WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisting informed decision

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Regulation and public funding of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) vary across the Canadian provinces. In Alberta, neither of these exists. We conducted this study to evaluate the cost effectiveness and budget impact of providing ARTs in Alberta under three different policy scenarios (a "restrictive" policy, a policy based on Quebec's model, and a "permissive" policy) in comparison with the status quo. To predict the cost effectiveness and budget impact of three policy options for publicly funded ARTs in Alberta, we developed an economic model by combining a state transition Markov model and a decision tree. The primary outcome was cost per healthy singleton. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. The restrictive policy was the most cost effective option for two subgroups of age (model showed the cost savings of $8.33 million for the restrictive policy for the model results were robust. This economic modelling study shows that publicly funded and scientifically regulated ARTs could provide treatment access and save health care expenditures for the province.

  2. Morally-Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Assisted Dying Practices in Paradigm and Non-Paradigm Circumstances: Could They Inform Regulatory Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    There has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. A comparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three practices in paradigm circumstances, and 2) the use of the practices in paradigm circumstances to their use in non-paradigm circumstances. The analytical outcomes suggest that a bright moral line cannot be demonstrated between any two of the practices in paradigm circumstances, and that there are significant, morally-relevant distinctions between their use in paradigm and non-paradigm circumstances. A thought experiment is employed to illustrate how these outcomes could possibly inform the decisions of hypothetical deliberators who are engaged in the collaborative development of assisted dying regulatory frameworks.

  3. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    guidance producing programmes and at all stages of development. CE could range from information from experts and patient/carers, grey literature (including evidence from websites and policy reports) and testimony from stakeholders through consultation. Six tools for critical appraisal of CE were available...... scientific literature is sparse and to also capture the experience of all stakeholders in discussions, including that of experts and patients. We aimed to ascertain how CE was being used at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). METHODS: Relevant data corresponding to the use of CE...... was extracted from all NICE technical and process manuals by two reviewers and quality assured and analyzed by a third reviewer. This was considered in light of the results of a focused literature review and a combined checklist for quality assessment was developed. RESULTS: At NICE, CE is utilised across all...

  4. Information Foraging for Perceptual Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Casimir J.H.; Evens, David R

    2016-01-01

    We tested an information foraging framework to characterize the mechanisms that drive active (visual) sampling behavior in decision problems that involve multiple sources of information. Experiments 1 through 3 involved participants making an absolute judgment about the direction of motion of a single random dot motion pattern. In Experiment 4, participants made a relative comparison between 2 motion patterns that could only be sampled sequentially. Our results show that: (a) Information (abo...

  5. The Personal Information Security Assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter

    The human element is often found to be the weakest link in the information security chain. The Personal Information Security Assistant project aims to address this by improving the privacy and security awareness of end-users and by aligning the user's personal IT environment to the user's security

  6. Information foraging for perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Casimir J H; Evens, David R

    2017-02-01

    We tested an information foraging framework to characterize the mechanisms that drive active (visual) sampling behavior in decision problems that involve multiple sources of information. Experiments 1 through 3 involved participants making an absolute judgment about the direction of motion of a single random dot motion pattern. In Experiment 4, participants made a relative comparison between 2 motion patterns that could only be sampled sequentially. Our results show that: (a) Information (about noisy motion information) grows to an asymptotic level that depends on the quality of the information source; (b) The limited growth is attributable to unequal weighting of the incoming sensory evidence, with early samples being weighted more heavily; (c) Little information is lost once a new source of information is being sampled; and (d) The point at which the observer switches from 1 source to another is governed by online monitoring of his or her degree of (un)certainty about the sampled source. These findings demonstrate that the sampling strategy in perceptual decision-making is under some direct control by ongoing cognitive processing. More specifically, participants are able to track a measure of (un)certainty and use this information to guide their sampling behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Ada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  8. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  9. Information Clustering for Better Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    2 Information Organization .............................................................................................. 3...may contain considerable uncertainty, or may change over time, Required decisions may include both what to do and when to act. INFORMATION ORGANIZATION Recent

  10. The Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Bill 2013: content, commentary, controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2015-03-01

    Ireland's Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Bill (2013) aims to reform the law relating to persons who require assistance exercising their decision-making capacity. When finalised, the Bill will replace Ireland's outdated Ward of Court system which has an all-or-nothing approach to capacity; does not adequately define capacity; is poorly responsive to change; makes unwieldy provision for appointing decision-makers; and has insufficient provision for review. To explore the content and implications of the Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Bill. Review of the content of the Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Bill and related literature. The new Bill includes a presumption of capacity and defines lack of capacity. All interventions must minimise restriction of rights and freedom, and have due regard for "dignity, bodily integrity, privacy and autonomy". The Bill proposes legal frameworks for "assisted decision-making" (where an individual voluntarily appoints someone to assist with specific decisions relating to personal welfare or property and affairs, by, among other measures, assisting the individual to communicate his or her "will and preferences"); "co-decision-making" (where the Circuit Court declares the individual's capacity is reduced but he or she can make specific decisions with a co-decision-maker to share authority); "decision-making representatives" (substitute decision-making); "enduring power of attorney"; and "informal decision-making on personal welfare matters" (without apparent oversight). These measures, if implemented, will shift Ireland's capacity laws away from an approach based on "best interests" to one based on "will and preferences", and increase compliance with the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  11. Optimal Systems for Information and Decision,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFORMATION THEORY, OPTIMIZATION), CODING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, DECISION THEORY, SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , MATHEMATICAL MODELS, DECODING, COSTS

  12. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  13. Factors that Influence Assistive Technology Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Elizabeth A.; Sizemore, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 15 Kentucky professionals providing assistive technology (AT) services for young children with disabilities found contradictions, including frequent espousal of teaming as important in service delivery but less frequent implementation; family members not seen as important members of teams, but client goals rated as extremely…

  14. Administrative Assistants' Informal Learning and Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the causal relationship among informal learning, leader-member exchange (LMX), empowerment, job characteristics and job self-efficacy and the impact on administrative assistants in corporations. The study aims at providing information for administrative assistants who have worked with their current…

  15. [The role of information in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Public health, prevention, health education and health promotion are inseparable from the concepts of information and communication. Information should respond as much as possible to the needs of professionals, decision-makers, and consumers who are more and more concerned and conscious of its importance in light of "information overload", various dissemination channels and the multiplicity of its sources. There are numerous issues at stake ranging from comprehension, to the validation of health information, health education, health promotion, prevention, decision-making, as well as issues related to knowledge and power. Irrespective of the type of choice to be made, the need for information, knowledge, and know-how is inseparable from that of other tools or regulatory measures required for decision-making. Information is the same as competence, epidemiological and population data, health data, scientific opinion, and expert conferences--all are needed to assist in decision-making. Based on the principle of precaution, information must increasingly take into account the rejection of a society which often reasons on the basis of a presumption of zero-risk, in an idealistic manner, and which also excludes the possibility of new risks. The consumer positions himself as the regulator of decisions, specifically those with regard to the notion of acceptable level of risk. All of the actors involved in the health system are or become at one moment or another public health decision-makers. Their decision might be based either on an analytical approach, or on an intuitive approach. Although the act of decision-making is the least visible part of public health policy, it is certainly the driving force. This process should integrate the perspective of all of the relevant players, including consumers, who are currently situated more and more frequently at the heart of the health system. Public health decision-making is conducted as a function of political, strategic and

  16. Patient decision making in the face of conflicting medication information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Elstad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When patients consult more than one source of information about their medications, they may encounter conflicting information. Although conflicting information has been associated with negative outcomes, including worse medication adherence, little is known about how patients make health decisions when they receive conflicting information. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making strategies that individuals with arthritis use when they receive conflicting medication information. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 men and women with arthritis. Interview vignettes posed scenarios involving conflicting information from different sources (e.g., doctor, pharmacist, and relative, and respondents were asked how they would respond to the situation. Data analysis involved inductive coding to identify emergent themes and deductive contextualization to make meaning from the emergent themes. In response to conflicting medication information, patients used rules of thumb, trial and error, weighed benefits and risks, and sought more information, especially from a doctor. Patients relied heavily on trial and error when there was no conflicting information involved in the vignette. In contrast, patients used rules of thumb as a unique response to conflicting information. These findings increase our understanding of what patients do when they receive conflicting medication information. Given that patient exposure to conflicting information is likely to increase alongside the proliferation of medication information on the Internet, patients may benefit from assistance in identifying the most appropriate decision strategies for dealing with conflicting information, including information about best information sources.

  17. Decision Making with Asymmetric Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractEvery day individuals make numerous choices. What is important for making the right choice is that individuals have good information about the consequences of the different alternatives. However, investigating the full consequences of the different alternatives is complicated and

  18. GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE FOR INFORMAL SECTOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    operators of informal sector activities in three urban areas of Fiji that the major obstacle to informal sector business in Fiji is lack of finance (60%). Other constraints include lack of know- how and skills, and discriminatory government regulation. The most important expectation or requirement of informal sector operators in Fiji ...

  19. Accounting Information Systems for Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, D.; Vaassen, E.H.J.; Dameri, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    ​This book contains a collection of research papers on accounting information systems including their strategic role in decision processes, within and between companies. An accounting system is a complex system composed of a mix of strictly interrelated elements such as data, information, human

  20. Decision Making in Dynamic Information Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Oliveira; Jose Carlos Montoya; Paulo Novais; Ken Satoh

    2017-01-01

    If there is no knowledge about the state of the world, getting the appropriate response to an event becomes impossible. Situations of uncertainty are common in the most varied environments and have the potential to impair or even stop the decision-making process. Thus, reaching an outcome in such situations requires the development of decision frameworks that account for missing, contradictory or uncertain information.

  1. Wide Area Information Browsing Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    by Title Select Annot in Associate Rin Browser 00 ___Go to eiarch another page elect/Cance ] Select Chunk Subit / Activator n notat Cin Browser ISac...DC 20301-7000 SDI TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER 1 1755 JEFFERSON DAVIS HIGHWAY #708 ARLINGTON VA 22202 NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CTR I ATTN: DR. MORT

  2. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. Dhruvesh P Patel Prashant K Srivastava ...

  3. A Decision Support Model and Tool to Assist Financial Decision-Making in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, Imtiaz; Manuguerra, Maurizio; Baldock, Clive

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a model and tool is proposed to assist universities and other mission-based organisations to ascertain systematically the optimal portfolio of projects, in any year, meeting the organisations risk tolerances and available funds. The model and tool presented build on previous work on university operations and decision support systems…

  4. Supporting management decisions with ex ante accounting information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; Verdaasdonk, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper is about the relationship between management decisions and accounting information. Management decisions have consequences in different functional areas, departments, and different companies along the value chain. Accounting information regarding decisions aims to translate as many as

  5. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  6. Enabling joined-up decision making with geotemporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Ahmed, S. E.; Purves, D. W.; Emmott, S.; Joppa, L. N.; Caldararu, S.; Visconti, P.; Newbold, T.; Formica, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    While the use of geospatial data to assist in decision making is becoming increasingly common, the use of geotemporal information: information that can be indexed by geographical space AND time, is much rarer. I will describe our scientific research and software development efforts intended to advance the availability and use of geotemporal information in general. I will show two recent examples of "stacking" geotemporal information to support land use decision making in the Brazilian Amazon and Kenya, involving data-constrained predictive models and empirically derived datasets of road development, deforestation, carbon, agricultural yields, water purification and poverty alleviation services and will show how we use trade-off analyses and constraint reasoning algorithms to explore the costs and benefits of different decisions. For the Brazilian Amazon we explore tradeoffs involved in different deforestation scenarios, while for Kenya we explore the impacts of conserving forest to support international carbon conservation initiatives (REDD+). I will also illustrate the cloud-based software tools we have developed to enable anyone to access geotemporal information, gridded (e.g. climate) or non-gridded (e.g. protected areas), for the past, present or future and incorporate such information into their analyses (e.g. www.fetchclimate.org), including how we train new predictive models to such data using Bayesian techniques: on this latter point I will show how we combine satellite and ground measured data with predictive models to forecast how crops might respond to climate change.

  7. Anesthesia information management: clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Robert E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2017-12-01

    Perioperative informatics tools continue to be developed at a rapid pace and offer clinicians the potential to greatly enhance clinical decision making. The goal of this review is to bring the reader updates on perioperative information management and discuss future research directions in the field. Clinical decision support tools become more timely, accurate, and, in some instances, have been shown to improve patient outcomes. When correctly implemented, they are critical tools for optimization of perioperative care. Perioperative informaticians continue to test new and innovative ways to enhance the delivery of anesthesia care, improving the safety and efficacy of perioperative management. Future work will continue to refine tools to ensure that perioperative informatics provides clinicians timely and accurate feedback, with demonstrable evidence that a decision support system improves patient outcomes.

  8. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  9. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  10. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  11. An Informationally Structured Room for Robotic Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuo Tsuji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  12. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  13. FINANCIAL INFORMATION, EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION ON ECONOMIC DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAK ISA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.

  14. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.

  15. Client Oriented Approach for Assisting Business Improvement Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pitic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the corporate responsibility towards the customers is to ensure the correct value transfer, through the quality and price of the product/service. By using customer satisfaction in order to measure value and the quality provided to customers, this paper proposes a methodology of assisting management decisions in improving business processes. The proposed techniques and tools, specific to quality management, are used for determining the processes which need to be improved or innovated in order to increase customer satisfaction. Thus, the methodology contributes to the creation of a decision-making framework for an efficient orientation of the resources for maximising the generated value and minimising the costs. In order to illustrate its application, we present a study based on the responses regarding satisfaction elements of 679 companies, the customers of a distribution chain in the field of interior fittings. The research highlights the practical method of determining the priority processes for increasing customer satisfaction, taking into account the satisfaction targets and the nature of the necessary actions in order to maximize the created value and to minimize the costs of these processes.

  16. Assistive Technologies for Communication and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Simsik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT affect all aspects of life, in the time of technical progress there are also special assistive devices developed that makes the daily life easier. The use of the ICT is rapidly becoming an essential part of social, educational and economic of sphere of European citizens’ life. There is a concern whether the products and services, that are available nowadays, are fully accessible to the public area, but also to elderly people and people with disabilities. The aim of this article is to acquire an outline about recent programmes of information society (Slovakia and EU, to revue the basic knowledge about the accessible ICT related to the equal opportunities for people with disabilities and to the social inclusion and describes the principles of accessible technologies (design for all, accessible webpages, electronic services. ICTs offer the enormous potential to maintain, improve quality of life, integration and independence.

  17. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…

  18. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerbandono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  19. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from......The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation....../exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...

  20. Decision time as information in judgment and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Calseyde, Philippe P.F.M.; Keren, Gideon; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    People often observe others' decisions and the corresponding time it took them to reach the decision. Following a signaling perspective, we demonstrate that people derive information from the time that others needed in reaching a decision. Specifically, the findings of multiple experiments and a

  1. Information processing by networks of quantum decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a model of a multi-agent society of decision makers taking decisions being based on two criteria, one is the utility of the prospects and the other is the attractiveness of the considered prospects. The model is the generalization of quantum decision theory, developed earlier for single decision makers realizing one-step decisions, in two principal aspects. First, several decision makers are considered simultaneously, who interact with each other through information exchange. Second, a multistep procedure is treated, when the agents exchange information many times. Several decision makers exchanging information and forming their judgment, using quantum rules, form a kind of a quantum information network, where collective decisions develop in time as a result of information exchange. In addition to characterizing collective decisions that arise in human societies, such networks can describe dynamical processes occurring in artificial quantum intelligence composed of several parts or in a cluster of quantum computers. The practical usage of the theory is illustrated on the dynamic disjunction effect for which three quantitative predictions are made: (i) the probabilistic behavior of decision makers at the initial stage of the process is described; (ii) the decrease of the difference between the initial prospect probabilities and the related utility factors is proved; (iii) the existence of a common consensus after multiple exchange of information is predicted. The predicted numerical values are in very good agreement with empirical data.

  2. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 48411 - Information Collection; Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    .... Additionally, NAP provides assistance for losses of floriculture, ornamental nursery, Christmas tree crops... Crop Disaster Assistance Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency and Commodity Credit Corporation and, USDA... in support of the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). The information collected is...

  4. Clinical decision-making process for early nonspecific signs of infection in institutionalised elderly persons: experience of nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Tingström, Pia

    2013-03-01

    To illuminate nursing assistant's experiences of the clinical decision-making process when they suspect that a resident has an infection and how their process relates to other professions. The assessment of possible infection in elderly individuals is difficult and contributes to a delayed diagnosis and treatment, worsening the goal of good care. Recently we explored that nursing assistants have a keen observational ability to detect early signs and symptoms that might help to confirm suspected infections early on. To our knowledge there are no published papers exploring how nursing assistants take part in the clinical decision-making process. Explorative, qualitative study. Community care for elderly people. Twenty-one nursing assistants, 22-61 years. Focus groups with verbatim transcription. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis for manifest and latent content with no preconceived categories. The findings are described as a decision-making model consisting of assessing why a resident feels unwell, divided into recognition and formulation and strategies for gathering and evaluating information, influenced by personal experiences and preconceptions and external support system and, secondly, as taking action, consisting of reason for choice of action and action, influenced by feedback from the nurse and physician. Nursing assistant's assessment is based on knowing the resident, personal experiences and ideas about ageing. Nurses and physician's response to the nursing assistant's observations had a great impact on the latter's further action. A true inter-professional partnership in the clinical decision-making process would enhance the possibility to detect suspected infection early on, and thereby minimize the risk of delayed diagnosis and treatment and hence unnecessary suffering for the individual.   In order to improve the clinical evaluation of the individual, and thereby optimise patient safety, it is important to involve nursing

  5. Data and information integration framework for highway project decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a three-tiered framework to integrate data, information, and decision-making in highway projects. The study uses the Jurans Triple Role concept and context graph to illustrate the relationship between data, information, and de...

  6. Information sources for decision making by senior managers in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on information sources used for decision making by managers in the National Sport Commission (NSC) and Corporate Affair Commission (CAC) Abuja, Nigeria. Information is widely believed as the raw materials upon which decisions are made. It is also a critical resource that affects individual as well as ...

  7. Informal Caregivers: Communication and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Carol

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 13 million to 15 million adults in the United States have chronic conditions that impair cognitive function, such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. The growing number of people with chronic conditions that include cognitive impairment and the family members who assist them face…

  8. The Use of Graphs as Decision Aids in Relation to Information Overload and Managerial Decision Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Y.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information overload focuses on a study of masters degree students at a Hong Kong university that investigated the effectiveness of graphs as decision aids to reduce adverse effects of information overload on decision quality. Results of a simulation of a business prediction task with a sample of business managers are presented.…

  9. Information Sampling and Group Decision Making: The Effects of an Advocacy Decision Procedure and Task Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Brodbeck, Felix C.; Frey, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Group discussions tend to focus on information that was previously known by all members (shared information) rather than information known by only 1 member (unshared information). If the shared information implies a suboptimal alternative, this sampling bias is associated with inaccurate group decisions. The present study examines the impact of 2…

  10. Supporting Informed Decision Making in Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino MARTINS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and making the correct decision on the best health treatment or screening test option can become a difficult task. Therefore is important that the patients get all types of information appropriate to manage their health. Decision aids can be very useful when there is more than one reasonable option about a treatment or uncertain associated with screening tests. The decision aids tools help people to understand their clinical condition, through the description of the different options available. The purpose of this paper is to present the project “Supporting Informed Decision Making In Prevention of Prostate Cancer” (SIDEMP. This project is focused on the creation of a Web-based decision platform specifically directed to screening prostate cancer, that will support the patient in the process of making an informed decision

  11. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    been initiated, with the purpose of generating an extensive understanding of the decision-making process related to assessing new technologies when designing radically new products and services for the market. It is expected that this understanding will enable further development of methods to improve...... the provision of knowledge and information required in the early phases of technology decisions. This article reports on the first part of this project, and provides a descriptive model for understanding the complexity in the early phase intuitive decision-making process, answering the specific research......The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...

  12. Informed consent and decision making by cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Christopher G; Richter-Mueksch, Sibylla; Stifter, Eva; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriela; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Radner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    To investigate decision making by patients on the day before cataract surgery and to evaluate to what extent the informed consent process influences the patients' decision regarding consent. On the day before surgery, 70 patients (mean +/- SD age, 70.3 +/- 10.3 years) underwent a standardized informed consent procedure. They were also invited to answer 15 questions established in interdisciplinary cooperation among clinical psychologists, lawyers, and ophthalmologists. We assessed presurgical information and personal estimation of risks in cataract surgery; the patient-physician relationship regarding surgery-related decisions; and evaluations of the informed consent procedure and the patients' decision. Questionnaire answers indicated that 28 (40%) of the 70 participating patients arrived for surgery without any information; 16 (23%) believed that there were surgical procedures without risks; and 53 (76%) estimated that there were no risks for their cataract surgery. A physician-dominated decision for surgery was preferred by 31 patients (44%); 16 (26%) wanted to decide together with their ophthalmologist. Possible risks of a sight-threatening complication did not influence 54 patients' (77%) decisions, and 55 patients (78%) said the informed consent process did not influence their decision. The remaining 15 (22%) stated that the informed consent process positively confirmed their decision. Informed consent 1 day preoperatively does not seem to influence the decision for cataract surgery. Cognitive dissonance as part of a decision-making process makes changes in an already chosen option unlikely. The resulting limited decisive potential is very important for credibility in a trial and has to be considered in ophthalmologic surgery.

