 2.5 minutes. PMID:3823182

  9. Women's preference for masculine traits is disrupted by images of male-on-female aggression.

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    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for men's masculinized faces and voices were assessed after women (n = 331 were primed with images of male-on-male aggression, male-on-female aggression, pathogens, and neutral scenes. Male-on-male aggression and pathogen primes were associated with increased preference for masculine traits, but the same effect emerged in the neutral condition. We show the increased preference for masculine traits was due to repeated exposure to these traits, not the priming images themselves. Images of male-on-female aggression were an exception; these elicited feelings of disgust and anger appeared to disrupt the preference for masculinized traits. The results suggest women process men's facial and vocal traits as signals of aggressive potential and lose any preference for these traits with cues indicating men might direct this aggression toward them.

  10. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.MAC(I)AS GARCIA; G SMITH; C.GONZ(A)LEZ ZUARTH; J.A.GRAVES; M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification.The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape.Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae.Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations.In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences.We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology.However,this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating.Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations.However,gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating.Rather,it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds.We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection.

  11. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.MACÍAS GARCIA, G.SMITH, C.GONZÁLEZ ZUARTH, J.A. GRAVES,M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification. The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape. Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae. Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations. In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences. We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology. However, this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating. Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations. However, gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating. Rather, it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds. We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection [Current Zoology 58 (3: 437-449, 2012].

  12. Facial features and social attractiveness: preferences of Bosnian female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bosankić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at testing multiple fitness hypothesis of attraction, investigating relationship between male facial characteristic and female students' reported readiness to engage in various social relations. A total of 27 male photos were evaluated on five dimensions on a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from -3 to 3, by convenient sample of 90 female students of University of Sarajevo. The dimensions were: desirable to date – not desirable to date; desirable to marry – not desirable to marry; desirable to have sex with – not desirable to have sex with; desirable to be a friend – not desirable to be a friend; attractive - not attractive. Facial metric measurements of facial features such as distance between the eyes, smile width and height were performed using AutoCad. The results indicate that only smile width positively correlates with desirability of establishing friendship, whilst none of the other characteristics correlates with any of the other dimensions. This leads to the conclusion that motivation to establish various social relations cannot be reduced to mere physical appearance, mainly facial features, but many other variables yet to be investigated.

  13. Changes in educational assortative mating in contemporary Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Cortina; Albert Esteve

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses patterns and trends in educational assortative mating of the Spanish women born between 1920 and 1969 using data from the 2001 Spanish Census. By means of loglinear models we examine the following issues: i) intensity and changes in educational assortative mating patterns; ii) crossing barriers across educational thresholds and iii) degree of symmetry between male and female patterns. Results show that education matters in the composition of unions: people tend to mar...

  14. Working Mothers and Sons' Preferences Regarding Female Labor: Direct Evidence From Stated Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Daiji Kawaguchi; Junko Miyazaki

    2005-01-01

    The labor force participation rate of women in Japan has increased in recent decades. To shed light on the mechanism behind this increase, we focus on the explanation that Fernandez, Fogli and Olivetti (QJE (2004)) suggest. They claim that men who are raised by working mothers form a preference that is favorable toward working women and, consequently, they are more likely to have working wives. We test this hypothesis using the Japanese General Social Survey 2000-2002, which consists of repea...

  15. Partner preference behavior of estrous female rats affected by castration of tethered male incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, M; de Bruin, M; Smeenk, J; Slob, A K; van der Schoot, P

    1988-09-01

    Estrous female rats were allowed to interact with either of two tethered intact male rats or to stay in an empty middle part of a three-compartment observation cage during a 60-min test. Sexual interactions occurred with both males (resulting in one to five ejaculations) but most time was spent in the empty compartment. After castration of one of the males, females spent more time with this male than with the intact male, although sexual interactions continued with both incentive animals. This "preference" for the castrated male persisted through the second hour of observation in a second experiment (total test time 115 min) although sexual interactions had virtually ceased during this period. Females' preference for castrated males seemed largely the consequence of aversion to genital stimulation received during intromissions by intact animals: (a) when intromissions were prevented through vaginal occlusion, intact males became by far the preferred partners for the whole 2-hr period of testing while sexual behavior continued to occur throughout the test; (b) when choice was allowed between a testosterone-treated ovariectomized female and an intact male, sexual interaction occurred with both tethered incentive rats but the female became the preferred animal. The results suggest that two opposite tendencies play a role in sexual motivation of estrous female rats: attraction resulting from the action of ovarian hormones on the central nervous system and rejection resulting from genital sensory stimulation through the male's genitalia. PMID:3169698

  16. Resource security impacts men's female breast size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available It has been suggested human female breast size may act as signal of fat reserves, which in turn indicates access to resources. Based on this perspective, two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that men experiencing relative resource insecurity should perceive larger breast size as more physically attractive than men experiencing resource security. In Study 1, 266 men from three sites in Malaysia varying in relative socioeconomic status (high to low rated a series of animated figures varying in breast size for physical attractiveness. Results showed that men from the low socioeconomic context rated larger breasts as more attractive than did men from the medium socioeconomic context, who in turn perceived larger breasts as attractive than men from a high socioeconomic context. Study 2 compared the breast size judgements of 66 hungry versus 58 satiated men within the same environmental context in Britain. Results showed that hungry men rated larger breasts as significantly more attractive than satiated men. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that resource security impacts upon men's attractiveness ratings based on women's breast size.

  17. Evolution of assortative mating in a population expressing dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan A Schneider

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the influence of dominance on the evolution of assortative mating. We perform a population-genetic analysis of a two-locus two-allele model. We consider a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection and density- and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The trait is determined by a single (ecological locus and expresses intermediate dominance. The second (modifier locus determines the degree of assortative mating, which is expressed in females only. Assortative mating is based on similarities in the quantitative trait ('magic trait' model. Analytical conditions for the invasion of assortment modifiers are derived in the limit of weak selection and weak assortment. For the full model, extensive numerical iterations are performed to study the global dynamics. This allows us to gain a better understanding of the interaction of the different selective forces. Remarkably, depending on the size of modifier effects, dominance can have different effects on the evolution of assortment. We show that dominance hinders the evolution of assortment if modifier effects are small, but promotes it if modifier effects are large. These findings differ from those in previous work based on adaptive dynamics.

  18. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. PMID:27463236

  19. Bigger Is Not Always Better: Females Prefer Males of Mean Body Size in Philautus odontotarsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bicheng; Wang, Jichao; Zhao, Longhui; Sun, Zhixin; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong; Cui, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Most species are believed to evolve larger body sizes over evolutionary time. Previous studies have suggested that sexual selection, through male-male competition and female choice, favors larger males. However, there is little evidence of selection against large size. The female serrate-legged small treefrogs (Philautus odontotarsus) must carry passive males from leks to breeding grounds over relatively long distances after amplexus to find a suitable place to lay eggs. The costs of large male size may therefore decrease mating success due to reduced agility and/or higher energy requirements. Thus, we hypothesized that selection would not favor larger males in P. odontotarsus. Females can assess male body size on the basis of the dominant frequency of male calls in frogs. To assess female P. odontotarsus preferences for a potential mate's body size, male calls of high, average and low dominant frequency were played back to the females in phonotaxis experiments. Results showed that most females prefer the advertisement call with average dominant frequency. In addition, we compared the body mass distribution of amplectant males with that of single males in nature. The body masses of amplectant males are more narrowly distributed in the intermediate range than that of single males. The phonotaxis results and the data of actual female preferences in the field show that females strongly prefer potential mates of mean body sizes, consistent with the view that, in this species at least, larger males are not always perceived as better by females. In the present study, P. odontotarsus provides an example of an amphibian species in which large size does not have an advantage in mating success for males. Instead, our results provide evidences that stabilizing selection favors the optimal intermediate size of males. PMID:26901766

  20. Variation in social relationships relates to song preferences and EGR1 expression in a female songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubloom, Hannah E; Woolley, Sarah C

    2016-09-01

    Social experiences can profoundly shape social behavior and the underlying neural circuits. Across species, the formation of enduring social relationships is associated with both neural and behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how longer-term relationships between individuals influence brain and behavior. Here, we investigated how variation in social relationships relates to variation in female preferences for and neural responses to song in a pair-bonding songbird. We assessed variation in the interactions between individuals in male-female zebra finch pairs and found that female preferences for their mate's song were correlated with the degree of affiliation and amount of socially modulated singing, but not with the frequency of aggressive interactions. Moreover, variation in measures of pair quality and preference correlated with variation in the song-induced expression of EGR1, an immediate early gene related to neural activity and plasticity, in brain regions important for auditory processing and social behavior. For example, females with weaker preferences for their mate's song had greater EGR1 expression in the nucleus Taeniae, the avian homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala, in response to playback of their mate's courtship song. Our data indicate that the quality of social interactions within pairs relates to variation in song preferences and neural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli and lend insight into neural circuits sensitive to social information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1029-1040, 2016. PMID:26713856

  1. Neural network for female mate preference, trained by a genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kamo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In some animals, males evolve exaggerated traits (e.g. the peacock's conspicuous tail and display) because of female preference. Recently Enquist and Arak presented a simple neural network model for a visual system in female birds that acquires the ability to discriminate males of the correct species from those of the wrong species by training. They reported that the trained networks were attracted by 'supernormal stimuli' where there was a greater response to an exaggerated form than to the ...

  2. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    ShinjiNagata

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative ...

  3. Effects of the menstrual cycle on looking preferences for faces in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Martin-Malivel, Julie; Lange, Henry S; Herndon, James G

    2007-04-01

    Fluctuations of ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle influence a variety of social and cognitive behaviors in primates. For example, female rhesus monkeys exhibit heightened interest for males and increased agonistic interactions with other females during periods of high estrogen levels. In the present study, we hypothesized that females' preference for males during periods of high estrogen levels is also expressed at the level of face perception. We tested four intact females on two face-tasks involving neutral portraits of male and female rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. In the visual preference task (VP), monkeys had to touch a button to view a face image. The image remained on the screen as long as the button was touched, and the duration of pressing was taken as an index of the monkey's looking time for the face stimulus. In the Face-Delayed Recognition Span Test (Face-DRST), monkeys were rewarded for touching the new face in an increasing number of serially presented faces. Monkeys were tested 5 days a week across one menstrual cycle. Blood was collected every other day for analysis of estradiol and progesterone. Two of the four females were cycling at the time of testing. We did not find an influence of the cycle on Face-DRST, likely due to a floor effect. In the VP however, the two cycling individuals looked longer at conspecific male faces than female faces during the peri-ovulatory period of the cycle. Such effects were absent for human and chimpanzee faces and for the two noncycling subjects. These data suggest that ovarian hormones may influence females' preferences for specific faces, with heightened preference for male faces during the peri-ovulatory period of the cycle. Heightened interest for stimuli of significant reproductive relevance during periods of high conception risk may help guide social and sexual behavior in the rhesus monkey. PMID:16909232

  4. Males choose to keep their heads: Preference for lower risk females in a praying mantid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Scardamaglia, Romina C; Gabelli, Fabián M; Pompilio, Lorena

    2016-08-01

    Male reproductive success is obviously mate limited, which implies that males should rarely be choosy. One extreme case of a reproductive (or mating) cost is sexual cannibalism. Recent research has proposed that male mantids (Parastagmatoptera tessellata) are choosy and not complicit in cannibalism and that they modify behavior towards females based on the risk imposed by them. Since female cannibalism depends on females' energetic state (i.e. hunger) we investigated whether male mantids are capable of using environmental cues that provide information regarding the energetic state of females to make their mate choices. Under laboratory conditions, males were confronted individually with three options: a female eating a prey, a female without a prey, and a male eating a prey (as a control for the presence of prey). Each subject comprising a choice was harnessed and placed in the corners of a triangular experimental arena at an equidistant distance from the focal male. The prey was a middle size cricket that subjects ate in approximately twenty minutes. The behavior of focal males was recorded for six hours. Females were under the same deprivation regime and, in line with previous studies, consuming one cricket did not significantly increase females' abdomen girth. Male mantids significantly preferred females that were eating a prey. In all cases choices were made after the females consumed the whole prey. This suggests that males did not use the prey as a direct way to avoid being cannibalized by keeping the female busy. The preference for females that had recently fed may have evolved because of the potential reduction in sexual cannibalism. PMID:27298235

  5. Female preferences for spectral call properties in the western genetic lineage of Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis)

    OpenAIRE

    Schrode, Katrina M.; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Female frogs discriminate among potential mates based on individual variation in male advertisement calls. While considerable data have accumulated allowing comparisons of female preference functions among species, we still lack fundamental knowledge about how and why the shapes of preference functions for particular call properties vary among populations within all but a few species. Here, we report results from a study aimed at describing female preference functions for spectral call proper...

  6. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  7. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  8. Lack of phonotactic preferences of female frogs and its consequences for signal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Nelson A; Valdés, Jose Luis; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Penna, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection is one of the main evolutionary forces that drive signal evolution. In previous studies, we have found out that males of Pleurodema thaul, a frog with an extensive latitudinal distribution in Chile, emits advertisement calls that show remarkable variation among populations. In addition, this variation is related to intense inter-male acoustic competition (intra-sexual selection) occurring within each population. However, the extent to which female preferences contribute to the signal divergence observed is unclear. To study the responsiveness of females in each population, we stimulated females with synthetic calls designed with the acoustic structure of their own population and subsequently responsive females were subjected to a two-choice experiment, where they were stimulated with synthetic calls of their own population versus a call of a foreign population. Females do not show phonotactic preferences for calls of their own or foreign populations as measured with both linear and circular variables. The lack of phonotactic preferences suggests an absence of participation of inter-sexual selection processes in the divergence of the acoustic signals of P. thaul, highlighting the importance of intra-sexual selection for the evolution of these signals. These results concur with studies in other vertebrates emphasizing the relevance of interactions among males for the evolution of acoustic communication systems. PMID:26051194

  9. Product Assortment in a Triopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Shugan

    1989-01-01

    Producers of super-premium ice cream, such as Häagen-Dazs, offer a smaller assortment of flavors than the producers of lesser quality ice cream. Examples of this phenomenon can be found in other industries as well. In many industries, the producers of higher-quality products offer a smaller assortment of flavors, colors, sizes, patterns, textures, fragrances, tones, styles, models, designs, types or other options. This paper explores when and why producers of super-premium products should fin...

  10. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  11. Assortment Variety: Attribute versus Product-Based

    OpenAIRE

    van Herpen, H.W.I.; Pieters, R.

    2000-01-01

    Retailers need to decide on the content and structure of their product assortments, and thereby on the degree of variety that they offer to their customers.This paper compares measures of assortment variety and relates them to underlying variety components.We conceptualize assortment variety from a product and an attribute perspective, compare extant measures of assortment variety, and examine the appropriateness of these measures in capturing assortment variety as perceived by consumers.Rece...

  12. Changes in educational assortative mating in contemporary Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Cortina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses patterns and trends in educational assortative mating of the Spanish women born between 1920 and 1969 using data from the 2001 Spanish Census. By means of loglinear models we examine the following issues: i intensity and changes in educational assortative mating patterns; ii crossing barriers across educational thresholds and iii degree of symmetry between male and female patterns. Results show that education matters in the composition of unions: people tend to marry assortatively according to their education. However this pattern clearly differs across cohorts and between educational groups, being higher for the extreme categories. The most notable trends are 1 the increasing intensity of homogamy among the more educated and 2 the incipient extinction of the traditional female hypergamic pattern.

  13. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during...

  14. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Majumder; Debmalya Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgen...

  15. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  16. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are...

  17. Determinants of negative preference for female fetuses amongst women of reproductive age group at rural medical college

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Shrivastava; Vijaya S. Patil; Sandeep Shrivastava; Juhee Papalkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing lowest child sex ratio of the world. The deficit of girl children has been progressively increasing, in spite of so many laws to favour them like Sharda act, act against dowry and law against female feticide, i.e. PC & PNDT. The present study attempted to explore the determinants of negative preference of female fetuses at rural setup and preferences for prevention of female foeticide. Methods: In a prospective, multicentric, cohort study, 2203 married women ...

  18. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Sarkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  19. Female Japanese quail with high levels of estradiol demonstrate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Reynolds, Anna R; Prendergast, Mark A; Akins, Chana K

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical research has indicated that females may be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, the majority of this research has been done in rodent species. Environmental cues associated with human drug-taking behavior tend to be visual. Because rodents do not rely on the visual system as their primary sense modality, the use of a visually oriented species may add to our understanding of cue-elicited drug cravings and relapse. The present study examined the potential role of the steroid hormone, estradiol, in the rewarding properties of cocaine in female Japanese quail using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. In the current experiment, female quail were housed on either an 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21 days to induce photoregression or photostimulation, respectively. They then received 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg cocaine, or saline during conditioning. Conditioning trials were carried out for 8 days, once per day for 30 min, for a total of 4 cocaine and 4 saline alternating conditioning trials. Results indicated that female quail housed in long-light conditions (16L:8D) had significantly higher levels of estradiol than short-cycle females. Additionally, photostimulated female quail developed a CPP to 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine. Short-cycle females did not show cocaine-induced CPP to any dose tested. Results indicate that cocaine is dose-dependently rewarding to photostimulated female Japanese quail. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that estradiol may enhance the rewarding properties of cocaine in female quail. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963687

  20. Evolution of novel signal traits in the absence of female preferences in Neoconocephalus katydids (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Bush

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND SIGNIFICANCE: Communication signals that function to bring together the sexes are important for maintaining reproductive isolation in many taxa. Changes in male calls are often attributed to sexual selection, in which female preferences initiate signal divergence. Natural selection can also influence signal traits if calls attract predators or parasitoids, or if calling is energetically costly. Neutral evolution is often neglected in the context of acoustic communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a signal trait that appears to have evolved in the absence of either sexual or natural selection. In the katydid genus Neoconocephalus, calls with a derived pattern in which pulses are grouped into pairs have evolved five times independently. We have previously shown that in three of these species, females require the double pulse pattern for call recognition, and hence the recognition system of the females is also in a derived state. Here we describe the remaining two species and find that although males produce the derived call pattern, females use the ancestral recognition mechanism in which no pulse pattern is required. Females respond equally well to the single and double pulse calls, indicating that the derived trait is selectively neutral in the context of mate recognition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 1 neutral changes in signal traits could be important in the diversification of communication systems, and 2 males rather than females may be responsible for initiating signal divergence.

  1. Assortment Variety : Attribute versus Product-Based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, H.W.I.; Pieters, R.

    2000-01-01

    Retailers need to decide on the content and structure of their product assortments, and thereby on the degree of variety that they offer to their customers.This paper compares measures of assortment variety and relates them to underlying variety components.We conceptualize assortment variety from a

  2. Implicit out-group preference is associated with eating disorders symptoms amongst Emirati females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. PMID:26741259

  3. Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equall...

  4. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  5. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  6. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  7. Reproductive success and female preference in the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro R. F. Cacho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare is a cichlid native to the Amazon Basin of Brazil and is exported as an ornamental fish. In this study the importance of the experience and previous reproductive success of males in mate selection was investigated. In order to investigate reproductive experience, six pairs of males (experienced and inexperienced and six females were used. Males were placed in an aquarium, where one female was released. Mate selection was verified by the time spent by a female near one of the males. To evaluate reproductive success, six pairs of males were tested, each pair consisting of a successful male and an unsuccessful one. Again, time spent with one of the males was considered as an indication of preference by the female. Each female was then paired with an unsuccessful male and their reproductive success was assessed. Females preferred larger, aggressive, territorial and experienced males. Correlations between male aggressiveness, aeration and egg survival were significant. During larval care, male aggressiveness was significantly related to larvae survival. Furthermore, intrabucal care and larval survival showed significant correlations with care provided by the experienced, mated and isolated fish. Survival of offspring resulted from mating with experienced and inexperienced males showed significant differences. Correlations between time spent by females with successful males during reproduction and survival rate of eggs and larvae were significant. Females assess the capacity and willingness of males in investing efforts to raise the offspring through their courtship behavior. Experienced and successful males are preferred by females and thereby achieve greater reproductive success.O acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalareé um ciclídeo nativo da Bacia Amazônica do Brasil, eé exportado como espécie ornamental. Neste estudo foi investigada a importância da experiência dos machos e do sucesso na reprodu

  8. Female preference for sympatric vs. allopatric male throat color morphs in the mesquite lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation. PMID:24718297

  9. Global dynamics of a PDE model for aedes aegypti mosquitoe incorporating female sexual preference

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the long time dynamics of a reaction diffusion system, describing the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are the primary cause of dengue infection. The system incorporates a control attempt via the sterile insect technique. The model incorporates female mosquitoes sexual preference for wild males over sterile males. We show global existence of strong solution for the system. We then derive uniform estimates to prove the existence of a global attractor in L-2(Omega), for the system. The attractor is shown to be L-infinity(Omega) regular and posess state of extinction, if the injection of sterile males is large enough. We also provide upper bounds on the Hausdorff and fractal dimensions of the attractor.

  10. Transmission of preferences and beliefs about female labor market participation : direct evidence on the role of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Ricardo; Machado, Matilde P.; Carro, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, economists have established that culture—defined as a common set of preferences and beliefs —affects economic outcomes, including the levels of female labor force participation. Although this literature has argued that culture is transmitted from parents to children, it has also recognized the difficulty in empirically disentangling the parental transmission of preferences and/or beliefs from other confounding factors, such as technological change or investment in education. Using c...

  11. Peripubertal exposure to male chemosignals accelerates vaginal opening and induces male-directed odor preference in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eJouhanneau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive physiology in female mouse is profoundly affected by male odor. A well-known effect of male odor is the acceleration of puberty onset in prepubertal female mice exposed to male urine. Whether peripubertal exposure to male odor also influences female sexual behavior in adulthood is poorly known. Recently, we reported that female mice exposed to male-soiled bedding showed advanced vaginal opening associated with early expression of male-directed odor preference in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to determine whether peripubertal exposure to male urinary chemosignals affects both occurrence of vaginal opening and attraction to male odor at older age in female mice. Therefore, we exposed female mice to (1R, 5S, 7R-3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DHB, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone (HMH and (S-2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, individually or in mixture, from postnatal day (PD 21 to PD38 and monitored the occurrence of vaginal opening. We measured then the time that the female mice spent sniffing male and female mouse urinary volatiles at PD45. As expected, peripubertal exposure to DHB, HMH or SBT accelerated vaginal opening in female mice. In addition, we showed that exposure to a mixture of these three compounds induced expression of male-directed odor preference at PD45, contrary to the single exposure to each of these molecules. In conclusion, the volatile compounds DHB, HMH and SBT in urine of male mice influence both occurrence of vaginal opening and adult expression of male-directed odor preference in female mice.

  12. A Comparative Study of Learning Style Preferences of Monolingual and Bilingual High School Female Students and the Impact of Such Preferences on Language Learning Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZI, Vida; RAHMANI SANGANI, Hamid; BAHADOR, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Every person has a preferred way of learning that is called learning style. Due to the significant role of learning style in learning achievement, it is an ongoing issue of great importance to educational research. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating and comparing learning styles of monolingual (Persian) and bilingual (Turkish-Persian) high school female students. It also examined the impact of learning styles on language learning achievement. The sample of the study cons...