  13. A decision support system for technology R&D planning: connecting the dots from information to innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Wertz, Julie; Weisbin, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an information technology innovation developed to assist decision makers faced with complex R&D tasks. The decision support system (DSS) was developed and applied to the analysis of a 10-year, 700 million dollar technology program for the exploration of Mars. The technologies were to enable a 4.8 billion dollar portfolio of exploration flight missions to Mars.

  14. Motivated information processing and group decision-making : Effects of process accountability on information processing and decision quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Lotte; van Knippenberg, Daan; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Integrating dual-process models [Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. NewYork: Guilford Press] with work on information sharing and group decision-making [Stasser, G., & Titus, W. (1985). Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: biased

  15. Montgomery on informed consent: an inexpert decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan; Montgomery, Elsa

    2016-02-01

    Montgomery v Lanarkshire HB is a deeply troubling decision when read closely. Paradoxically, its ruling supporting the principle of autonomy could be justified only by disregarding the individual patient's actual choices and characteristics in favour of a stereotype. The decision demonstrates a lack of expertise in dealing with specific clinical issues and misrepresents professional guidance. More fundamentally, it fails to appreciate the nature of professional expertise. This calls into question the competence of the courts to adjudicate on matters of clinical judgement and makes an attractive formulation of the test for disclosure obligations inherently unpredictable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Entertainment education for informed breast cancer treatment decisions in low-literate women: development and initial evaluation of a patient decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J; Granch, Thomas S; Nefe, Nancy E; Spann, Stephen J; Aoki, Noriaki; Robinson, Emily K; Freidman, Lois C; Beck, J Robert

    2006-01-01

    We report on the development and initial evaluation of a novel computerized decision support system (CDSS) that utilizes concepts from entertainment education (edutainment) to assist low-literate, multiethnic women in making initial surgical treatment decisions. We randomly assigned 51 patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer to use the decision aid. Patients who viewed the CDSS improved their knowledge of breast cancer treatment; found the application easy to use and understand, informative, and enjoyable; and were less worried about treatment. The system clearly reached its intended objectives to create a usable decision aid for low-literate, novice computer users.

  17. Decision making and information flows in precision agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laiô; Blackmore, B.S.

    A participative methology was developed in which farm managers decomposed their process of decision making in Precision Agriculture (PA) into brief secision statesments along with associated information requirements. The methodology was first developed on a university research farm in Denmark...... and further revised during testing on a number of research and commercial farms in Indiana, USA. Twenty-one decision analysis factors were idebfied to characterise a farm manager's decision-making process. Then a general data flow diagram (DFD) was constructed that describes the information flows "from data...... to decision". Illustrative examples of the model in the form of DFDs are presented for a strategic and an operational decision. The model was validated for a range of decisions related to operations by three university farm managers and by five commercial farmers practicing PA for cereal, corn and soybean...

  18. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...... to the classic interpretation of financial information. The quantitative environmental information included in the experiment seems to mitigate rather than extend the directional effect of more environmental information. The evidence also seems to indicate that decision makers are not always aware which...

  19. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  20. Prioritizing humanitarian assistance in a complex emergency: a decision method for military forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; de Boer, S.J.; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2004-01-01

    The article develops a decision support model for a military commander who has to determine what humanitarian assistance will be provided in cooperation with which civil organizations in peacekeeping situations. After an investigation of the current methods decision theory was used to develop an

  1. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  2. Refractive Eye Surgery: Helping Patients Make Informed Decisions About LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John M; Cozine, Elizabeth W; Kahn, Amir R

    2017-05-15

    A variety of refractive surgery techniques, which reshape the corneal stroma using laser energy, have been marketed as simple and safe alternatives to glasses or contact lenses. Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common of these procedures. Although there are few high-quality prospective studies of long-term outcomes, complications, or stability for refractive surgery procedures, there is at least general agreement that more than 90% of appropriately selected patients achieve excellent uncorrected distance vision. In addition to well-recognized contraindications (e.g., unstable refraction, pregnancy and lactation, chronic eye disease, systemic illness, corneal abnormalities), there are other conditions that warrant caution (e.g., excessively dry eyes, contact lens intolerance, chronic pain syndromes). Postoperative dry eye, which may in part represent a corneal neuropathy, usually resolves after six to 12 months but persists in up to 20% of patients. Up to 20% of patients may have new visual disturbances, particularly with night driving. Vision-threatening complications are rare. Intraocular lenses, implanted following cataract extraction, may be an alternative to LASIK in older patients. Although the overall dependence on corrective lenses is markedly reduced, many patients still require glasses or contact lenses after LASIK, particularly in low-light conditions and as they age. Most patients report satisfaction with the results. Family physicians can help patients make informed decisions by exploring their values, preferences, expectations, and tolerance of uncertainty and risk.

  3. Information Systems Support for Business Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Nistor Rozalia; Nistor Costel; Muntean Mihaela-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Computer systems that form larger, comprehensive study is an essential field in business administration and management, areas considered major economic zone. Thus, systems must respond to the problems of managing hardware, software, data and computer networks in a strategic way to success in business. The importance of information systems lies mainly in the understanding of effective and accountable to all the leaders (managers) or persons in an organization need to adapt to the global inform...

  4. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevena, L.J.; Zikmund-Fisher, B.J.; Edwards, A.; Gaissmaier, W.; Galesic, M.; Han, P.K.J.; King, J.; Lawson, M.L.; Linder, S.K.; Lipkus, I.; Ozanne, E.; Peters, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Woloshin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision

  5. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  6. The Impact of Information Displays on Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Daniel Cassenti Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Approved for public...distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction The flow of accurate information and proper situational awareness can make the difference between a...ARL-TN-0846 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Impact of Information Displays on Decision Making by John Shevlin

  7. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  9. [Each person has to make their own individual decision - arguments for physician assisted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posa, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Since November 2015, businesslike assisted suicide is punishable in Germany. But who acts businesslike? The majority of the German population prefers to make own decisions about the circumstances of their arriving death, and many of them would also accept (physician) assisted suicide if necessary. Only a minority of physicians plead for prohibiting assisted suicide in general. In the end everyone should be able to take position on his own. No one is obliged to use or execute assisted suicide. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Athena: Towards Decision-Centric Anticipatory Sensor Information Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongdeog Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a new direction in quality-of-service-aware networked sensing that designs communication protocols and scheduling policies for data delivery that are optimized specifically for decision needs. The work complements present decision monitoring and support tools and falls in the larger framework of decision-driven resource management. A hallmark of the new protocols is that they are aware of the inference structure used to arrive at decisions (from logical predicates, as well as the data (and data quality that need to be furnished to successfully evaluate the unknowns on which these decisions are based. Such protocols can therefore anticipate and deliver precisely the right data, at the right level of quality, from the right sources, at the right time, to enable valid and timely decisions at minimum cost to the underlying network. This paper presents the decision model used and the protocol design philosophy, reviews the key recent results and describes a novel system, called Athena, that is the first to embody the aforementioned data delivery paradigm. Evaluation results are presented that compare the performance of decision-centric anticipatory information delivery to several baselines, demonstrating its various advantages in terms of decision timeliness, validity and network resources used. The paper concludes with a discussion of remaining future challenges in this emerging area.

  11. Integrating Information from Multiple Sources: Expert Decision Making Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    in this procedural and student record sections, this format required a approach to information organization , the clusters of search information...Efficiency Ratio task measures combined to evaluate the effect of 0 48 0 07 0.47 009e 058eO188 information organization of decision making ease of...step I in the procedure. We have seen that an information organization scheme based on procedural knowledge (Condition C) can DISCUSSION facilitate

  12. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  13. A Decision Support System For Assisting With Stocking Rate Decisions During And Following Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers and range managers in the West are at the mercy of climatic conditions that determine the amount of annual forge available on rangeland. Typically, stocking or de-stocking decisions need to be made before the final forage production level is known. Erroneous stocking rate decisions can have...

  14. The Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015: what it is and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2017-05-01

    Ireland's Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015 was signed by President Higgins in December 2015 and scheduled for commencement in 2016. To explore the content and implications of the 2015 Act. Review of the 2015 Act and related literature. The 2015 Act places the "will and preferences" of persons with impaired mental capacity at the heart of decision-making relating to "personal welfare" (including healthcare) and "property and affairs". Capacity is to be "construed functionally" and interventions must be "for the benefit of the relevant person". The Act outlines three levels of decision-making assistance: "decision-making assistant", "co-decision-maker" (joint decision-maker) and "decision-making representative" (substitute decision-maker). There are procedures relating to "enduring power of attorney" and "advance healthcare directives"; in the case of the latter, a "refusal of treatment" can be legally binding, while a "request for a specific treatment" must "be taken into consideration". The 2015 Act is considerably more workable than the 2013 Bill that preceded it. Key challenges include the subtle decision-making required by patients, healthcare staff, Circuit Court judges and the director of the Decision Support Service; implementation of "advance healthcare directives", especially if they do not form part of a broader model of advance care planning (incorporating the flexibility required for unpredictable future circumstances); and the over-arching issue of logistics, as very many healthcare decisions are currently made in situations where the patient's capacity is impaired. A key challenge will lie in balancing the emphasis on autonomy with principles of beneficence, mutuality and care.

  15. Improving the use of climate information in decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Chris D.; Stone, Roger C.; Tait, Andrew B.

    2017-09-01

    To enable society to better manage the risks and opportunities arising from changes in climate, engagement between the users and the providers of climate information needs to be much more effective and should better link climate information with decision-making.

  16. Improving Information Products for System 2 Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The creation, maintenance, and management of Information Product (IP) systems that are used by organizations for complex decisions represent a unique set of challenges. These challenges are compounded when the purpose of such a systems is also for knowledge creation and dissemination. Information quality research to date has focused mainly upon…

  17. Helping men make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening: a pilot study of telephone counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger S; Rosal, Milagros; White, Mary Jo; LaPelle, Nancy; Partin, Melissa; Cranos, Caroline; Leung, Katherine G; Foley, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Evaluate a computer-assisted telephone counseling (CATC) decision aid for men considering a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Eligible men were invited by their primary care providers (PCPs) to participate. Those consenting received an educational booklet followed by CATC. The counselor assessed stage of readiness, reviewed booklet information, corrected knowledge deficits and helped with a values clarification exercise. The materials presented advantages and disadvantages of being screened and did not advocate for testing or for not testing. Outcome measures included changes in stage, decisional conflict, decisional satisfaction, perceived vulnerability and congruence of a PSA testing decision with a pros/cons score. Baseline and final surveys were administered by telephone. There was an increase in PSA knowledge (p<0.001), and in decisional satisfaction (p<0.001), a decrease in decisional conflict (p<0.001), and a general consistency of those decisions with the man's values. Among those initially who had not made a decision, 83.1% made a decision by final survey with decisions equally for or against screening. The intervention provides realistic, unbiased and effective decision support for men facing a difficult and confusing decision. Our intervention could potentially replace a discussion of PSA testing with the PCP for most men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Health Information Exchange on Emergency Medicine Clinical Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to understand the immediate utility of health information exchange (HIE on emergency department (ED providers by interviewing them shortly after the information was retrieved. Prior studies of physician perceptions regarding HIE have only been performed outside of the care environment. Methods: Trained research assistants interviewed resident physicians, physician assistants and attending physicians using a semi-structured questionnaire within two hours of making a HIE request. The responses were recorded, then transcribed for qualitative analysis. The transcribed interviews were analyzed for emerging qualitative themes. Results: We analyzed 40 interviews obtained from 29 providers. Primary qualitative themes discovered included the following: drivers for requests for outside information; the importance of unexpected information; historical lab values as reference points; providing context when determining whether to admit or discharge a patient; the importance of information in refining disposition; improved confidence of provider; and changes in decisions for diagnostic imaging. Conclusion: ED providers are driven to use HIE when they’re missing a known piece of information. This study finds two additional impacts not previously reported. First, providers sometimes find additional unanticipated useful information, supporting a workflow that lowers the threshold to request external information. Second, providers sometimes report utility when no changes to their existing plan are made as their confidence is increased based on external records. Our findings are concordant with previous studies in finding exchanged information is useful to provide context for interpreting lab results, making admission decisions, and prevents repeat diagnostic imaging.

  19. Patient perspectives on informed decision-making surrounding dialysis initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Lin, Feng-Chang; Gilet, Constance A; Arnold, Robert M; Bridgman, Jessica C; Ward, Sandra E

    2013-11-01

    Careful patient-clinician shared decision-making about dialysis initiation has been promoted, but few studies have addressed patient perspectives on the extent of information provided and how decisions to start dialysis are made. Ninety-nine maintenance dialysis patients recruited from 15 outpatient dialysis centers in North Carolina completed semistructured interviews on information provision and communication about the initiation of dialysis. These data were examined with content analysis. In addition, informed decision-making (IDM) scores were created by summing patient responses (yes/no) to 10 questions about the decision-making. The mean IDM score was 4.4 (of 10; SD = 2.0); 67% scored 5 or lower. Age at the time of decision-making (r = -0.27, P = 0.006), years of education (r = 0.24, P = 0.02) and presence of a warning about progressing to end-stage kidney disease (t = 2.9, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with IDM scores. Nearly 70% said that the risks and burdens of dialysis were not mentioned at all, and only one patient recalled that the doctor offered the option of not starting dialysis. While a majority (67%) said that they felt they had no choice about starting dialysis (because the alternative would be death) or about dialysis modality, only 21.2% said that they had felt rushed to make a decision. About one-third of the patients perceived that the decision to start dialysis and modality was already made by the doctor. A majority of patients felt unprepared and ill-informed about the initiation of dialysis. Improving the extent of IDM about dialysis may optimize patient preparation prior to starting treatment and their perceptions about the decision-making process.

  20. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  1. Acquisition and integration of low vision assistive devices: understanding the decision-making process of older adults with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolillo, Al; Teitelman, Jodi L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how older adults with low vision make decisions to use low vision assistive devices (LVADs). Analysis of participants' narratives, from both group and individual interviews, revealed three topic areas affecting device use. Two are discussed in this paper: Experiences and Characteristics Leading to Successful LVAD Use Decision Making and Challenges to Successful LVAD Use Decision Making. The third, Adjustment to Low Vision Disability, is briefly discussed. Of particular importance to occupational therapy practitioners in the growing field of low vision rehabilitation was the value placed on low vision rehabilitation services to assist with acquiring devices and integrating them into daily routines. Occupational therapy services were highly regarded. Participants demonstrated the importance of becoming a part of a supportive network of people with low vision to gain access to information about resources. They emphasized the need for systems and policy changes to reduce barriers to making informed decisions about LVAD use. Results indicate that occupational therapists working in low vision can support clients by facilitating development of a support network, acting as liaisons between clients and other health practitioners, especially ophthalmologists, and encouraging policy development that supports barrier-free LVAD acquisition and use. These topics should be incorporated into continuing and entry-level education to prepare practitioners for leadership in the field of low vision rehabilitation.

  2. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision

  3. AN INVESTIGATION ABOUT INFORMATION SYSTEMS OUTSOURCING AND OUTSOURCING DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    YARLIKAS, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Organizations use outsourcing in information systems to provide many advantages. All risks and benefits of outsourcing are taken into consideration before an outsourcing decision. In this study, 14 organizations that belong to four different categories are investigated in terms of information systems outsourcing. These categories are: System integrators, outsourcing customers, and outsourcing vendors, firms that both procure and supply information systems services. The investigation is realiz...

  4. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  5. CHOQUET AGGREGATION BASED DECISION MAKING UNDER Z-INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala M. Zeinalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decision making under uncertainty is usually associated with information that may be incomplete, not reliable or imprecise, so there are several types of uncertainty. A partial absence of beliefs and fuzziness are some of the aspects of uncertainty. In this paper we consider a somewhat different framework for representing our knowledge. Zadeh suggested a Z-number notion, based on a reliability of the given information. In this study we apply Z- information to decision making in business problem and suggest the framework for decision making on a base of Z-numbers. The method associates with the construction of a non-additive measure as a lower prevision and uses this capacity in Choquet integral for constructing a utility function. An example of real-world business problem is used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  6. Adaptive sampling of information in perceptual decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Cassey

    Full Text Available In many perceptual and cognitive decision-making problems, humans sample multiple noisy information sources serially, and integrate the sampled information to make an overall decision. We derive the optimal decision procedure for two-alternative choice tasks in which the different options are sampled one at a time, sources vary in the quality of the information they provide, and the available time is fixed. To maximize accuracy, the optimal observer allocates time to sampling different information sources in proportion to their noise levels. We tested human observers in a corresponding perceptual decision-making task. Observers compared the direction of two random dot motion patterns that were triggered only when fixated. Observers allocated more time to the noisier pattern, in a manner that correlated with their sensory uncertainty about the direction of the patterns. There were several differences between the optimal observer predictions and human behaviour. These differences point to a number of other factors, beyond the quality of the currently available sources of information, that influences the sampling strategy.

  7. Adaptive sampling of information in perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassey, Thomas C; Evens, David R; Bogacz, Rafal; Marshall, James A R; Ludwig, Casimir J H

    2013-01-01

    In many perceptual and cognitive decision-making problems, humans sample multiple noisy information sources serially, and integrate the sampled information to make an overall decision. We derive the optimal decision procedure for two-alternative choice tasks in which the different options are sampled one at a time, sources vary in the quality of the information they provide, and the available time is fixed. To maximize accuracy, the optimal observer allocates time to sampling different information sources in proportion to their noise levels. We tested human observers in a corresponding perceptual decision-making task. Observers compared the direction of two random dot motion patterns that were triggered only when fixated. Observers allocated more time to the noisier pattern, in a manner that correlated with their sensory uncertainty about the direction of the patterns. There were several differences between the optimal observer predictions and human behaviour. These differences point to a number of other factors, beyond the quality of the currently available sources of information, that influences the sampling strategy.

  8. Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashley J W; Sumpter, David J T; Couzin, Iain D; Hart, Paul J B; Krause, Jens

    2008-05-13

    Despite the growing interest in collective phenomena such as "swarm intelligence" and "wisdom of the crowds," little is known about the mechanisms underlying decision-making in vertebrate animal groups. How do animals use the behavior of others to make more accurate decisions, especially when it is not possible to identify which individuals possess pertinent information? One plausible answer is that individuals respond only when they see a threshold number of individuals perform a particular behavior. Here, we investigate the role of such "quorum responses" in the movement decisions of fish (three-spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). We show that a quorum response to conspecifics can explain how sticklebacks make collective movement decisions, both in the absence and presence of a potential predation risk. Importantly our experimental work shows that a quorum response can reduce the likelihood of amplification of nonadaptive following behavior. Whereas the traveling direction of solitary fish was strongly influenced by a single replica conspecific, the replica was largely ignored by larger groups of four or eight sticklebacks under risk, and the addition of a second replica was required to exert influence on the movement decisions of such groups. Model simulations further predict that quorum responses by fish improve the accuracy and speed of their decision-making over that of independent decision-makers or those using a weak linear response. This study shows that effective and accurate information transfer in groups may be gained only through nonlinear responses of group members to each other, thus highlighting the importance of quorum decision-making.

  9. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Reeder, Blaine; Lazar, Amanda; Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2014-01-01

    Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies. To explore Bruce's framework of informed decision making (IDM) for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders. The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis. Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension. This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  10. Environmental Cost Accounting Information and Strategic Business Decision in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining environmental cost accounting information and strategic business decision in Nigeria. The general assumption that conventional cost accounting does not have the ability to provide absolute information for evaluating the environmental behaviour of an organization and its economic consequences has motivated this study. Towards achieving this, secondary data was employed and a linear model was specified. Findings indicated that environmental cost accounting information as it relates to strategic business decision is valuerelevant. It was on this note that we recommended firms to constantly reposition their accounting system in order to provide information on environmental costs so that the true costs in an organization can be ascertained and properly allocated. Also, due attention should be paid to waste management costs, employee health costs, investment financing costs, compliance and environmental costs and all environmental related costs by manufacturing concerns since they influence strategic decision. Our study is one of those that have explored the issue of environmental cost accounting relevance in strategic business decision in the Nigerian context.

  11. Environmental Cost Accounting Information and Strategic Business Decision in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining environmental cost accounting information and strategic business decision in Nigeria. The general assumption that conventional cost accounting does not have the ability to provide absolute information for evaluating the environmental behaviour of an organization and its economic consequences has motivated this study. Towards achieving this, secondary data was employed and a linear model was specified. Findings indicated that environmental cost accounting information as it relates to strategic business decision is valuerelevant. It was on this note that we recommended firms to constantly reposition their accounting system in order to provide information on environmental costs so that the true costs in an organization can be ascertained and properly allocated. Also, due attention should be paid to waste management costs, employee health costs, investment financing costs, compliance and environmental costs and all environmental related costs by manufacturing concerns since they influence strategic decision. Our study is one of those that have explored the issue of environmental cost accounting relevance in strategic business decision in the Nigerian context.

  12. 29 CFR 1902.20 - Decision following informal proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision following informal proceeding. 1902.20 Section 1902.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for...