  13. [An investigation of career choice, plans and expectations and practice preferences of male and female dental students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002

  14. Determinants of negative preference for female fetuses amongst women of reproductive age group at rural medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Shrivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing lowest child sex ratio of the world. The deficit of girl children has been progressively increasing, in spite of so many laws to favour them like Sharda act, act against dowry and law against female feticide, i.e. PC & PNDT. The present study attempted to explore the determinants of negative preference of female fetuses at rural setup and preferences for prevention of female foeticide. Methods: In a prospective, multicentric, cohort study, 2203 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed by pretested piloted structured questionnaire. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Common causes for not preferring daughters were related to their marriages expenses, dowry along with exogamy and practices regarding death ceremonies of parents. Self deprived image of today’s woman by herself is mainly responsible for not allowing her to welcome another girl child in a family. Conclusions: Female foeticide is still in practice inspite of awareness programmes and existing law. Main reason for it is societal need due to marriage related customs and cultures along with unethical practices by service providers. To increase in self-esteem of women can only reduce the volume of service receiver along with upliftment of moral and ethical values of service providers from the beginning of their medical training can prevent it to happen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 67-73

  15. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Brask, Josefine B.; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K.

    2011-01-01

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, w...

  16. Happiness is assortative in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Johan; Goncalves, Bruno; Ruan, Guangchen; Mao, Huina

    2011-01-01

    Social networks tend to disproportionally favor connections between individuals with either similar or dissimilar characteristics. This propensity, referred to as assortative mixing or homophily, is expressed as the correlation between attribute values of nearest neighbour vertices in a graph. Recent results indicate that beyond demographic features such as age, sex and race, even psychological states such as "loneliness" can be assortative in a social network. In spite of the increasing soci...

  17. Higher order assortativity in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arcagni, Alberto; Stefani, Silvana; Torriero, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Assortativity was first introduced by Newman and has been extensively studied and applied to many real world networked systems since then. Assortativity is a graph metrics and describes the tendency of high degree nodes to be directly connected to high degree nodes and low degree nodes to low degree nodes. It can be interpreted as a first order measure of the connection between nodes, i.e. the first autocorrelation of the degree-degree vector. Even though assortativity has been used so extensively, to the author's knowledge, no attempt has been made to extend it theoretically. This is the scope of our paper. We will introduce higher order assortativity by extending the Newman index based on a suitable choice of the matrix driving the connections. Higher order assortativity will be defined for paths, shortest paths, random walks of a given time length, connecting any couple of nodes. The Newman assortativity is achieved for each of these measures when the matrix is the adjacency matrix, or, in other words, the...

  18. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

  19. Measuring Clothing Color and Design Symbolism Preferences and Purchase Intentions of Asian Indian Females at Different Levels of Acculturation

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney Upchurch Campassi; Ann Beth Presley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure color, design clothing preferences, and purchase intentions of Asian-Indian female consumers; secondarily, to determine if westernized clothes with Asian-Indian ethnic dress elements might be purchased more often than westernized clothing with design attributes primarily symbolic of American culture at different levels of acculturation. The instrument included a modified acculturation scale, limited demographi...

  20. Learning Style Preferences among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuib, Munir; Azizan, Siti Norbaya

    2015-01-01

    Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL). However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including…

  1. Effects of Vomeronasal Organ Removal on Olfactory Sex Discrimination and Odor Preferences of Female Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Woodley, S.K.; Cloe, A.L.; Waters, P; Baum, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urina...

  2. Retail Choice Architecture: The Effects of Benefit- and Attribute-Based Assortment Organization on Consumer Perceptions and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cait Poynor Lamberton; Kristin Diehl

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effects of two distinct retail choice architectures--those that organize assortments by attributes and those that organize items by benefits. Relative to attribute-based organizations, benefit-based organizations lead to more abstract construal and heighten similarity perceptions among items in an assortment. Such changes in similarity perceptions alter consumers' strength of preference among items: when choosing from benefit- as opposed to attribute-based organizati...

  3. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, K.; Abou Chakra, M.; Jones, A.

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite- based “genetic-capture”...

  4. Quantitative genetics of female choice in an ultrasonic pyralid moth, Achroia grisella: variation and evolvability of preference along multiple dimensions of the male advertisement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y; Greenfield, M D

    2000-01-01

    The mating system of Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is characterized by male ultrasonic advertisement signalling to which females orientate. Although males provide no direct, somatic benefits to their mates, females prefer males whose signal characters are more exaggerated than the population means. Previous studies showed that the signal characters influencing mate attraction are highly repeatable and heritable. We measured the phenotypic and additive genetic variances (heritability) of female preference in A. grisella, as this additive genetic variance is one of the genetic assumptions of indirect models of sexual selection. We determined the preference index of female A. grisella by repeated phonotaxis trials in which a choice of simulated male signals was presented. These playback experiments showed that female preference indices varied but were repeatable within individuals. Specifically, females differ in the relative importance of the several signal characters during mate assessment. A subsequent half-sib breeding design revealed an amount of additive genetic variance for the female preference index (h(s)2 = 0.212, SE = 0.1347, P = 0.0611; CVA = 0.1826). Our study highlights the importance of careful preparation of test signals and experimental design for quantifying individual variation in (female) preference along multiple signal dimensions. PMID:10692013

  5. MATE CHOICE IN AIDABLENNIUS-SPHYNX (TELEOSTEI, BLENNIIDAE) - FEMALES PREFER NESTS CONTAINING MORE EGGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; VIDELER, JJ

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for female mate choice were investigated in a natural population of a Mediterranean blenny, Aidablennius sphynx. Removable test tubes in concrete blocks were offered as nests. Each tube was guarded by a male and females laid eggs in the tubes. Nests with larger broods received significantly

  6. Revisiting 'mothers and sons' preference formation and the female labor force in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bütikofer, Aline

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interrelation between men's gender role attitudes and female labor supply decision. Following Fernández, Fogli, and Olivetti (2004), I argue that the recent increases in the female labor market participation rate are driven by the growing proportion of men who were brought up in a family with a working mother. First, the paper reexamines the results of the cross-section analysis of Fernández, Fogli, and Olivetti (2004) using the Swiss Household Panel 200...

  7. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong; Narins, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    During female mate choice, both the male's phenotype and resources (e.g. his nest) contribute to the chooser's fitness. Animals other than humans are not known to advertise resource characteristics to potential mates through vocal communication; although in some species of anurans and birds, females do evaluate male qualities through vocal communication. Here, we demonstrate that calls of the male Emei music frog (Babina dauchina), vocalizing from male-built nests, reflect nest structure info...

  8. Reproductive success and female preference in the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Socorro R.F Cacho; Sathyabama Chellappa; Maria Emília Yamamoto

    2006-01-01

    The angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare is a cichlid native to the Amazon Basin of Brazil and is exported as an ornamental fish. In this study the importance of the experience and previous reproductive success of males in mate selection was investigated. In order to investigate reproductive experience, six pairs of males (experienced and inexperienced) and six females were used. Males were placed in an aquarium, where one female was released. Mate selection was verified by the time spent by a fe...

  9. Enhancing neural-network performance via assortativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of attractor neural networks has been shown to depend crucially on the heterogeneity of the underlying topology. We take this analysis a step further by examining the effect of degree-degree correlations - assortativity - on neural-network behavior. We make use of a method recently put forward for studying correlated networks and dynamics thereon, both analytically and computationally, which is independent of how the topology may have evolved. We show how the robustness to noise is greatly enhanced in assortative (positively correlated) neural networks, especially if it is the hub neurons that store the information.

  10. Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: The role of infant caregiving arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002. In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008 However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3 to 4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older

  11. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Folsom Jeffrey A; Merrill Ray M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affi...

  12. Happiness is assortative in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ruan, Guangchen; Mao, Huina

    2011-01-01

    Online social networking communities may exhibit highly complex and adaptive collective behaviors. Since emotions play such an important role in human decision making, how online networks modulate human collective mood states has become a matter of considerable interest. In spite of the increasing societal importance of online social networks, it is unknown whether assortative mixing of psychological states takes place in situations where social ties are mediated solely by online networking services in the absence of physical contact. Here, we show that the general happiness, or subjective well-being (SWB), of Twitter users, as measured from a 6-month record of their individual tweets, is indeed assortative across the Twitter social network. Our results imply that online social networks may be equally subject to the social mechanisms that cause assortative mixing in real social networks and that such assortative mixing takes place at the level of SWB. Given the increasing prevalence of online social networks, their propensity to connect users with similar levels of SWB may be an important factor in how positive and negative sentiments are maintained and spread through human society. Future research may focus on how event-specific mood states can propagate and influence user behavior in "real life." PMID:21554117

  13. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in…

  14. Female Iberian wall lizards prefer male scents that signal a better cell-mediated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2005-12-22

    In spite of the importance of chemoreception in sexual selection of lizards, only a few studies have examined the composition of chemical signals, and it is unknown whether and how chemicals provide honest information. Chemical signals might be honest if there were a trade-off between sexual advertisement and the immune system. Here, we show that proportions of cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol in femoral secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanica) were related to their T-cell-mediated immune response. Thus, only males with a good immune system may allocate higher amounts of this chemical to signalling. Furthermore, females selected scents of males with higher proportions of cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol and lower proportions of cholesterol. Thus, females might base their mate choice on the males' quality as indicated by the composition of their chemical signals. PMID:17148218

  15. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folsom Jeffrey A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3 for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9 for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8% fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27 and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98. Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  16. Mate preference for dominant vs. subordinate males in young female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) following chemically-accelerated ovarian follicle depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Kristen A; Place, Ned J

    2015-12-01

    Life history theory predicts that selectivity for mates generally declines as females age. We previously demonstrated this phenomenon in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), in that older females showed reduced preference for dominant over subordinate males. To test the hypothesis that decreased reproductive quality due to aging reduces mate preference, we decoupled reproductive and chronological age by treating young female hamsters with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian follicle depletion without compromising the general health of rodents. In this study, VCD effectively reduced follicle numbers in young Syrian hamsters. VCD-treated and control females were allowed to choose between a dominant and a subordinate male in a Y-maze on the day of proestrus. Both VCD-treated and control females demonstrated preference for the dominant male by leaving a greater proportion of vaginal scent marks near him, which is a behavior that females display when soliciting prospective mates. However, there was no effect of treatment on the proportion of vaginal scent marks left for the dominant male. Furthermore, ovarian follicle numbers were not significantly correlated with any behaviors in either group. We conclude that accelerated ovarian follicle depletion does not reduce mate preference in young female hamsters. PMID:26335038

  17. Assortativity Decreases the Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...

  18. Marriage and Assortative Matching in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Agnes Quisumbing

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find ample evidence of assortative matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels – wealth, schooling, and work experience – that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating th...

  19. Sexual competitive ability of mass-reared males and mate preference in wild females: Their effects on eradication of melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model of sterile insect releases was constructed based on a logistic equation of population growth. Reduction of sexual competitive ability in mass-reared and sterilized males and evolutionary change of mate preference in wild females were incorporated in the model. The results suggested that the effect of the reduction of competitive ability of sterile males on the effectiveness of the sterile insect release method (SIRM) is substantial but that the effect of female mate preference is slight. The number of sterile males released should be increased to overcome the evolution of mate preference in wild females. However, this does not appear to be a serious obstacle for eradication of the melon fly

  20. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration,female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke van der SLUIJS; Peter D.DIJKSTRA; Charlotte M.LINDEYER; Bertanne VISSER; Alan M.SMITH; Ton G.G.GROOTHUIS; Jacques J.M.van ALPHEN

    2013-01-01

    Both inter-and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits.Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can,in theory,lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait.Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow,while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism.Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on.We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference,male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia.We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red).Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire,indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable.We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests.There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires,but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference.Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males,whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias.There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration,possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage,which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism.

  1. Male mating preferences pre-date the origin of a female trait polymorphism in an incipient species complex of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, M E R; Seehausen, O

    2007-01-01

    Disruptive sexual selection on colour patterns has been suggested as a major cause of diversification in the cichlid species flock of Lake Victoria. In Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a colour and sex determination polymorphism is associated with a polymorphism in male and female mating preferences. Theoretical work on this incipient species complex found conditions for rapid sympatric speciation by selection on sex determination and sexual selection on male and female colour patterns, under restrictive assumptions. Here we test the biological plausibility of a key assumption of such models, namely, the existence of a male preference against a novel female colour morph before its appearance in the population. We show that most males in a population that lacks the colour polymorphism exhibit a strong mating preference against the novel female colour morph and that reinforcement is not a likely explanation for the origin of such male preferences. Our results show that a specific condition required for the combined action of selection on sex determination and sexual selection to drive sympatric speciation is biologically justified. Finally, we suggest that Lake Victoria cichlids might share an ancestral female recognition scheme, predisposing colour monomorphic populations/species to similar evolutionary pathways leading to divergence of colour morphs in sympatry. PMID:17210017

  2. Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-05-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female's own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  3. Odor familiarity and female preferences for males in a threatened primate, the pygmy loris Nycticebus pygmaeus: applications for genetic management of small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Heidi S; Swaisgood, R R; Fitch-Snyder, H

    2003-11-01

    Here we use sexual selection theory to develop a logistically simple, yet effective, method for the manipulation of female reproductive behavior for conservation goals. Mate choice leading to nonrandom mating patterns can exacerbate the loss of genetic diversity in small populations. On theoretical grounds, females should choose high-quality mates. A prediction stemming from chemical communication theory is that competitive males will be better able to saturate an area with scent marks. If this is true, females should mate preferentially with males whose odors they encounter most frequently. We tested this hypothesis with the pygmy loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus, a threatened and poorly studied nocturnal prosimian. For several weeks females were exposed repeatedly to the urine from a particular male, and were then allowed to choose between a male whose odors were familiar and one whose odors were novel. Females showed an unusually strong preference for the familiar-odor male, as indicated by several behavioral measures of mate preference. Conservation managers can use this method as a tool to obtain reproductive pairings that will maximize genetic compatibility and diversity. For example, unsuccessful males may be given the opportunity to reproduce. In captive populations, studbook managers often select pairs in order to optimize outbreeding, but these selected pairings may not coincide with the preferences of the individual animals involved. Although several authors have made theoretical arguments for manipulating mate choice for conservation, this is a novel test of a proximate mechanism that can be manipulated, cultivating applications rather than mere implications. PMID:14610648

  4. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  5. ASSORTMENT AND PRICE POLICY OF STATE PHARMACIES OF MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voronovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important index which determines the level and quality of pharmaceutical support is the correspondence of assortment to consumers needs. Assortment policy is determined by the functions implemented, and the problems of organization of pharmaceutical support of medicinal organizations within the frameworks of substantiated and reasonable expenditure of budget funds, and affordable pharmaceutical support of the population. The purpose of this research was the study of assortment and price policy of state pharmacies of Moscow. The objects were pharmacy subdivisions of state pharmacy network of Moscow. We have used sociological methods (questionnaire, interviewing, method of marketing, and statistic analysis. We have studied the assortment structure, assortment groups’ distribution on price segments. We have established that the drugs, more than 60% of which are foreign-made occupied more than a half of the assortment. Medicinal drugs in 50 rubles price spectrum occupy the biggest share of pharmacy assortment. Distribution within every assortment group revealed that more than a half of drugs are in average price spectrum from 50 to 500 rubles. Average charge for VED amounts to 21.87%, and for drugs which were not included in VED list – 34.07%. The charge for the goods, the price of which is not regulated, trade charge is more. 

  6. Assortment structure in beech coppice stands in Boljevac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in beech coppice stands was studied in the area of Boljevac. Assortment structure was evaluated according to the articles of the valid standard (JUS. The assortments represented in the assortment structure, based on the stemwood quality are: Logs for matches, sawlogs I II and III classes, mine timber, technical roundwood, pulpwood, wood for excelsior and fuelwood, I and II classes. The results of the analyses show that the value assortment structure (sum of the values of assortments produced from one tree grows significantly with the increase of tree diameter and this dependence is presented by a degree function. The value percentage of logs for matches, sawlogs of the I and II classes, technical roundwood, mine timber, fuelwood and pulpwood, grows with the increase of the tree diameter. The occurrence of better quality logs (sawlogs in these stands, in contrast to the beech coppice stand in the area of Crni Vrh results from the more favourable diameter structure. There are no statistically significant differences between the value assortment structure on the established sample plot series within the same locality, consequently the data ere united. Because of the differences in stand age, the data are not unified for the localities, although there are no statistically significant differences between value assortment structure for diameter degrees represented in them. False heart (red heart is one of very significant defects of beech wood, and its incidence, inter alia, depends on tree age. The low effect of this defect of wood resulted in a significant percentage of logs for matches. Along with the value assortment structure this paper also presents the percentage of assortments depending on tree diameter.

  7. When Do Girls Prefer Football to Fashion? An Analysis of Female Underachievement in Relation to "Realistic" Mathematics Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaler, Jo

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the move away from abstract calculations toward "mathematics in context" among 50 British female secondary school students. Discusses implications of findings in relation to reported female underachievement and disinterest in school mathematics. (CFR)

  8. Recent social environment affects colour-assortative shoaling in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Theory predicts that fish should show colour-assortative shoaling in order to avoid the oddity effect whereby individuals that differ in some feature from the group majority appear to incur increased risk of predation. It has also been shown that early experience plays an important role in affecting social preferences in some fish species. In this study, the importance of colour phenotype in promoting assortative shoaling and the role played by the recent social environment on its expression were investigated in juvenile angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. Individuals of the uniformly black and golden colour morphs were housed in a group with conspecifics of like and unlike body colour to themselves, as well as in mixed-colour groups for 4 weeks. Subsequently, they were subjected to a binary choice to shoal with a group of conspecifics composed of unfamiliar fish of either a like or unlike colour phenotype to themselves. The response of the individuals to the colour attributes of the shoals was related to their recent social environment. Fish in like- and mixed-colour previous treatments showed a preferential association with like colour conspecifics. In contrast, the shoaling behaviour exhibited by fish previously maintained with a group of unlike-coloured conspecifics (cross-housed treatment) indicated no significant preference for any of the shoals. The results suggest that angelfish use body colouration as an intraspecific shoaling cue and that learning, in the form of recent familiarization with a specific colour phenotype of conspecifics, can affect colour-assortative shoaling preferences in this species. This learning component of the choice need not be restricted to early developmental stages. PMID:19376208

  9. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Bialonski, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  10. Lower bound of assortativity coefficient in scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The degree-degree correlation is important in understanding the structural organization of a network and the dynamics upon a network. Such correlation is usually measured by the assortativity coefficient $r$, with natural bounds $r \\in [-1,1]$. For scale-free networks with power-law degree distribution $p(k) \\sim k^{-\\gamma}$, we analytically obtain the lower bound of assortativity coefficient in the limit of large network size, which is not -1 but dependent on the power-law exponent $\\gamma$. This work challenges the validation of assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous networks, suggesting that one cannot judge whether a network is positively or negatively correlated just by looking at its assortativity coefficient.

  11. The Algebra of Assortative Encounters and the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the quantitative relation between non random, assortative matching and the maintenance of cooperative behavior under evolutionary dynamics. We consider a population of individuals who are \\hardwired" to play either cooperate or defect. They meet other individuals according to some random process and play their programmed strategy in a game of Prisoners' Dilemma. The type that gets the higher expected payoff reproduces more rapidly. We de¯ne an index of assortativity of en...

  12. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage. PMID:26637207

  13. Managing assortment in terms of foreign economic activity of the enterprise trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assortment management is the main task of trade enterprises. Assortment is a basic tool in the marketing mix, it affects the sales and distribution costs. Management of assortment is an important issue for interna-tional companies, because they have a high cost of export-import operations, and this fact influences the financial result. The article considers the information technology assortment management aimed at increas-ing turnover and reducing distribution costs by forming a balanced assortment structure.

  14. Knockout of p11 attenuates the acquisition and reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference in male but not in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Malave, Lauren; Delis, Foteini; Mangine, Paul; Kane, Katie; Grunseich, Adam; Vitale, Melissa; Greengard, Paul; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine's enhancement of dopamine signaling is crucial for its rewarding effects but its serotonergic effects are also relevant. Here we examined the role of the protein p11, which recruits serotonin 5HT1B and 5HT4 receptors to the cell surface, in cocaine reward. For this purpose we tested wild-type (WT) and p11 knockout (KO) male and female mice for cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and its cocaine-induced reinstatement at different abstinence times, after 8 days of extinction and 28 days of being home-caged. All mice showed significant cocaine CPP. Among males, p11KO showed lower CPP than WT; this difference was also evident after 28 days of home-cage abstinence. In contrast, in females there were no CPP differences between p11KO and WT mice at any time point tested. Cocaine priming after the 28-day home-cage abstinence period also resulted in lower cocaine conditioned motor activity in both male and female p11KO mice. These results suggest that cocaine CPP and its persistence during extinction and reinstatement are modulated in a sex-differentiated manner by p11. The lack of protein p11 confers protection from CPP on male, but not female mice, immediately after cocaine conditioning as well as after prolonged abstinence, but not after short-term withdrawal. Synapse 70:293-301, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990537

  15. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2008-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions...

  16. Degree distribution and assortativity in line graphs of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Trajanovski, Stojan; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-03-01

    Topological characteristics of links of complex networks influence the dynamical processes executed on networks triggered by links, such as cascading failures triggered by links in power grids and epidemic spread due to link infection. The line graph transforms links in the original graph into nodes. In this paper, we investigate how graph metrics in the original graph are mapped into those for its line graph. In particular, we study the degree distribution and the assortativity of a graph and its line graph. Specifically, we show, both analytically and numerically, the degree distribution of the line graph of an Erdős-Rényi graph follows the same distribution as its original graph. We derive a formula for the assortativity of line graphs and indicate that the assortativity of a line graph is not linearly related to its original graph. Additionally, line graphs of various graphs, e.g. Erdős-Rényi graphs, scale-free graphs, show positive assortativity. In contrast, we find certain types of trees and non-trees whose line graphs have negative assortativity.

  17. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  18. Assortative mating and the maintenance of population structure in a natural hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Ochoa, Olivia M; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the factors that give rise to natural hybrid zones and govern their dynamics and structure is important to predicting the evolutionary consequences of hybridization. Here we use a combination of multigenerational population genetic data, mating patterns from a natural population, behavioral assays, and mark-recapture data within clinal hybrid zones of the genus Xiphophorus to test the role of assortative mating in maintaining population structure and the potential for ongoing genetic exchange between heterospecifics. Our data demonstrate that population structure is temporally robust and driven largely by assortative mating stemming from precopulatory isolation between pure species. Furthermore, mark-recapture data revealed that rates of migration within the same stream reach are far below the level needed to support population structure. In contrast to many empirical studies of natural hybrid zones, there appeared to be no hybrid male dysfunction or discrimination against hybrid males by pure parental females, and hybrid females mated and associated with pure species and hybrid males at random. Despite strong isolation between pure parentals, hybrids therefore can act as a conduit for genetic exchange between heterospecifics, which has been shown to increase the tempo of evolutionary change. Additionally, our findings highlight the complexity of natural hybrid zone dynamics, demonstrating that sexual and ecological selection together can give rise to patterns that do not fit classical models of hybrid zone evolution. PMID:25058282

  19. No preference in female sika deer for conspecific over heterospecific male sexual calls in a mate choice context

    OpenAIRE

    Wyman, M T; Locatelli, Y.; Charlton, B.D.; Reby, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mating signals can be used both in contexts of species recognition and mate quality assessment. This study examines species recognition abilities in oestrous females presented with male mating calls from both conspecifics and closely related allopatric heterospecifics. Red deer and sika deer are naturally allopatric polygynous species capable of hybridization during sympatry. Male mating calls are sexually selected and differ greatly between species. Previous work indicated that most but not ...