  13. Making Informed Decisions: The Role of Information Literacy in Ethical and Effective Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosmire, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Engineering designers must make evidence-based decisions when applying the practical tools and techniques of their discipline to human problems. Information literacy provides a structure for determining information gaps, locating appropriate and relevant information, applying that information effectively, and documenting and managing the knowledge…

  14. Donation of eggs in assisted reproduction and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Victoria; Guerra, Lucia

    2009-09-01

    In Spain, there exists an increasing amount of advertising for the donation of eggs for assisted reproduction. This study attempts to assess: (1) scientific evidence available about adverse effects of egg donation; (2) characteristics of the information given in the informed consent to donors; and (3) the legality of this advertising. The main results are: (1) Many severe problems are associated with induction of ovulation, as ovarian hyperstimulation (reported frequencies from 5.9 to 15%), thromboembolism, hepatic failure and increased risk of ovarian, breast, endometrial and colon cancer. (2) Informed consent for egg donors is very incomplete, according to the Spanish law 41/2002 on Patient's Information. (3) Current advertising to promote egg donation does not respect, among others, law 14/2006 about Assisted Human Reproduction, as it includes reference to economic compensation or benefits but no information about the risks. Deontological and judicial disciplinary procedures should be initiated to protect donors' rights.

  15. Closed-Loop- and Decision-Assist-Guided Fluid Therapy of Human Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Kramer, George C; Ribeiro Marques, Nicole; Salter, Michael G; Koutrouvelis, Aristides K; Li, Husong; Solanki, Daneshvari R; Indrikovs, Alexander; Seeton, Roger; Henkel, Sheryl N; Kinsky, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy, efficiency, and physiologic consequences of automated, endpoint-directed resuscitation systems and compare them to formula-based bolus resuscitation. Experimental human hemorrhage and resuscitation. Clinical research laboratory. Healthy volunteers. Subjects (n = 7) were subjected to hemorrhage and underwent a randomized fluid resuscitation scheme on separate visits 1) formula-based bolus resuscitation; 2) semiautonomous (decision assist) fluid administration; and 3) fully autonomous (closed loop) resuscitation. Hemodynamic variables, volume shifts, fluid balance, and cardiac function were monitored during hemorrhage and resuscitation. Treatment modalities were compared based on resuscitation efficacy and efficiency. All approaches achieved target blood pressure by 60 minutes. Following hemorrhage, the total amount of infused fluid (bolus resuscitation: 30 mL/kg, decision assist: 5.6 ± 3 mL/kg, closed loop: 4.2 ± 2 mL/kg; p body weight, and urinary output remained stable under decision assist and closed loop and were significantly increased under bolus resuscitation. Mean arterial pressure initially decreased further under bolus resuscitation (-10 mm Hg; p fluid administration. We define efficacy of decision-assist and closed-loop resuscitation in human hemorrhage. In comparison with formula-based bolus resuscitation, both semiautonomous and autonomous approaches were more efficient in goal-directed resuscitation of hemorrhage. They provide favorable conditions for the avoidance of over-resuscitation and its adverse clinical sequelae. Decision-assist and closed-loop resuscitation algorithms are promising technological solutions for constrained environments and areas of limited resources.

  16. Development of a decision aid to inform patients' and families' renal replacement therapy selection decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Jessica M; Auguste, Priscilla; Ephraim, Patti L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; DePasquale, Nicole; Greer, Raquel C; Crews, Deidra C; Powe, Neil R; Rabb, Hamid; Boulware, L Ebony

    2012-12-01

    Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients' renal replacement therapy (RRT) selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD) must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients' treatment and support patients' decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function. We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in "stages." For the video, stages included (1) directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2) video production, and (3) screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1) preliminary content design, (2) a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3) screening the handbook with patients and their families. The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals' testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients' and families' treatment selections. The handbook was comprised of written

  17. Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameling Jessica M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients’ treatment and support patients’ decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function. Methods We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in “stages.” For the video, stages included (1 directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2 video production, and (3 screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1 preliminary content design, (2 a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3 screening the handbook with patients and their families. Results The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals’ testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients’ and families

  18. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  19. Decision Assistance in Risk Assessment – Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High security must be a primary and permanent concern of the leadership of an organization and it must be ensured at any time. For this, a risk analysis is compulsory and imperative to be done during the risk management cycle. Security risk analysis and security risk management components mostly use estimative data during the whole extensive process. The further evolution of the events might not be reflected in the obtained results. If we were to think about the fact that hazard must be modeled, this concern is absolutely normal. Though, we must find a way to model the events that a company is exposed to, events that damage the informational security. In the following lines of this paper we will use the Monte-Carlo method in order to model a set of security parameters that are used in security risk analysis. The frequency of unwanted events, damages and their impact will represent our main focus and will be applied to both the quantitative and qualitative security risk analysis approach. The obtained results will act as a guide for experts to better allocation of resources for decreasing or eliminating the risk and will also represent a warning for the leadership about certain absolutely necessary investments.

  20. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  1. Decisions-to-Data using Level 5 information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the last decade, there has been interest in presenting information fusion solutions to the user and ways to incorporate visualization, interaction, and command and control. In this paper, we explore Decisions-to-Data (D2D) in information fusion design: (1) sensing: from data to information (D2I) processing, (2) reporting: from human computer interaction (HCI) visualizations to user refinement (H2U), and (3) disseminating: from collected to resourced (C2R) information management. D2I supports net-centric intelligent situation awareness that includes processing of information from non-sensor resources for mission effectiveness. H2U reflects that completely automated systems are not realizable requiring Level 5 user refinement for efficient decision making. Finally, C2R moves from immediate data collection to fusion of information over an enterprise (e.g., data mining, database queries and storage, and source analysis for pedigree). By using D2I, H2U, and C2R concepts, they serve as informative themes for future complex information fusion interoperability standards, integration of man and machines, and efficient networking for distribution user situation understanding.

  2. Hidden profiles and concealed information: strategic information sharing and use in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudia; Butera, Fabrizio

    2009-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the differential impact of cooperation and competition on strategic information sharing and use in a three-person group decision-making task. Information was distributed in order to create a hidden profile so that disconfirmation of group members' initial preferences was required to solve the task. Experiment 1 revealed that competition, compared to cooperation, led group members to withhold unshared information, a difference that was not significant for shared information. In competition, compared to cooperation, group members were also more reluctant to disconfirm their initial preferences. Decision quality was lower in competition than in cooperation, this effect being mediated by disconfirmation use and not by information sharing. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and revealed the role of mistrust in predicting strategic information sharing and use in competition. These results support a motivated information processing approach of group decision making.

  3. Professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the need for professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the National Library of Nigeria, Enugu branch. A total of 38 (thirty-eight) users of the library were randomly selected and used for the study. It was found that most of the respondents 18(47.3%) consulted the card catalogue ...

  4. Aeronautical Satellite-Assisted Process for Information Exchange Through Network Technologies (Aero-SAPIENT) Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernic, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Broadband satellite communications for aeronautics marries communication and network technologies to address NASA's goals in information technology base research and development, thereby serving the safety and capacity needs of the National Airspace System. This marriage of technology increases the interactivity between airborne vehicles and ground systems. It improves decision-making and efficiency, reduces operation costs, and improves the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System. To this end, a collaborative project called the Aeronautical Satellite Assisted Process for Information Exchange through Network Technologies, or Aero-SAPIENT, was conducted out of Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, during November and December 2000.

  5. The user testing toolset: a decision support system to aid the evaluation of assistive technology products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Andree; Fielden, Simon; Bartlett, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Developers of assistive technology products need to ensure that their offerings meet the requirements of end users, and that usability issues have been discovered prior to manufacture. This may be difficult for SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises) who may lack the necessary skills and resources required to plan and conduct an evaluation. To assist SMEs in the assistive technology market, a stand alone, decision support system was developed to assist in the planning and evaluation of their products, taking into account the resources available, nature of the product being developed and stage of the design process. The responses given by the designer to 40 multiple choice questions are matched against a database of 42 research methods. The methods achieving the highest score in relation to all questions are displayed as the final output. The paper describes the development of the User Testing Toolset (UTT), including the additional functionality provided to ensure that the evaluation methods were correctly matched and weighted to the responses.

  6. Thinking about the patient's wishes: practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses in assisting surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yoko; Asano, Midori

    2017-01-31

    The accelerating trend towards shorter hospital stays in Japan has made modes of decision-making essential for effective patient transition from the hospital to recuperation in the regional community, and the ageing of the population has brought a rise in surrogate decision-making by the families of patients lacking decision-making ('self-decision') capacity. To verbalise and elucidate the practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses by focusing on the perceptions and judgements, they apply in practice and describing their methodology in concrete terms. Participants were six discharge planning nurses and one person with previous experience as a discharge planning nurse, all working at discharge planning departments of acute care hospitals. Separate, semi-structured, interactive interviews were conducted with each participant. The study design was qualitative descriptive in form with qualitative content analysis. All participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by the study institution. Three concepts were extracted as the basis for discharge planning nurses' perception and judgement at acute care hospitals: working for mutual envisionment of the available postdischarge options; helping the family act as spokesperson(s) for the patient's wishes; and understanding the family inclusive of the patient as a relationship of strongly interaffecting interests. The practical wisdom of the nurse, working in mutual envisionment with the family, and collaborative decision-making through discussion with those who know the patient, leads to rational discharge assistance. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  8. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    . The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information......Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes...... the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries...

  9. Impacts of Hospitals' Innovativeness on Information System Outsourcing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hospitals' innovativeness on outsourcing decision-making regarding four information system (IS) functions, namely, software programs, network maintenance, hardware systems, and PC/printer maintenance. Methods Using the 2011 roster of the Korean Hospital Association, this study selected 311 general hospitals as a study population. After identifying the managers who were in charge of outsourcing, this study administered questio...

  10. The role of behavioral decision theory for cockpit information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jon E.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this report is the consideration of one form of cognition, judgment and decision making, while examining some information management issues associated with the implementation of new forms of automation. As technology matures and more tasks become suitable to automation, human factors researchers will have to consider the effect that increasing automation will have on operator performance. Current technology allows flight deck designers the opportunity to automate activities involving substantially more cognitive processing.

  11. Information and shared decision-making are top patients' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronstein Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profound changes in medical care and the recent stress on a patient-centered approach mandate evaluation of current patient priorities. Methods Hospitalized and ambulatory patients at an academic medical center in central Israel were investigated. Consecutive patients (n = 274 indicated their first and second priority for a change or improvement in their medical care out of a mixed shortlist of 6 issues, 3 related to patient-physician relationship (being better informed and taking part in decisions; being seen by the same doctor each time; a longer consultation time and 3 issues related to the organizational aspect of care (easier access to specialists/hospital; shorter queue for tests; less charges for drugs. Results Getting more information from the physician and taking part in decisions was the most desirable patient choice, selected by 27.4% as their first priority. The next choices – access and queue – also relate to more patient autonomy and control over that of managed care regulations. Patients studied were least interested in continuity of care, consultation time or cost of drugs. Demographic or clinical variables were not significantly related to patients' choices. Conclusion Beyond its many benefits, being informed by their doctor and shared decision making is a top patient priority.

  12. Treatment decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ: A mixed methods systematic review of women's experiences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Claudia; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Butow, Phyllis; Wu, Jenny Liang; King, Madeleine T

    2017-09-01

    Decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is complex due to the heterogeneity of the disease. This study aimed to understand women's experience of making treatment decisions for DCIS, their information and support needs, and factors that influenced decisions. We searched six electronic databases, conference proceedings, and key authors. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and quality criteria, and extracted findings. Thematic analysis was used to combine and summarise findings. We identified six themes and 28 subthemes from 18 studies. Women with DCIS have knowledge deficits about DCIS, experience anxiety related to information given at diagnosis and the complexity of decision-making, and have misconceptions regarding risks and outcomes of treatment. Women's decisions are influenced by their understanding of risk, the clinical features of their DCIS, and the benefits and harms of treatment options. Women are dissatisfied with the decisional support available. Informed and shared decision-making in this complex decision setting requires clear communication of information specific to DCIS and individual's, as well as decision support for patients and clinicians. This approach would educate patients and clinicians, and assist clinicians in supporting patients to an evidence-based treatment plan that aligns with individual values and pReferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  14. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  15. Risk Informed Structural Systems Integrity Management: A Decision Analytical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is predominantly a conceptual contribution with an appraisal of major developments in risk informed structural integrity management for offshore installations together with a discussion of their merits and the challenges which still lie ahead. Starting point is taken in a selected...... overview of research and development contributions which have formed the basis for Risk Based Inspection Planning (RBI) as we know it today. Thereafter an outline of the methodical basis for risk informed structural systems integrity management, i.e. the Bayesian decision analysis is provided in summary...

  16. An Information Theory Analysis of Spatial Decisions in Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages five to ten years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of cognitive entropy were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1 the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2 the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured chunking of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  17. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  18. Using Bayesian networks to support decision-focused information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Elsaesser, C.; Seligman, L. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper has described an approach to controlling the process of pulling data/information from distributed data bases in a way that is specific to a persons specific decision making context. Our prototype implementation of this approach uses a knowledge-based planner to generate a plan, an automatically constructed Bayesian network to evaluate the plan, specialized processing of the network to derive key information items that would substantially impact the evaluation of the plan (e.g., determine that replanning is needed), automated construction of Standing Requests for Information (SRIs) which are automated functions that monitor changes and trends in distributed data base that are relevant to the key information items. This emphasis of this paper is on how Bayesian networks are used.

  19. Supporting informed decision making online in 20 minutes: an observational web-log study of a PSA test decision aid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph-Williams, N.; Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Newcombe, R.G.; Wright, P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Elwyn, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Web-based decision aids are known to have an effect on knowledge, attitude, and behavior; important components of informed decision making. We know what decision aids achieve in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but we still know very little about how they are used and how this

  20. Using basic geographic information systems functionality to support sustainable forest management decision making and post-decision assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; R. James Barbour; Krista M. Gebert; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable management of natural resources requires informed decision making and post-decision assessments of the results of those decisions. Increasingly, both activities rely on analyses of spatial data in the forms of maps and digital data layers. Fortunately, a variety of supporting maps and data layers rapidly are becoming available. Unfortunately, however, user-...

  1. Decision tools for coral reef managers: Using participatory decision support to integrate potential climate impacts and informed decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The decline in coral reef health presents a complex management issue. While several causes of decline have been identified and are under continued study, it is often difficult to discern management actions necessary to address multiple near- and far-field stressors to these ecosystems. As a result, resource managers seek tools to improve the understanding of ecosystem condition and to develop management responses to reduce local and regional pressures in the wake of larger, global impacts. A research study conducted from 2010 to 2014 in southeast Florida, USA consisted of two objectives: (1 conduct a needs assessment survey with coral reef and marine resource managers to identify data needs and the preferred design and delivery of climate information; and (2 develop and evaluate prototype decision support tools. The needs assessment process was helpful for identifying the types of climate information managers would like to obtain to inform decision making and to specify the preferred format for the delivery of that information. Three prototype tools were evaluated by managers using pre/post surveys that included hands-on tutorials to explore the functionality of each. Manager responses were recorded using a five-point scale with 1 being No or Not Useful to 5 being Absolutely or Very Useful. The median responses rated the usefulness of the tools (4, if they would consider using the tool (4, and if they would recommend using the tool to other managers (4 or 5. The median response for increasing manager’s knowledge about climate impacts after completing a tutorial of each of the climate tools was a 3 (moderately useful. Of the managers surveyed in the pre/post-survey, all but one stated they believed they would use the decision support tools in the future with the single response due to wealth of data availability in their institution.

  2. 78 FR 17778 - Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request... information needed to determine dependents of veterans beginning date to start their DEA benefits. DATES... forms of information technology. Title: Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request, VA...

  3. Decision from Models: Generalizing Probability Information to Novel Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Paily, Jacienta T; Maloney, Laurence T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new type of decision under risk where-to succeed-participants must generalize their experience in one set of tasks to a novel set of tasks. We asked participants to trade distance for reward in a virtual minefield where each successive step incurred the same fixed probability of failure (referred to as hazard). With constant hazard, the probability of success (the survival function) decreases exponentially with path length. On each trial, participants chose between a shorter path with smaller reward and a longer (more dangerous) path with larger reward. They received feedback in 160 training trials: encountering a mine along their chosen path resulted in zero reward and successful completion of the path led to the reward associated with the path chosen. They then completed 600 no-feedback test trials with novel combinations of path length and rewards. To maximize expected gain, participants had to learn the correct exponential model in training and generalize it to the test conditions. We compared how participants discounted reward with increasing path length to the predictions of nine choice models including the correct exponential model. The choices of a majority of the participants were best accounted for by a model of the correct exponential form although with marked overestimation of the hazard rate. The decision-from-models paradigm differs from experience-based decision paradigms such as decision-from-sampling in the importance assigned to generalizing experience-based information to novel tasks. The task itself is representative of everyday tasks involving repeated decisions in stochastically invariant environments.

  4. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  5. Mapping social-ecological vulnerability to inform local decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiault, Lauric; Marshall, Paul; Gelcich, Stefan; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Claudet, Joachim

    2017-07-17

    An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between people and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately, its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability. We developed a method to map social-ecological vulnerability based on information on human-nature dependencies and ecosystem services at local scales. We applied our method to the small-scale fishery of Moorea, French Polynesia, by combining spatially explicit indicators of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of both the resource (i.e., vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to fishing) and resource users (i.e., vulnerability of fishing households to the loss of fishing opportunity). Our results revealed that both social and ecological vulnerabilities varied considerably through space and highlighted areas where sources of vulnerability were high for both social and ecological subsystems (i.e., social-ecological vulnerability hotspots) and thus of high priority for management intervention. Our approach can be used to inform decisions about where biodiversity conservation strategies are likely to be more effective and how social impacts from policy decisions can be minimized. It provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages that can help guide sustainability management at local scales; delivers insights distinct from those provided by emphasis on a single vulnerability component (e.g., exposure); and demonstrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological vulnerability framework for policy, planning, and participatory

  6. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal J; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Edwards, Adrian; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Galesic, Mirta; Han, Paul K J; King, John; Lawson, Margaret L; Linder, Suzanne K; Lipkus, Isaac; Ozanne, Elissa; Peters, Ellen; Timmermans, Danielle; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current "best practices" in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a "state of the art" summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid "1 in x" formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. A substantial and rapidly expanding evidence base exists for risk

  7. INFORMATIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ITS CHALLENGES AT DECISION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Ion CHIȚESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented research in this study highlights the impact of the changes that took place by the implementation of the informational system management at the level of taking decisions in a public institution. In this frame, with the opportunities and limitations, the manager’s role becomes the binder that the combination between the influences of the informational technological influences and the involved human resource in the transformations of the Romanian public sector needs for a successful and efficient evolution. Based on an empirical study, there were highlighted a series of challenges that a manager must answer so he can overcome all the shortcomings that are involved by the projection and implementation of an informational system in a public institution, and to make the most of all the facilities that this process offers, offering a maximum of efficacy, analysis, perspective and communication.

  8. Decision-Assist and Closed-Loop Control of Fluid Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...compared to arterial catheter-transducer measurements. la. Test novel BP devices lb. Test VSM integration for decision support - WVSM and eQuality

  9. Making decisions in a complex information environment: evidential preference and information we trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L

    2013-01-01

    Informed decision making requires that those individuals making health and health-care decisions understand the advantages and disadvantages associated with particular health options. Research and theory suggest factors that contribute to the decision-making process: data on the likelihood of risks and benefits, level of certainty about outcomes, familiarity with the health issue, characteristics of information sources and presentation, and patient values and beliefs. As the health information environment increases in complexity, it becomes important to understand how interactions among information sources, family, and friends may affect the processing of health information and choices and their alignment with available evidence. This paper discusses the potential interactions among social networks, information sources and evidential preferences for health information as they influence health decisions. The role of family and friends who increasingly search for health information for others and the potential for information filtering influenced by second- or third-party attitudes and preferences is explored. Evidential preferences suggestive of the potential value of social math (creatively presented statistics) strategies for presenting data, the information-processing factors that may make personal experiences, anecdotes and testimonials that are often shared within social networks and may exert powerful influences on health decisions are examined in this article. The paper concludes with recommendations for revised health-communication practices, health professional training to improve patient understanding in the clinical encounter, and directions for future research. Simple, direct, and socially relevant communications that avoid conflicts with the values and beliefs of the individual, as well as those of the family and social network, are recommended.

  10. Interpreting climate data visualisations to inform adaptation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Daron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate development of graphical visualisations to communicate climate data is fundamental to the provision of climate services to guide climate change adaptation decisions. However, at present there is a lack of empirical evidence, particularly in Africa, to help climate information providers determine how best to communicate and display climate data. To help address this issue, an online survey, primarily targeted at the African vulnerability, impacts and adaptation community, was designed and disseminated widely. The survey examines the interpretation of climate data as a function of the style and information content of graphical visualisations. It is shown that choices made when constructing the visualisations, such as presenting percentile information versus showing the range, significantly impact on interpretation. Results also show that respondents who interpret a higher likelihood of future changes to climate, based on the visualisation of climate model projections, express greater confidence in their interpretations. The findings have relevance to the climate risk community in Africa and elsewhere across the world, and imply that a naïve approach to visualising climate data risks misinterpretation and unjustified levels of trust, with the potential to misinform adaptation and policy decisions.

  11. 76 FR 15993 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Budget a revision to the information collection, titled ``Financial Assistance & Social Services, 25 CFR... assistance or social services either are not available or not provided by State, tribal, county, local, or... and Social Service components including General Assistance, Child Assistance, Adult Care Assistance...

  12. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors: Enhancing a Theory-Informed Training Program for Informed Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I; Hunter, Jaimie C; Carlisle, Veronica A; Richmond, Alan N

    2017-09-01

    Despite the high burden of prostate cancer in African American communities, there is a paucity of knowledge about prostate health. This paper describes the enhancement of a curriculum for training lay health advisors, called prostate cancer ambassadors, on informed decision-making for prostate cancer screening. Adult learning theory informed the structuring of the training sessions to be interactive, self-directed, and engaging. Trainings were developed in a manner that made the material relevant to the learners and encouraged co-learning. The research team developed strategies, such as using discussions and interactive activities, to help community members weigh the pros and cons of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and to make an informed decision about screening. Furthermore, activities were developed to bolster four social cognitive theory constructs: observational learning, self-efficacy for presenting information to the community and for making an informed decision themselves, collective efficacy for presenting information to the community, and outcome expectations from those presentations. Games, discussions, and debates were included to make learning fun and encourage discovery. Practice sessions and team-building activities were designed to build self-efficacy for sharing information about informed decision-making. Topics added to the original curriculum included updates on prostate cancer screening, informed decision-making for screening, skills for being a lay health advisor, and ethics. This dynamic model and approach to lay health advisor (ambassador) training is flexible: while it was tailored for use with prostate cancer education, it can be adjusted for use with other types of cancer and even other diseases.

  13. Harnessing Information Technology to Inform Patients Facing Routine Decisions: Cancer Screening as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Woolf, Steven H; Hochheimer, Camille; Sabo, Roy T; Kashiri, Paulette; Jones, Resa M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Etz, Rebecca S; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Technology could transform routine decision making by anticipating patients' information needs, assessing where patients are with decisions and preferences, personalizing educational experiences, facilitating patient-clinician information exchange, and supporting follow-up. This study evaluated whether patients and clinicians will use such a decision module and its impact on care, using 3 cancer screening decisions as test cases. Twelve practices with 55,453 patients using a patient portal participated in this prospective observational cohort study. Participation was open to patients who might face a cancer screening decision: women aged 40 to 49 who had not had a mammogram in 2 years, men aged 55 to 69 who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test in 2 years, and adults aged 50 to 74 overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Data sources included module responses, electronic health record data, and a postencounter survey. In 1 year, one-fifth of the portal users (11,458 patients) faced a potential cancer screening decision. Among these patients, 20.6% started and 7.9% completed the decision module. Fully 47.2% of module completers shared responses with their clinician. After their next office visit, 57.8% of those surveyed thought their clinician had seen their responses, and many reported the module made their appointment more productive (40.7%), helped engage them in the decision (47.7%), broadened their knowledge (48.1%), and improved communication (37.5%). Many patients face decisions that can be anticipated and proactively facilitated through technology. Although use of technology has the potential to make visits more efficient and effective, cultural, workflow, and technical changes are needed before it could be widely disseminated. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Impacts of hospitals' innovativeness on information system outsourcing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hospitals' innovativeness on outsourcing decision-making regarding four information system (IS) functions, namely, software programs, network maintenance, hardware systems, and PC/printer maintenance. Using the 2011 roster of the Korean Hospital Association, this study selected 311 general hospitals as a study population. After identifying the managers who were in charge of outsourcing, this study administered questionnaires. A total of 103 hospitals responded. Of the responding hospitals, 55.34% outsourced at least one IS function, whereas 88.35% outsourced at least one managerial function. IS outsourcing was motivated by the need for outside experts, but other managerial functions were outsourced for cost savings. Innovative and early adopter hospitals were 4.52 and 4.91 times more likely to outsource IS functions related with work processes (i.e., software and network maintenance) than early and late majority hospitals, respectively. IT outsourcing effectiveness significantly influenced the outsourcing decisions regarding four IS functions. Hospitals that had perceived more risks of outsourcing significantly preferred non-outsourcing on their hardware systems, but the risks of outsourcing were not significant for outsourcing decisions regarding the other IS functions. Hospitals' innovativeness also significantly explained the quantity of innovation adoptions. Innovative and early adopter hospitals did more outsourcing than early and late majority hospitals. Hospitals' innovativeness influences decision-making regarding outsourcing. Innovative hospitals are more likely to outsource their work-process-related IS functions. Thus, organizational traits, especially hospitals' innovativeness, should be considered as a key success factor for IS management.

  15. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  16. The politics of information: informed consent in abortion and end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2013-01-01

    The politics of reproduction dominate the political landscape now more than ever. One area of controversy has been informed consent statutes for abortion, which have been praised by the pro-life movement but derided by the pro-choice movement. More recently, legislatures have begun to enact informed consent statutes with respect to end-of-life decision making, an area almost as politically controversial as abortion. Like many abortion disclosure laws, some of these have been entitled "Right to Know" statutes. Yet, the supporters and opponents of each set of statutes tend not to be the same, aligning to a large extent based on their place in the culture wars over life and death. In this Article, I strive not only to show the remarkably similar critiques each side marshals but also to use these concerns to think in more nuanced ways about the goals of informed consent and whether the disclosure mandates achieve those goals. I first argue in favor of the aspirational goals of informed consent as a process that allows patients to participate in their medical decision making. While conceding the inherently political nature of abortion and end-of-life care, I also contend that the significance of decisions regarding those matters warrants, at least in theory, legislative efforts to ensure that patients have the opportunity to engage in deliberative and informed decision making. In describing and responding to the similar critiques of both sets of laws--the political bias of the statutes; the efforts to persuade, especially with non-medical information; the potential vulnerability of the targeted audience; and the interference with physician discretion--I uncover and challenge some of the presumptions about informed consent inherent in those critiques. Although information that persuades or influences is not per se problematic, I argue that disclosure of information that is inaccurate, untrue, or emotionally inflammatory harms informed consent. Even well-crafted informed

  17. Uncertainty evaluation of data and information fusion within the context of the decision loop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, J Pieter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the principle taxonomy of the fusion process, the decision loop, is unified with uncertainty quantification and representation. A typical flow of information in the decision loop takes the form of raw information, uncertainty...

  18. Use of uncertainty information in flood management decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Many operational flood warning systems now use ensemble methods to generate probabilistic forecasts of flood flows. Currently, this information is used qualitatively by flood management decision makers (cf. Bruen et al., 2010), but examples of quantitative use in practice are rare. This may be at least partly because of doubt about the applicability, in low probability-high damages situations, of the more classical, formal, methods of using such information; expected value, expected utility etc. While there has been some research work addressing this problem, particularly in the management science domain, it is rarely used in practical flood management settings. The EU-funded COST731 Action has investigated this aspect of decision making and this presentation gives a summary overview of the topic, identifies the major issues and suggests some directions for future work. Reference: Bruen, M., Krahe, P., Zappa, M., Olsson, J., Vehvilainen, B., Kok, K. & Daamen, K.(2010) Visualising flood forecasting uncertainty: Some current European EPS platforms - COST731 Working Group 3 (Atmospheric Science Letters - in press)

  19. Decisions and caregiving: end of life among blacks from the perspective of informal caregivers and decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Norma E; Chase, Susan K

    2015-06-01

    This focus group study describes end-of-life caregiving and decision making among blacks from the perspective of the informal caregivers and decision makers. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Five focus groups with a total of 53 informal caregivers/decision makers were conducted. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used for the data analysis. Findings are presented under the themes of end of life caregiving and decision making roles, dynamics and process, and beliefs and values. The common thread of care giving and decision-making within relationship and six subthemes were identified. Findings also suggest the need for support and inclusion of designated informal caregivers and decision-makers in the advance care planning process early in the disease trajectory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  1. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households to...

  2. The Importance of Management Information Systems in Decision-Making Process in Najran University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Sultan Mahasneh

    2015-01-01

    Management information systems is very important for organizations especially decision-making process. This study is to answer the question related to the Importance of Management Information Systems on Decision-Making Process in Najran University, by exploring the role of management information systems in providing the necessary information to make decisions, the role of management information systems in decisionmaking, exploring the relationship of management information systems with deci...

  3. Social Networks as Information Source for the Purchase Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leoni Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision

  4. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients’ risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current “best practices” in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. Method An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a “state of the art” summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. Results The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid “1 in x” formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. Conclusion A substantial and

  5. Assisted Reproduction: What factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlatzis Basil C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of medical technology, many countries around the world have been implementing ethical guidelines and laws regarding Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR. A physician's reproductive decisions are not solely based on technical criteria but are also influenced by society values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors prioritized by MAR professionals when deciding on whether to accept to perform assisted reproduction and to show any existing cultural differences. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 224 healthcare professionals working with assisted reproduction in Brazil, Italy, Germany and Greece. Instrument used for data collection: a questionnaire, followed by the description of four special MAR cases (a single woman, a lesbian couple, an HIV discordant couple and gender selection which included case-specific questions regarding the professionals' decision on whether to perform the requested procedure as well as the following factors: socio-demographic variables, moral and legal values as well as the technical aspects which influence decision-making. Results Only the case involving a single woman who wishes to have a child (without the intention of having a partner in the future demonstrated significant differences. Therefore, the study was driven towards the results of this case specifically. The analyses we performed demonstrated that professionals holding a Master's Degree, those younger in age, female professionals, those having worked for less time in reproduction, those in private clinics and Brazilian health professionals all had a greater tendency to perform the procedure in that case. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the reasons for the professional's decision to perform the procedure were the woman's right to gestate and the duty of MAR professionals to help her. The professionals who decided not to perform the procedure identified the woman's marital status and

  6. Assisted Reproduction: What factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background With the development of medical technology, many countries around the world have been implementing ethical guidelines and laws regarding Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR). A physician's reproductive decisions are not solely based on technical criteria but are also influenced by society values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors prioritized by MAR professionals when deciding on whether to accept to perform assisted reproduction and to show any existing cultural differences. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 224 healthcare professionals working with assisted reproduction in Brazil, Italy, Germany and Greece. Instrument used for data collection: a questionnaire, followed by the description of four special MAR cases (a single woman, a lesbian couple, an HIV discordant couple and gender selection) which included case-specific questions regarding the professionals' decision on whether to perform the requested procedure as well as the following factors: socio-demographic variables, moral and legal values as well as the technical aspects which influence decision-making. Results Only the case involving a single woman who wishes to have a child (without the intention of having a partner in the future) demonstrated significant differences. Therefore, the study was driven towards the results of this case specifically. The analyses we performed demonstrated that professionals holding a Master's Degree, those younger in age, female professionals, those having worked for less time in reproduction, those in private clinics and Brazilian health professionals all had a greater tendency to perform the procedure in that case. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the reasons for the professional's decision to perform the procedure were the woman's right to gestate and the duty of MAR professionals to help her. The professionals who decided not to perform the procedure identified the woman's marital status and the child's right to a

  7. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  8. Evaluating participatory decision processes: which methods inform reflective practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decision-making on shared sanitation in the informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-10-01

    Unlike most quantitative studies that investigate decision-making on investing in sanitation, this study adopted a qualitative approach to investigate decision-making on shared sanitation in the informal settlements of Kisumu city, in Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, landlords and tenants were interviewed to identify sanitation decisions, individuals involved in decision-making and factors influencing decision-making. The results indicate that the main sanitation decisions are on investment, emptying, repair and cleaning. Landlords make investment, emptying and repair decisions, while tenants make cleaning decisions. Absentee landlords are less involved in most decision-making compared to live-in landlords, who rarely consult tenants in decision-making. Tenants make decisions after consultations with a third party and often collectively with other tenants. Sanitation interventions in informal settlements should thus, target landlords and tenants, with investment efforts being directed at landlords and maintenance efforts at tenants.

  10. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Toan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation, and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for

  11. Settling decisions and heterospecific social information use in shrikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hromada

    Full Text Available Animals often settle near competitors, a behavior known as social attraction, which belies standard habitat selection theory. Two hypotheses account for these observations: individuals obtain Allee benefits mediated by the physical presence of a competitor, or they use successfully settled individual as a source of information indicating the location of high quality habitat. We evaluated these hypotheses experimentally in two species of shrikes. These passerine birds with a raptor-like mode of life impale prey to create larders that serve as an indicator of male/habitat quality. Thus, two forms of indirect information are available in our system: a successfully settled shrike and its larder. Typically these two cues are associated with each other, however, our experimental treatment created an unnatural situation by disassociating them. We manipulated the presence of larders of great grey shrikes and examined the settling decisions of red-backed shrikes within and outside the great grey shrike territories. Male red-backed shrikes did not settle sooner on plots with great grey shrikes compared to plots that only contained artificial larders indicating that red-backed shrikes do not use the physical presence of a great grey shrike when making settling decisions which is inconsistent with the Allee effect hypothesis. In contrast, for all plots without great grey shrikes, red-backed shrikes settled, paired and laid clutches sooner on plots with larders compared to plots without larders. We conclude that red-backed shrikes use larders of great grey shrikes as a cue to rapidly assess habitat quality.

  12. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies.Objective To explore Bruce’s framework of informed decision making (IDM for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders.Method The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis.Results Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension.Conclusion This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  13. Risk Engineering, Sciences, Computation, and Informed Decisions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wrong decisions during the missions can lead to an unsafe condition or immediate failure, while correct decisions can help continue the missions even from faulty...

  14. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria eLee; Lasana eHarris

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may inf...

  15. Developing ethical strategies to assist oncologists in seeking informed consent to cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R F; Butow, P N; Butt, D G; Moore, A R; Tattersall, M H N

    2004-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have come to be regarded as the gold standard in treatment evaluation. However, many doctors see the discussion of a clinical trial as an intrusion into the doctor-patient relationship and find these discussions difficult to initiate. Detailed informed consent is now a requirement of patient participation in trials; however, it is known that patients commonly fail to understand and recall the information conveyed. These difficulties for doctors and patients raise questions about the ethical integrity of the informed consent process. In this study, we have developed a set of communication strategies underpinned by ethical, linguistic and psychological theory, designed to assist doctors in this difficult task. Initially, audiotape transcripts of 26 consultations in which 10 medical oncologists invited patients to participate in clinical trials were analysed by expert ethicists, linguists, oncologists and psychologists, using rigorous qualitative methodology. A subset of seven of these was subjected to detailed linguistic analysis. A strategies document was developed to address themes which emerged from these analyses. This document was presented to relevant expert stakeholders. Their feedback was incorporated into the final document. Four themes emerged from the analysis; (a) shared decision-making, (b) the sequence of moves in the consultation, (c) the type and clarity of the information provided and (d) disclosure of controversial information and coercion. Detailed strategies were developed to assist doctors to communicate in these areas. We have developed a set of ethical strategies which may assist health professionals in this difficult area. A training package based on these strategies is currently being evaluated in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

  16. Executable Behavioral Modeling of System and Software Architecture Specifications to Inform Resourcing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    BEHAVIORAL MODELING OF SYSTEM- AND SOFTWARE- ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATIONS TO INFORM RESOURCING DECISIONS by Monica F. Farah-Stapleton...AND SOFTWARE- ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATIONS TO INFORM RESOURCING DECISIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Monica F. Farah-Stapleton 7. PERFORMING...intellectual, programmatic, and organizational resources. Precise behavioral modeling offers a way to assess architectural design decisions prior to

  17. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  19. INFORM: development of information management and decision support systems for High Dependency Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, C L; Ambroso, C; Carson, E R; Chambrin, M C; Cramp, D; Gilhooly, K; Groth, T; Hunter, J R; Kalli, S; Leaning, M L

    The long-term aim in the INFORM Project is to develop, evaluate and implement a new generation of Information Systems for hospital High Dependency Environments (HDE-Intensive Care Units, Neonatal Units, Burns Units. Operating and Recovery Rooms, and other specialised areas). The distinguishing feature of the HDE is the very large amount of data that is collected through monitors and paper records about the state of critically ill patients; this has made the role of the staff a technical one in addition to a caring one. The INFORM System will integrate Decision Support with on-line, off-line and observed patient data and, in addition, will incorporate and integrate unit management features. In the Exploratory Phase of the Project, functional requirements have been set out. These are based on four components: conceptual model of the HDE; evaluation of existing HDE Information Systems; development of a novel software architecture using a Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) methodology, and based on a critical review of KBS applied to the HDE: monitoring of appropriate leading-edge technological developments. The conceptual model has two components: a patient-related information model, and a department-related cost model. The patient-related model is identifying key and difficult areas of decision making. A key aspect of INFORM is integration of clinical Decision Support for these areas into the Information System through a layered software architecture. The lower layers are concerned with monitoring and alarming and the higher levels with patient assessment and therapy planning. The functionality and interconnection of these layers are being determined.

  20. Informing Evidence Based Decisions: Usage Statistics for Online Journal Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Botchkarev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – The primary objective was to examine online journal database usage statistics for a provincial ministry of health in the context of evidence based decision-making. In addition, the study highlights implementation of the Journal Access Centre (JAC that is housed and powered by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC to inform health systems policy-making. Methods – This was a prospective case study using descriptive analysis of the JAC usage statistics of journal articles from January 2009 to September 2013. Results – JAC enables ministry employees to access approximately 12,000 journals with full-text articles. JAC usage statistics for the 2011-2012 calendar years demonstrate a steady level of activity in terms of searches, with monthly averages of 5,129. In 2009-2013, a total of 4,759 journal titles were accessed including 1,675 journals with full-text. Usage statistics demonstrate that the actual consumption was over 12,790 full-text downloaded articles or approximately 2,700 articles annually. Conclusion – JAC’s steady level of activities, revealed by the study, reflects continuous demand for JAC services and products. It testifies that access to online journal databases has become part of routine government knowledge management processes. MOHLTC’s broad area of responsibilities with dynamically changing priorities translates into the diverse information needs of its employees and a large set of required journals. Usage statistics indicate that MOHLTC information needs cannot be mapped to a reasonably compact set of “core” journals with a subsequent subscription to those.

  1. Integrating multimodal information for intraoperative assistance in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann U.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted planning of complex neurosurgical interventions benefits from a variety of specific functions and tools. However, commercial planning- and neuronavigation systems are rather restrictive concerning the availability of innovative methods such as novel imaging modalities, fiber tracking algorithms or electrical dipole mapping. In this respect there is a demand for modular neurosurgical planning systems offering flexible interfaces for easy enhancement. Furthermore all relevant planning information should be available within neuron-avigation. In this work we present a planning system providing these capabilities and its suitability and application in a clinical setting. Our Multimodal Planning System (MOPS 3D offers a variety of tools such as definition of trajectories for minimally invasive surgery, segmentation of ROIs, integration of functional information from atlas maps or magnetoencephalography. It also supplies plugin interfaces for future extensions. For intraoperative application MOPS is coupled with the neuronavigation system Brainlab Vector Vision Cranial/ENT (VVC. We evaluated MOPS in the Department of Neurosurgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg. Surgical planning and navigation was performed in 5 frequently occurring clinical cases. The time necessary for planning was between 5 and 15 minutes including data import, segmentation and planning tasks. The additional information intraoperatively provided by MOPS 3D was highly appreciated by the neurosurgeons and the performance was satisfactory.

  2. Informing Urban Decision Making with an Array of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R. L.; Catlett, C.; Beckman, P. H.; Sankaran, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next several decades, the population of the world's cities is projected to nearly double, increasing by 2.6 billion people and requiring massive urban expansion globally. This massive growth in urban density and scale will compound ongoing city challenges related to climate change, energy, infrastructure, public health, and more. Cities are using data they already collect such as 311 calls, bus and train operations, street repair orders, census data and building permits to help understand the complex interactions between the human, built and natural systems within a city and inform their decision making. Helping to guide urban decision-making is The Array of Things (AoT): a new tool for measuring many aspects of the physical environment of urban areas at the city block scale with continuous, reliable, integrated data from a variety of sensors. An AoT node includes multiple sensors to measure basic meteorological quantities such as pressure, temperature and humidity as well as light and trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. The sensors operate 24/7 with ingest frequencies as high as 1Hz. The nodes are modular and allow new sensors to be added or swapped out. The hardware/software backbone of an AoT node is provided by the Waggle architecture. Each AoT node includes, via Waggle, compute power from a single board computer running Linux that allows data to be processed in-situ and, if needed, command and control of components of the node. Data is communicated in near real-time typically through WiFi, 3G or wired ethernet to a designated host and resilience is built-in to prevent data loss if communication is disrupted. The AoT includes a software stack with a programmable API and cloud-based infrastructure for performing data ingest and further analysis. The first full instance of AoT will comprise 500 nodes deployed in the City of Chicago, each with power, Internet, and a base set of sensing and embedded information

  3. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  4. Information and decision-making needs among people with affective disorders - results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherz, Sarah; Tlach, Lisa; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids are one possibility for enabling and encouraging patients to participate in medical decisions. This paper aims to describe patients' information and decision-making needs as a prerequisite for the development of high-quality, web-based patient decision aids for affective disorders. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey by using a self-administered questionnaire including items on Internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making, and important treatment decisions, performing descriptive and comparative statistical analyses. A total of 210 people with bipolar disorder/mania as well as 112 people with unipolar depression participated in the survey. Both groups specified general information search as their most relevant information need and decisions on treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as well as decisions on pharmacological treatment as the most difficult treatment decisions. For participants with unipolar depression, decisions concerning psychotherapeutic treatment were also especially difficult. Most participants of both groups preferred shared decisions but experienced less shared decisions than desired. Our results show the importance of information for patients with affective disorders, with a focus on pharmacological treatment and on the different treatment settings, and highlight patients' requirements to be involved in the decision-making process. Since our sample reported a chronic course of disease, we do not know if our results are applicable for newly diagnosed patients. Further studies should consider how the reported needs could be addressed in health care practice.