  20. The Theory of Assortative Matching Based on Costly Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Heidrun C.; Moldovanu, Benny; Sela, Aner

    2005-01-01

    We study two-sided markets with a finite numbers of agents on each side, and with two-sided incomplete information. Agents are matched assortatively on the basis of costly signals. A main goal is to identify conditions under which the potential increase in expected output due to assortative matching (relative to random matching) is completely offset by the costs of signalling. We also study how the signalling activity and welfare on each side of the market change when we vary the number of ag...

  1. Lower bound of assortativity coefficient in scale-free networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dan; Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The degree-degree correlation is important in understanding the structural organization of a network and the dynamics upon a network. Such correlation is usually measured by the assortativity coefficient $r$, with natural bounds $r \\in [-1,1]$. For scale-free networks with power-law degree distribution $p(k) \\sim k^{-\\gamma}$, we analytically obtain the lower bound of assortativity coefficient in the limit of large network size, which is not -1 but dependent on the power-law exponent $\\gamma$...

  2. Emergence of scaling and assortative mixing through altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Many social networks, apart from displaying scale-free characteristics observed in some instances, possess another remarkable feature that distinguishes them from those that appear in biological and technological context-assortativity. However, little or no attention has been payed to the mechanism of assortativity in modeling these networks. Inspired by individuals' altruistic behavior in sociology, we develop a model with a different growth mechanism called “altruistic attachment”, which can reproduce not only the power law degree distribution but degree correlations. We study in detail the statistical properties of our network model, which we also demonstrate striking differences with the BA model, and can portray real social networks more precisely.

  3. Healthy snacks at the checkout counter: A lab and field study on the impact of shelf arrangement and assortment structure on consumer choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kleef Ellen

    2012-12-01

    not impacted by manipulations (no main or interaction effects. Employees preferred shelf displays including a larger healthy snack assortment located at top shelves. Employees also felt more freedom in choice when healthy snacks were displayed at top shelves compared to lower shelves. Conclusions Overall, results suggest that increasing the prominence of healthy snacks by enlarging their availability, while permitting access to unhealthy snacks, is a promising strategy to promote sales. These results point to the importance of nudging strategies to encourage healthier snack patterns.

  4. Education, Preferences, and Household Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad

    2011-01-01

    Using census data from Nepal, we examine how the marginal effects of male and female education on various household welfare indicators vary with education levels. Parental education is associated with better household outcomes, but marginal effects vary with education level. Higher child survival for instace, is associated with higher primary education for mothers and higher secondary education for fathers. We calculate conditional marginal effects that correct for assortative matching of ...

  5. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study. PMID:21901147

  6. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  7. Assortativity Effects on Diffusion-like Processes in Scale-free Networks

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; Zlatić, Vinko; Caldarelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We study the variation in epidemic thresholds in complex networks with different assortativity properties. We determine the thresholds by applying spectral analysis to the matrices associated to the graphs. In order to produce graphs with a specific assortativity we introduce a procedure to sample the space of all the possible networks with a given degree sequence. Our analysis shows that while disassortative networks have an higher epidemiological threshold, assortative networks have a slower diffusion time for diseases. We also used these networks for evaluating the effects of assortativity in a specific dynamic model of sandpile. We show that immunization procedures give different results according to the assortativity of the network considered.

  8. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  9. Explosive Synchronization and Emergence of Assortativity on Adaptive Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-Jun; WU Hao; HOU Zhong-Huai

    2011-01-01

    @@ We report an explosive transition from incoherence to synchronization of coupled phase oscillators on adaptive networks,following an Achlioptas process based on dynamic clustering information.During each adaptive step of the network topology,a portion of the links is randomly removed and the same amount of new links is generated following the so-called product rules(PRs) applied to the dynamic clusters.Particularly,two types of PRs are considered,namely,the min-PR and max-PR.We demonstrate that the synchronization transition becomes explosive in both cases.Interestingly,we find that the min-PR rule can lead to disassortativity of the network topology,while the max-PR rule leads to assortativity.%We report an explosive transition from incoherence to synchronization of coupled phase oscillators on adaptive networks, following an Achlioptas process based on dynamic clustering information. During each adaptive step of the network topology, a portion of the links is randomly removed and the same amount of new links is generated following the so-called product rules (PRs) applied to the dynamic clusters. Particularly, two types of PRs are considered, namely, the min-PR and max-PR. We demonstrate that the synchronization transition becomes explosive in both cases. Interestingly, we find that the min-PR rule can lead to disassortativity of the network topology, while the max-PR rule leads to assortativity.

  10. Measuring the robustness of network community structure using assortativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Farine, Damien R.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of discrete social clusters, or ‘communities’, is a common feature of social networks in human and nonhuman animals. The level of such community structure in networks is typically measured using an index of modularity, Q. While modularity quantifies the degree to which individuals associate within versus between social communities and provides a useful measure of structure in the social network, it assumes that the network has been well sampled. However, animal social network data is typically subject to sampling errors. In particular, the associations among individuals are often not sampled equally, and animal social network studies are often based on a relatively small set of observations. Here, we extend an existing framework for bootstrapping network metrics to provide a method for assessing the robustness of community assignment in social networks using a metric we call community assortativity (rcom). We use simulations to demonstrate that modularity can reliably detect the transition from random to structured associations in networks that differ in size and number of communities, while community assortativity accurately measures the level of confidence based on the detectability of associations. We then demonstrate the use of these metrics using three publicly available data sets of avian social networks. We suggest that by explicitly addressing the known limitations in sampling animal social network, this approach will facilitate more rigorous analyses of population-level structural patterns across social systems. PMID:26949266

  11. Modern Love : Comparative insights in online dating preferences and assortative mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Ondanks de opkomst van dating sites in de afgelopen jaren is er nog weinig bekend over de kenmerken en voorkeuren van mensen die een partner online proberen te vinden en over hoe partnerkeuze beïnvloed wordt door dating sites. Dit onderzoek brengt de profielen van gebruikers van een internet dating

  12. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  13. Methods of forming and realization of assortment policy of retail business enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudenko Kiril

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the article systematisation of methods of forming and realisation of assortment policy of enterprises of retail business is done. Recommendations concerning the priority of the use of separate methods of forming and realisation of assortment policy with different purposes, taking into account their content, advantages and disadvantages are developed.

  14. Innovative approaches to the prices management within the framework of product assortment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Laburtseva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of methodical recommendations on a products prices management with presence of substitution or complementation connections in the product assortment. The variants of product intercommunications in the assortment of enterprise are systematized, the proper methodical approaches to pricing are recommended and the results of business-approbation of recommendations are presented.

  15. Over-Education and Assortative Matching in Partnerships: A Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampieri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that assortative matching may explain over-education. Education determines individuals' income and, due to the presence of assortative matching, the quality of partners in personal, social and working life. Thus, an individual acquires education to improve the expected partners' quality. However, since every individual of the…

  16. Inducing Self-Organized Criticality in a network toy model by neighborhood assortativity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen-Perkins, Alfonso; Pastor, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are a recent type of frameworks used to study complex systems with many interacting elements, such as Self-Organized Criticality (SOC). The network node's tendency to link to other nodes of similar type is characterized by assortative mixing. Real networks exhibit assortative mixing by vertex degree, however typical random network models, such as Erdos-Renyi or Barabasi-Albert, show no assortative arrangements. In this paper we introduce the neighborhood assortativity notion, as the tendency of a node to belong to a community (its neighborhood) showing an average property similar to its own. Imposing neighborhood assortative mixing by degree in a network toy model, SOC dynamics can be found. The long-range correlations resulting from the criticality have been characterized by means of fluctuation analysis and show an anticorrelation in the node's activity. The model contains only one parameter and its statistics plots for different values of the parameter can be collapsed into a single curve....

  17. Phenotypic robustness and the assortativity signature of human transcription factor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov A Pechenick

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many developmental, physiological, and behavioral processes depend on the precise expression of genes in space and time. Such spatiotemporal gene expression phenotypes arise from the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs to DNA, and from the regulation of nearby genes that such binding causes. These nearby genes may themselves encode TFs, giving rise to a transcription factor network (TFN, wherein nodes represent TFs and directed edges denote regulatory interactions between TFs. Computational studies have linked several topological properties of TFNs - such as their degree distribution - with the robustness of a TFN's gene expression phenotype to genetic and environmental perturbation. Another important topological property is assortativity, which measures the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. In directed networks, assortativity comprises four distinct components that collectively form an assortativity signature. We know very little about how a TFN's assortativity signature affects the robustness of its gene expression phenotype to perturbation. While recent theoretical results suggest that increasing one specific component of a TFN's assortativity signature leads to increased phenotypic robustness, the biological context of this finding is currently limited because the assortativity signatures of real-world TFNs have not been characterized. It is therefore unclear whether these earlier theoretical findings are biologically relevant. Moreover, it is not known how the other three components of the assortativity signature contribute to the phenotypic robustness of TFNs. Here, we use publicly available DNaseI-seq data to measure the assortativity signatures of genome-wide TFNs in 41 distinct human cell and tissue types. We find that all TFNs share a common assortativity signature and that this signature confers phenotypic robustness to model TFNs. Lastly, we determine the extent to which each of the four

  18. Phenotypic robustness and the assortativity signature of human transcription factor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenick, Dov A; Payne, Joshua L; Moore, Jason H

    2014-08-01

    Many developmental, physiological, and behavioral processes depend on the precise expression of genes in space and time. Such spatiotemporal gene expression phenotypes arise from the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) to DNA, and from the regulation of nearby genes that such binding causes. These nearby genes may themselves encode TFs, giving rise to a transcription factor network (TFN), wherein nodes represent TFs and directed edges denote regulatory interactions between TFs. Computational studies have linked several topological properties of TFNs - such as their degree distribution - with the robustness of a TFN's gene expression phenotype to genetic and environmental perturbation. Another important topological property is assortativity, which measures the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. In directed networks, assortativity comprises four distinct components that collectively form an assortativity signature. We know very little about how a TFN's assortativity signature affects the robustness of its gene expression phenotype to perturbation. While recent theoretical results suggest that increasing one specific component of a TFN's assortativity signature leads to increased phenotypic robustness, the biological context of this finding is currently limited because the assortativity signatures of real-world TFNs have not been characterized. It is therefore unclear whether these earlier theoretical findings are biologically relevant. Moreover, it is not known how the other three components of the assortativity signature contribute to the phenotypic robustness of TFNs. Here, we use publicly available DNaseI-seq data to measure the assortativity signatures of genome-wide TFNs in 41 distinct human cell and tissue types. We find that all TFNs share a common assortativity signature and that this signature confers phenotypic robustness to model TFNs. Lastly, we determine the extent to which each of the four components of the

  19. International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates. PMID:22419447

  20. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  1. 女大学生的抽象颜色偏好及其与人格特征的关系%Abstract Color Preference and Characteristics among Its Relationship with Personality Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯平平; 崔小迪; 陈国鹏; 许荻枫

    2012-01-01

    Color preferences can be affected by many factors, such as culture, race, gender, age, personality and so on, in addition, these factors are interacted. Eysenck (1981) stated that extrovert people preferred "arousing" colors to increase inner arousal level, whereas introvert people preferred "clam" colors to decrease it. To better explore relationship between color preference and personality, the study focuses on single gender. So the study is to investigate abstract color preference of female college students and its relationship with personality characteristics. Paired-comparisons method and EPQ were adopted to measure 412 female college students' color preferences and personality characteristics respectively. Participants were females aged 18-25, minored in psychology, and reported no color blindness or color weakness. The study chose red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple (see CMYK of each color in table 1) as materials. Each color was printed in the form of square (1.45cm * 1.45cm), and 6 colors were paired each other to generate 30 color pairs. 30 color pairs were counterbalanced and arranged in 3 pieces of matt art paper (210mm * 297mm). Subjects were asked to finish color preference test and EPQ in the form of group test. The results showed that the sequence of subjects' color preference was blue, red, yellow, purple, orange, green (see table 2), and there was significant difference among 6 colors' chosen times, F(5, 1800)=35.603, p=0.000. Color preferences in the study confirmed the result of Eysenck (1941), so time influences people's color preference to some extent, it follows some rules though. Regardless of personality characteristics, subjects liked blue most (see table 3 and table 4). Red, orange, and yellow belong to "warm" colors, in addition, blue, green, and purple belong to "cold" colors, so subjects' preference for "warm" or "cold" colors can be obtained. There was significant difference about preference for "warm" or "cold" colors on

  2. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  3. Female social preference for males that have evolved via monogamy: evidence of a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits?

    OpenAIRE

    Firman, Renée C.

    2014-01-01

    When females mate with multiple males both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selections occur. It has been suggested that females benefit from polyandry when better-quality males are successful in sperm competition and sire high-quality offspring. Indeed, studies of experimental evolution have confirmed that sperm competition selects for both increased ejaculate quality and elevated offspring viability. Fewer investigations have explored whether these fitness benefits are evident beyond early l...

  4. Assortativity and leadership emergence from anti-preferential attachment in heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sendiña-Nadal, I; Wang, Z; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit degree-assortativity, with nodes of similar degree more likely to link to one another. Particularly in social networks, the contribution to the total assortativity varies with degree, featuring a distinctive peak slightly past the average degree. The way traditional models imprint assortativity on top of pre-defined topologies is via degree-preserving link permutations, which however destroy the particular graph's hierarchical traits of clustering. Here, we propose the first generative model which creates heterogeneous networks with scale-free-like properties and tunable realistic assortativity. In our approach, two distinct populations of nodes are added to an initial network seed: one (the followers) that abides by usual preferential rules, and one (the potential leaders) connecting via anti-preferential attachments, i.e. selecting lower degree nodes for their initial links. The latter nodes come to develop a higher average degree, and convert eventually into the final hubs....

  5. Actuality of assortment policy in the modern management of retail business enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimova Yevheniia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the result of research it has been found, that the assortment policy defines the course of actions for managing a point-of-sale assortment which foresees clarification and specification of strategic purpose and current tasks; development and grounding of facilities, methods and forms of activity for their achievement; determination of the real resources providing the realization of the plan. The constituents of assortment policy of enterprise of retail business are identified. It is well-proved that with the help of assortment policy achievement of ultimate goals of an enterprise is provided, the constituents of commercial strategy associate together and the possibility of the most effective usage of resources has arrived.

  6. 76 FR 14115 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Assorted Greek and Roman...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Assorted Greek and Roman Objects... Greek and Roman Objects'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  7. Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H. M.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may ...

  8. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Inke; Dijkstra, Peter D.; Lindeyer, Charlotte M.; Visser, Bertanne; Smith, Alan M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on

  9. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  10. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin;

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the best...... predictors of preferred dance tempo in Experiment 1. A second experiment, where males and females were matched in terms of height, resulted in no significant correlation between sex and preferred dance tempo. In the matched sample, height was found to be the single best predictor but with a relatively small...... effect size. These results are consistent with a biomechanical “resonance” model of dancing....

  11. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related be...

  12. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  13. METHODOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES AUDIT FOR FORMATION OF PHARMACY ORGANIZATION ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Razdorskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The timeliness of this subject is conditioned by the increase of a role of knowledge in pharmacy organizations (PO management, significance increase of non-material assets in a competition on the pharmaceutical market. The development and substantiation of methodology of knowledge resources audit significance on the example of drug assortment formation for allergic rhinitis treatment. We have used sociological, statistic, expert methods of a study. Close attention was paid to the method of target management, construction of target tree. The construction of the target tree of the knowledge resources audit was based on the main target establishment, targets of the first level, and eight subtargets. We have offered new special positions of assortment formation. “Formation of consumers’ loyalty” is the target of the first level, subtargets “Analysis of clients preferences”, “Transformation of clients preferences”, “Positioning of consumers by the compliance degree”. We have determined the relevance significance by the main target achievement – rational assortment formation. We have shown that the achievement of the first level target “Formation of consumers’  loyalty” conduce the achievement of the main target by 40%. The analysis of the current assortment and a process of assortment upgrading guarantee the achievement of the target by 30% each. The methodology is prospective for knowledge resources audit by the principal business processes of pharmacy organizations.  

  14. THE IMPROVING OF ASSORTMENT BY «BUMFA GROUP» IN CHERKESSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyzes the assortment of "Bumfa Group" with the methods of ABC analysis, XYZ-analysis. It gives the description of the goods offered by the organization, its customers and its main competitors. The profile of competitive advantages and disadvantages is compiled. It presents the results of marketing research of consumers acquiring products offered by LLC "Bumfa Group" - the goods in terms of popularity, the factors influencing the decision to purchase, customers’ satisfaction in price, packaging and product quality, the results of customers’choice of new products to update the assortment, customers’ satisfaction in volume of incoming advertising information about the products of "Bumfa Group." The necessity to optimize the assortment of the organization is founded. To achieve this aim we developed a project to introduce new products in the range of goods - wet wipes for office equipment. The characteristics of the new product, the production plan and performance indicators of the project are supplied

  15. Manufacturer and retailer brands in food retail assortments: Notes from a shopping trip across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino;

    food retailers focus on whether they offer the "right" assort-ment to consumers. Under headings such as efficient consumer response (ECR) and cate-gory management (CM), retailers have been readjusting their assortments, delisting many brands that were deemed to be under-performing and including...... retailer branded products in an attempt to differentiate themselves by offering goods only available in their stores. Despite the importance of branding to retailers, the branding literature has focused on how manufacturers develop and maintain strong brands. Relatively little work has been done in the....... In doing so we adapt the concept of brand architecture to a retail context. The concept of 'brand architecture', as originally developed by (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2002), describes how the different brands used to market a range of products from the same manufacturer are related. The concept of brand...

  16. Robustness and assortativity for diffusion-like processes in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, G.; Scala, A.; Zlatić, V.; Caldarelli, G.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing the diffusive dynamics of epidemics and of distress in complex networks, we study the effect of the assortativity on the robustness of the networks. We first determine by spectral analysis the thresholds above which epidemics/failures can spread; we then calculate the slowest diffusional times. Our results shows that disassortative networks exhibit a higher epidemiological threshold and are therefore easier to immunize, while in assortative networks there is a longer time for intervention before epidemic/failure spreads. Moreover, we study by computer simulations the sandpile cascade model, a diffusive model of distress propagation (financial contagion). We show that, while assortative networks are more prone to the propagation of epidemic/failures, degree-targeted immunization policies increases their resilience to systemic risk.

  17. Sorting on skills and preferences: Tinbergen meets Sattinger

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an assignment model where sorting occurs on attributes that are simultaneously a skill (Sattinger, 1979) and a preference (Tinbergen, 1956). The key feature of this model is that the wage function admits both jobs'' and workers'' attributes as arguments. Since this function is generically nonlinear (Ekeland et al., 2004), even under positive assortative matching, the correlation between the contribution of workers'' attributes to wages and that of jobs'' attributes can var...

  18. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carolyn A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. Results We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Conclusions Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  19. From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Menghui; Gong, Xiaofeng; Li, Kun; Wu, Jinshan; Di, Zengru; Lai, Choy-Heng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the analysis on several empirical online social networks, we propose a simple reaction-diffusion-like coevolving model, in which individuals are activated to create links based on their states influenced by local dynamics and their own intension. It is shown that the model can reproduce the remarkable properties observed in empirical online social networks, particularly, that the assortative coefficients are neural or negative and the power law exponents are smaller than 2. Moreover, we demonstrate that, under feasible conditions, the modeling networks naturally convert from assortative to disassortative, and from sparse to dense. Our model is helpful for understanding the formation and evolution of online social networks.

  20. Effect of assortative mixing in the second-order Kuramoto model

    CERN Document Server

    Peron, Thomas K DM; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the second-order Kuramoto model presenting a positive correlation between the heterogeneity of the connections and the natural frequencies in scale-free networks. We numerically show that discontinuous transitions emerge not just in disassortative but also in assortative networks, in contrast with the first-order model. We also find that the effect of assortativity on network synchronization can be compensated by adjusting the phase damping. Our results show that it is possible to control collective behavior of damped Kuramoto oscillators by tuning the network structure or by adjusting the dissipation related to the phases movement.

  1. 酒店女性住客消费特征与偏好分析*--以福建为例%Analysis on the Female Hotel Guests’Consumption Feature and Preferences:taking Fuj ian province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范向丽; 郑向敏

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of sheconomy,female-friendly floor and guestroom which once disappeared several years ago emerges again today.Therefore,many prominent hotels strive to put forward new strategies to enlarge their female market share,howev-er,some of them fail.The reason is that they don’t know about the female guests’needs and consumption preferences accurately, but only follow ,imitate blindly or create gimmicks.So this paper takes a survey on the female guests in 26 lodging enterprises in Fuj ian province,and does a statistical analysis on the data.The results show that,most of the female guests have a salary about RMB4001~8000,and a college degree or above,and business and leisure are their main motive.80% female consider price as the first issue when they choose the hotel.Nearly 70% female make reservation by internet or telephone,and about 90% female guests stay in the hotel less than 3 days.But only 1/3 female guests are satisfied with the hotel service.Based on the result above ,this paper puts forward some targeted measures in market positioning,product designing and marketing.%“她世纪”的到来使得酒店业界一度消失的女性楼层、女性客房悄然重生,一些新锐酒店也纷纷各出新招来扩大自己的女性市场份额。然而,由于一些酒店没有对酒店女性住客的需求特征、消费偏好等进行透彻地分析和调查,而只是出于盲目跟风、简单贴标签或制造噱头等原因,导致其推出女性酒店产品却面临叫好不叫座,甚至无以为继的境地。基于此,本文对福建省内的26家住宿企业的女性住客进行调查访谈,并对调查结果进行了统计分析。分析结果表明:酒店女性住客多为月收入在4001-8000元之间、学历在大专以上的中青年职业女性,出游动机主要为商务、休闲两大类,在选择酒店时,80%女性将价格作为首要考虑因素,近70%女性住客通过网络、电话预定酒店,近90%的女性

  2. VA-Index: Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available Network connections have been shown to be correlated with structural or external attributes of the network vertices in a variety of cases. Given the prevalence of this phenomenon network scientists have developed metrics to quantify its extent. In particular, the assortativity coefficient is used to capture the level of correlation between a single-dimensional attribute (categorical or scalar of the network nodes and the observed connections, i.e., the edges. Nevertheless, in many cases a multi-dimensional, i.e., vector feature of the nodes is of interest. Similar attributes can describe complex behavioral patterns (e.g., mobility of the network entities. To date little attention has been given to this setting and there has not been a general and formal treatment of this problem. In this study we develop a metric, the vector assortativity index (VA-index for short, based on network randomization and (empirical statistical hypothesis testing that is able to quantify the assortativity patterns of a network with respect to a vector attribute. Our extensive experimental results on synthetic network data show that the VA-index outperforms a baseline extension of the assortativity coefficient, which has been used in the literature to cope with similar cases. Furthermore, the VA-index can be calibrated (in terms of parameters fairly easy, while its benefits increase with the (co-variance of the vector elements, where the baseline systematically over(underestimate the true mixing patterns of the network.

  3. VA-Index: Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Wei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Network connections have been shown to be correlated with structural or external attributes of the network vertices in a variety of cases. Given the prevalence of this phenomenon network scientists have developed metrics to quantify its extent. In particular, the assortativity coefficient is used to capture the level of correlation between a single-dimensional attribute (categorical or scalar) of the network nodes and the observed connections, i.e., the edges. Nevertheless, in many cases a multi-dimensional, i.e., vector feature of the nodes is of interest. Similar attributes can describe complex behavioral patterns (e.g., mobility) of the network entities. To date little attention has been given to this setting and there has not been a general and formal treatment of this problem. In this study we develop a metric, the vector assortativity index (VA-index for short), based on network randomization and (empirical) statistical hypothesis testing that is able to quantify the assortativity patterns of a network with respect to a vector attribute. Our extensive experimental results on synthetic network data show that the VA-index outperforms a baseline extension of the assortativity coefficient, which has been used in the literature to cope with similar cases. Furthermore, the VA-index can be calibrated (in terms of parameters) fairly easy, while its benefits increase with the (co-)variance of the vector elements, where the baseline systematically over(under)estimate the true mixing patterns of the network. PMID:26816262

  4. Assortativity and leadership emerge from anti-preferential attachment in heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Danziger, M. M.; Wang, Z.; Havlin, S.; Boccaletti, S.

    2016-02-01

    Real-world networks have distinct topologies, with marked deviations from purely random networks. Many of them exhibit degree-assortativity, with nodes of similar degree more likely to link to one another. Though microscopic mechanisms have been suggested for the emergence of other topological features, assortativity has proven elusive. Assortativity can be artificially implanted in a network via degree-preserving link permutations, however this destroys the graph’s hierarchical clustering and does not correspond to any microscopic mechanism. Here, we propose the first generative model which creates heterogeneous networks with scale-free-like properties in degree and clustering distributions and tunable realistic assortativity. Two distinct populations of nodes are incrementally added to an initial network by selecting a subgraph to connect to at random. One population (the followers) follows preferential attachment, while the other population (the potential leaders) connects via anti-preferential attachment: they link to lower degree nodes when added to the network. By selecting the lower degree nodes, the potential leader nodes maintain high visibility during the growth process, eventually growing into hubs. The evolution of links in Facebook empirically validates the connection between the initial anti-preferential attachment and long term high degree. In this way, our work sheds new light on the structure and evolution of social networks.

  5. Spotting altruistic dictator game players and mingling with them : the elective assortation of classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradel, Julia; Euler, Harald A.; Fetchenhauer, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Altruism can evolve through assortation if the selfish advantage of egoistic individuals is outcompeted by the benefits of mutual cooperation between altruists. This selection process is possible if (a) individuals can distinguish altruists from egoists and (b) altruists cooperate electively with ot

  6. The small world phenomenon and assortative mixing in Polish corporate board and director networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankowska, Anna; Siudak, Dariusz

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the corporate board and director networks in the Polish capital market in 2014. We examined real board and director networks in comparison with networks that were randomly constructed. Through empirical analyses, we demonstrated that the real networks have the characteristics of small-world networks. In addition, the networks are assortative and highly clustered, which imposes certain behaviors on them.

  7. Assortativity and leadership emerge from anti-preferential attachment in heterogeneous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendiña-Nadal, I; Danziger, M M; Wang, Z; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2016-01-01

    Real-world networks have distinct topologies, with marked deviations from purely random networks. Many of them exhibit degree-assortativity, with nodes of similar degree more likely to link to one another. Though microscopic mechanisms have been suggested for the emergence of other topological features, assortativity has proven elusive. Assortativity can be artificially implanted in a network via degree-preserving link permutations, however this destroys the graph's hierarchical clustering and does not correspond to any microscopic mechanism. Here, we propose the first generative model which creates heterogeneous networks with scale-free-like properties in degree and clustering distributions and tunable realistic assortativity. Two distinct populations of nodes are incrementally added to an initial network by selecting a subgraph to connect to at random. One population (the followers) follows preferential attachment, while the other population (the potential leaders) connects via anti-preferential attachment: they link to lower degree nodes when added to the network. By selecting the lower degree nodes, the potential leader nodes maintain high visibility during the growth process, eventually growing into hubs. The evolution of links in Facebook empirically validates the connection between the initial anti-preferential attachment and long term high degree. In this way, our work sheds new light on the structure and evolution of social networks. PMID:26887684

  8. The genetic correlation between height and IQ: shared genes or assortative mating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Keller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits ("pleiotropy" and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits ("gametic phase disequilibrium". In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905 to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height-IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation.

  9. Leveling the Playing Field: Longer Acquaintance Predicts Reduced Assortative Mating on Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lucy L; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2015-07-01

    Clear empirical demonstrations of the theoretical principles underlying assortative mating remain elusive. This article examines a moderator of assortative mating--how well couple members knew each other before dating--suggested by recent findings related to market-based (i.e., competition) theories. Specifically, competition is pervasive to the extent that people achieve consensus about who possesses desirable qualities (e.g., attractiveness) and who does not. Because consensus is stronger earlier in the acquaintance process, assortative mating based on attractiveness should be stronger among couples who formed a relationship after a short period rather than a long period of acquaintance. A study of 167 couples included measures of how long partners had known each other before dating and whether they had been friends before dating, as well as coders' ratings of physical attractiveness. As predicted, couples revealed stronger evidence of assortative mating to the extent that they knew each other for a short time and were not friends before initiating a romantic relationship. PMID:26068893

  10. Assortative mating and gene flow generate clinal phenological variation in trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soularue Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On-going climate change is shifting the timing of bud burst (TBB of broad leaf and conifer trees in temperate areas, raising concerns about the abilities of natural populations to respond to these shifts. The level of expected evolutionary change depends on the level and distribution of genetic variation of TBB. While numerous experimental studies have highlighted the role of divergent selection in promoting clinal TBB differentiation, we explored whether the observed patterns of variation could be generated by the joint effects of assortative mating for TBB and gene flow among natural populations. We tested this hypothesis using an in silico approach based on quantitative genetic models. Results Our simulations showed that genetic clines can develop even without divergent selection. Assortative mating in association with environmental gradients substantially shifted the mean genetic values of populations. Owing to assortative mating, immigrant alleles were screened for proximal or distant populations depending on the strength of the environmental cline. Furthermore, we confirmed that assortative mating increases the additive genetic variance within populations. However, we observed also a rapid decline of the additive genetic variance caused by restricted gene flow between neighboring populations resulting from preferential matings between phenologically-matching phenotypes. Conclusions We provided evidence that the patterns of genetic variation of phenological traits observed in forest trees can be generated solely by the effects of assortative mating and gene flow. We anticipate that predicted temperature increases due to climate change will further enhance genetic differentiation across the landscape. These trends are likely to be reinforced or counteracted by natural selection if phenological traits are correlated to fitness.

  11. Preference Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Furnkranz, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The topic of preferences is a new branch of machine learning and data mining, and it has attracted considerable attention in artificial intelligence research in previous years. It involves learning from observations that reveal information about the preferences of an individual or a class of individuals. Representing and processing knowledge in terms of preferences is appealing as it allows one to specify desires in a declarative way, to combine qualitative and quantitative modes of reasoning, and to deal with inconsistencies and exceptions in a flexible manner. And, generalizing beyond traini

  12. Sperm performance in conspecific and heterospecific female fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily R A; Stensrud, Even; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Hogner, Silje; Johannessen, Lars Erik; Laskemoen, Terje; Eybert, Marie-Christine; Slagsvold, Tore; Lifjeld, Jan T; Johnsen, Arild

    2016-03-01

    Divergent sexual selection within allopatric populations may result in divergent sexual phenotypes, which can act as reproductive barriers between populations upon secondary contact. This hypothesis has been most tested on traits involved in precopulatory sexual selection, with less work focusing on traits that act after copulation and before fertilization (i.e., postcopulatory prezygotic traits), particularly in internally fertilizing vertebrates. However, postcopulatory sexual selection within species can also drive trait divergence, resulting in reduced performance of heterospecific sperm within the female reproductive tract. Such incompatibilities, arising as a by-product of divergent postcopulatory sexual selection in allopatry, can represent reproductive barriers, analogous to species-assortative mating preferences. Here, we tested for postcopulatory prezygotic reproductive barriers between three pairs of taxa with diverged sperm phenotypes and moderate-to-high opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection (barn swallows Hirundo rustica versus sand martins Riparia riparia, two subspecies of bluethroats, Luscinia svecica svecica versus L. s. namnetum, and great tits Parus major versus blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus). We tested sperm swimming performance in fluid from the outer reproductive tract of females, because the greatest reduction in sperm number in birds occurs as sperm swim across the vagina. Contrary to our expectations, sperm swam equally well in fluid from conspecific and heterospecific females, suggesting that postcopulatory prezygotic barriers do not act between these taxon pairs, at this stage between copulation and fertilization. We therefore suggest that divergence in sperm phenotypes in allopatry is insufficient to cause widespread postcopulatory prezygotic barriers in the form of impaired sperm swimming performance in passerine birds. PMID:26855769

  13. Coevolutionary, coexisting learning and teaching agents model for prisoner’s dilemma games enhancing cooperation with assortative heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Unlike other natural network systems, assortativity can be observed in most human social networks, although it has been reported that a social dilemma situation represented by the prisoner’s dilemma favors dissortativity to enhance cooperation. We established a new coevolutionary model for both agents’ strategy and network topology, where teaching and learning agents coexist. Remarkably, this model enables agents’ enhancing cooperation more than a learners-only model on a time-frozen scale-free network and produces an underlying assortative network with a fair degree of power-law distribution. The model may imply how and why assortative networks are adaptive in human society.

  14. Relative importance of social synergy, assortation and networks in the evolution of social cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Montoreano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We compare the likelihood of different socially relevant features to allow the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of cooperation in a generalized variant of the iterated Prisoners Dilemma game. Results show that the average costs/benefit balance of cooperation is the primary constraint for its establishment and maintenance. Behavior increasing inclusive fitness such as assortation, homophily, kin-selection and tagging of individuals, is second in importance. Networks characteristics were the least important in favoring the establishment and maintenance of cooperation, despite being the most popular in recent research on the subject. Results suggest that inclusive fitness theory with its expansions to include assortative and economic considerations is more general, powerful and relevant in analyzing social phenomena than kin selection theory with its emphasis on genetic relatedness. Merging economics with evolutionary theory will be necessary to reveal more about the nature of social dynamics.

  15. Effect of genetic heterogeneity and assortative mating on linkage analysis: a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, C T

    1997-01-01

    Linkage studies of complex genetic traits raise questions about the effects of genetic heterogeneity and assortative mating on linkage analysis. To further understand these problems, I have simulated and analyzed family data for a complex genetic disease in which disease phenotype is determined by two unlinked disease loci. Two models were studied, a two-locus threshold model and a two-locus heterogeneity model. Information was generated for a marker locus linked to one of the disease-definin...

  16. Why Does Spousal Education Matter for Earnings? Assortative Mating or Cross-productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Huang; Hongbin Li; Pak Wai Liu; Junsen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In interpreting the positive relationship between spousal education and one's earnings, economists have two major hypotheses: cross-productivity between couples and assortative mating. However, no prior empirical study has been able to separate the two effects. This paper empirically disentangles the two effects by using twins data that we collected from urban China. We have two major innovations: we use twins data to control for the unobserved mating effect in our estimations, and we estimat...

  17. VA-Index: Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis; Dong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Network connections have been shown to be correlated with structural or external attributes of the network vertices in a variety of cases. Given the prevalence of this phenomenon network scientists have developed metrics to quantify its extent. In particular, the assortativity coefficient is used to capture the level of correlation between a single-dimensional attribute (categorical or scalar) of the network nodes and the observed connections, i.e., the edges. Nevertheless, in many cases a mu...

  18. The gender divide in urban China: Singlehood and assortative mating by age and education

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Qian; Zhenchao Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chinese media labels highly educated, urban women who are still single in their late 20s as "leftover ladies". We investigate whether indeed highly educated women are less likely to marry than their less-educated counterparts, and how assortative mating patterns by age and education play a role in singleness. Methods: We use data from the urban samples of the Chinese General Social Surveys in the 2000s. In the analysis we calculate marriage rates to examine the likelihood of ent...

  19. Assortative marriages by body mass index have increased simultaneously with the obesity epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Adeltoft Ajslev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; =kg/m2 in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37 792 spousal-pairs who married from 1945–2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age- and birth cohort-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analysed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945–1970, and during the obesity epidemic (1971–2010.Findings: Spousal BMI correlations were small and stayed similar across time. ORs of marriage among spouses with BMIs >90th percentile at age 13 were 1.21, 1.05–1.39, in 1945–1970, and increased to 1.63, 1.40–1.91, in 1971–2010 (p=0.006. ORs of marriage among spouses both >95th BMI percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10–1.81, to 2.39, 1.85–3.09 (p=0.004.Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were stable during the past 65 years. Yet, assorted marriages between spouses with BMIs in the upper percentiles were observed and increased significantly across the two marriage periods, and this may possibly influence the following generations’ susceptibility to obesity.

  20. Fund Assortments and 401(k) Plan Participation: The Moderating Effect of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Morrin; Susan Broniarczyk; J. Jeffrey Inman

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a decision simulation conducted among 349 adults whose task was to invest in a hypothetical 401(k) retirement plan. We varied the number of mutual funds offered for investment and observed the effects on the incidence and extent of participation. The results indicate that larger fund assortments tend to reduce participation among women, but increase it among men. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Modeling and forecasting different stumpage price assortments in Finnish roundwood market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiongchao

    2013-01-01

    With the global changes in supply and demand for forest products and their international trade, analyzing the long-term development of the Finnish stumpage market and forecasting different assortments of Finnish stumpage prices is more and more important. There are limited number of studies on forecasting Finnish stumpage prices and even less up to date information about forecasting the markets. According to the previous studies, it is difficult to get precise forecasting results in real-life...

  2. Marketing Strategy Development Directions of Web Assortment in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Končar; Zita Petrović-Katai; Goran Vukmirović

    2010-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a contemporary way of doing trade activities based on the use of information and communication technologies. In contemporary business conditions, trade faces numerous changes, which are mostly, before all, the result of market globalization, as well as information technology development. The Web assortment in electronic commerce is the key marketing instrument in a trade organization. The basic task of Serbian companies understands the need of tracking all the changes i...

  3. Prices and the assortment offer of the mineral fertilizers in the farmers’ opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2011-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers are the basic means of production used by agriculturalists in order to improve the size and quality of the cultivated plants. The retail prices of the most popular mineral fertilizers have risen in the last years. The paper discusses the research results concerning the agriculturalists' opinion about the mineral fertilizers’ prices and assortment in the market. The research revealed that the high prices and their disadvantageous relation to the fruits' of the earth pri...

  4. CO-AUTHORSHIP AND INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY IN ECONOMICS: ASSESSING THE ASSORTATIVE MATCHING HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Besancenot, Damien; Huynh, Kim; Serranito, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at estimating the determinants of co-authorship in economics. More specifically, we test the existence of a potential relationship between the research efficiency of an individual and that of his co-authors (the so called assortative matching hypothesis) using a novel database of French academic scholars. However, individual research productivity should be an endogenous regressor as the quality of an academic's publication will depend somehow on the quality of his co-authors. ...

  5. From Assortative to Ashortative Coupling: Men's Height, Height Heterogamy, and Relationship Dynamics in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Weitzman; Dalton Conley

    2014-01-01

    Studies of online dating suggest that physical attraction is a key factor in early relationship formation, but say little about the role of attractiveness in longer-term relationships. Meanwhile, assortative coupling and exchange models widely employed in demographic research overlook the powerful sorting function of initial and sustained physical attraction. This article observes the effects of one physical characteristic of men--height--on various relationship outcomes in longer-term relati...

  6. THEORY OF JOINT LIABILITIES, ADVERSE SELECTION, ASSORTATIVE MATCHING AND SELF-FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Maurya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance is seen to be a remedy of poverty eradication and globally it is perceived that microfinance can remove the problem of poverty. Basically microfinance works on joint liability model. Traditional theories of credit lending say that rural credit markets are imperfectly competitive and acquiring information about borrowers type that is who is risky and who is safe is not costless. This market imperfection leads to high interest rate and drives out safe borrower from the credit market. In economic literature this problem is considered as adverse selection problem. Joint liability model try to solve the problem of adverse selection through group lending.This paper explores the idea of joint liability model and tries to solve the problem of adverse selection through the positive assortative matching. Paper concludes that in positive assortative matching, the payoffs of borrowers would be more than the payoffs of negative assortative matching. Paper, also try to show that self financing can bring down the interest rate and size of penalty and improve the borrower’s expected payoffs

  7. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  8. Moral Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Lisa; Jefferson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    In this brief response to Etzioni’s paper we argue that satisfying one’s preferences and seeking to live up to one’s moral standards are not incompatible ways of living one’s life, and that choosing to act morally need not involve self-sacrifice.

  9. Povezave med kakovostjo bukovih dreves in iz njih izdelanih sortimentov: Links between beech tree quality and assortments made of them:

    OpenAIRE

    Marenče, Jurij; Šega, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    In our research we dealt with the standing tree, estimation of the standing tree, evaluation of its quality and evaluation of quality of assortments made of it. Thereby we critically discussed diverse criteria, currently used in the practice - the five-grade scale for standing tree evaluation, used on permanent sampling plots, and current standards for evaluating the quality of the produced assortments. On the basis of a small analyzed sample of the evaluated and afterwards felled trees we we...

  10. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition of...... daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  11. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine;

    2012-01-01

    with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...... (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non...

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  13. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    İdil Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatm...

  14. Effect of quality factors especially of sweep of poplar trees on assortment structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors of quality which affect the sawing yield were researched for poplar plantations, from the aspect of the application of national standards for roundwood. The research was performed in the period 2002-2003 on two temporary sample plots, in poplar plantations Populus×euramericana I-214 aged 25 years. The sample plots were selected depending on the clone species, planting pattern, and plantation flood risk, and branch pruning. The analyzed quality factors are: knots, minimal dimensions, sweep, false heart, ovality and tapering. The measured data were processed according to the original methodology. Based on the study results, the significance of quality factors was ranked in two different stand situations. Of all the study factors, knots have the highest effect on log yield, which is especially significant in marking for cross cutting of the larger trees. The sweep of trees in poplar plantations with higher flood risk is greater compared to the sweep of trees in plantations which are in the zone protected from floods. In poplar plantation Populus×euramericana I-214 which is exposed to frequents flooding (OP-2, sweep is the third significant factor, compared to the plantation protected from floods (OP‑3, where sweep is the fifth factor according to significance. The effect of sweep in the plantation exposed to flooding is 2.4 times higher than the effect of sweep in the plantation protected from floods. Total value of the assortments made of tree trunk grows with the increase of tree diameter on both sample plots. This correlation is represented by the function Y=a·Xb, and the correlation between the variables is complete. The value of assortments of a certain quality for the study stand conditions can be calculated by the selected model functions, i.e. represented by assortment tables. This study shows inter alia, that there is not a unique model for all poplar plantations when the value percentage of assortments is determined

  15. PHYLLOXERA-RESISTANT HYBRID FORM OF GRAPES OF TECHNICAL SORTS FOR IMPROVING THE ASSORTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Larkina M. D.; Nikulushkina G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many old varieties of grapes do not meet modern requirements, so there is a need for improved assortment of new high-quality varieties. The translation of the vineyards of the black sea coast of the Krasnodar region on inoculated culture is not fully decided the fate of the viticulture of the area. Weak resistance of American rootstocks to increased content of calcium and salts in the soil, caused the weakening of the bushes, reducing the vigor of the shoots, their maturation and yield of gra...

  16. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  17. Gender, Psychological Type and Conflict Style Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Paula S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys experienced managers regarding gender, psychological type, and conflict style preference. Finds that males are "thinkers," and females are "feelers." Cautions that while results indicated psychological type may be a better indicator of conflict style preference than is gender, neither factor accounted for a substantial amount of variance.…

  18. Extended inclusive fitness theory: synergy and assortment drives the evolutionary dynamics in biology and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities. This formulation allows to estimate sustainable cost/benefit threshold ratios of cooperation among organisms and/or economic agents, using existent analytical tools, illuminating our understanding of the dynamic nature of society, the evolution of cooperation among kin and non-kin, inter-specific cooperation, co-evolution, symbioses, division of labor and social synergies. EIFT helps to promote an interdisciplinary cross fertilization of the understanding of synergy by, for example, allowing to describe the role for division of labor in the emergence of social synergies, providing an integrated framework for the study of both, biological evolution of social behavior and economic market dynamics. Another example is a bio-economic understanding of the motivations of terrorists, which identifies different forms of terrorism. PMID:27468393

  19. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Brik, Alex; Remmel, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the ...

  20. Why do males choose heterospecific females in the red spider mite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Staudacher, Heike; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2016-01-01

    In some species, males readily show courtship behaviour towards heterospecific females and even prefer them to females of their own species. This behaviour is generally explained by indiscriminate mating to acquire more mates, but may partly be explained by male mate preference mechanisms that have developed to choose among conspecific females, as male preference for larger females causes mating with larger heterospecific females. Recently, we found that males of the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi collected from Spain (invasive population), prefer to mate with females of the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae rather than with conspecific females. In spider mites, mate preference for non-kin individuals has been observed. Here, we investigated if T. evansi males collected from the area of its origin (Brazil) also show preference for heterospecific females. Secondly, we investigated if mate preference of T. evansi males for heterospecific females is affected by their relatedness to conspecific females which are offered together with heterospecific females. We found that mate preference for heterospecific females exists in Brazilian T. evansi, suggesting that the preference for heterospecific females is not a lack of evolved premating isolation with an allopatric species. We found that T. evansi males showed lower propensity to mate with heterospecific females when alternative females were non-kin in the two iso-female lines collected from Brazil. However, the effect of relatedness on male mate preference was not significant. We discuss alternative hypotheses explaining why T. evansi males prefer to mate with T. urticae females. PMID:26530994

  1. The Analysis Of The Correlations And Regressions Between Some Characters On A Wheat Isogenic Varities Assortment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS there were tested an assortment of 25 isogenic lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), the analyzed characters being the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters. Also available regression models were identified between some of the studied characters. Based on component analysis, no. of seeds/spike and seeds weight/spike are components that influence in excess of 88% variance analysis, a total of seven genotypes with positive scores for both factors.

  2. Uranium recovery from assorted laboratory organic waste solutions using centrifugal contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countercurrent extraction runs, carried out in our laboratory for the evaluation studies of N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) as an alternative of tributyl phosphate (TBP) for spent fuel reprocessing, have led to generation of large volumes of organic wastes containing varying amounts of uranium. It was desirable to recover uranium from such waste solutions prior to the disposal of organic waste solutions. Even though, batch stripping can be used for this purpose, it may take several days to achieve the desired goal. In this context, the centrifugal contactors appear attractive due to high liquid through-put, which may simplify the uranium recovery process. Uranium recovery studies from assorted organic waste solutions were therefore carried out using centrifugal contactors

  3. Assortative marriages by body mass index have increased simultaneously with the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri; Gamborg, Michael; Allison, David B; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    -percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort...... percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10-1.81, to 2.39, 1.85-3.09 (p = 0.004). Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were small and stable during the past 65 years. Yet, there were assorted marriages between spouses with high BMI at age 13 years and the tendency increased...

  4. Intergenerational income mobility – top incomes and assortative mating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates intergenerational income mobility among top-income people in Denmark focusing on the impact of assortative mating. Earnings and capital income are the variables of interest included in the analyzes testing the hypothesis that both wealth and social heritage are transferred...... from rich parents to their children. Using administrative registers allow us to look at small fractions of the populations, i.e. dynasties, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their eventual spouses’ incomes. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top, in...... particular, when including capital income in the total income. Also we find the marriage match has a stronger impact on the family-to-family income transfer in the top of the income distribution where the daughter marries a man more like her father than herself. The highest persistence, however, is between...