  5. Information and Decision-Making Needs Among People with Anxiety Disorders: Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherz, Sarah; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    People with anxiety disorders are faced with treatment decisions considerably affecting their life. Patient decision aids are aimed at enabling patients to deliberate treatment options based on individual values and to participate in medical decisions. This is the first study to determine patients' information and decision-making needs as a pre-requisite for the development of patient decision aids for anxiety disorders. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and April 2013 on the e-health portal http://www.psychenet.de by using a self-administered questionnaire with items on internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making and important treatment decisions. Descriptive and inferential statistical as well as qualitative data analyses were performed. A total of 60 people with anxiety disorders with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD 10.5) participated in the survey. The most prevalent reasons for online health information search were the need for general information on anxiety disorders, the search for a physician or psychiatrist and the insufficiency of information given by the healthcare provider. Respondents experienced less shared and more autonomous decisions than they preferred. They assessed decisions on psychotherapy, medication, and treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as the most difficult decisions. Our results confirm the importance of offering patient decision aids for people with anxiety disorders that encourage patients to participate in decision making by providing information about the pros and cons of evidence-based treatment options.

  6. 77 FR 60413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions Non- Title IV Revenue Requirements (90/10). OMB...

  7. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions-- Readmission for Servicemembers. OMB...

  8. Decision-making frameworks and considerations for informing coverage decisions for healthcare interventions: a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rebecca L; Kelley, Leah; Guyatt, Gordon H; Johnson, Ana; Lavis, John N

    2017-10-06

    To guide decision-making about whether or not to pay for a new healthcare intervention, a number of existing frameworks systematically weigh scientific evidence, cost, and social and ethical values. Each framework has strengths and limitations. This study aims to review and summarize available frameworks and generate an integrated framework, if and where applicable, highlighting particular issues faced with expensive but effective and desirable healthcare interventions. We conducted a critical interpretive synthesis to inform decision-making about healthcare interventions. We updated prior systematic reviews on decision-making frameworks through 2015. Purposive sampling identified relevant constructs and considerations to facilitate decision-making. Of 2,980 references, we purposively sampled 19 frameworks. The new framework, which built on the GRADE Evidence to Decision framework, included burden of disease, benefits and harms, values and preferences, resource use, equity, acceptability, and feasibility. Modifications to the Evidence to Decision framework included adding limitations of alternative technologies considerations in use (expanding benefits and harms) and broadening acceptability and feasibility constructs to include political and health system factors. No modifications appeared necessary to address the situation of effective but expensive and desirable interventions. Guideline developers, health technology assessment producers, and decision-makers can use our integrated framework to inform decision-making about healthcare interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Informed shared decision making: An exploratory study in pharmacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using the physician-based Informed Shared Decision Making (ISDM framework for teaching pharmacy students competencies to effectively develop therapeutic relationships with patients. Objectives: To: (1 assess the relevance and importance of the physician-developed ISDM competencies for pharmacy practice, (2 determine which competencies would be easiest and hardest to practice, (3 identify barriers to implementing ISDM in pharmacy practice, and (4 identify typical situations in which ISDM is or could be practiced. Methods: Twenty pharmacists representing 4 different practices were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. Results: Pharmacists acknowledged that majority of the physician-based competencies were relevant to pharmacy practice; although not all competencies were considered to be most important. Competency #1 (Develop a partnership with the patient was found to be the most relevant, the most important and the easiest to practice of all the competencies. While no one competency was identified as being hard to practice, there were several barriers identified to practicing ISDM. Finally, pharmacists expressed that patients with chronic conditions would be the most ideal for engaging in ISDM.Conclusion: While pharmacists believed that the ISDM model could provide a framework for pharmacists to develop therapeutic relationships with their patients, the group also identified obstacles to engaging successfully in this relationship.

  10. Combination of uncertainty theories and decision-aiding methods for natural risk management in a context of imperfect information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacnet, Jean-Marc; Dupouy, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Dezert, Jean; Batton-Hubert, Mireille

    2017-04-01

    In mountain areas, natural phenomena such as snow avalanches, debris-flows and rock-falls, put people and objects at risk with sometimes dramatic consequences. Risk is classically considered as a combination of hazard, the combination of the intensity and frequency of the phenomenon, and vulnerability which corresponds to the consequences of the phenomenon on exposed people and material assets. Risk management consists in identifying the risk level as well as choosing the best strategies for risk prevention, i.e. mitigation. In the context of natural phenomena in mountainous areas, technical and scientific knowledge is often lacking. Risk management decisions are therefore based on imperfect information. This information comes from more or less reliable sources ranging from historical data, expert assessments, numerical simulations etc. Finally, risk management decisions are the result of complex knowledge management and reasoning processes. Tracing the information and propagating information quality from data acquisition to decisions are therefore important steps in the decision-making process. One major goal today is therefore to assist decision-making while considering the availability, quality and reliability of information content and sources. A global integrated framework is proposed to improve the risk management process in a context of information imperfection provided by more or less reliable sources: uncertainty as well as imprecision, inconsistency and incompleteness are considered. Several methods are used and associated in an original way: sequential decision context description, development of specific multi-criteria decision-making methods, imperfection propagation in numerical modeling and information fusion. This framework not only assists in decision-making but also traces the process and evaluates the impact of information quality on decision-making. We focus and present two main developments. The first one relates to uncertainty and imprecision

  11. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF APPLICANTS’ GENDER AND RELIGION ON PRINCIPALS’ SCREENING DECISIONS FOR ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL APPLICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN C. BON

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, a national random sample of high school principals (stratified by gender were asked to evaluate hypothetical applicants whose resumes varied by religion (Jewish, Catholic, nondenominational and gender (male, female for employment as assistant principals. Results reveal that male principals rate all applicants higher than female principals and that the gender and religion of applicants failed to negatively or positively affect principals’ evaluations. These results suggest that discrimination based on an applicant’s gender and religion failed to be manifested during the pre-interview stage of the selection process. The paper concludes with a theoretical discussion of the distinction between explicit and implicit prejudice, and encourages future researchers to investigate the potential impact of prejudice on employment selection decisions and to consider whether schools should promote diversity in leadership positions.

  12. Formal analysis of the surgical pathway and development of a new software tool to assist surgeons in the decision making in primary breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanuto, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Francesco; Rocco, Nicola; Leotta, Marco; Ursino, Venera; Chiodini, Paolo; Buggi, Federico; Folli, Secondo; Catalano, Francesca; Nava, Maurizio B

    2016-10-01

    The increased complexity of the decisional process in breast cancer surgery is well documented. With this study we aimed to create a software tool able to assist patients and surgeons in taking proper decisions. We hypothesized that the endpoints of breast cancer surgery could be addressed combining a set of decisional drivers. We created a decision support system software tool (DSS) and an interactive decision tree. A formal analysis estimated the information gain derived from each feature in the process. We tested the DSS on 52 patients and we analyzed the concordance of decisions obtained by different users and between the DSS suggestions and the actual surgery. We also tested the ability of the system to prevent post breast conservation deformities. The information gain revealed that patients preferences are the root of our decision tree. An observed concordance respectively of 0.98 and 0.88 was reported when the DSS was used twice by an expert operator or by a newly trained operator vs. an expert one. The observed concordance between the DSS suggestion and the actual decision was 0.69. A significantly higher incidence of post breast conservation defects was reported among patients who did not follow the DSS decision (Type III of Fitoussi, N = 4; 33.3%, p = 0.004). The DSS decisions can be reproduced by operators with different experience. The concordance between suggestions and actual decision is quite low, however the DSS is able to prevent post- breast conservation deformities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Supporting informed decision making online in 20 minutes: an observational web-log study of a PSA test decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Evans, Rhodri; Edwards, Adrian; Newcombe, Robert G; Wright, Patricia; Grol, Richard; Elwyn, Glyn

    2010-05-26

    Web-based decision aids are known to have an effect on knowledge, attitude, and behavior; important components of informed decision making. We know what decision aids achieve in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but we still know very little about how they are used and how this relates to the informed decision making outcome measures. To examine men's use of an online decision aid for prostate cancer screening using website transaction log files (web-logs), and to examine associations between usage and components of informed decision making. We conducted an observational web-log analysis of users of an online decision aid, Prosdex. Men between 50 and 75 years of age were recruited for an associated RCT from 26 general practices across South Wales, United Kingdom. Men allocated to one arm of the RCT were included in the current study. Time and usage data were derived from website log files. Components of informed decision making were measured by an online questionnaire. Available for analysis were 82 web-logs. Overall, there was large variation in the use of Prosdex. The mean total time spent on the site was 20 minutes. The mean number of pages accessed was 32 (SD 21) out of a possible 60 pages. Significant associations were found between increased usage and increased knowledge (Spearman rank correlation [rho] = 0.69, P limitation in mind. We recommend that web-log analysis should be an integral part of online decision aid development and analysis. ISRCTN48473735; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN48473735 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5pqeF89tS).

  14. Scientific information repository assisting reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W

    2012-06-01

    Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.

  15. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  16. Dutch nursing home policies and guidelines on physician-assisted death and decisions to forego treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, I; van der Wal, G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe: (a) the prevalence and content of policies on euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) in three different types of nursing homes; (b) specific content items of written guidelines for EAS; and (c) the prevalence of guidelines on withholding or withdrawing treatment from severely demented patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state in the nursing homes. Descriptive, cross-sectional. We have used a postal survey among directors of patient care of all (n = 304) Dutch somatic nursing homes (meant for physically handicapped patients), psychogeriatric nursing homes (meant for patients suffering from dementia) and combined nursing homes. Data were collected from October 1994 through January 1995. Results indicate that psychogeriatric nursing homes less often had a written EAS policy than somatic and combined nursing homes (62, 68 and 80% respectively). The most frequently reported aspects in the EAS guidelines, by the nursing homes with guidelines based on a policy that EAS was accepted under certain conditions; were consultation of another physician (97%), referral to another physician if the attending physician had in-principle objections (82%), and the involvement of the nurse in the decision-making procedure (82%). Of the nursing homes, 9% reported having specific written procedures concerning withholding or withdrawing treatment from severely demented patients. Guidelines in the nursing homes on euthanasia and assisted suicide might be improved. Especially with regard to withholding or withdrawing treatment from incompetent patients, more guidelines should be developed.

  17. Design of a decision support system, trained on GPU, for assisting melanoma diagnosis in dermatoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotsos, Dimitris; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Lalissidou, Stella; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Asvestas, Pantelis; Konstandinou, Christos; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Konstantina Nikolatou, Eirini; Perakis, Konstantinos; Bouras, Thanassis; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a decision support system for assisting the diagnosis of melanoma in dermatoscopy images. Clinical material comprised images of 44 dysplastic (clark's nevi) and 44 malignant melanoma lesions, obtained from the dermatology database Dermnet. Initially, images were processed for hair removal and background correction using the Dull Razor algorithm. Processed images were segmented to isolate moles from surrounding background, using a combination of level sets and an automated thresholding approach. Morphological (area, size, shape) and textural features (first and second order) were calculated from each one of the segmented moles. Extracted features were fed to a pattern recognition system assembled with the Probabilistic Neural Network Classifier, which was trained to distinguish between benign and malignant cases, using the exhaustive search and the leave one out method. The system was designed on the GPU card (GeForce 580GTX) using CUDA programming framework and C++ programming language. Results showed that the designed system discriminated benign from malignant moles with 88.6% accuracy employing morphological and textural features. The proposed system could be used for analysing moles depicted on smart phone images after appropriate training with smartphone images cases. This could assist towards early detection of melanoma cases, if suspicious moles were to be captured on smartphone by patients and be transferred to the physician together with an assessment of the mole's nature.

  18. 75 FR 58374 - 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... AGENCY 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System) AGENCY... Decision Information System (CADDIS). This Web site was developed to help scientists find, develop... information useful for causal evaluations in aquatic systems. CADDIS is based on EPA's Stressor Identification...

  19. Examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into assisted living: A sample funding proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ashleigh Leah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project presents a conceptually grounded, methodologically appropriate and logistically feasible Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding proposal. By examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into an assisted living facility (ALF), the proposed study will provide insight into and a rich description of the decision making process as it unfolds. Presented in the format of a CIHR pilot study grant, the proposal details a qualita...

  20. Information identification, evaluation and utilisation for decision-making by managers in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Osunrinde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managers’ organisational decisions and subsequent actions flow from their understanding of the business environment in which they operate. This study sought to understand how managers in various organisations identify, evaluate and use information for effective current and future decision-making.Objectives: The study focused on the types of information needed by managers for decision-making, the methods used to identify and acquire the information and the sources of information consulted, their satisfaction with the information used and their decision-making behaviours.Methods: The study employed descriptive study design. Simple random sampling was used. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information from 219 managers, randomly selected from the registers of the Ibadan, Abeokuta and Lagos chapters of Nigerian Institute of Management.Results: Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision-making included industry information followed by government policies and economic development/forecasts.Conclusion: Investigation revealed the extent of information identification, information evaluation and information utilisation individually predict the perceived effectiveness of decision-making by the managers. Nevertheless, information evaluation was found to have greater predictive relationship with perceived effectiveness of decision-making than information use and information identification.

  1. A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambacus, Myra; Yang, Chaowei Phil; Leung, Ronald Y.; Barbee, Brent; Nuth, Joseph A.; Seery, Bernard; Jiang, Yongyao; Qin, Han; Li, Yun; Yu, Manzhu; hide

    2017-01-01

    A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.

  2. Indicators of Informal and Formal Decision-Making about a Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Lute, Michelle L.; Straka, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    We propose two contrasting types of student decision-making based on social and cognitive psychology models of separate mental processes for problem solving. Informal decision-making uses intuitive reasoning and is subject to cognitive biases, whereas formal decision-making uses effortful, logical reasoning. We explored indicators of students'…

  3. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behavior with the computer-based information-display-matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The former judgement that the process-tracing method information-display-matrix (IDM) lacks external validity should be questioned in the light of technical advances and changing consumer behaviour. The new research environment offers possibilities for a close-to-realistic refinement and further...... development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  4. Measurement of Fibrosis in Crohn's Disease Strictures with Imaging and Blood Biomarkers to Inform Clinical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter D R

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing fibrosis from inflammation in an intestinal stricture in Crohn's disease is quite difficult. The absence of signs of inflammation on CT or MRI does not prove the absence of inflammation, as most strictures have a mix of fibrosis and inflammation. Identifying refractory fibrosis and distinguishing the patients who will respond to anti-inflammatory therapy from those who will require surgery are important clinical requirements, and several new technologies in imaging and serum biomarkers are being applied to this problem. Key Messages: Delayed gadolinium enhancement of a Crohn's disease stricture on MRI can reliably identify severe fibrosis, and may be helpful in deciding which patients will require surgery. However, this approach does not appear to be able to identify patients with mild or moderate fibrosis. New imaging technologies, including T2/magnetization transfer MRI, shear wave velocity ultrasound, and photoacoustic imaging, offer promising animal data that could prove to accurately assist clinical decision making. Glyoproteomics has identified hepatic growth factor alpha and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein as possible serum biomarkers to detect and measure intestinal fibrosis. The presence of upstream small bowel dilation >3.5 cm or a platelet/albumin ratio >150 helps in identifying Crohn's disease patients at high risk of stricture resection in the next 2 years. Imaging and biomarker technologies to measure intestinal fibrosis are rapidly evolving, and could soon provide valuable information for clinical decision making for patients with intestinal strictures from Crohn's disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 78 FR 23775 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Tax Credit Assistance Program (TCAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Tax Credit Assistance... Credit Assistance Program (TCAP). This is a revision of an already approved information collection. HUD... information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget...

  6. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  7. Information bounds and quickest change detection in decentralized decision systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Yajun

    2005-01-01

    The quickest change detection problem is studied in decentralized decision systems, where a set of sensors receive independent observations and send summary messages to the fusion center, which makes a final decision. In the system where the sensors do not have access to their past observations, the previously conjectured asymptotic optimality of a procedure with a monotone likelihood ratio quantizer (MLRQ) is proved. In the case of additive Gaussian sensor noise, if the signal-to-noise ratio...

  8. SANDS: an architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2007-10-11

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics.

  9. Elements of informed consent and decision quality were poorly correlated in informed consent documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Carroll, Kelly; Elwyn, Glyn; Saginur, Raphael; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Shojania, Kaveh; Syrowatka, Ania; Nguyen, Trang; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-12-01

    Although informed consent (IC) documents must contain specific elements, inclusion of these elements may be insufficient to encourage high-quality decision making. We assessed the extent to which documents conform to IC standards and how well conformity to decision quality (DQ) standards can be predicted by IC standards, IC document characteristics, and study characteristics. We obtained 139 IC documents for trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from study investigators. Using a four-point scale, two raters independently assessed each IC document on 36 IC standard items and 9 DQ items. Overall agreement between raters across all 45 items was 93%. Across the 36 IC standards items, conformity was generally quite high but variable, with 20 items showing conformity of 80% or more and seven items showing conformity of 50% or lower. IC standards concordance, overall length of the IC document, and country of study were all significant predictors of DQ standards but together accounted for less than 20% of the variance in DQ standards. Conformity to recommendations for improving IC documents was relatively high but variable. The extent to which an IC document conformed to these recommendations was only moderately related to whether it conformed to recommendations for improving DQ. Existing IC regulations may not describe the optimal approach to helping people make good study participation decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 67804 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Application for Client Assistance Program... request funds to establish and carry out Client Assistance Programs (CAP). CAP is mandated by the...

  11. 75 FR 19986 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... the information collection, titled ``Financial Assistance & Social Services, 25 CFR 20.'' The... part 20 to eligible Indians when comparable financial assistance or social services either are not... application form was revised to include all Financial Assistance and Social Service components including...

  12. Knowledge translation strategies for enhancing nurses' evidence-informed decision making: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Jennifer; Thompson, David; Ganann, Rebecca; Aloweni, Fazila; Newman, Kristine; McKibbon, Ann; Dobbins, Maureen; Ciliska, Donna

    2014-06-01

    Nurses are increasingly expected to engage in evidence-informed decision making (EIDM); the use of research evidence with information about patient preferences, clinical context and resources, and their clinical expertise in decision making. Strategies for enhancing EIDM have been synthesized in high-quality systematic reviews, yet most relate to physicians or mixed disciplines. Existing reviews, specific to nursing, have not captured a broad range of strategies for promoting the knowledge and skills for EIDM, patient outcomes as a result of EIDM, or contextual information for why these strategies "work." To conduct a scoping review to identify and map the literature related to strategies implemented among nurses in tertiary care for promoting EIDM knowledge, skills, and behaviours, as well as patient outcomes and contextual implementation details. A search strategy was developed and executed to identify relevant research evidence. Participants included registered nurses, clinical nurse specialists, nurse practitioners, and advanced practice nurses. Strategies were those enhancing nurses' EIDM knowledge, skills, or behaviours, as well as patient outcomes. Relevant studies included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials (including controlled before and after studies), cluster non-randomized trials, interrupted time series designs, prospective cohort studies, mixed-method studies, and qualitative studies. Two reviewers performed study selection and data extraction using standardized forms. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Using a narrative synthesis, the body of research was mapped by design, clinical areas, strategies, and provider and patient outcomes to determine areas appropriate for a systematic review. There are a sufficiently high number of studies to conduct a more focused systematic review by care settings, study design, implementation strategies

  13. What information is used in treatment decision aids? A systematic review of the types of evidence populating health decision aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Amanda M; Ryan, Jean; Walsh, Cathal; McCurtin, Arlene

    2017-02-23

    Patient decision aids (DAs) are support tools designed to provide patients with relevant information to help them make informed decisions about their healthcare. While DAs can be effective in improving patient knowledge and decision quality, it is unknown what types of information and evidence are used to populate such decision tools. Systematic methods were used to identify and appraise the relevant literature and patient DAs published between 2006 and 2015. Six databases (Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, Biomedical Reference Collection, General Sciences and MEDLINE) and reference list searching were used. Articles evaluating the effectiveness of the DAs were appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The content, quality and sources of evidence in the decision aids were evaluated using the IPDASi-SF and a novel classification system. Findings were synthesised and a narrative analysis was performed on the results. Thirteen studies representing ten DAs met the inclusion criteria. The IPDASI-SF score ranged from 9 to 16 indicating many of the studies met the majority of quality criteria. Sources of evidence were described but reports were sometimes generic or missing important information. The majority of DAs incorporated high quality research evidence including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Patient and practice evidence was less commonly employed, with only a third of included DAs using these to populate decision aid content. The quality of practice and patient evidence ranged from high to low. Contextual factors were addressed across all DAs to varying degrees and covered a range of factors. This is an initial study examining the information and evidence used to populate DAs. While research evidence and contextual factors are well represented in included DAs, consideration should be given to incorporating high quality information representing all four pillars of evidence based practice when developing DAs. Further, patient and expert practice

  14. Decisions beyond boundaries: when more information is processed faster than less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2012-03-01

    Bounded rationality models usually converge in claiming that decision time and the amount of computational steps needed to come to a decision are positively correlated. The empirical evidence for this claim is, however, equivocal. We conducted a study that tests this claim by adding and omitting information. We demonstrate that even an increase in information amount can yield a decrease in decision time if the added information increases coherence in the information set. Rather than being influenced by amount of information, decision time systematically increased with decreasing coherence. The results are discussed with reference to a parallel constraint satisfaction approach to decision making, which assumes that information integration is operated in an automatic, holistic manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of providing informed consent or assent for research participation in assisted living residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Betty S; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter V; Samus, Quincy M; Steele, Cynthia D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenblatt, Adam

    2008-01-01

    This study's goal was to identify factors associated with providing either informed consent or assent for research in individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional baseline data were used to identify predictors of consent or assent status. The study was conducted at 22 assisted living facilities in Maryland. A stratified random sample of 198 assisted living residents participated in the study. Residents' consent or assent status was documented as providing informed consent, written assent, or verbal assent/no objection. Potential predictors included residents' demographic characteristics, measures of physical and mental health status, and neuropsychological test performance. Most participants provided written assent (32.8%) or verbal assent/no objection (30.3%) rather than informed consent (36.9%). Although many resident characteristics correlated with consent or assent status based on bivariate analyses, few variables distinguished those who provided written assent from those in the verbal assent/no objection group. On the basis of multiple discriminant analysis, the best predictors of consent or assent status were Mini-Mental State Exam scores, impairments in instrumental activities of daily living, and dementia diagnosis, which together classified correctly 63.6% of residents. The relatively small proportion of participants who could provide informed consent highlights the importance of assessing decisional capacity for research in a high-risk population and identifying an appropriate surrogate decision maker to provide proxy consent if needed. Consensus on how to define assent is lacking, and specific measures of assent capabilities are needed to better characterize the assent capacity continuum.