  5. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  6. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards: II. Pairing success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine whether assortative mating occurs in wild and game-farm mallard strains (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallard males of either strain raised with females of their own strain courted females of their own strain more than females of the opposite strain, and these males were only successful in pairing with females of their own strain. Males raised with females of the opposite strain courted wild and game-farm females with equal intensity. They were successful in pairing with females of either strain. While this study does not settle the question of possible gene flow between these two mallard populations, it does indicate that there is a potential barrier to panmixia.

  7. Imposing Nonlinear Constraints When Estimating Genetic and Cultural Transmission Under Assortative Mating: A Simulation Study Using Mx and BUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-o

  8. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  9. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  10. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  11. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kadir PALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relationships were found game preferences with respect to gender. While males preferred to play real time and full time game, females preferred to play real time games more than full time games. However, class levels and leaning styles had no significant effect to game preferences and game preference reasons. In addition to these findings, we decided that students did reasonable selections between game preferences and game preference reasons when distributions were analyzed.

  12. 糖和维生素对淡色库蚊及白纹伊蚊产卵选择的影响%The influence of sugars and vitamins on the oviposition preference of gravid female Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓天福; 莫建初

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of diiferent sugars and vitamins on the oviposition behavior of gravid female Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus in laboratory, providing theoretical support for the development of a highly effective ovitrap. Methods The oviposition preference of gravid female Cx. pipiens pallens and Ae. albopictus to different concentrations of sugar and vitamin solutions was determined in laboratory. Results It was found that the gravid female Cx.pipiens pallens preferred to lay eggs in glucose solutions of 100 mg/L and of 1000 mg/L and sucrose solution of 1000 mg/L, with no obvious oviposition preference of the gravid female Ae. albopictus to the sugar solutions tested found, compared with the control tap water. Vitamin B1 solutions of 100 mg/L and 10 mg/L and VC solution of 100 mg/L could produce a significant oviposition preference for Cx. pipiens pallens and so could VB1 solution of 10 mg/L for Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Gravid Cx. pipiens pallens and Ae. albopictus have a high oviposition preference for VB1 with gravid Cx. pipiens pallens attracted to glucose as well in terms of the preference.%目的 评价不同营养物质对淡色库蚊和白纹伊蚊雌蚊产卵选择的影响,为新型诱卵器的研制提供理论支持.方法 在室内测定淡色库蚊和白纹伊蚊对不同种类糖和维生素溶液的产卵趋性.结果 淡色库蚊怀卵雌蚊偏好在1000 mg/L和100mg/L浓度的葡萄糖溶液及1000mg/L浓度的蔗糖溶液中产卵,而白纹伊蚊则对供试的各种糖液没有明显的产卵选择偏好;浓度为100mg/L的盐酸硫胺(VB1)溶液和抗坏血酸(VC)溶液、10mg/L的VB1溶液能显著引诱淡色库蚊产卵,10mg/L的VB1溶液还能显著引诱白纹伊蚊产卵.结论 葡萄糖对淡色库蚊、VB1对淡色库蚊和白纹伊蚊在室内有较好的产卵引诱效果.

  13. Social transmission of face preferences among humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C.; Burriss, Robert P.; Feinberg, David R

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased wome...

  14. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  15. ABC & XYZ – ANALYSIS OF ASSORTMENT OF ENTERPRISES OF BAKERY INDUSTRIES OF CONSUMER COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To develop detailed and effective business model of bakery enterprises of consumer cooperation it is necessary to have knowledge on strategic goods displayed on a busy segment of the market, not only in volumetric terms, but in the parameters that characterize the stability of sales or consumption. The particular relevance of this study reveals in modern conditions of functioning. The outcome of the baking enterprises of consumer cooperatives is more than 760 tons per day, distributed between 41 baking enterprise producing more than 300 kinds of products. Of course, the information on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the strategic positions of the range will be a key in making managerial decisions about the production of the program, resourcing, turnover, etc. To solve the problem we have chosen the method of ABC - and XYZ-analysis of assortment of production, based on the criteria of ease of use and breadth of the resulting information. As a result of the application of the methods of ABC and XYZ-analysis and combining the obtained results, we present a classification of the range of the baking enterprises of consumer cooperation product based on the criteria of the contribution of commodity positions in revenue and stability of sales

  16. Collaboration in sensor network research: an in-depth longitudinal analysis of assortative mixing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Rodriguez, Marko A

    2010-09-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on statistical analyses of large networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustrate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a relatively small network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research centerin the development and application of wireless and sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortative mixing of selected node characteristics, unveiling the researchers' propensity to collaborate preferentially with others with a similar academic profile. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration. PMID:20700373

  17. Intelligent, net or wireless enabled fluorosensors for high throughput monitoring of assorted crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barócsi, Attila

    2013-02-01

    Phenotypic characterization of assorted crops of different genotypes requires large data sets of diverse types for statistical reliability. Temporal monitoring of plant fluorescence is able to capture the dynamics of the photosynthesis process that is summarized in a number of parameters for which the genotypic heritability can be calculated. In this paper, an intelligent sensor system is presented that is capable of high-throughput production of baseline-corrected temporal fluorescence curves with many feature points. These are obtained by integrating several (direct and modulated) measurement methods applied at different wavelengths. Simultaneously, temporal change of the sample's emission and the ambient reference temperatures are recorded. Multiple sensors can be deployed easily in large span greenhouse environments with centralized data collection over wired or wireless infrastructure. The unique features of the sensors are a compact, embedded signal guiding fibre optic system, instrument-standard variable tubular detector and source modules, net or wireless enabling for remote control and fast, quasi real-time data collection. Along with the instrumentation, some representative phenotyping data are also presented that were taken on a subset of pepper recombinant inbred line population. It is also demonstrated that transient fluorescence feature points yield high heritability, offering a high confidence level for distinguishing the pepper genotypes.

  18. Incipient speciation despite little assortative mating: the yellow-rumped warbler hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Alan; Irwin, Darren E

    2009-12-01

    Hybrid zones between recently diverged taxa are natural laboratories for speciation research, allowing us to determine whether there is reproductive isolation between divergent forms and the causes of that isolation. We present a study of a classic avian hybrid zone in North America between two subspecies of the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). Although previous work has shown very little differentiation in mitochondrial DNA across this hybrid zone, we identified two nuclear loci (one sex-linked and one autosomal) that show fixed differences across the hybrid zone, in a close concordance with patterns of plumage variation. Temporal stability and limited width of the hybrid zone, along with substantial linkage disequilibrium between these two diagnostic markers in the center of the zone, indicate that there is moderate reproductive isolation between these populations, with an estimated strength of selection maintaining the zone of 18%. Pairing data indicate that assortative mating is either very weak or absent, suggesting that this reproductive isolation is largely due to postmating barriers. Thus, despite extensive hybridization the two forms are distinct evolutionary groups carrying genes for divergent adaptive peaks, and this situation appears relatively stable. PMID:19624726

  19. PHYLLOXERA-RESISTANT HYBRID FORM OF GRAPES OF TECHNICAL SORTS FOR IMPROVING THE ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkina M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many old varieties of grapes do not meet modern requirements, so there is a need for improved assortment of new high-quality varieties. The translation of the vineyards of the black sea coast of the Krasnodar region on inoculated culture is not fully decided the fate of the viticulture of the area. Weak resistance of American rootstocks to increased content of calcium and salts in the soil, caused the weakening of the bushes, reducing the vigor of the shoots, their maturation and yield of grape plantations in some areas of the district while reducing their quality indicators. In this regard, the development of new high-yielding varieties suitable for own-rooted viticulture remains the most urgent task for breeders. The article shows the potential of many years of breeding work and study of grapes of technical varieties in Anapa Zone Station, tolerant to phylloxera and resistant to fungal diseases and frost, with high quality products and gives a brief description of some prominent grape varieties

  20. Intelligent, net or wireless enabled fluorosensors for high throughput monitoring of assorted crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenotypic characterization of assorted crops of different genotypes requires large data sets of diverse types for statistical reliability. Temporal monitoring of plant fluorescence is able to capture the dynamics of the photosynthesis process that is summarized in a number of parameters for which the genotypic heritability can be calculated. In this paper, an intelligent sensor system is presented that is capable of high-throughput production of baseline-corrected temporal fluorescence curves with many feature points. These are obtained by integrating several (direct and modulated) measurement methods applied at different wavelengths. Simultaneously, temporal change of the sample's emission and the ambient reference temperatures are recorded. Multiple sensors can be deployed easily in large span greenhouse environments with centralized data collection over wired or wireless infrastructure. The unique features of the sensors are a compact, embedded signal guiding fibre optic system, instrument-standard variable tubular detector and source modules, net or wireless enabling for remote control and fast, quasi real-time data collection. Along with the instrumentation, some representative phenotyping data are also presented that were taken on a subset of pepper recombinant inbred line population. It is also demonstrated that transient fluorescence feature points yield high heritability, offering a high confidence level for distinguishing the pepper genotypes. (paper)

  1. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  2. A Reexamination of the Preferred Job Attributes of Full-Time and Part-Time Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning job attribute preferences of full-time and part-time workers. Data reveal that sex and occupation influence preferences. Significant differences in preference rankings of job attributes were found between full- and part-time female clerical employees. For female clerical employees, marital and family status could…

  3. Working with Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Kaci, Souhila

    2011-01-01

    Preferences are useful in many real-life problems, guiding human decision making from early childhood up to complex professional and organizational decisions. In artificial intelligence specifically, preferences is a relatively new topic of relevance to nonmonotonic reasoning, multiagent systems, constraint satisfaction, decision making, social choice theory and decision-theoretic planning. The first part of this book deals with preference representation, with specific chapters dedicated to representation languages, nonmonotonic logics of preferences, conditional preference networks, positive

  4. The effect of assortativity by degree on emerging cooperation in a 2×2 dilemma game played on an evolutionary network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2010-08-01

    A series of numerical experiments on 2×2 games using a co-evolutionary model, including both networks and strategies, was performed. A relationship between assortativity by degree of the evolved network and emerging cooperation was investigated. In the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game class, the evolutionary trajectory for a weak dilemma game favors a network with positive assortative coefficient and easily attains a cooperative situation. A game implemented with a stronger dilemma, however, makes the network very heterogeneous, with a negative assortative coefficient required to solve the dilemma situation. This implies that the dilemma strength in the PD significantly affects the direction adopted by the assortative coefficient during evolutionary processes in the co-evolutionary model.

  5. Preferences for Visitation in the PACU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Lori; Albert, Nancy M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify PACU visitor update/visitation preferences. In a cross-sectional, descriptive design using a convenience sample, visitors of patients having elective or emergency surgery completed a survey of five update/visitation options and visitor characteristics. Visitation responses were ranked and compared based on visitor characteristics. Of 249 visitors, 64% were female; 94% visited adult patients. Of visitation options, a one-time, 5- to 10-minute visit within two hours of patient transfer to the PACU was most frequently preferred (27.3%), but no option was significantly preferred over the others. After categorizing visitors into two groups based on blood line ties, close family preferred a one-time visit and distant relatives/friends preferred a verbal report 30 minutes after PACU arrival (P = .015). PMID:20875884

  6. The effects of rearing conditions on sexual traits and preferences in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female mat

  7. Strong assortative mating by diet, color, size, and morphology but limited progress toward sympatric speciation in a classic example: Cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H

    2013-07-01

    Models predict that sympatric speciation depends on restrictive parameter ranges, such as sufficiently strong disruptive selection and assortative mating, but compelling examples in nature have rarely been used to test these predictions. I measured the strength of assortative mating within a species complex of Tilapia in Lake Ejagham, Cameroon, a celebrated example of incipient sympatric adaptive radiation. This species complex is in the earliest stages of speciation: morphological and ecological divergence are incomplete, species differ primarily in breeding coloration, and introgression is common. I captured 27 mated pairs in situ and measured the diet, color, size, and morphology of each individual. I found strong assortative mating by color, size, head depth, and dietary source of benthic or pelagic prey along two independent dimensions of assortment. Thus, Ejagham Tilapia showed strong assortative mating most conducive to sympatric speciation. Nonetheless, in contrast to a morphologically bimodal Sarotherodon cichlid species pair in the lake, Ejagham Tilapia show more limited progress toward speciation, likely due to insufficient strength of disruptive selection on morphology estimated in a previous study (γ = 0.16). This supports the predicted dependence of sympatric speciation on strong assortment and strong disruptive selection by examining a potentially stalled example in nature. PMID:23815664

  8. Molecular Assortment of Lens Species with Different Adaptations to Drought Conditions Using SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Chandan Kumar; Tomar, Ram Sewak Singh; Taunk, Jyoti; Singh, Ranjeet; Maurya, Sadhana; Chaturvedi, Ashish Kumar; Pal, Madan; Singh, Rajendra; Dubey, Sarawan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The success of drought tolerance breeding programs can be enhanced through molecular assortment of germplasm. This study was designed to characterize molecular diversity within and between Lens species with different adaptations to drought stress conditions using SSR markers. Drought stress was applied at seedling stage to study the effects on morpho-physiological traits under controlled condition, where tolerant cultivars and wilds showed 12.8-27.6% and 9.5-23.2% reduction in seed yield per plant respectively. When juxtaposed to field conditions, the tolerant cultivars (PDL-1 and PDL-2) and wild (ILWL-314 and ILWL-436) accessions showed 10.5-26.5% and 7.5%-15.6% reduction in seed yield per plant, respectively under rain-fed conditions. The reductions in seed yield in the two tolerant cultivars and wilds under severe drought condition were 48-49% and 30.5-45.3% respectively. A set of 258 alleles were identified among 278 genotypes using 35 SSR markers. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information contents varied between 0.321-0.854 and 0.299-0.836, with mean value of 0.682 and 0.643, respectively. All the genotypes were clustered into 11 groups based on SSR markers. Tolerant genotypes were grouped in cluster 6 while sensitive ones were mainly grouped into cluster 7. Wild accessions were separated from cultivars on the basis of both population structure and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis has further grouped the wild accessions on the basis of species and sub-species into 5 clusters. Physiological and morphological characters under drought stress were significantly (P = 0.05) different among microsatellite clusters. These findings suggest that drought adaptation is variable among wild and cultivated genotypes. Also, genotypes from contrasting clusters can be selected for hybridization which could help in evolution of better segregants for improving drought tolerance in lentil. PMID:26808306

  9. Molecular Assortment of Lens Species with Different Adaptations to Drought Conditions Using SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Singh

    Full Text Available The success of drought tolerance breeding programs can be enhanced through molecular assortment of germplasm. This study was designed to characterize molecular diversity within and between Lens species with different adaptations to drought stress conditions using SSR markers. Drought stress was applied at seedling stage to study the effects on morpho-physiological traits under controlled condition, where tolerant cultivars and wilds showed 12.8-27.6% and 9.5-23.2% reduction in seed yield per plant respectively. When juxtaposed to field conditions, the tolerant cultivars (PDL-1 and PDL-2 and wild (ILWL-314 and ILWL-436 accessions showed 10.5-26.5% and 7.5%-15.6% reduction in seed yield per plant, respectively under rain-fed conditions. The reductions in seed yield in the two tolerant cultivars and wilds under severe drought condition were 48-49% and 30.5-45.3% respectively. A set of 258 alleles were identified among 278 genotypes using 35 SSR markers. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information contents varied between 0.321-0.854 and 0.299-0.836, with mean value of 0.682 and 0.643, respectively. All the genotypes were clustered into 11 groups based on SSR markers. Tolerant genotypes were grouped in cluster 6 while sensitive ones were mainly grouped into cluster 7. Wild accessions were separated from cultivars on the basis of both population structure and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis has further grouped the wild accessions on the basis of species and sub-species into 5 clusters. Physiological and morphological characters under drought stress were significantly (P = 0.05 different among microsatellite clusters. These findings suggest that drought adaptation is variable among wild and cultivated genotypes. Also, genotypes from contrasting clusters can be selected for hybridization which could help in evolution of better segregants for improving drought tolerance in lentil.

  10. Body shape preferences: associations with rater body shape and sociosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Price

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters' body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low VHI and attractive (low WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for

  11. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  12. 女性的教育成就與大學畢業後初期位置之關係 Female College Students’ Preference for Fields of Study and Their First-year Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳建州 Jian-Jhou Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 女性偏好的教育種類(學類)雖未能帶給她們與男性相當的職業地位,但是長期以來,女性投入某些學類的傾向卻維持著穩定性。本研究認為,如果這些學類能連結女性偏好的職業,便可補充說明女性教育選擇傾向穩定的現象。在考量女性就業需求之後,本研究依據滿足女性就業需求的程度差異,將勞動市場劃分成數組區隔的部門,其中,屬於女性的「好工作」是公部門與非營利機構。本研究採用2006 年「臺灣高等教育資料庫」中大學畢業後一年之女性為樣本,以多元邏輯迴歸分析估計家庭背景、學校類型、學類、證照等變項,針對大學畢業後一年的狀態,描繪女性的教育成就與勞動市場的連結情形。研究發現:(一)升研究所階段的教育轉換具有社經階層差異。(二)公立大學畢業者取得公部門與非營利機構工作的勝算最高,私立技職院校畢業者的勝算最低。(三)女性偏好的學類連結至公部門與非營利機構的機率,高於男性投入較高的學類,此種連結關係可能穩定了女性的教育選擇傾向。(四)除了通過公職考試或國家專業技術考試較有利於取得好工作,其他專業證照或認證並無助益。 This research explores the characteristics of women’s employment and their desire for rewards in different labor market sectors, analyzes the effects of the types of university, fields of study, and professional certifications on higher educated women’s early jobs, and explains the stable distribution of female college students in different fields of study. Using data retrieved from the “Taiwan Higher Education Data System,” the entire analysis includes 7,547 higher educated women who had graduated from universities one year ago. The results of the multinomial logit regression suggest 1 women from upper socio-economic status were more

  13. Examining Office Type Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfö, Linda; Eklund, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Office types and their environmental features influence performance and job satisfaction. Yet employees’ opinions are seldom considered when choosing office type. This paper suggests a method that investigates employees’ office type preferences and motives behind the preferences. The method proved to be quick and simple and provided a flow of current to preferred office type. A majority preferred the quiet cell office for its privacy while the open office was considered having a noisy and dis...

  14. Heterogeneous Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Erlei, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has shown the usefulness of social preferences for explaining behavior in laboratory experiments. This paper demonstrates that models of social preferences are particularly powerful in explaining behavior if they are embedded in a setting of heteroge-neous actors with heterogeneous (social) preferences. For this purpose a simple model is in-troduced that combines the basic ideas of inequity aversion, social welfare preferences, recip-rocity and heterogeneity. This model is app...

  15. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Pia M. Vinken; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experimen...

  16. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  17. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  18. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  19. The effects of rearing conditions on sexual traits and preferences in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female mating preferences and male advertising signals in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. It reconciles earlier apparently contradicting findings on the relative importance of visual versus acoustic sig...

  20. Female condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although the...... methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence that...... subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  2. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  3. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...

  4. Rats Display a Robust Bimodal Preference Profile for Sucralose

    OpenAIRE

    Loney, Gregory C.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Smith, James C.; Sclafani, Anthony; Eckel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats display considerable variability in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose over water. While some rats can be classified as sucralose preferrers (SP), as they prefer sucralose across a broad range of concentrations, others can be classified as sucralose avoiders (SA), as they avoid sucralose at concentrations above 0.1 g/L. Here, we expand on a previous report of this phenomenon by demonstrating, in a series of 2-bottle 24-h preference tests involvi...

  5. Gender differences in ethanol preference and ingestion in rats. The role of the gonadal steroid environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, O F; Shoaib, M.; Deicke, J; Fischer, D.; Darwish, M H; Patchev, V K

    1998-01-01

    An ethanol oral self administration paradigm showed the existence of gender differences in alcohol preference in rats: whereas males and females initiated alcohol drinking at similar rates, females maintained their preference for ethanol over a longer duration. Neonatal estrogenization of females, which effectively confers a male phenotype on a genetically female brain, resulted in patterns of drinking that were similar to those displayed by intact male rats, indicating that gender difference...

  6. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals...

  7. Interdependent Preference Formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Kockesen; Ok, Efe A.; Rajiv Sethi

    1997-01-01

    A standard assumption in the economic approach to individual decision making is that people have independent preferences, that is, they care only about their absolute (material) payoffs. We study equilibria of the classic common pool resource extraction and public good games when some of the players have negatively interdependent preferences (in the sense that they care not only about their absolute payoffs but also about their relative payoffs) while the remainder have independent preference...

  8. Logical Probability Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    We present a unified logical framework for representing and reasoning about both probability quantitative and qualitative preferences in probability answer set programming, called probability answer set optimization programs. The proposed framework is vital to allow defining probability quantitative preferences over the possible outcomes of qualitative preferences. We show the application of probability answer set optimization programs to a variant of the well-known nurse restoring problem, c...

  9. Assortative mating among Dutch married and cohabiting same-sex and different-sex couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared male and female same-sex and different-sex couples in the Netherlands with respect to age and educational homogamy. Because many same-sex couples in the Netherlands are married, differences between married and cohabiting couples were analyzed for all 3 groups. Analyses of data f

  10. Gender bias in specialty preferences among Danish medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard; Skytte, Nanna Hasle Bak; Dissing, Agnete Skovlund;

    2011-01-01

    Female medical students tend to prefer person-oriented specialties characterized by close doctor-patient contact and aspects of care. Conversely, male medical students tend to seek towards specialties with elements of autonomy, technology and "action" . Furthermore, female doctors will outnumber ...

  11. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vaseghi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, EFL

  12. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid;

    2015-01-01

    Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily distribu...

  13. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  14. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  15. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ináncsi; András Láng; Tamás Bereczkei

    2016-01-01

    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out...

  16. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  17. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  18. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  19. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Spence, R.; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e40780. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * mate choice * sexual selection * good genes * reproductive success * compatible genes * polymorphism * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  20. Familiarity and partner preferences in female common voles, Microtus arvalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říčánková, V.; Šumbera, R.; Sedláček, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 25 (2007), s. 95-98. ISSN 0289-0771 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2655 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Aggression * Common vole * Pair bond Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  1. Female Labour Supply and intergenerational preference formation: Evidence for Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez; Velez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Using a national representative sample for Mexico, we analyse the effect of a husband having a working mother on the probability that he has a working wife. Our results show that labour force participation by a husband’s mother increases the probability of the labour force participation of his wife by 15 percentage points. The effect is mainly driven by males with less than a high school education. One possible confounding factor is the effect of labour force participation of the wife’s mothe...

  2. Experience restores innate female preference for male ultrasonic vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Kathryn N.; Liu, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models are increasingly contributing to our understanding of the neural genetics of sensory processing and memory. For example, strain differences have helped elucidate basic mechanisms of age-related hearing loss and auditory fear conditioning. Assessing sensory differences arising in acoustic communication contexts is also important for understanding natural audition. While this topic has not been well studied, it is currently being addressed through auditory neuroethological studies ...