  16. A software tool to assist business-process decision-making in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mustafa A; Washbrook, John; Lim, Ai Chye; Zhou, Yuhong; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Morton, Philip; Berezenko, Steve; Farid, Suzanne S

    2004-01-01

    Conventionally, software tools for the design of bioprocesses have provided only limited business-related information for decision-making. There is an industrial need to investigate manufacturing options and to gauge the impact of various decisions from economic as well as process perspectives. This paper describes the development and use of a tool to provide an assessment of whole flowsheets by capturing both process and business aspects. The tool is demonstrated by considering the issues concerned when making decisions between two potential flowsheets for a common product. A case study approach is used to compare the process and business benefits of a conventional process route employing packed chromatography beds and an alternative that uses expanded bed adsorption (EBA). The tool allows direct evaluation of the benefits of capital cost reduction and increased yield offered by EBA against penalties of using potentially more expensive EBA matrix with lower lifetimes. Furthermore, the tool provides the ability to gauge the process robustness of each flowsheet option.

  17. SYSTEMATIZATION OF NURSING ASSISTANCE: THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CHALLENGES IN THE QUALITY OF ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Pissaia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to understand the perceptions of nurses about the computerization of the Nursing Care Systematization in a general clinical hospitalization unit of a hospital in Vale do Taquari / Rio Grande do Sul / Brazil. This is a field research, descriptive and exploratory, with a qualitative approach, performed with six nurses working in a unit of general clinical hospitalization. The data were collected through interviews during the month of February 2016 and analyzed through the Thematic Content Analysis. The results evidenced potentialities and weaknesses resulting from the process of implementation of computerized SAE in a hospital clinical hospitalization unit. The main benefits derived from the adhesion of computerization in the SAE process were related to the increase of the quality of the care offered in the institution, security in the patient records and facilities in the processes of communication between the multiprofessional team. Already, the main difficulties in the processes of adhesion and implantation of SAE with the help of information technology were related to the discomforts due to the new practical and scientific demands that the teams develop during their assistance, since, the professionals sometimes perceive this new process As exhausting and unnecessary. The computerization of the SAE in health institutions still constitutes a challenge to be overcome and adopted to the daily routine of nurses, mainly regarding the motivation of their teams aiming at their adherence.

  18. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R. W.; Ten Velden, Femke S.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2017-01-01

    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes. PMID:28074896

  19. Amount of Information and Primacy-Recency Effects in Recruitment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, James L.; York, C. Michael

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of amount of information and number of judgments required of subjects upon information order effects in recruitment interview decisions. (Author)

  20. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seongmin A Park; Sidney Goïame; Jean-Claude Dreher

    2017-01-01

    ... (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal...

  1. Helping Patients to Make Informed Decisions : The PARE Guide to Disseminate EULAR Recommendations Among Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.; Bakker, M.; van Bodegom-Vos, L.; Buch, M.; Caeyers, N.; Carluccio, A.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Greiff, R.; Glüsing, B.; Gossec, L.; Kent, A.; Poldema, I.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Wiek, D.; Schipper, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Accurate patient information is necessary to make informed health decisions. However, the traditional, scientific wording of professional recommendations is often difficult to understand for lay people. OBJECTIVES To develop a practical guide for patient organizations and health

  2. Measuring the usefulness of social media information for new venture development decision-making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    den Engelse, Natalie; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M; Groen, Arend J

    2012-01-01

    .... Little is known on how these media are used by entrepreneurs for information acquisition and to what extent entrepreneurs use social media information in their decision-making during venture development...

  3. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: gerhard.ersdal@ptil.no; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  4. Gene therapy and informed consent decision making: nursing research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Rita W; Wills, Celia E; Kaspar, Brian K

    2009-07-01

    Recent gene therapy clinical trials have demonstrated significant promise for treating a number of genetic neuromuscular disorders. Although nurses are experienced in educating patients and families about the benefits and risks of conventional therapeutics, there are significant challenges for guiding patients through the decision-making phase of gene therapy clinical trial participation. The first part of this review provides an overview and update on neuromuscular gene therapy, including viral delivery principles and historical progress. The second part discusses risk/benefit perception of gene therapy and factors affecting the decision making for patients interested in participating in a trial. Future challenges for gene therapy are targeted high-efficiency delivery, and additional research on developing patient-centered decision support interventions.

  5. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  6. 49 CFR 40.141 - How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Verification Process § 40.141 How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision? As the MRO... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision? 40.141 Section 40.141 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation...

  7. Explicit representation of confidence informs future value-based decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Tomas; Jacobsen, Catrine; Fleming, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    follow a more consistent pattern (fewer transitivity violations). Finally, by tracking participants’ eye movements, we demonstrate that lower-level gaze dynamics can track uncertainty but do not directly impact changes of mind. These results suggest that an explicit and accurate representation......Humans can reflect on decisions and report variable levels of confidence. But why maintain an explicit representation of confidence for choices that have already been made and therefore cannot be undone? Here we show that an explicit representation of confidence is harnessed for subsequent changes...... of confidence has a positive impact on the quality of future value-based decisions....

  8. Nurse Leaders' Perceptions of Influence of Organizational Restructuring on Evidence-Informed Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Judith A; Lo, Eliza; Hofmeyer, Anne; Cummings, Greta G

    2016-01-01

    To describe how organizational context and restructuring influenced nurse leaders' use of evidence in decision-making in their management practice. Qualitative descriptive study. Fifteen leaders at executive and front-line manager levels in one organization were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Inductive content analysis generated five main themes: leaders strove to keep relationships that preserve best decision-making ability; and sought the best knowledge to inform their decisions. However, a context of constant change; more scope; less autonomy; and decisional inertia in a sea of change had profound effects on their ability to employ evidence in decision-making. Evidence-informed decision-making is a dynamic social process highly influenced by political instability in work environments. Organizational restructuring creates threats to common decision-making strategies, including information flow, relationships and priority setting. Healthcare restructuring is now a global constant, and there is a need for hospital leaders to understand and mitigate the effect restructuring has on the ability of leaders to engage in evidence-informed decision-making. Strategies are proposed to manage uncertainty and support nurse leaders in their evidence-informed decision-making to deliver quality health services. This research provides an in-depth examination of how evidence-informed decision-making is influenced in the context of instability and uncertainty due to ever-present organizational restructuring.

  9. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  10. The relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Danelon Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Includes a documentary research on the relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization. Objective: The goal is to check the influence of information, considering the organizational culture, decision making in an organization. Methodology: The literature review include authors specialized in the areas of information (Belkin; Borko; Capurro; Choo; Tarapanoff; among others; culture (Fleury et al.; Moraes and Fadel; Nassar and Schein, decision making (Angeloni; Hoppen; Leitão and Nassif; Lousada and Valentim and Oliveira and organization (Bernardes and Marcondes and Maximiano. Results: That there may be a strong interdependency between information, culture and decision making in an organization. Conclusions: The information can facilitate understanding of the culture of an organization, how the processes of change occur and what alternatives can be raised so that she can achieve success in their decision-making process in order to ensure its perpetuation over time.

  11. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    . First, competitive behavior makes decision-makers apply logic of reassurances in their implementation of NPD activities. Second, the information processing competence of decision-makers is unbalanced as information increases uncertainty in the concrete decision-making situation.......Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...... activities and applying information resulting from these activities to go/no-go decision-making. Based on the information behavior of 42 development managers collected through a virtual role-play simulation of new product development, this research finds two information paradoxes of new product development...

  12. Local School Board Members Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…

  13. Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Emerging Trauma-Informed Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Page Walker Buck; Nadine Bean; Kristen de Marco

    2017-01-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) has emerged as a promising, evidence-based intervention for the treatment of trauma and stressor-related disorders. This experiential therapy offers an option for clients whose traumatic experiences render traditional talk therapies ineffective. Initial research on the most robust model of EAP, developed by the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA), indicates strong, positive effects for children, adolescents and adults who have experienc...

  14. Evolving Product Information in Aligning Product Development Decisions across Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; de Lange, Jos; Lutters, Diederick; ten Klooster, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Today's product development is fragmented across various disciplines all with their own fields of expertise. Maintaining overview in consequences and implications of decisions is difficult, since many stakeholders are involved. To optimise the product development, many methods are developed based on

  15. Assessment of housing design decisions in informal housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is examine the design decisions taken by house owners that affect the healthiness of their houses. The research method adopted was the descriptive survey method using an observation schedule and questionnaire. Six cities in north central Nigeria were selected and residential communities were ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING BY MANAGERS WITH FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality conditioning of an accountant's job corresponds thus with the competitive level in the company. The operationalization of the used specialty language, on the one hand and on the other hand the efficient management of the financial situation acquire a significant role regarding a strategic partnership at the micro and macroeconomic level in business as long as the managerial structures of understanding the economic reality are put in correlation with the accountant's socio-professional training in the firm/concern. Even if the professional accountant is paid by a determined client, which is the final beneficiary of the development service or audit financial statements, the information drawn from these financial statements are used by those who form the public. In this way, the accounting profession is distinguished from the other profession by accepting its responsibility to the public. There are numerous studies on an international level, dealing with various methods of improving the decision making process. The most competitive multinational companies have already considered the opportunities favored by financial adjustments, directed at streamlining the accounting functions and they have also trained professionals in the field of accounting that would successfully perform as business partners, thus assisting the decision making process within the organization. The financial adjustments have become essential for many companies that have thus gained a significant competitive advantage. The plan for improving the efficiency of the financial function is very clear, but the training of the business partners who would provide assistance in making decisions still remains a challenge. The economic perspective on the account reality highlights a pragmatic materialization, at the company’s level, of some specific skills designed to support the important role that the financial situations have. So, the individual significations of the

  17. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Shu Wang; Heng-Li Yang; Shiang-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS) and group DSS (GDSS), emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria in...

  18. Nutritional supplement products: Does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike

    2013-10-02

    The increase in sales of nutritional supplement globally can be attributed, in part, to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, rather than because the nutritional supplements have become more effective. Furthermore, the accuracy of the labelling often goes unchallenged. Therefore, any effects of the supplement, may be due to contaminants or adulterants in these products not reflected on the label. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine how consumers of nutritional supplements acquired information to assist their decision-making processes, when purchasing a product. The study was approved by the University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of seven, closed and open-ended questions. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to a defined list of statements. A total of 259 participants completed and returned questionnaires. The data and processing of the returned questionnaires was captured using Windows-based Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 SP 1 (Excel © 1985-2003 Microsoft Corporation). Statistica Version 10 (copyright © Stat Soft, Inc. 1984-2011) was used to calculate the descriptive statistics. The main finding of the study was that nearly 70% of the respondents who purchased supplements were strongly influenced by container label information that stipulated that the nutritional supplement product is free of banned substances. The second finding was that just over 50% of the respondents attached importance to the quality of the nutritional supplement product information on the container label. The third finding was that about 40% of the respondents were strongly influenced by the ingredients on the labels when they purchased nutritional supplements. This study, (i) identifies short-comings in current labelling information practices, (ii) provides opportunities to improve label and non-label information and communication, and, (iii) presents the case for

  19. Decision e Informacion en Solucion de Problemas. Publicacion No. 77 (Information and Decision Making in Problem Solving. Publication No. 77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.; And Others

    A technique using information and decision-making theories to evaluate problem solving tactics is presented. In problem solving, the process of solution is evaluated by investigating the questions that the subject doing the problem solving asks. The sequence of questions asked is called a tactic. It is assumed that: (1) tactics are the observable…

  20. Digital Decisions: Educators, Caregivers and Parents Must Be well Informed When Making Decisions about Children's Use of Technology and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Stephanie Puckett

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, technology plays an important role in the daily lives of children, both at home and at school. Making informed decisions about the wise application and frequency of technology and media use can be both challenging and overwhelming for parents, caregivers and educators. Many issues surround the unwise use of technology and media by…

  1. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  2. 78 FR 54459 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart E--Verification Student Aid Application Information AGENCY: Federal Student Aid (FSA), Department of...

  3. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  4. Online Course Selection: Using Course Dashboards to Inform Student Enrollment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential of course dashboards as a front-end strategy for decreasing online course dropout rates. Scholarship has addressed course attrition once students are enrolled in online courses. However, supporting academic success by assisting students in the making of effective decisions about which online courses to take has…

  5. Combining Global and Local Information for Knowledge-Assisted Image Analysis and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezaris V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning approach to knowledge-assisted image analysis and classification is proposed that combines global and local information with explicitly defined knowledge in the form of an ontology. The ontology specifies the domain of interest, its subdomains, the concepts related to each subdomain as well as contextual information. Support vector machines (SVMs are employed in order to provide image classification to the ontology subdomains based on global image descriptions. In parallel, a segmentation algorithm is applied to segment the image into regions and SVMs are again employed, this time for performing an initial mapping between region low-level visual features and the concepts in the ontology. Then, a decision function, that receives as input the computed region-concept associations together with contextual information in the form of concept frequency of appearance, realizes image classification based on local information. A fusion mechanism subsequently combines the intermediate classification results, provided by the local- and global-level information processing, to decide on the final image classification. Once the image subdomain is selected, final region-concept association is performed using again SVMs and a genetic algorithm (GA for optimizing the mapping between the image regions and the selected subdomain concepts taking into account contextual information in the form of spatial relations. Application of the proposed approach to images of the selected domain results in their classification (i.e., their assignment to one of the defined subdomains and the generation of a fine granularity semantic representation of them (i.e., a segmentation map with semantic concepts attached to each segment. Experiments with images from the personal collection domain, as well as comparative evaluation with other approaches of the literature, demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Motivated information processing in group judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixedmotive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  7. Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Knippenberg, Daan

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixed-motive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  8. Enhancing Group Decision Making: An Exercise to Reduce Shared Information Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Diane F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on shared information bias has shown that group members involved in a decision-making task tend to undervalue information that a single member shares with the group, especially when that information conflicts with their prior conclusions. The group activity in this article is intended to heighten awareness of this shared information bias…

  9. Neural correlates of decision making with explicit information about probabilities and incentives in elderly healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Woermann, Friedrich G; Mertens, Markus; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging and lesion studies demonstrate the involvement of the orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal cortex as a key structure in decision making processes. This region seems to be particularly crucial when contingencies between options and consequences are unknown but have to be learned by the use of feedback following previous decisions (decision making under ambiguity). However, little is known about the neural correlates of decision making under risk conditions in which information about probabilities and potential outcomes is given. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in 12 subjects during a decision making task. This task provided explicit information about probabilities and associated potential incentives. The responses were compared to BOLD signals in a control condition without information about incentives. In contrast to previous decision making studies, we completely removed the outcome phase following a decision to exclude the potential influence of feedback previously received on current decisions. The results indicate that the integration of information about probabilities and incentives leads to activations within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal lobe, the anterior cingulate and the right lingual gyrus. We assume that this pattern of activation is due to the involvement of executive functions, conflict detection mechanisms and arithmetic operations during the deliberation phase of decisional processes that are based on explicit information.

  10. The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngbin; Payne, John W; Cohen, Andrew L; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making - despite adolescents' competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative, loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models. Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions, adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively, these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental transition in economic decision making: adolescents' decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models, while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate heuristics.

  11. Usability of clinical decision support system as a facilitator for learning the assistive technology adaptation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and

  12. Communication and Information Barriers to Health Assistance for Deaf Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patricia Cristina Andrade; Fortes, Paulo Antonio de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, recent regulations require changes in private and public health systems to make special services available to deaf patients. In the present article, the researchers analyze the perceptions of 25 sign language-using patients regarding this assistance. The researchers found communication difficulties between these patients and health…

  13. How social and non-social information influence classification decisions: A computational modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskaric, Marin; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Social information such as observing others can improve performance in decision making. In particular, social information has been shown to be useful when finding the best solution on one's own is difficult, costly, or dangerous. However, past research suggests that when making decisions people do not always consider other people's behaviour when it is at odds with their own experiences. Furthermore, the cognitive processes guiding the integration of social information with individual experiences are still under debate. Here, we conducted two experiments to test whether information about other persons' behaviour influenced people's decisions in a classification task. Furthermore, we examined how social information is integrated with individual learning experiences by testing different computational models. Our results show that social information had a small but reliable influence on people's classifications. The best computational model suggests that in categorization people first make up their own mind based on the non-social information, which is then updated by the social information.

  14. Information and decision-making needs of psychiatric patients: the perspective of relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Liebherz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental illness may strongly affect relatives’ lives. Therefore, it is important to empower relatives by providing health information according to their preferences. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted using a purpose-designed questionnaire on online health information and decision-support needs. Results Prevalent reasons for online health information search of the 185 participating relatives were the need for general information and the insufficiency of the information given by the health care provider. The most difficult treatment decisions concerned the treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient as well as the psychopharmacological treatment. Discussion Since psychiatric patients’ relatives report extensive information and decision-support needs, it is essential to address their needs in health information material. Assessment of relatives’ needs when developing health information materials is recommended.

  15. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  16. Characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80) who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older) in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.

  17. Characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance to older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Eby

    Full Text Available The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80 who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.

  18. Employment-Based Tuition Assistance: Decisions and Checklists for Employers, Educators, and Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gerard G.

    This guide is intended to assist employers, educators, and union officials in understanding the rationale behind developing and implementing tuition assistance plans. Examined in the introductory section are the importance of tuition assistance programs in light of contemporary economic and labor market conditions. The first chapter outlines the…

  19. A Novel Method for Dynamic Multicriteria Decision Making with Hybrid Evaluation Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to select the most desirable pattern(s is often a crucial step for decision making problem. By taking uncertainty as well as dynamic of database into consideration, in this paper, we construct a dynamic multicriteria decision making procedure, where the evaluation information of criteria is expressed by real number, intuitionistic fuzzy number, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number. During the process of algorithm construction, the evaluation information at all time episodes is firstly aggregated into one, and then it is transformed into the unified interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number representational form. Similar to most multicriteria decision making approaches, the TOPSIS method is applied in the proposed decision making algorithm. In particular, the distance between possible patterns and the ideal solutions is defined in terms of cosine similarity by considering all aspects of the unified evaluation information. Experimental results show that the proposed decision making approach can effectively select desirable pattern(s.