  3. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  4. Processing technology of assorted spiced rabbit meat%卤味兔肉加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴; 盛本国; 王军锋; 李海龙; 严文慧

    2012-01-01

    阐述了卤味兔肉的加工工艺、操作关键点及质量要求,此加工工艺简化了传统的酱卤工艺,且卤香味与兔肉的结合,既去除了兔肉的腥膻味,也赋予了兔肉特色的卤香味。%The assorted spiced rabbit meat processing technology, operating key points and quality requirements were elaborated; using this processing technology could simplify the traditional sauce halogen and halogen technology, and combine the fragrance with rabbit meat, which not only removed fishy and sheepy smell of rabbit meat, but also gave the meat characteristic bittern flavor.

  5. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  6. Effect of nutrition label format and product assortment on healthfulness of food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans;

    2013-01-01

    different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice...... set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product...... choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers’ motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers’ perceived capability of making healthful...

  7. The impact of attitudes and work preferences on Dutch mothers' employment patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ruitenberg; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, preference theory has gained significance in the academic literature on the determinants of female employment patterns. Mostly, within these studies gender and work attitudes and work preferences (the number of hours a woman prefers to work) are treated as one concept. However,

  8. Does Gender Influence Learning Style Preferences of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jill A.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students have specific learning style preferences, and these preferences may be different between male and female students. Understanding a student's learning style preference is an important consideration when designing classroom instruction. Therefore, we administered the visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) learning preferences…

  9. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  10. Rapid Evolution of Assortative Fertilization between Recently Allopatric Species of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir H. Ahmed-Braimah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The virilis group of Drosophila represents a relatively unexplored but potentially useful model to investigate the genetics of speciation. Good resolution of phylogenetic relationships and the ability to obtain fertile hybrid offspring make the group especially promising for analysis of genetic changes underlying reproductive isolation separate from hybrid sterility and inviability. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a close relationship between the sister species, Drosophila americana and D. novamexicana, yet excepting their contemporary allopatric distributions, factors that contribute to reproductive isolation between this species pair remain uncharacterized. A previous report has shown reduced progeny numbers in laboratory crosses between the two species, especially when female D. novamexicana are crossed with male D. americana. We show that the hatch rate of eggs produced from heterospecific matings is reduced relative to conspecific matings. Failure of eggs to hatch, and consequent reduction in hybrid progeny number, is caused by low fertilization success of heterospecific sperm, thus representing a postmating, prezygotic incompatibility. Following insemination, storage and motility of heterospecific sperm is visibly compromised in female D. novamexicana. Our results provide evidence for a mechanism of reproductive isolation that is seldom reported for Drosophila species, and indicate the rapid evolution of postmating, prezygotic reproductive barriers in allopatry.

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred kinesthetic more. Moreover, the findings revealed that Kinesthetic learning was the least preferred learning style of the most female students, whereas the least preferred learning style of male students was tactile learning. Keywords:  Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, Gender, EFL 

  12. Poverty Prefers Company

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, B

    2014-01-01

    In three web-based experiments, we show that both actual poverty and experimentally induced (imagined) poverty create a preference for greater inequality. Study 1, a cross-national comparison between Americans and Swedes, showed that respondents who were actually poor and those who were experimentally induced to imagine that they were poor tended to express a heightened preference for greater inequality, and for a higher proportion of poor citizens. Study 2 replicated the effects using differ...

  13. Endogenouse Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Carpenter

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing discussion in economics has developed around the issue of whether institutions (specifically markets) affect people’ social preferences. One theory posits that markets force people to interact repeatedly, and in doing do reduce anonymity, curtail opportunistic behavior, and make agents more socially minded. The opposing view contends that markets are alienating because they make interactions more (not less) anonymous and competition erodes peoples’ preferences to engage in sel...

  14. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed ...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  15. Essays on Social Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Joo Young

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of six essays related to experimental investigation of social preference. We investigate the effects of a pure income effect on social preference in the first essay. In the second essay we explore the effects of gender in altruism and the corresponding anticipation behavior. The third essay discusses the effects of different type of rebate schemes on altruistic behavior. We study the effects of a real and a minimal identity on initiation and escalation of conflict i...

  16. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  17. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Kane, Michael J; Sykes, Catherine E; Anneken, John H; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT) lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100), suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female) or animate (male or female mouse in estrus) sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference. PMID:25706994

  18. Preference Inconsistence-Based Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Pan; Kun She; Pengyuan Wei#,

    2016-01-01

    Preference analysis is a class of important issues in ordinal decision making. As available information is usually obtained from different evaluation criteria or experts, the derived preference decisions may be inconsistent and uncertain. Shannon entropy is a suitable measurement of uncertainty. This work proposes the concepts of preference inconsistence set and preference inconsistence degree. Then preference inconsistence entropy is introduced by combining preference inconsistence degree an...

  19. Highly Competitive Reindeer Males Control Female Behavior during the Rut

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Body; Robert B. Weladji; Øystein Holand; Mauri Nieminen

    2014-01-01

    During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence f...

  20. How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers' purchasing behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yinuo

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...

  1. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  2. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-01-01

    We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD), mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus) to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average...

  3. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  4. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  5. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner's warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner's possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner's characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality. PMID:27247697

  6. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Ináncsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL. According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner’s warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner’s possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner’s characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality.

  7. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  8. Aggregation of smooth preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Schofield

    1998-01-01

    Suppose p is a smooth preference profile (for a society, N) belonging to a domain PN. Let be a voting rule, and (p)(x) be the set of alternatives in the space, W, which is preferred to x. The equilibrium E((p)) is the set {x∈W:(p)(x) is empty}. A sufficient condition for existence of E((p)) when p is convex is that a "dual", or generalized gradient, d(p)(x), is non-empty at all x. Under certain conditions the dual "field", d(p), admits a "social gradient field" (p). is called an "aggregator" ...

  9. A Developmental Study of Destereotyping and Androgynous Activity Preferences of Tomboys, Nontomboys, and Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Pat; Cowan, Gloria

    1984-01-01

    Male and female high school students and adults (n=210) completed a questionnaire seeking preference responses to 12 male and 12 female traditional activities. Boys' activities were more destereotyped than girls'--but by females, not males. The unique finding was that self-described tomboys do not substitute boys' activities for girls'. (KH)

  10. Aggregation of individuals' preference intensities into social preference intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Harvey

    1998-01-01

    A result of John Harsanyi concerns the aggregation of individuals' preferences into social preferences. The result states that if the individuals in a society and the society as a whole have preference relations that compare probability distributions on a set of outcomes, and the preference relations satisfy expected-utility conditions and Pareto conditions, then a utility function for the social preference relation is a positive affine function of utility functions for the individuals' prefe...

  11. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Mon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.

  12. EXERCISE PREFERENCES OF PATIENTS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes, Ana M.; Battle, Cynthia L.; Strong, David R.; Ing, Eileen; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan; Brown, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    While emerging studies have demonstrated the benefit of exercise in early recovery from substance use disorders, recruitment and adherence to exercise interventions have been challenging. Tailoring interventions based on patient exercise preferences may address these concerns. Ninety-seven (N=97; age=41.6 years; 44% female) patients were recruited from an intensive substance abuse outpatient program and filled out questionnaires about their exercise preferences. Most (71%) patients were not c...

  13. Son Preference and Children's Housework: The Case of India

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tin-chi; Adserà, Alícia

    2012-01-01

    Son preference in countries like India results in higher female infant mortality rates and differentially lower access to health care and education for girls than for boys. We use a nationally representative survey of Indian households (NFHS-3) to conduct the first study that analyzes whether son preference is associated with girls bearing a larger burden of housework than boys. Housework is a non-negligible part of child labor in which around 60% of children in our sample are engaged. The pr...

  14. Do mate preferences influence actual mating decisions? Evidence from computer simulations and three studies of mated couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary research continues to discover new features of human mate preferences, but the downstream consequences of these preferences for mate selection have been insufficiently explored. Some have inferred that stated preferences have few behavioral consequences given seemingly weak effects of preferences in predicting mating outcomes. Here we test this inference with data from simulated mating markets as well as from real-world couples. We generate a series of agent-based models in which preferences either do or do not drive mate selection. We compare these simulations with 3 empirical studies of real-world couples (Study 1, n = 214; Study 2, n = 259; Study 3, n = 294). Preference-driven agent based models produce several effects that emerge in real couples, but not within random simulations. These include low-magnitude correlations between stated preferences and the individual traits of chosen partners; the novel finding that people with high mate value leverage that value into securing partners with more desirable traits; and the finding that couples assort based on overall mate value. Moreover, real-world mate choices correspond strongly with preference-driven simulations, but not to simulations in which mate selection is random with respect to preferences. Finally, we provide evidence that these effects are due to the causal role of stated preferences, and are not better explained by people updating their mate preferences to match chosen mates. These results provide new evidence that stated mate preferences guide actual mate selections under real mating-market constraints. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337140

  15. Economy of referential preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Goucha, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce basic notions of new economic model where preference relations on commodities set are represented by a group action on Euclidean space instead of utility function. Conditions that ensure the existence of individual demand functions and a general equilibrium in the setting of exchange economy are examined.

  16. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  17. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  18. The Analysis Of The Strain Influence On Some Yield Elemnts On An Assortment Of Isogenic Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation. Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

  19. I. V. Michurin’S Work on Expansion of the Plant Horticulture Assortment and Improvement of Food Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Viktor V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available October 2015 marks the 160th anniversary of the birth of Ivan V. Michurin. As a scientist and plant breeder, he made a significant improvement of many fruit and berry plants, and flowers. He developed methods of plant breeding, especially regarding long-distance hybridisation of fruit plants, and promoted gardening to the north and east of Russia. He introduced some new berry species, such as Actinidia and black chokeberry, and was the first in Russia to use dwarf and semi dwarf stocks of apples. Michurin initiated the mass movement of gardeners and horticulture experimenters in USSR who changed and significantly extended the assortment and areas of fruit and berries cultivation in the country. He not only brought together a representative collection of species and varieties of fruit, berry and flower plants from around the world, but also used them in breeding by hybridization, including interspecific. He created some new artificial interspecific hybrids such as Cerapadus (cherry and bird cherry tree hybrid, and others. Michurin created 132 cultivars. Eleven of them are not only cultivated, but are also included in “The State Register of Protected Plant Breeding of the Russian Federation”.

  20. Dissortative From the Outside, Assortative From the Inside: Social Structure and Behavior in the Industrial Trade Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kelman, Guy; Manes, Eran; Lamieri, Marco; Golo, Natasa; Solomon, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that neighboring nodes in financial networks are negatively assorted with respect to the correlation between their degrees. This feature would play an important 'damping' role in the market during downturns (periods of distress) since this connectivity pattern between firms lowers the chances of auto-amplifying (the propagation of) distress. In this paper we explore a trade-network of industrial firms where the nodes are suppliers or buyers, and the links are those invoices that the suppliers send out to their buyers and then go on to present to their bank for discounting. The network was collected by a large Italian bank in 2007, from their intermediation of the sales on credit made by their clients. The network also shows dissortative behavior as seen in other studies on financial networks. However, when looking at the credit rating of the firms, an important attribute internal to each node, we find that firms that trade with one another share overwhelming similarity. We know that m...

  1. Preference for sons: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    1997-10-01

    This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. Clan brotherhoods of men have existed for centuries. Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. Patriarchal families believed that women were economically dependent on men and thus became their subjects. Daughters married, lived in their husband's home, and did not carry the responsibility of caring for their own parents. Couples with only daughters would seek a son-in-law to support them in old age. Rural families with no sons were looked down upon. Sons were expected to carry on the family lineage, increase the reputation of the family, and protect the family's interests. The lack of sons was a sign of humiliation and a curse. The founding of the People's Republic of China brought changes to son preference. The government attempted to increase women's status. In rural areas, women were given equal access to the land. Job opportunities were created for women during the industrialization drive. The Chinese government encouraged the repudiation of the negative impacts of the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius. Efforts were made to give men and women equal pay for equal work. Legislation was passed prohibiting arranged marriage, polygyny, and early marriage. A side effect of fertility decline is the renewed preference for sons. In Huangyan and Haining in Zhejiang, a developed province, the sex ratio at birth is normal. Sexual division of labor reinforces son preference. PMID:12293427

  2. Application of statistical emulation to an agent-based model: assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    De Mulder, Wim; Grow, André; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-01-01

    We describe the application of statistical emulation to the outcomes of an agent-based model. The agent-based model simulates the mechanisms that might have linked the reversal of gender inequality in higher education with observed changes in educational assortative mating in Belgium. Using the statistical emulator as a computationally fast approximation to the expensive agent-based model, it is feasible to use a genetic algorithm in nding the parameter values for which the correspondin...

  3. A study of postgraduate students' endogamous preference in mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, K; Surendra, H S

    1991-01-01

    Researchers distributed questionnaires to 395 21-28 year old postgraduate students at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Dharwad and Karnataka University both in Dharwad, India, to determine their endogamous preferences in selecting a mate and to examine the relationship between these preferences and their sex, desired type of marriage, and discipline of postgraduate studies. 64.3% preferred limited mate selection within their caste. Specifically, 32.4% favored subcaste endogamy, 19.5% caste endogamy, and 12.4% kinship endogamy. 24.1% wanted to marry someone from another caste but someone of the same religion. 11.6% wished to marry someone of another religion. Female students were more likely to prefer caste endogamy than male students (76.0% vs. 53.5%; p .01): kinship endogamy (14.8% vs. 10.3%), subcaste endogamy (38.5% vs. 27.2%), and caste endogamy (23.6% vs. 16%) than male students. Male students were more likely to prefer a mate from either the same or different religion than female students (29.6% vs. 17.6% and 16.9% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p .01). Even though most students (58%) preferred arranged marriages, a considerable percentage (42%) preferred to marry for love. 41.6% of those who preferred love marriages wanted to marry someone from another caste compared with only 11.4% of those who preferred arranged marriage (p .01). Students who wanted to marry for love were 3 times more likely to want to marry someone from another religion than were those who preferred arranged marriage (18.6% vs. 6.5%; p .01). 45.4% of students who preferred arranged marriage wanted to choose their mate from the same subcaste compared with only 14.5% of those who wanted a love marriage (p .01). 41.2% of applied science students preferred to marry someone of the same religion compared with 21.7% for basic science students and 16.3% for humanities students (p .01). 50% of applied science students, 75.2% of basic science students, and 66.3% of humanities students preferred

  4. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  5. Safety and public preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend in recent years towards incorporating public preference over technical calculations of the risk/safety of radiological hazards is outlined. A diagrammatic way of portraying the extent of technical analysis and consumer sovereignty on one axis and the inward or outward looking extent of the institution charged with safety standards on the other axis is used to predict the consequences of various situations. (U.K.)

  6. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  7. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  10. Gender Bias in India: Parental Preferences or Marriage Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Browning; Ramesh Subramaniam

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of gender effects in intra-household allocation of resources among children over the life-cycle in India. We present a simple three-period model that considers two possible motives for differential allocation of resources: parental preferences (in favour of male children) or higher marriage costs of female children. If parents incur high marriage costs for female children, then in a life-cycle context the birth of a female child will have the same effect as a n...

  11. Computer Technology and Student Preferences in a Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J.; Kemp, Wendy C.; Benson, Wendy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed learner preferences for using computer-based technology in a distance education course. A questionnaire was posted to students who had taken an undergraduate nutrition course at Athabasca University, Canada. The response rate was 57.1% (176 returned out of 308). Subjects were predominately female (93.7%) and nursing students…

  12. CVCC Student Performance on the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. Douglas

    In the fall of 1968, 269 males and 167 females at Central Virginia Community College were administered the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory. Statistical comparisons were made scale-for-scale between these students and national normative group average scores. The comparisons of means and standard deviations were analyzed by "t" tests; the…

  13. Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljavirta Jenni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assortment of cattle immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes has been extracted from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome sequence as a part of an international effort to sequence and annotate the bovine genome. Results 63 variable lambda chain and 22 variable kappa chain genes were identified and phylogenetically assigned to 8 and 4 subgroups, respectively. The specified phylogenetic relationships are compatible with the established ruminant light chain variable gene families or subgroups. Because of gaps and uncertainties in the assembled genome sequence, the number of genes might change in the future versions of the genome sequence. In addition, three bovine surrogate light chain genes were identified. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned and the expression of the surrogate light chain genes was demonstrated from fetal material. Conclusion The bovine kappa gene locus is compact and simple which may reflect the preferential use of the lambda chain in cattle. The relative orientation of variable and joining genes in both loci are consistent with a deletion mechanism in VJ joining. The orientation of some variable genes cannot be determined from the data available. The number of functional variable genes is moderate when compared to man or mouse. Thus, post-recombinatorial mechanisms might contribute to the generation of the bovine pre-immune antibody repertoire. The heavy chains probably contribute more to recombinational immunoglobulin repertoire diversity than the light chains but the heavy chain locus could not be annotated from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome.

  14. GST M1-T1 null allele frequency patterns in geographically assorted human populations: a phylogenetic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.

  15. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  16. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, Albertyna

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference ? as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ?drink? is typically fo...

  17. JUDGMENT AGGREGATION AND PREFERENCE AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Ochremiak

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present an introduction to the theory of judgment aggregation and discuss its relation to the theory of preference aggregation. We compare the formal model of judgment aggregation, based on logic, with the formal model of preference aggregation. Finally, we present a theorem in judgmentaggregation which is an exact analogue of Arrow's theorem for strict preferences.

  18. Conversion/Preference Games

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Stéphane; Lescanne, Pierre; Vestergaard, René

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Conversion/Preference Games, or CP games for short. CP games generalize the standard notion of strategic games. First we exemplify the use of CP games. Second we formally introduce and define the CP-games formalism. Then we sketch two `real-life' applications, namely a connection between CP games and gene regulation networks, and the use of CP games to formalize implied information in Chinese Wall security. We end with a study of a particular fixed-point constructi...

  19. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment and...... lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment to...

  20. Preference Falsification in Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Kinsella

    2009-01-01

    Today’s macroeconomics courses are built around Solow and Romerstyle growth theories, and micro-founded equilibrium macro models of the ‘real business cycle’ variety. Hewing to a course description with such an intellectual structure is a derogation of my personal and professional views. This short, confessional note explores the activity of teaching what one does not believe, and argues this is preference falsification writ large. The act of teaching equilibrium business cycle theories...

  1. Language of Preference Formulae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Radim

    Vol. 2. Prague: Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2012 - (Bieliková, M.; Friedrich, G.; Gottlob, G.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Špánek, R.; Turán, G.), s. 75-86 ISBN 978-80-87136-13-3. [SOFSEM 2012. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /38./. Špindlerův Mlýn (CZ), 21.01.2012-27.01.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : conflicting preferences * relational data model * database query Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  2. Food preference and copying behaviour in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Morgan, Kate V; Hall, Zachary J; Bailey, Ida E; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    As a social species zebra finches might be expected to copy the food choices of more experienced conspecifics. This prediction has been tested previously by presenting observers with two demonstrator birds that differ in some way (e.g., sex, familiarity), each feeding on a different colour food source. However, if the observer subsequently exhibits a preference, it is unclear whether it has copied the choice of one demonstrator or avoided the choice of the other. Furthermore, this choice may actually be influenced by pre-existing preferences, a potential bias that is rarely tested. Here we examine whether apparent copying or avoidance can be explained by pre-existing preferences. In Experiment 1, observers had the opportunity to watch a conspecific forage from one of the two differently coloured food hoppers. In Experiment 2, the observers did not have this opportunity. In both experiments observers were subsequently tested for their food hopper preference and all but one preferred one colour over the other. In Experiment 1 some observers showed evidence for copying, while others seemed to avoid the colour preferred by the demonstrator. In Experiment 2 females generally preferred the white hopper. Pre-existing colour preferences could, therefore, explain the apparent copying/avoidance we observed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:24797456

  3. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  4. Why Languages Prefer Prohibitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan van der Auwera

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with prohibitive markers, i.e., negative markers that are more or less dedicated to the expression of a prohibition. It documents the variety in the formal make-up of these markers and it confims the earlier claims that they are frequent everywhere, with at least one exception, viz., Western Europe. Four origins are discussed:prohibitive markers may derive from predicative constructions, they may appear as a side product of Jespersen's cycle,they may derive from a univerbation of imperative and negative markers, and they may be borrowed. As explanation is offered as to why languages prefer to have prohibitive markers. It is argued that attempts to explain this preference in terms of morphosyntax are misguided. Instead a frequency-based semantic explanation is offered. The most frequent use of negatives are declarative, thereby inviting a static ‘it is not the case that' paraphrase. It is important, however, to mark clearly that prohibitives are instances of a dynamic ‘let it be the case that' appeal. The paper ends on a discussion of languages that do not employ prohibitive markers.

  5. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  6. A spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing female mosquitoes as prey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Jackson; Nelson, Ximena J.; Sune, Godfrey O.

    2005-01-01

    Spiders do not feed directly on vertebrate blood, but a small East African jumping spider (Salticidae), Evarcha culicivora, feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing as preferred prey female mosquitoes that have had recent blood meals. Experiments show that this spider can identify its preferred prey by sight alone and by odor alone. When presented with two types of size-matched motionless lures, E. culicivora consistently chose blood-fed female mosquitoes in preference to nonmosquito ...

  7. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0.541), or monthly income (P = 0.1696, χ2). The result of this study might be useful in facial

  8. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  9. Female Pattern Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss, Female Pattern Baldness (Female Pattern Alopecia) Information for adults A A A In female ... balding only, and studies show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used ...

  10. Speciality preferences in Dutch medical students influenced by their anticipation on family responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Pepping, T.; Bor, H.; Verdonk, P.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students' sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medica

  11. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid;

    travel costs of the used links, if independence of the link travel times is assumed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the exponential form of utility rates and to compare it both to a more general form and to conventional forms as regards conformity to collected data on travellers...... drivers commuting to work in the morning in central Stockholm. The survey contains observations of choices between car and public transport travel alternatives, which differ in terms of departure time, monetary cost, and the distribution of travel time. We develop a discrete choice model to describe......-affine specifications to two benchmarks: The generalised exponential-exponential specification and the conventional α-β-γ specification. As could be expected, exponential preferences are difficult to estimate: The estimated parameters of H and W have large standard errors, and some types of models exhibit severe...

  12. Automated Preferences Elicitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 20-25. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elicitation * decision making * Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-automated preferences elicitation.pdf

  13. Determinants of Occupational Gender Segregation : Work Values and Gender (A)Typical Occupational Preferences of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The study examines micro-level determinants of the occupational gender segregation, analyzing work values and their effects on gender (a)typical occupational preferences of adolescents. Human capital theory assumes that women develop higher preferences for a good work/life balance in youth, whereas men develop higher extrinsic work values. Socialization theory predicts that female adolescents form higher preferences for social work content. This gender typicality in work values is expected to...

  14. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity. PMID:27153132

  15. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, P E; Mazué, G P F; Carter, M J; Head, M L; Moore, A J; Royle, N J

    2016-03-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  16. Assorted morphosynthesis: access to multi-faceted nano-architectures from a super-responsive dual π-functional amphiphilic construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Deepak; Shukla, Jyoti; Dana, Srikanta; Rani, Varsha; Ajayakumar, M R; Rawat, Kamla; Mandal, Kalyanashis; Yadav, Premlata; Ghosh, Subhasis; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2015-10-25

    An electronically segmented amphiphile was created by conjugating two π-functional units hydroxyquinoline and naphthalenediimide (HQ/NDI) for the first time. The differential electrostatic potential of the π-surfaces, H-bonding units, etc. trigger a manifold response and direct the assembly of a unique collection of seven diverse nano-architectures. Chiral assembly, distinct classes of fibers, 3-D sheets, and metallo-spheres/fibrils with μM levels of Co/Cu/Zn(ii) ions emerged from this new approach of assorted morphosynthesis under ambient conditions. PMID:26194349

  17. An experimental study of gender and cultural differences in hue preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman S

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on color preference. Inspection of previous studies of color preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colors that are shown-the chromatic co-ordinates of colors are either not noted or the illuminant that colors are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about color preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colors that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating color preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarize color preference using subjective terms for hue (Hurlbert and Ling, 2007; Ling and Hurlbert, 2007). This approach aims to quantitatively summarize hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or "cardinal axes" underlying color vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling's (2007) approach to investigating color preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic) participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted toward purple/blue-green. PMID:25688219

  18. An Experimental Study of Gender and Cultural Differences in Hue Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Saud Al-Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on colour preference. Inspection of previous studies of colour preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colours that are shown – the chromatic co-ordinates of colours are either not noted or the illuminant that colours are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about colour preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colours that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating colour preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarise colour preference using subjective terms for hue (Ling et al., 2007; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007. This approach aims to quantitatively summarise hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or ‘cardinal axes’ underlying colour vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling’s (2007 approach to investigating colour preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants?. Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted towards purple/blue-green.

  19. Testing Substitutability of Weak Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Haris; Brill, Markus; Harrenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In many-to-many matching models, substitutable preferences constitute the largest domain for which a pairwise stable matching is guaranteed to exist. In this note, we extend the recently proposed algorithm of Hatfield et al. [3] to test substitutability of weak preferences. Interestingly, the algorithm is faster than the algorithm of Hatfield et al. by a linear factor on the domain of strict preferences.

  20. Preference Externalities in Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Waldfogel, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Media industries typically exhibit two fundamental features, high fixed costs and heterogeneity of consumer preferences. Daily newspaper markets, for example, tend to support a single product. In other examples, such as radio broadcasting, markets often support multiple differentiated offerings. Both contexts can deliver preference externalities, when the options and well-being for consumers depend on the number and mix of consumers according to their content preferences. This chapter present...

  1. Social Preferences and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or risk perceptions are the main driver of investments in socially responsible (SRI) mutual funds. Social preferences are only associated with investments in SRI funds without tax benefits, but are un...

  2. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco; Ponti, Giovanni

    chosen contract. We find that (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices in all phases of the experiment. Since the available contracts display a trade-off between fairness and strategic uncertainty, we observe that the latter is a much stronger determinant of choices, for...... both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  3. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  4. Option values and flexibility preference

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzera, Elisabetta

    1998-01-01

    Preference for flexibility is a behavioral attitude displayed by people that prefer reversible to irreversible actions, and that are willing to pay a premium in order to maintain the possibility of changing their decision. This paper provides a functional characterization of preference for flexibility, based on the notion of option value. The proposed theory is shown to be useful to explain the success of marketing policies that guarantee reimbursement in consumption goods and financial marke...

  5. Algorithmics of matching under preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Manlove, David

    2013-01-01

    Matching problems with preferences are all around us - they arise when agents seek to be allocated to one another on the basis of ranked preferences over potential outcomes. Efficient algorithms are needed for producing matchings that optimise the satisfaction of the agents according to their preference lists.In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the study of algorithmic aspects of matching problems with preferences, partly reflecting the growing number of applications of these problems worldwide. This book describes the most important results in this area, providing a timely upda

  6. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  7. Incongruence between the sexes in preferences for body and dorsal fin size in Xiphophorus variatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R David; Fontaine, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Female preference for male fin enhancements in poeciliid fishes may be driven by a preexisting perceptual bias for increased male lateral projection area (LPA). This hypothesis suggests that a male with enlarged body and/or fin size projects a larger image onto the female's retina at a given viewing distance, eliciting a greater sensory and thus behavioral response out of the female than a smaller male. Given the shared sensory/neural systems of opposite sex conspecifics, we might expect the LPA bias to also be present in males of at least some poeciliid species. However, we need not expect congruence between the sexes in the state of the bias over evolutionary time. To examine whether the sexes share a bias for sailfin-like dorsal fins, a trait not present in their evolutionary history, the bias favoring increased dorsal fin size and LPA observed in female Xiphophorus variatus, among other poeciliids, was investigated by testing male preference for dummy females varying in dorsal fin size, body size, and dorsal fin:body size ratio. In three sets of simultaneous choice experiments, males preferred females of larger body size when fin size was held constant and when total LPA was held constant, but showed no preference for larger fins when body size was held constant. The LPA bias is therefore less permissive in males than females with selection favoring a male's ability to discriminate between female body size - an indicator of fertility/fecundity - and fin size, which offers no known fitness benefits. PMID:23137586

  8. Valuation of aesthetic preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshire, D.S. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Ives, B.C.; Schulze, W.D.

    1976-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of the social costs and benefits that different uses of the environment offer are explored in a bidding game experiment that was used to estimate esthetic damages from the proposed Kaiparowits power plant near Lake Powell. A questionnaire was designed to focus on environmental quality in terms of the respondent's experience with area recreational opportunities and the impact power plant construction would have on those opportunities. The interviews separated respondents into four groups: residents, visitors at motels and passersby, visitors at developed area campgrounds, and visitors at more remote campgrounds. Bidding was conducted to determine how much respondents were willing to pay in order to avoid pollution. Three problems complicated interpretation of the responses: (1) incentives for individual bias in order to demonstrate preferences, although an absence of observed bias may only reflect the feeling of respondents that the question is hypothetical and nothing will actually happen; (2) the potential difference between equivalent and compensation variation, which is further complicated by residents making strong initial stands and caring less as the esthetic impact progresses; and (3) interpersonal comparisons in the aggregation of individual bids to check the sensitivity of individual income distribution with the aggregate welfare.Recommendations for future studies urge that different samples of respondents be confronted with different kinds of incentives in order to reveal possible bias. 10 references. (DCK)

  9. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking quality   Variety choice is an important component of organic crop management. The organic sector pursues to produce healthy, nutritious food without using synthetic inputs and excessive amounts of ...

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & Hormone Control Mammary Glands Review Quiz Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules ... External Genitalia Female Sexual Response and Hormonal Control Mammary Glands « Previous (Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control) Next (Ovaries) » ...

  12. Gender Preferences in Learning Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rae; Gray, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Reports on preference patterns among gender and age groups for school-science topics and learning experiences among respondents chosen to be nationally representative of Scottish primary and secondary pupils. Finds that girls have a stronger preference for biological topics than boys. Concludes that much of what goes on in science classrooms is…

  13. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  14. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Maassen van den Brink; W.J.N. Groot

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  15. Interest-based preference reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.M.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of practical reasoning, such as decision making and negotiation, it is necessary to model preferences over possible outcomes. Such preferences usually depend on multiple criteria. We argue that the criteria by which outcomes are evaluated should be the satisfaction of a person’s under

  16. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  17. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M; Heindel, Jerrold; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia; Iguchi, Taisen; Juul, Anders; McLachlan, John A; Schwartz, Jackie; Skakkebaek, Niels; Soto, Ana M; Swan, Shanna; Walker, Cheryl; Woodruff, Teresa K; Woodruff, Tracey J; Giudice, Linda C; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  18. Are Female Supervisors More Female-Friendly?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Bednar; Dora Gicheva

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the idea that easily inferable demographic characteristics such as gender may not be sufficient to define type in the supervisor-employee mentoring relationship. We use longitudinal data on athletic directors at NCAA Division I programs to identify through observed mobility the propensity of top-level administrators to hire and retain female head coaches, above and beyond an organization's culture. We show that supervisor gender appears to be unrelated to female friendliness in t...

  19. First experimental evidence for female mate choice in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craul, Mathias; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2004-10-01

    Female mate choice can be hypothesised in most nocturnal primates, since females show a higher investment in their offspring than males. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate if female grey mouse lemurs perform mate choice and whether age, relatedness (to the male), or male advertisement call activity systematically influence their decisions. A two-way mate choice design was developed in which females could choose between two males. Mate choice was deduced from the time spent in proximity to the males and from mating behaviour. During oestrus 12 of 17 females participated actively in the experiment and all of them showed either a significant spatial (n = 11) or behavioural (n = 1) preference for one male. In four cases copulations were observed. The influence of age on female mate choice was not statistically significant. In the cases with copulations, however, females mostly preferred the older male. This might indicate a preference for older age as an indicator of experience, fitness, and/or status. The influence of relatedness on female mate choice could not be definitely clarified. However, results imply a mechanism of kin recognition on the basis of familiarity. In the majority of choices, females preferred the male with higher trill call activity. Since trill call activity correlates with the relative dominance status of males, these results suggest an importance of the male dominance status for female mate choice in grey mouse lemurs. Altogether our findings indicate that females use a complex of different cues to choose their mates. PMID:15241637

  20. Mate preference and disease risk in Zootermopsis angusticollis (Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; James, Lady-Thelma; Hartke, Tamara R; Brent, Colin S

    2011-12-01

    Termites face significant and chronic intranidal selection pressures from parasites and pathogens that colonize their nests. They also encounter microbes outside their nest while foraging and during dispersal of winged primary reproductives to establish new colonies. The latter run the additional risk of becoming infected by a mating partner. Indeed, death of reproductives because of disease is a major cause of incipient colony failure and may favor prescreening prospective mates for signs of illness. To determine the role of disease on mate preference in termites, female primary reproductives of the Pacific dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen) simultaneously were presented with reproductive males that were either healthy or exhibiting a progression of symptoms associated with infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin). We compared duration and frequency of female visits to healthy and infected males. In addition, we determined the physiological consequences for females exposed to fungal conidia, either directly or indirectly through their mate. Females showed no preference for healthy rather than infected males. Moreover, only directly-exposed females experienced negative physiological effects, having a reduced chance of survival, gaining less weight, developing fewer functional ovarioles, and producing significantly fewer vitellogenic oocytes than controls. Although there are important fitness-related costs of direct exposure, the lack of mate selection based on disease risk suggests that more imminent ecological pressures (e.g., predators, desiccation) override the need for a careful and time-consuming assessment of a potential mate's health. PMID:22217773

  1. Assortment Structure, Prior Knowledge and Brand Choice%商品陈列方式、先验品牌知识与品牌选择决策--弱势品牌的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赞; 王新新

    2015-01-01

    Consumers tend to have a higher evaluation and purchase intention toward the products with stronger brands. Compared to foreign products, Chinese alternatives usually occupy a weaker brand position. Hence, Chinese manufacturers who want to increase market share commonly adopt a low-price strategy. However, such strategy may greatly weaken the organization’s ability to gain profits and undermine its long-term development. Moreover, low price is likely to be used by consumers as a signal of poor quality of the products. Therefore, it is important for Chinese manufacturers with weak brands to adopt new competitive strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine how assortment structure affects consumer’s brand choice. The key hypothesis was that the manufacturers with weaker brands, rather than stronger ones, could optimize the assortment structure to affect consumers’ brand choice in a retail environment. We conducted three empirical studies to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we conducted three separated experiments to examine the impact of the assortment structure on consumers’ perceived variety of products. In particular, Study 1a explored the main effect of the assortment structure (attribute-based vs. benefit-based) on consumers’ perceived variety. Then, studies 1b and 1c composed a Chain-of-Experiments and tested the intermediate mechanism of the construal level in the causal relationship between the assortment structure and consumers’ perceived variety: Study 1b examined the impact of assortment structure on consumers’ construal level, and Study 1c tested the impact of the construal level on consumers’ perceived variety. Study 2 investigated the causal relationship between the assortment structure and consumers’ brand choice. Studies 1 and 2 adopted a one-way between-subject design. Study 3 explored the moderating effect of consumers’ prior knowledge of brand strength in the causal relationship and used a 2 (attribute-based vs. benefit

  2. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  3. Employer recruitment preferences and discrimination: a stated preference experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Quaid, Ronald; Bergmann, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of applying stated preference methods in the field of labour economics. Differences in behaviour and labour market disadvantage are connected to the presence, and ages of children, the so-called „family gap‟. There are major difficulties in collecting accurate information about the recruiting practices of employers and identifying their preferences towards different characteristics of new recruits. Employer answers to direct questions may not illicit relia...

  4. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  5. Strategy-proof Preference Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bossert, Walter; Sprumont, Yves

    2012-01-01

    An aggregation rule maps each profile of individual strict preference orderings over a set of alternatives into a social ordering over that set. We call such a rule strategyproof if misreporting one’s preference never produces a social ordering that is strictly between the original ordering and one’s own preference. After describing a few examples of manipulable rules, we study in some detail three classes of strategy-proof rules: (i) rules based on a monotonic alteration of the majority rela...

  6. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  7. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaud...

  8. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and...... leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  9. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Stiver, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible. PMID:27529581

  10. 'Green' Preferences as Regulatory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    We examine the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If “green” preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for o...

  11. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements in...... the utility that patients would obtain from a potential improvement in their ostomy pouch. This provides information as to how treatment options in terms of stoma management can be structured so as to maximize the benefits for patients....

  12. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  13. FARMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CROP CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lajili, Kaouthar; Barry, Peter J.; Sonka, Steven T.; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical approach combining elements of principal-agent theory and transaction cost economics is used to determine farmers'Â’ preferences for contract terms in crop production. The approach is tested by asking grain farmers to rank contract choices and specify price premiums in simulated case situations. The statistical results indicate that farmers'Â’ preferences for rates of cost sharing, price premiums, and financing arrangements are significantly influenced by asset specialization and...

  14. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction

  15. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  16. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  17. Modality interactions alter the shape of acoustic mate preference functions in gray treefrogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael S; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection takes place in complex environments where females evaluating male mating signals are confronted with stimuli from multiple sources and modalities. The pattern of expression of female preferences may be influenced by interactions between modalities, changing the shape of female preference functions, and thus ultimately altering the selective landscape acting on male signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the responses of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to acoustic male advertisement calls are affected by interactions with visual stimuli. We measured preference functions for several call traits under two experimental conditions: unimodal (only acoustic signals presented), and multimodal (acoustic signals presented along with a video-animated calling male). We found that females were more responsive to multimodal stimulus presentations and, compared to unimodal playbacks, had weaker preferences for temporal call characteristics. We compared the preference functions obtained in these two treatments to the distribution of male call characteristics to make inferences on the strength and direction of selection expected to act on male calls. Modality interactions have the potential to influence the course of signal evolution and thus are an important consideration in sexual selection studies. PMID:26282702

  18. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  19. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  20. Female Mice Deficient in Alpha-Fetoprotein Show Female-Typical Neural Responses to Conspecific-Derived Pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Brock; Matthieu Keller; Quentin Douhard; Julie Bakker

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with e...

  1. Assortative matching among same-sex and different-sex couples in the United States, 1990-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schwartz; Nikki Graff

    2009-01-01

    Same-sex couples are less likely to be homogamous than different-sex couples on a variety of characteristics including race/ethnicity, age, and education. This study confirms results from previous studies which used 1990 U.S. census data and extends previous analyses to examine changes from 1990 to 2000. We find that same-sex male cohabitors are generally the least likely to resemble one another, followed by same-sex female cohabitors, different-sex cohabitors, and different-sex married coupl...

  2. The Changing Role of Education in the Marriage Market: Assortative Marriage in Canada and the United States since the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not relative rates of assortative marriage have been rising in the affluent democracies has been subject to considerable dispute. First, we show how the conflicting empirical findings that have fueled the debate are frequently an artifact of alternative methodological strategies for answering the question. Then, drawing on comparable census data for Canada and the United States, we examine trends in educational homogamy and intermarriage with log-linear models for all marriages among young adults under 35 over three decades. Our results show that educational homogamy, the tendency of like to marry like, has unambiguously risen in both countries since the 1970s. Rising levels of marital homogamy were the result of declining intermarriage at both ends of the educational distribution.

  3. Molecular structure, conformational preferences and vibrational analysis of 2-hydroxystyrene: A computational and spectroscopic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The torsion barriers of 2-hydroxy-styrene are analyzed. Intramolecular contacts have been dealt theoretically and using IR/Raman spectroscopy. Some conclusions about the conformational preferences are given. - Abstract: The molecular structure of 2-hydroxy-styrene has been investigated at DFT (B3LYP, mPW1PW91) and MP2 levels with an assortment of Pople's and Dunning's basis sets within the isolated molecule approximation. The presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds has been theoretically characterized through a topological analysis of the electron density according to the Atom-In-Molecules, AIM, theory. The conformational equilibrium has been pursued by means of an analysis of the hydroxyl-phenyl and vinyl-phenyl internal rotation barriers. This analysis also allowed getting an insight into the effects governing the torsion barriers and the preferred conformations. A twofold scheme has been used for this goal, i.e. the total electronic energy changes and the natural bonding orbital, NBO, schemes. The vibrational spectrum was recorded and then calculated at DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* and cc-pVTZ levels. Two scaling methods, SQMFF and linear scaling, have been applied on the theoretical spectrum in order to analyse the experimental one. The results point out that at least three different conformers coexist at room temperature.

  4. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  5. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  6. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp-/- females. Fertility of Lpp-/- males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp-/- x Lpp-/- crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp-/- mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  7. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  8. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  9. Developmental Study on Leg-to-Body Ratio Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have tested developmental differences in the perception of human body attractiveness and none have investigated development of Leg-to-Body Ratio (LBR) preferences. The aim of the current study was to determine whether preferences for LBR are largely innate and present among children in their early childhood, acquired in the course of socialization, and/or triggered by biological and hormonal changes. The study included 450 Polish men and women from Lower Silesia and Opole Province, Poland, whose ages ranged from 3 to 20 years. Participants were asked to choose which figurine they found the most attractive from a set of male and female figurines of various LBRs. We found that children below 8 years of age did not prefer any particular LBR and starting from about 9 years of age, preferences towards the legs of average length emerged. Importantly an LBR higher than the population average was not perceived as the most attractive until the age of 15 years. Therefore, we have empirically confirmed that LBR preferences change during develop ment. PMID:26898046

  10. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  11. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  12. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  13. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  14. The importance of individual preferences when evaluating the associations between working hours and indicators of health and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kecklund, Göran; Ingre, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    of health and well-being. The study population consisted of 173 female eldercare workers who mainly worked day or evening shifts. We combined self-reported questionnaire data on preferences with actual work schedules during a four-week period. The study showed that a misfit between preferences on one hand...

  15. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  16. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  17. Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as leaders. Nevertheless, more people prefer male than female bosses, and it is more difficult for women than men to become leaders and to succeed in…

  18. Student selection and preference types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else. PMID:7072461

  19. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  20. Interspecific interactions and learning variability jointly drive geographic differences in mate preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Svensson, Erik I

    2016-01-01

    Co-occurrence of closely related species can cause behavioral interference in mating and increase hybridization risk. Theoretically, this could lead to the evolution of more species-specific mate preferences and sexual signaling traits. Alternatively, females can learn to reject heterospecific...... males, to avoid male sexual interference from closely related species. Such learned mate discrimination could also affect conspecific mate preferences if females generalize from between species differences to prefer more species-specific mating signals. Female damselflies of the banded demoiselle...... (Calopteryx splendens) learn to reject heterospecific males of the beautiful demoiselle (C. virgo) through direct premating interactions. These two species co-occur in a geographic mosaic of sympatric and microallopatric populations. Whereas C. virgo males have fully melanized wings, male C. splendens wings...

  1. Female bias for enlarged male body and dorsal fins in Xiphophorus variatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R David; Gagnon, John; He, Ran

    2011-06-01

    Female preference for male fin elaborations in Poeciliid fishes may be driven by a sensory bias for increased lateral projection area (LPA) that has existed since the lineages diverged from a common ancestor. Previous research supports this hypothesis demonstrating female Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia mexicana, and Poecilia reticulata prefer males of larger body and dorsal fin size, but exhibit no such preferences when controlling for total LPA. In the current study, we further tested this hypothesis by presenting female platys, Xiphophorus variatus, with pairs of dummy males differing in: (1) body size (holding dorsal fin size constant); (2) dorsal fin size (holding body size constant); and (3) dorsal fin: body size ratio (holding total LPA constant). Females spent more time near dummies of greater body and dorsal fin size; however, in the third experiment, neither fin size, body size, nor any particular dorsal fin+body size combination was preferred. These results provide additional support for the LPA and sensory bias hypotheses, demonstrating that female X. variatus not only prefer males with "swords", but sailfin-like dorsal fins as well when body size is held constant. Shared preference for increased LPA is consistent with common ancestry of the sensory/neural systems in females of all four species. PMID:21457765

  2. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  3. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  4. Value disciplines: measuring customer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dannhauser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Competitiveness Report: 1999, South Africa ranks poorly in terms of delivering customer services (Garelli, 1999. In order to assist South African organisations to identify their customers' value preferences, three scales collectively called the Customer Preference Questionnaire (CPQ were developed. Opsomming Luidens die World Competitiveness Report: 1999 vaar Suid-Afrika swak ten opsigte van klientediens-lewering (Garelli, 1999. Om Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te help met die identifisering van hulle kliente se waardevoorkeure, is drie skale wat gesamentlik die Klientevoorkeurvraelys (CPQ genoem word, ontwikkel.

  5. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A.; Alshami, Ali M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: To the researchers′ knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The...

  6. Teenage sexual attitudes, norms, desires and intentions: The impact of preferred musical genres

    OpenAIRE

    Agbo-Quaye, Sena

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis focuses on teenage sexual attitudes and norms as moderated by their preferred music genre. The research questions addressed here are: What are the genre differences in lyrical representations of relationships and male and female characteristics? What are young peoples' perceptions of the impact of these genre differences on their lives? How does genre preference influence...

  7. Having a Son Promotes Clean Cooking Fuel Use in Urban India: Women's Status and Son Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Kishore; Dean Spears

    2014-01-01

    Urban Indian households with a male first child are approximately 2 percentage points more likely to use clean cooking fuel than comparable households with a female first child. Given Indian son preference, there are at least two mechanisms by which child sex could affect fuel choice: by improving the intrahousehold status of women, who bear more of the costs of traditional fuels, or by presenting an opportunity to invest in children's health, in the context of a preference for healthier boys...

  8. Chronic forced exercise during adolescence decreases cocaine conditioned place preference in Lewis rats

    OpenAIRE

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Tucci, Andrew; Stamos, Joshua; Robison, Lisa; Wang, Gene-Jack; Anderson, Brenda J.; Volkow, Nora D

    2010-01-01

    Chronic physical activity (exercise) may be beneficial in the prevention of substance use disorders; however, the extent to which physical activity can interfere with the reinforcing effects of drugs during the adolescent period, which is one of great vulnerability for drug experimentation, has not been fully evaluated. Here, we assess the effects of chronic forced exercise during adolescence on preference for cocaine using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in male and female Le...

  9. Preference for Leaders with Masculine Voices Holds in the Case of Feminine Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rindy C.; Klofstad, Casey A.

    2012-01-01

    Human voice pitch research has focused on perceptions of attractiveness, strength, and social dominance. Here we examine the influence of pitch on selection of leaders, and whether this influence varies by leadership role. Male and female leaders with lower-pitched (i.e., masculine) voices are generally preferred by both men and women. We asked whether this preference shifts to favor higher-pitch (i.e., feminine) voices within the specific context of leadership positions that are typically he...

  10. Understanding the female offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  11. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  12. Derived strengths of preference relations on coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, Peter

    1988-01-01

    textabstractway is indicated to derive, from a preference relation on a Cartesian product, strength of preference relations on the coordinate sets. These strengths of preference relations are then used to reformulate several well-known properties of preference relations, and make their meaning more transparent. A new result for dynamic contexts is given.