  20. The Value of Information in Distributed Decision Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    information at a slow scale. The system dynamics is then described by a system of ordinary differential equations d dt ρe = f − v Ge(ρ v, π)− fe , e...Bikchandani, D. Hirshleifer, and I. Welch. A theory of fads, fashion, custom, and cultural change as information cascades. Journal of Political Economy , 100

  1. Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Beersma, B.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, groups should perform ambiguous (non-ambiguous) tasks better when they have high (low) epistemic motivation and concomitant tendencies to engage in systematic (heuristic) information processing and exchange. The authors

  2. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  3. Information-seeking behaviours and decision-making process of parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan-Toruner, Ebru; Akgun-Citak, Ebru

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the information-seeking behaviours, perceptions and decision-making experiences of parents of children with cancer by employing semi-structured interviews. A qualitative research design was used to assess the information-seeking behaviours, perceptions and decision-making processes used by parents in Turkey whose children have cancer. Interviews were conducted with 15 parents of children with cancer using a semi-structured interview schedule. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Six main issues emerged. Issues were related to parents' information needs, the sources of information, difficulties that the parents encountered when seeking information, the decision-making process, the factors affecting decision-making, and expectations from the health team. Information resources for parents included medical doctors and nurses, the internet, friends and the parents of other children who were staying in the hospital. The parents mostly sought information about their child's illness, prognoses, treatment, side-effects and care giving issues. The parents expressed that they were directed primarily by health care providers during their decision-making process. Adequate and systematic information pertaining to illness, treatment, prognosis and child care must be provided by health care professionals throughout the illness process. In addition, individual guidance and spare time are key components to helping parents make decisions about their children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining School Board Leaders' Use of Online Resources to Inform Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Carruthers, Loralea

    2017-01-01

    In the past five years, there has been considerable interest in the decision-making process of school board officials in the field of education. However, a paucity of research exists on how these leaders use online resources to inform decision-making. Through an online survey and face-to-face interviews, this study examined the use of online…

  5. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  6. Models in animal collective decision-making: information uncertainty and conflicting preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2012-04-06

    Collective decision-making plays a central part in the lives of many social animals. Two important factors that influence collective decision-making are information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. Here, I bring together, and briefly review, basic models relating to animal collective decision-making in situations with information uncertainty and in situations with conflicting preferences between group members. The intention is to give an overview about the different types of modelling approaches that have been employed and the questions that they address and raise. Despite the use of a wide range of different modelling techniques, results show a coherent picture, as follows. Relatively simple cognitive mechanisms can lead to effective information pooling. Groups often face a trade-off between decision accuracy and speed, but appropriate fine-tuning of behavioural parameters could achieve high accuracy while maintaining reasonable speed. The right balance of interdependence and independence between animals is crucial for maintaining group cohesion and achieving high decision accuracy. In conflict situations, a high degree of decision-sharing between individuals is predicted, as well as transient leadership and leadership according to needs and physiological status. Animals often face crucial trade-offs between maintaining group cohesion and influencing the decision outcome in their own favour. Despite the great progress that has been made, there remains one big gap in our knowledge: how do animals make collective decisions in situations when information uncertainty and conflict of interest operate simultaneously?

  7. Ethnic differences in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.P.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Vogel, I.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wildschut, H.I.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess ethnic variations in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome and to examine the contribution of background and decision-making variables. METHODS: Pregnant women of Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese origin were recruited

  8. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

  9. Pricing and collecting decisions in a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jie; Govindan, Kannan; Li, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    The optimal decision problem of a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information structures is considered using game theory in this paper. The paper aims to explore how the manufacturer and the retailer make their own decisions about wholesale price, retail price, and collection...

  10. Distributed Information and Group Decision-Making: Effects of Diversity and Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kooij-de Bode (Hanneke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making

  11. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.

    2007-01-01

    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that

  12. Knowledge-Based Information Management in Decision Support for Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Micahel Saunders; Richard Olson; Daniel Schmoldt; Michael Foster; Donald Latham; Bruce Miller; John Steffenson; Lawrence Bednar; Patrick Cunningham

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Research Station (USDA Forest Service) is developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The decision support system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a...

  13. Pricing decisions from experience: the roles of information-acquisition and response modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Hagai; Ert, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    While pricing decisions that are based on experience are quite common, e.g., setting a selling price for a used car, this type of decision has been surprisingly overlooked in psychology and decision research. Previous studies have focused on either choice decisions from experience, or pricing decisions from description. Those studies revealed that pricing involves cognitive mechanisms other than choice, while experience-based decisions involve mechanisms that differ from description-based ones. Thus, the mutual effect of pricing and experience on decision-making remains unclear. To test this effect, we experimentally compared real-money pricing decisions from experience with those from description, and with choices from experience. The results show that the mode of acquiring information affects pricing: the tendency to underprice high-probability prospects and overprice low-probability ones is diminished when pricing is based on experience rather than description. The findings further reveal attenuation of the tendency to underweight rare events, which underlies choices from experience, in pricing decisions from experience. The difference occurs because the response mode affects the search effort and decision strategy in decisions from experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Emerging Trauma-Informed Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Walker Buck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP has emerged as a promising, evidence-based intervention for the treatment of trauma and stressor-related disorders. This experiential therapy offers an option for clients whose traumatic experiences render traditional talk therapies ineffective. Initial research on the most robust model of EAP, developed by the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA, indicates strong, positive effects for children, adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma. EAGALA was designed to allow for rigorous evaluation of efficacy, a clear theoretical base, standardized implementation, and ongoing training for practitioners. As the primary providers of mental and behavioral health services in the United States, social workers are keenly aware of the need for a portfolio of treatment methods to manage the increasing demand for services. EAP has emerged as an important addition to this portfolio, providing options for some the most vulnerable client populations.

  15. Public Health Triangulation to inform decision-making in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, N; Van Casteren, V; Goderis, G; Wens, J; Moreels, S; Vanthomme, K; De Clercq, E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a nation-wide ambulatory care complex intervention (the "care trajectory program") on quality of care in Belgium. We used the three-step public health triangulation method described in this paper and data from four different data sources: a national reimbursement database, an electronic patient record-based general practitioner network, the Belgian general practitioner sentinel network, and a new national registry for care trajectory patients. By applying our method and using the available evidence, we identified key findings that have been accepted by experts and stakeholders. We also produced timely recommendations for the decision-making process, four years after the start of the care trajectory program.

  16. Geographic Information Systems In Strategic Decision Making In Logistics Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Geographic information systems can make important contributions to logistic companies in the following areas: Routing, Optimization and Scheduling, Asset Tracking, Dispatching/Mobile, Territory Optimization and Planning, Site Selection and Optimization, Supply Chain Management, and Selecting the Supplier.

  17. The Importance of Accounting Information in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Spătărelu

    2016-01-01

    Four principal qualitative characteristics must be met for the accounting information to beuseful in the management system: understandability, relevance, reliability and compatibility ofinformation. Any economic transaction processing involves collecting, categorizing, summing andanalyzing the data.

  18. Decision-making role preferences and information needs: a comparison of colorectal and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kinta; Bogg, Janet; Luker, Karen A.

    1999-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: An exploratory study has been carried out to examine decision-making role preferences and information needs for a sample of people with colorectal cancer (n=48). The work replicated a larger study carried out for women with breast cancer (n=150), and this paper compares and contrasts findings for both disease groups. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was employed, involving structured interviews. The main variables investigated were decision-making preference (using a decisional role preference card sort), perceived decisional role and information need (using an information needs questionnaire). RESULTS: The majority (78%) of the colorectal cancer patients preferred to play a passive role in decision making, in contrast to 52% of women with breast cancer in previous work. Eighty per cent of the colorectal sample and 61% of the women with breast cancer perceived that the doctor had made treatment decisions. Priority information needs for both groups related to cure, spread of disease and treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: The two most striking findings from the comparison between the two disease groups relate to the differences in decision-making role preferences and the similarities in information needs. The process of involving people with colorectal cancer in treatment decision making warrants further investigation. The similarity in information needs of the two disease groups has implications for health care professionals providing information to people with cancer.

  19. Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DeCIDE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness Network is a network of research centers that the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality created to conduct practical studies about health care items and services.

  20. Command Decision-Making and Information Superiority Vulnerability: Addressing the Emerging Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thieme, Aaron M

    2007-01-01

    .... Finally, the paper draws conclusions concerning ways to minimize exposure to vulnerabilities in information technology infrastructure and recommends implementation of measures to optimize decision-making and minimize risk in a disruptive C2 environment.

  1. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  2. The Impact of Decision Makers' Constraints on the Outcome of Value of Information Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, Hendrik; Knies, Saskia; Janssen, Mart P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: When proven effective, decision making regarding reimbursement of new health technology typically involves ethical, social, legal, and health economic aspects and constraints. Nevertheless, when applying standard value of information (VOI) analysis, the value of collecting additional

  3. Government Assistance for Informal Sector Enterprises in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings above, there is the need to refocus government informal sector support instruments through improved funding. The government should also address the energy problem and eliminate multiple taxes which are inimical to the growth and development of the informal sector. KEY WORDS: Informal sector; ...

  4. Social Positioning Theory as a lens for exploring health information seeking and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Shelagh K

    2013-04-01

    In this article I use Social Positioning Theory to explore the experiences of women as they interact with and make sense of evolving health information mediated by formal and informal sources. I investigate how women position themselves within their accounts of information seeking, and the influence of positioning on interactions with health professionals (HPs). Interviewed women gathered and valued information from a range of sources, and were likely to position themselves as autonomous, rather than collaborative or dependent. Faced with evolving health information, women felt responsible not only for information seeking, but also for making sense of gathered and encountered information. Participants did, however, value information provided by HPs and were likely to view decision making as collaborative when HPs fostered information exchange, appeared to appreciate different types of knowledge and cognitive authority, and supported women in their quests for information. Implications for shared decision making are discussed.

  5. A Chance Constrained Information-Gap Decision Model for Multi-Period Microgrid Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianxue; Zeng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a chance constrained information gap decision model for multi-period microgrid expansion planning (MMEP) considering two categories of uncertainties, namely random and non-random uncertainties. The main task of MMEP is to determine the optimal sizing, type selection, and installation time of distributed energy resources (DER) in microgrid. In the proposed formulation, information gap decision theory (IGDT) is applied to hedge against non-random uncertainties of long-term d...

  6. 75 FR 56661 - Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request) Activity...: Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request, VA Form Letter 22-909. OMB Control Number: 2900... dependents of veterans receiving DEA benefits of their option to elect a beginning date to start their DEA...

  7. 75 FR 9193 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Assistive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Assistive Technology Act... Special Education and Rehabilitative Services may change the maximum amount through a notice published in... period exceeding 60 months. The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services may...

  8. 77 FR 60412 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions Annual Fire Safety Report. OMB Control... postsecondary institutions to collect statistics on fires in on-campus student housing facilities, including the...

  9. A qualitative study of professional and client perspectives on information flows and decision aid use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper explores the meanings given by a diverse range of stakeholders to a decision aid aimed at helping carers of people in early to moderate stages of dementia (PWD) to select community based respite services. Decision aids aim to empower clients to share decision making with health professionals. However, the match between health professionals' perspectives on decision support needs and their clients' perspective is an important and often unstudied aspect of decision aid use. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of qualitative data collected as part of a larger study. The data included twelve interviews with carers of people with dementia, three interviews with expert advisors, and three focus groups with health professionals. A theoretical analysis was conducted, drawing on theories of 'positioning' and professional identity. Results Health professionals are seen to hold varying attitudes and beliefs about carers' decision support needs, and these appeared to be grounded in the professional identity of each group. These attitudes and beliefs shaped their attitudes towards decision aids, the information they believed should be offered to dementia carers, and the timing of its offering. Some groups understood carers as needing to be protected from realistic information and consequently saw a need to filter information to carer clients. Conclusion Health professionals' beliefs may cause them to restrict information flows, which can limit carers' ability to make decisions, and limit health services' ability to improve partnering and shared decision making. In an era where information is freely available to those with the resources to access it, we question whether health professionals should filter information. PMID:22458734

  10. A novel medical information management and decision model for uncertain demand optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Accurately planning the procurement volume is an effective measure for controlling the medicine inventory cost. Due to uncertain demand it is difficult to make accurate decision on procurement volume. As to the biomedicine sensitive to time and season demand, the uncertain demand fitted by the fuzzy mathematics method is obviously better than general random distribution functions. To establish a novel medical information management and decision model for uncertain demand optimization. A novel optimal management and decision model under uncertain demand has been presented based on fuzzy mathematics and a new comprehensive improved particle swarm algorithm. The optimal management and decision model can effectively reduce the medicine inventory cost. The proposed improved particle swarm optimization is a simple and effective algorithm to improve the Fuzzy interference and hence effectively reduce the calculation complexity of the optimal management and decision model. Therefore the new model can be used for accurate decision on procurement volume under uncertain demand.

  11. The Effect of Providing Peer Information on Retirement Savings Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Milkman, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a field experiment in a 401(k) plan, we measure the effect of disseminating information about peer behavior on savings. Low-saving employees received simplified plan enrollment or contribution increase forms. A randomized subset of forms stated the fraction of age-matched coworkers participating in the plan or age-matched participants contributing at least 6% of pay to the plan. We document an oppositional reaction: the presence of peer information decreased the savings of nonparticipants who were ineligible for 401(k) automatic enrollment, and higher observed peer savings rates also decreased savings. Discouragement from upward social comparisons seems to drive this reaction. PMID:26045629

  12. Decision Support System of Nursing Human Resources Allocation in General Wards Based on Hospital Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhao, Shangping; Feng, Ling

    2016-01-01

    To construct a Decision support system of nursing human resources allocation in general wards based on Hospital information system (HIS). Time series prediction model and Information technical method were used based on data of HIS in West China Hospital, Sichuan University (Chengdu, P.R. China). This study completed the function design and system implementation of the nursing human resources allocation decision support system. The system would help nursing managers choose the optimal scheme and make scientific decisions in combination with "the actual" situation but more empirical studies are needed.

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly women with breast cancer: patients' perspectives on information giving and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Helena; Ballinger, Rachel; Langridge, Carolyn; Ring, Alistair; Fallowfield, Lesley J

    2013-12-01

    Decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early stage breast cancer (EBC) are often challenging. Uncertainty about benefits due to limited data about treatment efficacy and outcomes complicates decision making. This qualitative study explored older patients' experiences and preferences towards information giving and ultimate decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy. Clinicians from 24 UK breast cancer teams reported on adjuvant chemotherapy decisions for women aged ≥70 years with EBC from April 2010 to December 2011. Women who were offered chemotherapy were invited to participate in structured interviews. Self-reported quality of life (QoL) and functional ability were assessed. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes associated with information giving and decision making. A total of 58/95 eligible women (61%) participated. Median age was 73 years (range 70-83). Mean total scores for QoL and functional ability were average. The majority of women preferred to make their treatment decisions collaboratively with a clinician (59%) or on their own (19%). The main reasons influencing decisions to accept chemotherapy were categorised as prevention of recurrence and clinician recommendation. Side effects, length of treatment, impact on QoL, low survival benefits and clinician recommendation influenced decisions to decline chemotherapy. The majority (80%) were satisfied with information provision, the communication with their clinician and explanation of treatment. Older women with EBC preferred to be involved in clinical decision making. Clinician recommendation plays a significant role in either accepting or declining chemotherapy. Well-informed decision making and effective communication between clinicians, older women and their family members are therefore important. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A new task format for investigating information search and organization in multiattribute decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt; Henninger, Mirka

    2015-06-01

    In research on multiattribute decisions, information is typically preorganized in a well-structured manner (e.g., in attributes-by-options matrices). Participants can therefore conveniently identify the information needed for the decision strategy they are using. However, in everyday decision situations, we often face information that is not well-structured; that is, we not only have to search for, but we also need to organize the information. This latter aspect--subjective information organization--has so far largely been neglected in decision research. The few exceptions used crude experimental manipulations, and the assessment of subjective organization suffered from laborious methodology and a lack of objectiveness. We introduce a new task format to overcome these methodological issues, and we provide an organization index (OI) to assess subjective organization of information objectively and automatically. The OI makes it possible to assess information organization on the same scale as the strategy index (SI) typically used for assessing information search behavior. A simulation study shows that the OI has a similar distribution as the SI but that the two indices are a priori largely independent. In a validation experiment with instructed strategy use, we demonstrate the usefulness of the task to trace decision processes in multicue inference situations.

  15. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous......-variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate...... quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous-variable quantum-key distribution scheme...

  16. Applying the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) to support risk-informed decision making: The Gold Pan Fire, Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman

    2015-01-01

    In response to federal wildfire policy changes, risk-informed decision-making by way of improved decision support, is increasingly becoming a component of managing wildfires. As fire incidents escalate in size and complexity, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) provides support with different analytical tools as fire conditions change. We demonstrate the...

  17. An information assistant system for the prevention of tunnel vision in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In the crisis management environment, tunnel vision is a set of bias in decision makers’ cognitive process which often leads to incorrect understanding of the real crisis situation, biased perception of information, and improper decisions. The tunnel vision phenomenon is a consequence of both the

  18. 75 FR 25832 - Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection; Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection; Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency and Commodity Credit Corporation and, USDA. ACTION: Notice... Agency and the Commodity Credit Corporation are seeking comments from all interested individuals and...

  19. Shared decision making models to inform an interprofessional perspective on decision making: a theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Légaré, France; Pouliot, Sophie; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Dunn, Sandy

    2010-08-01

    To conduct a theory analysis of shared decision making (SDM) conceptual models and determine the extent to which the models are relevant to interprofessional collaboration in clinical practice. Theory analysis of SDM models identified from three systematic reviews and personal files. Eligible publications: model of SDM; described concepts with relational statements. Two independently appraised models. Of 54 publications, 15 unique models included 18 core concepts. Of two models that included more than one health professional collaborating with the patient, one included 3 of 10 elements of interprofessional collaboration and the other included 1 element. Fourteen were rated as having no logical fallacies, 10 as parsimonious, 7 had been empirically tested, 4 provided testable hypotheses, and 3 described the development process. Most SDM models failed to encompass an interprofessional approach. Those that included at least two professionals met few of the elements of interprofessional collaboration and had limited description of SDM processes. Although models were rated as logically adequate and parsimonious, only half were tested and few were developed using an explicit process. Appraisal of SDM models highlights the need for a model that is more inclusive of an interprofessional approach. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Signaling networks: information flow, computation, and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeloglu, Evren U; Iyengar, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    Signaling pathways come together to form networks that connect receptors to many different cellular machines. Such networks not only receive and transmit signals but also process information. The complexity of these networks requires the use of computational models to understand how information is processed and how input-output relationships are determined. Two major computational approaches used to study signaling networks are graph theory and dynamical modeling. Both approaches are useful; network analysis (application of graph theory) helps us understand how the signaling network is organized and what its information-processing capabilities are, whereas dynamical modeling helps us determine how the system changes in time and space upon receiving stimuli. Computational models have helped us identify a number of emergent properties that signaling networks possess. Such properties include ultrasensitivity, bistability, robustness, and noise-filtering capabilities. These properties endow cell-signaling networks with the ability to ignore small or transient signals and/or amplify signals to drive cellular machines that spawn numerous physiological functions associated with different cell states. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. [Development and application of information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuan-Hua; Li, Dong; Ning, An; Qiu, Ling; Xiong, Ji-Jie

    2011-04-01

    To develop the information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province. Based on Access 2003, the system was programmed by Visual Basic 6.0 and packaged by Setup Factory 8.0. In the system, advanced schistosomiasis data were able to be input, printed, indexed, and statistically analyzed. The system could be operated and maintained easily and timely. The information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province is successfully developed.

  2. Automation of information decision support to improve e-learning resources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Danchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In conditions of active development of e-learning the high quality of e-learning resources is very important. Providing the high quality of e-learning resources in situation with mass higher education and rapid obsolescence of information requires the automation of information decision support for improving the quality of e-learning resources by development of decision support system. Methodology. The problem is solved by methods of artificial intelligence. The knowledge base of information structure of decision support system that is based on frame model of knowledge representation and inference production rules are developed. Findings. According to the results of the analysis of life cycle processes and requirements to the e-learning resources quality the information model of the structure of the knowledge base of the decision support system, the inference rules for the automatically generating of recommendations and the software implementation are developed. Practical value. It is established that the basic requirements for quality are performance, validity, reliability and manufacturability. It is shown that the using of a software implementation of decision support system for researched courses gives a growth of the quality according to the complex quality criteria. The information structure of a knowledge base system to support decision-making and rules of inference can be used by methodologists and content developers of learning systems.

  3. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Intent To Obtain Information Regarding Organizations Who Are Assisting African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... of the Secretary Notice of Intent To Obtain Information Regarding Organizations Who Are Assisting... organizations active in this area, for the purpose of information sharing. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) is seeking information about organizations, both public or private...

  4. 78 FR 71665 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information Collection... INFORMATION: The DOL headquarters building, the Frances Perkins Building (FPB), has conference and meeting... Building. This information collection is subject to the PRA. A Federal agency generally cannot conduct or...

  5. Hesitant fuzzy information measures and their applications in multi-criteria decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Zhang, Xiaolong; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) is a powerful decision tool to express uncertain information more flexibly and comprehensively. The aim of this paper is to propose more reasonable information measures for HFSs in comparison with the existing ones. First, a series of distance measures is suggested for hesitant fuzzy element and hesitant fuzzy sets. These measures are directly calculated from hesitant fuzzy elements without judging the decision-makers' risk preference and adding any values into the hesitant fuzzy element with the smaller number of elements. Then, some similarity and entropy measures are proposed based on the transforming relationship among the information measures. Additionally, based on the proposed information measures, a TOPSIS method for hesitant fuzzy information is provided. Finally, some numerical examples are used in order to illustrate the proposed decision method and a comparative analysis is made to demonstrate that the suggested measures are more objective and feasible in certain cases.