  13. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  14. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  15. CEU Preferences and Dynamic Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Simon; Eichberger, Jürgen; Kelsey, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic consistency of CEU preferences. A decision maker is faced with an information structure represented by a fixed filtration. If beliefs are represented by a convex capacity, we show that a necessary and sufficient condition for dynamic consistency is that beliefs be additive over the final stage in the filtration.

  16. Substrate preferences in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Reenen, van K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the substrate preference of laying hens with respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to determine which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems for the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of pr

  17. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  18. Social preferences in private decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Linde; J. Sonnemans

    2012-01-01

    Social preference models were originally constructed to explain two things: why people spend money to affect the earnings of others and why the income of others influences reported happiness. We test these models in a novel experimental situation where participants face a risky decision that affects

  19. Personality Preferences of Outdoor Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Christine; Montgomery, Diane; Lane, Suzie

    A study investigated the personality type preferences of people who voluntarily chose to participate in a structured, field-based, outdoor education program. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 87 participants prior to beginning a 10-day Wilderness Education Association outdoor leadership trip. Participants were 18-46 years…

  20. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  1. Fungal food preferences in Collembola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Nováková, Alena

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 71. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * food preference * microfungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Preference for Hiring Highly-Qualified STEM Women Faculty Does Not Extend to Less Qualified Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Ceci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Audits of tenure-track hiring reveal faculty prefer to hire female applicants over males. However, audit data do not control for applicant quality, allowing some to argue women are hired at higher rates because they are more qualified. To test this, Williams and Ceci (2015 conducted an experiment demonstrating a preference for hiring women over identically-qualified men. While their findings are consistent with audits, they raise the specter that faculty may prefer women over even more-qualified men, a claim made recently. We evaluated this question in the present study: 158 faculty ranked two men and one woman for a tenure-track-assistant professorship, and 94 faculty ranked two women and one man. In the former condition, the female applicant was slightly weaker than her two male competitors, although still strong; in the other condition the male applicant was slightly weaker than his two female competitors, although still strong. Faculty of both genders and in all fields preferred the more-qualified men over the slightly-less-qualified women, and they also preferred the stronger women over the slightly-less-qualified man. This suggests that preference for women among identically-qualified applicants found in experimental studies and in audits does not extend to women whose credentials are weaker than male counterparts.

  3. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  4. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000144.htm Self catheterization - female To use the sharing features on ... incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  5. Impact on Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More CHD's Impact on Females Updated:Apr 19,2016 While most ... Surgery? What is a Stress Test? More The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart ...

  6. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women ... which happens to everyone as time passes. The hair loss rarely progresses to total or near total baldness, ...

  7. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  8. Product Category Familiarity and Preference Construction.

    OpenAIRE

    COUPEY, ELOISE; Irwin, Julie R; Payne, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Marketers often base decisions about marketing strategies on the results of research designed to elicit information about consumers' preferences. A large body of research indicates, however, that preferences often are labile. That is, preferences can be reversed depending on factors such as how the preference is elicited. In three studies, we examine the effect of familiarity in two preference elicitation tasks, choice and matching judgments. We provide evidence of an interaction between fami...

  9. Growth and Parental Preference for Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Angus C.; Furukawa, Yuichi; Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the implications of parental preference for education in an innovation-driven growth model that features an interaction between endogenous technological progress and human capital accumulation. Parents invest in children's education partly due to the preference for their children to be educated. We consider a preference parameter that measures the degree of this parental preference for education. We find that a higher degree of parental preference for education increases h...

  10. Preferences in Constraint Satisfaction and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Francesca; University of Padova; Venable, Kristen Brent; Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    We review constraint-based approaches to handle preferences. We start by defining the main notions of constraint programming, then give various concepts of soft constraints and show how they can be used to model quantitative preferences. We then consider how soft constraints can be adapted to handle other forms of preferences, such as bipolar, qualitative, and temporal preferences. Finally, we describe how AI techniques such as abstraction, explanation generation, machine learning, and prefer...

  11. Contracting preference relations for database applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mindolin, Denis; Chomicki, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The binary relation framework has been shown to be applicable to many real-life preference handling scenarios. Here we study preference contraction: the problem of discarding selected preferences. We argue that the property of minimality and the preservation of strict partial orders are crucial for contractions. Contractions can be further constrained by specifying which preferences should be protected. We consider two classes of preference relations: finite and finitely representable. We pre...

  12. Assessing Animals’ Preferences: Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpter, Catherine E.; Foster, Mary T.; Temple, William

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of assessing animals’ preferences are outlined: free-access, two-choice (e.g., T maze), and concurrent-schedules. While all give indications of relative preference between the choices, freeaccess and discrete-trial procedures tend to give exclusive preference and so do not indicate the degree of preference. Concurrent schedules give at least ordinal measures of the degree of preference. Data from cows, hens, and brushtail possums are used to illustrate the use of concurrent sche...

  13. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  14. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  15. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

  16. "A taste for the beautiful": latent aesthetic mate preferences for white crests in two species of Australian grassfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, N T; Symanski, R

    1998-12-01

    Darwin first hypothesized that bright colors and elaborate ornamentation of male animals evolved in response to the "aesthetic" mate preferences of females. By this reasoning, potentially costly male secondary sexual traits may evolve not in response to selection for demonstration of vigor but, rather, in response to latent, nonfunctional preferences by females. Recent comparative evidence for this phenomenon is equivocal. Here we present experimental evidence that two avian species from a lineage devoid of crested species have mate preferences for opposite sex conspecifics wearing artificial white crests. Other colors of crests that have been studied are not preferred. Preferences for white crests did not diminish over the longest experimental interval (12 wk). These results are additional powerful evidence for highly structured aesthetic mate preferences in estrildine finches. Sex differences in the expression of preferences, and the widespread occurrence of facial ornamentation in birds, suggest that the preference "structure" is influenced by the central nervous system. We hypothesize that aesthetic preferences are a potent force in the early evolution of sexually selected traits, and that "indicator" traits evolve secondarily from traits initially favored by aesthetic preferences. PMID:18811428

  17. Preference Mapping of Soymilk with Different U.S. Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2016-02-01

    This study determined and compared drivers of liking for unflavored soymilk with different U.S. consumer groups. A highly trained panel documented appearance, mouthfeel and flavor attributes of 26 commercial soymilks. Twelve representative soymilks were then selected for evaluation by consumers from 3 age/cultural categories (n = 75 each category; Caucasian/African American females aged 18 to 30 y; Asian females aged 18 to 30 y; Caucasian/African American females aged 40 to 64 y). Consumers evaluated overall liking and liking and intensity of specific attributes. Results were evaluated by analysis of variance, followed by internal and external preference mapping. Age had no effect on overall liking, while ethnicity did (Caucasian/African American compared with Asian; P vanillin and sweet aromatic flavors and higher viscosity were preferred by most consumers and differences between consumer clusters were primarily in drivers of dislike. Drivers of dislike were not identified for Cluster 1 consumers while Clusters 2 and 3 consumers (n = 84, n = 80) disliked beany, green/grassy and meaty/brothy flavors and astringency. Cluster 3 (n = 80) consumers scored all soymilks higher in liking (P < 0.05) than Cluster 2 consumers, and were willing to overlook disliked attributes with the addition of sweet taste, whereas the Cluster 2 consumers were not. These findings can be utilized to produce soymilks with attributes that are well liked by target consumers and to tailor attributes for segments of the population that have not yet been accommodated. PMID:26677062

  18. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Petit

    Full Text Available In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent's and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents' and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins' host selection principle (HHSP, neo-Hopkins' principle, and the concept of 'chemical legacy.'

  19. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chik Wan Chak

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness.

  20. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  1. How women play mobile games: Studying the consumer culture of mobile games among young adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Liimatainen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Female players have interested researchers and industry professionals ever since the video games market started notably growing again after the mid-80s. Numerous studies motivated by the desire to grow the female demographic of games have studied female preferences and obstacles of adoption i.a. Since then, the video games market has developed significantly and continues growing with an increasing speed. A significant part of this growth is due to the advancements in mobile games that have ex...

  2. Disciplining the Sex Ratio:Exploring the Governmentality of Female Feticide in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purewal, Navtej K.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘girl child’ has attracted a considerable amount of attention in India as an object of policy addressing gender discrimination. This article examines the field of campaigns seeking to address female foeticide and positions the public discourse on the ‘girl child’ and sex selective abortion in India within a broad cultural backdrop of son preference. The article argues that anti-female foeticide campaigns exist within a disciplinary domain of female foeticide which both generates a disc...

  3. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Dellaert, Benedict; Stremersch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of processor, memory size, monitor, etc. However, how such firms configure the mass customization process determines the utility a consumer may obtain or the complexity a consumer may face in the mas...

  4. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild.

  5. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  6. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  7. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  8. Preference for hope over knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Hedžet Tóth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Preference of Hope over Knowledge provides an analysis of the views of the American philosopher Richard Rorty, with special reference to concepts such as hope, utopia and the potential of ethics in the most recent times which, after the year of 1989, have been marked by the collapse of socialism of bolshevik origin. Thus knowledge is now preferred to hope, yet Rorty firmly insists that knowledge must keep its potential for hope, because it is the only way that humanism can maintain its existence. Even though we are faced with the end of the metaphysics of final certainty and its absolute principles, it is still possible to consider ethics and how it can be substantiated. Moral progress is possible, but not on the basis of something from the beyond, but rather as a matter of increasing sensitivity, increasing responsiveness to the needs of a larger and larger variety of people and things. It was with these views that Rorty established his ethics without principles, but in a very principled way as the anthropology of ethics that emphatically refuses to continue being the concealed voice of theos. The articles also highlights Rorty's comprehension of pragmatism conceived of as the philosophy of solidarity, since it expressly prefers solidarity to objectivity, solidarity being that other side of justice which remains one of the most basic concepts of every ethics.

  9. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  10. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with...

  11. Preferences for Rape Reduction Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulewitz, Judith E.; Kahn, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 53 female and 36 male college students to examine attitudes on the perceived effectiveness of four rape reduction strategies. Generally aggressive strategies and those placing the locus of responsibility for change upon women were considered most effective. Sex role attitudes were more predictive than subject sex differences. (JAC)

  12. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  13. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  14. Prices and the assortment offer of the mineral fertilizers in the farmers’ opinion Ceny i oferta asortymentowa nawozów mineralnych w opinii producentów rolnych

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2011-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers are the basic means of production used by agriculturalists in order to improve the size and quality of the cultivated plants. The retail prices of the most popular mineral fertilizers have risen in the last years. The paper discusses the research results concerning the agriculturalists' opinion about the mineral fertilizers’ prices and assortment in the market. The research revealed that the high prices and their disadvantageous relation to the fruits' of the ear...

  15. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  16. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs. PMID:24616491

  17. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa'afafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa'afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women's CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = -0.62) between these variables in both men and fa'afafine. Among males (both men and fa'afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia. PMID:27100108

  18. The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Multiple Intelligences among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shayeghi, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between preferences of Multiple Intelligences and perceptual/social learning styles. Two self-report questionnaires were administered to a total of 207 male and female participants. Pearson correlation results revealed statistically significant positive relations between…

  19. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the…

  20. Differing Gender Preferences for Educational Media among Thai Students Studying English at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Samuel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    There have been many reports indicating that there are differences between male and female students in various issues in education. This research examined the preferences for various forms of educational media by freshmen students studying English in Thailand. Approximately 3000 students at seven university campuses in central Thailand were…

  1. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  2. Female Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  3. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 ...

  4. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  5. Reasoning With Conditional Ceteris Paribus Preference Statem

    OpenAIRE

    Boutilier, Craig; Brafman, Ronen I.; Hoos, Holger H; Poole, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In many domains it is desirable to assess the preferences of users in a qualitative rather than quantitative way. Such representations of qualitative preference orderings form an importnat component of automated decision tools. We propose a graphical representation of preferences that reflects conditional dependence and independence of preference statements under a ceteris paribus (all else being equal) interpretation. Such a representation is ofetn compact and arguably natural. We describe s...

  6. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran; Mercanlıgil, Seyit M.

    2013-01-01

    Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting ...

  7. Food preferences in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    By using a three-choice preference test I tested food preferences in eight meerkats (Sutricata suricatta) for nine different food items. The meerkats were presented with all possible combinations of 9 food items, in total 84 combinations. The meerkats displayed the following rank order of food preference: cricket > zophoba lava > egg white > banana = tomato > orange > apple > cucumber > carrot. A correlation test between the food preference and nutritional content showed ...

  8. Gender preference and implications for screening colonoscopy: Impact of endoscopy nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vui Heng Chong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the gender preferences,specifically the gender of the nursing staff (endoscopy assistants) and the impact on acceptance for screening colonoscopy (SC).METHODS:Patients or relatives attending the clinics or health care workers working in a tertiarycenter were invited to participate in this questionnaire study.The questionnaire enquired on the general demographics (1) age,gender,ethnicity,education level,and employment status,previous history of colonoscopy,family or personal history of colonic pathologies,personal and family history of any cancers; (2) subjects were asked if they would go for an SC if they had appropriate indications (age over 50 years,family history of colorectal cancer (CRC),fecal occult blood positive,anemia especially iron deficiency anemia,bleeding per rectum with or without loss of appetite,weight loss and abdominal pain) with and without symptoms attributable to CRC;and (3) preferences for the gender of the endoscopists and assistants and whether they would still undergo SC even if their preferences were not met.RESULTS:Eighty-four point seven percent (470/550)completed questionnaire were analysed.More female subjects expressed gender preferences for the endoscopists [overall 70%; female (67.7%) and male (2.3%)]compared to male subjects [overall 62.8%; male (56%)and female (6.8%),P =0.102].Similarly,more female subjects expressed gender preferences for the assistants [overall 74.5%; female (73.4%) and male (1.1%)]compared to male subjects [overall 58%,male (49.3%)and female (8.7%),P < 0.001].Overall,a third would decline an SC,despite having appropriate indications,if their preferences were not met.On univariate analysis,male gender,non-Malay ethnicity (Chinese and others)and previous colonoscopy experience were more likely to undergo an SC,even if their preferences were not met (all P < 0.05).Gender and previous experience [odds ratio (OR) 1.68,95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.82,P < 0

  9. Business Education Students' Preferred Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, completed by 212 secondary business students, showed that most preferred direct experience--hands-on learning. Least preferred was reading, including textbook assignments. Nearly half (98) clustered around applied and independent learning preferences. (SK)

  10. Preference Handling in Relational Query Languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Radim

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 1-7. ISBN 978-1-61284-831-0. [AICT 2011. International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies/5./. Baku (AZ), 12.10.2011-14.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : conflicting preferences * comparative preference statements * various kinds of preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  11. Preschoolers Use Speakers' Preferences to Learn Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. The…

  12. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  13. Aspects Related to Researching Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2007-01-01

    Catching the essence of consumer’ preferences, a dimension of consumers’ behavior through marketing research represents an important aspect in the activity of any organization and, in the same time, an objective very difficult to reach. This paper is meant to bring some light on the importance of knowing the consumer’ preferences and on the ways that consumer’ preferences are determined.

  14. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  15. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU... preference. (a) Any contract made by the Bureau with a State, school district or Indian corporation shall provide that the contractor shall, to the greatest extent feasible, give preference in and...

  16. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  17. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  18. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  19. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  20. Wealth Effects on Job Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Preferences over jobs depend on wages and non-wage aspects. Variation in wealth may change the importance of income as a motivation for working. Higher wealth levels may make good non-wage characteristics relatively more important. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a reduced form search model in which differential job leaving rates identify willingness to pay for non-wage aspects of jobs. Marginal willingness to pay for non-wage aspects (measured by “job satisfaction for work in its...

  1. Innate Host Habitat Preference in the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata: Functional Significance and Modifications through Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Segura

    Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.

  2. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  3. Preferences for anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation: the patients' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Björn; Thate-Waschke, Inga-Marion; Bauersachs, Rupert; Kohlmann, Thomas; Wilke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), besides vitamin-K antagonists, an additional option for stroke prevention of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is available. The objective of this study was to assess AF patients' preferences with regard to the attributes of these different treatment options. We conducted a multicenter study among randomly selected physicians. Preferences were assessed by computer-assisted telephone interviews. We used a discrete-choice-experiment (DCE) with four convenience-related treatment dependent attributes (need of bridging: yes/no, interactions with food/nutrition: yes/no, need of INR controls/dose adjustment: yes/no; frequency of intake: once/twice daily) and one comparator attribute (distance to practitioner: 15 km). Preferences measured in the interviews were analyzed descriptively and based on a conditional logit regression model. A total of 486 AF patients (age: 73.9 ± 8.2 years; 43.2 % female; mean CHA2DS2-VASc: 3.7 ± 1.6; current medication: 48.1 % rivaroxaban, 51.9 % VKA) could be interviewed. Regardless of type of medication, patients significantly preferred the attribute levels (in order of patients' importance) "once daily intake" (Level: once = 1 vs. twice = 0; Coefficient = 0.615; p 15 km = 0 vs. ≤1 km = 1; 0.494; p important OAC-attribute for patients' choice followed by "no bridging necessary" and "no interactions with food/nutrition". Thus, patients with AF seem to prefer treatment options which are easier to administer. PMID:26260625

  4. Effect of starvation on vein preference of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on chilli as host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Sakinah, A.; Mohamad Roff M., N.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cosmopolitan pest of horticultural crops. It caused serious damaged to the plants by feeding on plant saps as direct damage and transmit virus as indirect damage. Vein preferences of both female and male whitefly (WF) on chilli plant were recorded using Dinolite, a portable microscope, under laboratory conditions. WF adults of both sexes were starved for 2 and 4 hours before used for observation while no starvation for control individual (treatment). Results showed that both female and male preferred to feed on secondary veins rather than lamina, midrib and vein. From the result of whitefly preferred target site, hopefully this information will help to improve control tactics in WF management.

  5. Estrous female goats use testosterone-dependent cues to assess mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpre, Kristy M; Katz, Larry S

    2011-01-01

    In a promiscuous species like the domestic goat (Capra hircus), in which maternal investment is greater than paternal investment, a female may mate selectively with a more-fit male to improve her reproductive fitness. Testosterone (T) controls a large suite of male-typical behaviors and morphological characteristics. High T concentrations may be energetically costly or even detrimental to survival; thus, preventing lower quality males from falsely advertising their fitness. Three preference studies were conducted to examine if females use T-dependent cues to assess potential mates. For Experiment 1, females were given a choice between a pair of morphologically similar males, bucks (intact males) and stags (post-pubertally castrated males), during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In both seasons, females preferred the bucks compared to stags. In Experiment 2, females were given a choice between bucks, stags and wethers (pre-pubertally castrated males) during the non-breeding season. For some comparisons, castrated males received 25 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or were untreated. Females preferred TP-treated males compared to untreated males and showed no preference when given a choice between either two TP-treated or two untreated males. In Experiment 3, females were given a choice between a pair of bucks and a pair of stags treated with 25 mg TP during monthly tests in the breeding season. At each monthly test, females preferred the males with higher T concentrations near the time of the behavior test. These studies suggest that females use T-dependent cues to assess potential mates, and T concentrations may indicate a male's overall fitness. PMID:21056568

  6. Gender shift in realisation of preferred type of gp practice: longitudinal survey over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpbier Albert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of newly trained Dutch GPs prefer to work in a group practice and as a non-principal rather than in a single-handed practice. In view of the greater number of female doctors, changing practice preferences, and discussions on future workforce problems, the question is whether male and female GPs were able to realise their initial preferences in the past and will be able to do so in the future. Methods We have conducted longitudinal cohort study of all GPs in the Netherlands seeking a practice between 1980 and 2004. The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research (NIVEL in Utrecht collected the data used in this study by means of a postal questionnaire. The overall mean response rate was 94%. Results Over the past 20 years, an increasing proportion of GPs, both male and female, were able to achieve their preference for working in a group practice and/or in a non-principal position. Relatively more women than men have settled in group practices, and more men than women in single-handed practices; however, the practice preference of men and women is beginning to converge. Dropout was highest among the GPs without any specific practice preference. Conclusion The overwhelming preference of male and female GPs for working in group practices is apparently being met by the number of positions (principal or non-principal available in group practices. The preference of male and female GPs regarding the type of practice and job conditions is expected to converge further in the near future.

  7. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684

  8. Reflective visualization and verbalization of unconscious preference

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious preference is the preference which can be observed as an action resulted from one's decision making, but whose origin and background one can not describe with verbal explanation. It is an important problem to develop a method to help one become conscious of the one's unconscious preference, and convey it to the others in the form of verbal explanation. This paper develops a method which combines the concepts of reflection, visualization, and verbalization, applied to group discussion, with a tool which implements an algorithm to process information on the subjects' stated preference. The method is applied to the experiments where the unconscious preference on the art works is investigated.

  9. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  10. 25 CFR 170.914 - What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian preference? 170.914 Section 170.914 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.914 What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian...

  11. On the priority vector associated with a fuzzy preference relation and a multiplicative preference relation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedrizzi, Michele; Brunelli, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    We propose two straightforward methods for deriving the priority vector associated with a fuzzy preference relation. Then, using transformations between multiplicative preference relations and fuzzy preference relations, we study the relationships between the priority vectors associated with these two types of preference relations.

  12. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    male (monogamy). Precopulatory (mate acceptance) and prefertilization (latency to copulation, mating interruption and copulation duration) behaviours were compared between the two treatments. Males provide females with a nuptial prey gift during courtship. Because of the direct benefit associated with...... nuptial feeding, females should accept males indiscriminately and exert preference only at the prefertilization level. We found that monogamous females remated more readily than polyandrous females, suggesting less resistance to remating with the same male than with novel mates. No differences in female...... prefertilization responses were found. Lack of preference for novel mates may suggest that direct selection exerted by the nuptial gift rather than indirect selection for genetic benefits is a more likely driver of female remating propensity. Females were nevertheless resistant to remating, suggesting a trade...

  13. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  14. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  15. On Planning with Preferences in HTN

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, Shirin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating preferred plans by combining the procedural control knowledge specified by Hierarchical Task Networks (HTNs) with rich qualitative user preferences. The outcome of our work is a language for specifyin user preferences, tailored to HTN planning, together with a provably optimal preference-based planner, HTNPLAN, that is implemented as an extension of SHOP2. To compute preferred plans, we propose an approach based on forward-chaining heuristic search. Our heuristic uses an admissible evaluation function measuring the satisfaction of preferences over partial plans. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of our HTNPLAN heuristics. We prove our approach sound and optimal with respect to the plans it generates by appealing to a situation calculus semantics of our preference language and of HTN planning. While our implementation builds on SHOP2, the language and techniques proposed here are relevant to a broad range of HTN planners.

  16. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role of...... the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  17. Moi bans female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalema, R

    1990-06-01

    A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move. PMID:12293761

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Singal; Sidharth Sonthalia; Prashant Verma

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident...

  19. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS HOLMÉN; THAW TAR MIN; EMILIA SAARELAINEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the motivations of eight female Afghan entrepreneurs to start up their own business and the problems they encountered during start-up and operations. Income generation was the most important push factor but pull factors including desire for independence and autonomy were also important. However, in contrast to studies in other countries, the desire for achievement was not emphasized. An unexpected finding was the emphasis on the desire to help non-family members by running...

  20. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekulić Milana

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...