  6. Probabilistic information and decision making in the health context: The package leaflet as basis for informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Osimani, Barbara; Rigotti, Eddo

    2012-01-01

    Medical decisions are paradigmatically uncertain. Awareness of this uncertainty at the policy level has produced a strict regulation of the information exchange related to medical issues, e.g. by means of the institute of the informed consent or through tight administrative norms regulating the pharmaceutical communication towards the public. As a special support of such sort of information, also the drug package leaflet has been object of thorough legal regulation, especially developed in ...

  7. Information search and decision making: effects of age and complexity on strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Tara L; Hess, Thomas M; Ennis, Gilda E; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults' performance. Participants utilized 2 decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using process tracing software and an algorithm developed to assess decision strategy, we recorded search behavior, strategy selection, and final decision. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not more likely than the younger age groups to engage in information-minimizing search behaviors in response to increases in task complexity. Similarly, adults of all ages used comparable decision strategies and adapted their strategies to the demands of the task. We also examined decision outcomes in relation to participants' preferences. Overall, it seems that older adults utilize simpler sets of information primarily reflecting the most valued attributes in making their choice. The results of this study suggest that older adults are adaptive in their approach to decision making and that this ability may benefit from accrued knowledge and experience. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  8. A Model of Cancer Clinical Trial Decision-making Informed by African-American Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Jennifer A; Mbah, Olive; Xu, Jiayun; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Saleem, Haneefa; Sakyi, Kwame; Ford, Jean G

    2015-06-01

    Clinical trials are critical to advancing cancer treatment. Minority populations are underrepresented among trial participants, and there is limited understanding of their decision-making process and key determinants of decision outcomes regarding trial participation. To understand research decision-making among clinical trial-eligible African-American cancer patients at Johns Hopkins, we conducted seven focus groups (n=32) with trial-offered patients ≥ 18 years diagnosed with lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer ≤ 5 years. Three "acceptor" and four "decliner" focus groups were conducted. Questions addressed: attitudes towards clinical trials, reasons for accepting or declining participation, and recommendations to improve minority recruitment and enrollment. Data were transcribed and analyzed using traditional approaches to content and thematic analysis in NVivo 9.0. Data coding resulted in themes that supported model construction. Participant experiences revealed the following themes when describing the decision-making process: Information gathering, Intrapersonal perspectives, and Interpersonal influences. Decision outcomes included the presence or absence of decision regret and satisfaction. From these themes, we generated a Model of Cancer Clinical Trial Decision-making. Our model should be tested in hypothesis-driven research to elucidate factors and processes influencing decision balance and outcomes of trial-related decision-making. The model should also be tested in other disparities populations and for diagnoses other than cancer.

  9. United States Military Assistance Programs C-130B's to Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Policy, Decision Making & Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroer, D. J

    1997-01-01

    This case study will examine decision making in U.S. Military Assistance Programs in the form of C-l3OB transfers to the Sub-Saharan countries of Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa from 1994 to present...

  10. Importance of information for tourist service users in travel decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of operation, the provision of right information to customers is one of the key factors of marketing communication success. When making the decision on the selection of travel, customers in tourism (tourists have the need for greater number of different information compared to the selection of other products and services. The need for more information is conditioned by the specificity of travel as a product. The tourists gather different information in the travel decision-making process on destinations, activities at destinations, hotels and services they offer, travel programs, etc. Likewise, the information on the brand and image of tourist destination they are travelling to and the brand of tourist service provider (hotel, tour-operator, travel agency, etc. are also relevant. Brands present a kind of quality guarantee and reduce the need for additional information. The aim of this paper is to determine the significance of different information for various segments of customers in tourism on the basis of empirical research. The paper will test whether various tourist segments, towards which the different communication strategies focused on travel promotion would be formulated, can be identified based on the type of information the tourists gather in the decision-making process. The paper will also consider whether the segmentation of the tourism market, based on the relevance of different information in the decision-making process of tourists, is more efficient compared to the segmentation based on the traditional criteria.

  11. Preference Construction Processes for Renewable Energies: Assessing the Influence of Sustainability Information and Decision Support Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotada Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability information and decision support can be two important driving forces for making sustainable transitions in society. However, not enough knowledge is available on the effectiveness of these two factors. Here, we conducted an experimental study to support the hypotheses that acquisition of sustainability information and use of decision support methods consistently construct preferences for renewable power generation technologies that use solar power, wind power, small-scale hydroelectric power, geothermal power, wood biomass, or biogas as energy sources. The sustainability information was prepared using a renewable energy-focused input-output model of Japan and contained life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation costs, and job creation. We measured rank-ordered preferences in the following four steps in experimental workshops conducted for municipal officials: provision of (1 energy-source names; (2 sustainability information; (3 additional explanation of public value; and (4 knowledge and techniques about multi-attribute value functions. The degree of changes in preference orders was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The consistency of rank-ordered preferences among participants was determined by using the maximum eigenvalue for the coefficient matrix. The results show: (1 the individual preferences evolved drastically in response to the sustainability information and the decision support method; and (2 the rank-ordered preferences were more consistent during the preference construction processes. These results indicate that provision of sustainability information, coupled with decision support methods, is effective for decision making regarding renewable energies.

  12. Information about foregone rewards impedes dynamic decision-making in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Worthy, Darrell A; Maddox, W Todd

    2016-01-01

    "Making an informed decision" implies that more information leads to better decisions, yet it may be the case that additional information biases decisions in a systematic and sometimes detrimental manner. In the present study, we examined the effect of additional information on older adults' decision-making using a task for which available rewards were dependent on the participant's recent pattern of choices. The optimal strategy was to forego the immediately rewarding option in favor of the option that yielded larger delayed reward. We found that providing information about true foregone rewards - the reward that would have been received had the participant chosen the other option - significantly reduced older adults' decision-making performance. However, false foregone rewards - foregone rewards manufactured to make the long-term option appear more immediately rewarding - led older adults to perform at a level equal to younger adults. We conclude that providing information about foregone rewards biases older adults toward immediate rewards at a greater rate than younger adults, leading to poorer older adult performance when immediate rewards and long-term rewards conflict, but intact performance when immediate rewards and long-term rewards appear to align.

  13. Funding Based on Needs? A Study on the Use of Needs Assessment Data by a Major Humanitarian Health Assistance Donor in its Decisions to Allocate Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Emma; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background: International humanitarian assistance is essential for disaster-affected populations, particularly in resource scarce settings. To target such assistance, needs assessments are required. According to internationally endorsed principles, donor governments should provide funding for humanitarian assistance based on need. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore a major donor’s use of needs assessment data in decision-making for allocations of funds for health-related humanitarian assistance contributions. Setting: This is a case study of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), a major and respected international donor of humanitarian assistance. Methods: To explore Sida’s use of needs assessment data in practice for needs-based allocations, we reviewed all decision documents and assessment memoranda for humanitarian assistance contributions for 2012 using content analysis; this was followed by interviews with key personnel at Sida. Results: Our document analysis found that needs assessment data was not systematically included in Sida’s assessment memoranda and decision documents. In the interviews, we observed various descriptions of the concept of needs assessments, the importance of contextual influences as well as previous collaborations with implementing humanitarian assistance organizations. Our findings indicate that policies guiding funding decisions on humanitarian assistance need to be matched with available needs assessment data and that terminologies and concepts have to be clearly defined. Conclusion: Based on the document analysis and the interviews, it is unclear how well Sida used needs assessment data for decisions to allocate funds. However, although our observations show that needs assessments are seldom used in decision making, Sida’s use of needs assessments has improved compared to a previous study. To improve project funds allocations based on needs assessment data, it will be critical to develop

  14. A Rights-based Approach to Information in Humanitarian Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnecchia, Daniel P; Raymond, Nathaniel A; Greenwood, Faine; Howarth, Caitlin; Poole, Danielle N

    2017-09-20

    Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers.  This need is lent urgency by emerging evidence demonstrating that the use of these technologies in crisis response may be, in some cases, causing harm to the very populations they intend to serve.  Preventing and mitigating these harms, while also working to responsibly ensure access to the benefits of information during crises, requires a rights-based framework to guide humanitarian operations. In this brief report, we provide a commentary that accompanies our report, the Signal Code: A Human Rights Approach to Information During Crisis, where we have identified five rights pertaining to the use of information and data during crisis which are grounded in current international human rights and customary law. It is our belief that the continued relevance of the humanitarian project, as it grows increasingly dependent on the use of data and ICTs, urgently requires a discussion of these rights and corresponding obligations.

  15. Watson will see you now: a supercomputer to help clinicians make informed treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lindrud, Susan

    2015-02-01

    IBM has collaborated with several cancer care providers to develop and train the IBM supercomputer Watson to help clinicians make informed treatment decisions. When a patient is seen in clinic, the oncologist can input all of the clinical information into the computer system. Watson will then review all of the data and recommend treatment options based on the latest evidence and guidelines. Once the oncologist makes the treatment decision, this information can be sent directly to the insurance company for approval. Watson has the ability to standardize care and accelerate the approval process, a benefit to the healthcare provider and the patient.

  16. NASA Earth Observations Informing Energy Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Stackhouse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Sector is experiencing increasing impacts from severe weather and shifting climatic trends, as well as facing a changing political climate, adding uncertainty for stakeholders as they make short- and long-term planning investments. Climate changes such as prolonged extreme heat and drought (leading to wildfire spread, for example), sea level rise, and extreme storms are changing the ways that utilities operate. Energy infrastructure located in coastal or flood-prone areas faces inundation risks, such as damage to energy facilities. The use of renewable energy resources is increasing, requiring more information about their intermittency and spatial patterns. In light of these challenges, public and private stakeholders have collaborated to identify potential data sources, tools, and programmatic ideas. For example, utilities across the country are using cutting-edge technology and data to plan for and adapt to these changes. In the Federal Government, NASA has invested in preliminary work to identify needs and opportunities for satellite data in energy sector application, and the Department of Energy has similarly brought together stakeholders to understand the landscape of climate vulnerability and resilience for utilities and others. However, have these efforts improved community-scale resilience and adaptation efforts? Further, some communities are more vulnerable to climate change and infrastructure impacts than others. This session has two goals. First, panelists seek to share existing and ongoing efforts related to energy management. Second, the session seeks to engage with attendees via group knowledge exchange to connect national energy management efforts to local practice for increased community resilience.

  17. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  18. Informing watershed connectivity barrier prioritization decisions: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, S. K.; Cooper, A. R.; Diebel, M.W.; Elkins, D.; Oldford, G.; Roghair, C.; Wieferich, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources and transportation infrastructure such as dams and culverts provide countless socio-economic benefits; however, this infrastructure can also disconnect the movement of organisms, sediment, and water through river ecosystems. Trade-offs associated with these competing costs and benefits occur globally, with applications in barrier addition (e.g. dam and road construction), reengineering (e.g. culvert repair), and removal (e.g. dam removal and aging infrastructure). Barrier prioritization provides a unique opportunity to: (i) restore and reconnect potentially large habitat patches quickly and effectively and (ii) avoid impacts prior to occurrence in line with the mitigation hierarchy (i.e. avoid then minimize then mitigate). This paper synthesizes 46 watershed-scale barrier planning studies and presents a procedure to guide barrier prioritization associated with connectivity for aquatic organisms. We focus on practical issues informing prioritization studies such as available data sets, methods, techniques, and tools. We conclude with a discussion of emerging trends and issues in barrier prioritization and key opportunities for enhancing the body of knowledge.

  19. Bounded rationality, abstraction and hierarchical decision-making: an information-theoretic optimality principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGenewein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and hierarchical information-processing are hallmarks of human and animal intelligence underlying the unrivaled flexibility of behavior in biological systems. Achieving such a flexibility in artificial systems is challenging, even with more and more computational power. Here we investigate the hypothesis that abstraction and hierarchical information-processing might in fact be the consequence of limitations in information-processing power. In particular, we study an information-theoretic framework of bounded rational decision-making that trades off utility maximization against information-processing costs. We apply the basic principle of this framework to perception-action systems with multiple information-processing nodes and derive bounded optimal solutions. We show how the formation of abstractions and decision-making hierarchies depends on information-processing costs. We illustrate the theoretical ideas with example simulations and conclude by formalizing a mathematically unifying optimization principle that could potentially be extended to more complex systems.

  20. Advances in stable isotope assisted labeling strategies with information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigawa, Takanori

    2017-08-15

    Stable-isotope (SI) labeling of proteins is an essential technique to investigate their structures, interactions or dynamics by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The assignment of the main-chain signals, which is the fundamental first step in these analyses, is usually achieved by a sequential assignment method based on triple resonance experiments. Independently of the triple resonance experiment-based sequential assignment, amino acid-selective SI labeling is beneficial for discriminating the amino acid type of each signal; therefore, it is especially useful for the signal assignment of difficult targets. Various combinatorial selective labeling schemes have been developed as more sophisticated labeling strategies. In these strategies, amino acids are represented by combinations of SI labeled samples, rather than simply assigning one amino acid to one SI labeled sample as in the case of conventional amino acid-selective labeling. These strategies have proven to be useful for NMR analyses of difficult proteins, such as those in large complex systems, in living cells, attached or integrated into membranes, or with poor solubility. In this review, recent advances in stable isotope assisted labeling strategies will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated Risk-Informed Decision-Making for an ALMR PRISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Denning, Richard S. [Self Employed

    2016-05-01

    Decision-making is the process of identifying decision alternatives, assessing those alternatives based on predefined metrics, selecting an alternative (i.e., making a decision), and then implementing that alternative. The generation of decisions requires a structured, coherent process, or a decision-making process. The overall objective for this work is that the generalized framework is adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision-making modules that can perform a given set of tasks rationally, consistently, and reliably. Risk-informed decision-making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the supervisory control system is based on the control actions associated with an ALMR PRISM. Newly incorporated into the probabilistic models are the prognostic/diagnostic models developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These allow decisions to incorporate the health of components into the decision–making process. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic portion of the decision-making engine uses thermal-hydraulic modeling and components for an advanced liquid-metal reactor Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module. The deterministic multi

  2. Quality of information about success rates provided on assisted reproductive technology clinic websites in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise

    2017-11-12

    Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  4. The Use of Metadata Visualisation Assist Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    centred issues have been identified and they include; usability, prior knowledge, understanding of elementary perceptual-cognitive tasks and education ...pertain to information visualisation is required. • Education and Training The problems associated with education and training can be overcome... customised data. A coordinated visualisation interface consists of a set of visualisations, which can interact, portraying the relationship that

  5. An urban runoff model designed to inform stormwater management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Nicole G; Conley, Gary; Kanner, Lisa; Mathias, Margaret

    2017-05-15

    We present an urban runoff model designed for stormwater managers to quantify runoff reduction benefits of mitigation actions that has lower input data and user expertise requirements than most commonly used models. The stormwater tool to estimate load reductions (TELR) employs a semi-distributed approach, where landscape characteristics and process representation are spatially-lumped within urban catchments on the order of 100 acres (40 ha). Hydrologic computations use a set of metrics that describe a 30-year rainfall distribution, combined with well-tested algorithms for rainfall-runoff transformation and routing to generate average annual runoff estimates for each catchment. User inputs include the locations and specifications for a range of structural best management practice (BMP) types. The model was tested in a set of urban catchments within the Lake Tahoe Basin of California, USA, where modeled annual flows matched that of the observed flows within 18% relative error for 5 of the 6 catchments and had good regional performance for a suite of performance metrics. Comparisons with continuous simulation models showed an average of 3% difference from TELR predicted runoff for a range of hypothetical urban catchments. The model usually identified the dominant BMP outflow components within 5% relative error of event-based measured flow data and simulated the correct proportionality between outflow components. TELR has been implemented as a web-based platform for use by municipal stormwater managers to inform prioritization, report program benefits and meet regulatory reporting requirements (www.swtelr.com). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Bridging the Gap: Tailor-made Information Products for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, B. E.; Rose, C. A.; Gonzales, L. M.; Boland, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) is launching a new information platform designed to link decision makers with information generated by geoscientific research. Decision makers, especially those at the state and local level, frequently need scientific information but do not always have easy access to it, while scientists create new knowledge but often lack opportunities to communicate this knowledge more broadly to the people who need it the most. Major differences in communication styles and language can also hinder the use of scientific information by decision makers. AGI is building an online portfolio of case studies and fact sheets that are based on cutting-edge research presented in a format and style that meets the needs and expectations of decision makers. Based on discussions with state and local decision makers around the country, AGI has developed a template for these products. Scientists are invited to write short (500-700-word) summaries of their research and the ways in which it provides useful tools and information to decision makers. We are particularly interested in showcasing actionable information derived from basic or applied research. Researchers are encouraged to contact AGI to discuss topics that may be an appropriate basis for case studies or fact sheets, and AGI may also contact researchers based on scientific needs identified during our discussions with decision makers. All submissions will be edited and reviewed by AGI staff and an external peer review team before being published online and made available to decision makers through AGI's Critical Issues web platform and extensive professional networks. Publicizing the results of scientific research to key legislative, regulatory, advisory, and engaged citizen groups and individuals broadens the impact of scientists' research and highlights the value and importance of the geosciences to society. By presenting the information in a format that is designed with the end-user in mind

  7. Accounting Information in a Business Decision-Making Process – Evidence from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ježovita, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the conducted research includes examining importance of financial statements and financial statements analysis in business decision-making process. Conducted empirical research is focused on analysis of determining and evaluating the frequency of using accounting data and annual financial statements within the business decision-making process. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that more than 60% of examines frequently use accounting information and informatio...

  8. Quality of online information to support patient decision-making in breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jordan G; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Steffens, Nicole M; Neuman, Heather B

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer patients commonly use the internet as an information resource. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of online information available to support patients facing a decision for breast surgery. Breast cancer surgery-related queries were performed (Google and Bing), and reviewed for content pertinent to breast cancer surgery. The DISCERN instrument was used to evaluate websites' structural components that influence publication reliability and ability of information to support treatment decision-making. Scores of 4/5 were considered "good." 45 unique websites were identified. Websites satisfied a median 5/9 content questions. Commonly omitted topics included: having a choice between breast conservation and mastectomy (67%) and potential for 2nd surgery to obtain negative margins after breast conservation (60%). Websites had a median DISCERN score of 2.9 (range 2.0-4.5). Websites achieved higher scores on structural criteria (median 3.6 [2.1-4.7]), with 24% rated as "good." Scores on supporting decision-making questions were lower (2.6 [1.3-4.4]), with only 7% scoring "good." Although numerous breast cancer-related websites exist, most do a poor job providing women with essential information necessary to actively participate in decision-making for breast cancer surgery. Providing easily- accessible, high-quality online information has the potential to significantly improve patients' experiences with decision-making. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Large Group Decision Making Approach Based on TOPSIS Framework with Unknown Weights Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yupeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large group decision making considering multiple attributes is imperative in many decision areas. The weights of the decision makers (DMs is difficult to obtain for the large number of DMs. To cope with this issue, an integrated multiple-attributes large group decision making framework is proposed in this article. The fuzziness and hesitation of the linguistic decision variables are described by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The weights of the DMs are optimized by constructing a non-linear programming model, in which the original decision matrices are aggregated by using the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted average operator. By solving the non-linear programming model with MATLAB®, the weights of the DMs and the fuzzy comprehensive decision matrix are determined. Then the weights of the criteria are calculated based on the information entropy theory. At last, the TOPSIS framework is employed to establish the decision process. The divergence between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers is calculated by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy cross entropy. A real-world case study is constructed to elaborate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  10. International Exchange of Emergency Phase Information and Assessment: An Aid to Inter/National Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T J; Chino, M; Ehrhardt, J; Shershakov, V

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project whose purpose is (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility and mutual benefit of a system seeking early review or preview, in a ''quasi peer review'' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of their calculations to their respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible international authorities. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer review prior to public release. Another intended objective of this work is (3) the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to countries having no prediction capabilities and (4) utilization of the link for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits the Internet as a ubiquitous communications medium, browser technology as a simple, user friendly interface, and low-cost PC level hardware. The participants are developing a web based dedicated node with ID and password access control, where the four systems can deposit a minimal set of XML-based data and graphics files, which are then displayed in a common identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, correction or elaboration of data, recalculation (if necessary) and should produce a strong level of consensus to assist international decision makers. Successful completion of this work could lead to easy utilization by national and international organizations, such as the IAEA and WHO, as well as by non-nuclear states at risk of a trans-boundary incursion on their territory.

  11. Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrly, Kevin E. [Michigan Dept. Natural Resources and Environment, Lansing, MI (United States); Rutherford, Edward S. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Harbor, MI (United States); Wang, Lizhu [Michigan Dept. Natural Resources and Environment, Lansing, MI (United States); Breck, Jason [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment (UM-SNRE); Mason, Lacey [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment (UM-SNRE); Nelson, Scott [USGS Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-07-31

    As an outcome of our research project, we developed software and data for the Lakebed Alteration Decision Support Tool (LADST), a web-based decision support program to assist resource managers in making siting decisions for offshore wind farms (as well as other lakebed-altering projects) in the United States' waters of the Great Lakes. Users of the LADST can create their own offshore wind farm suitability maps, based upon suitability criteria of their own choosing by visiting a public web site. The LADST can be used to represent the different priorities or values of different Great Lakes stakeholders for wind farm siting, as well as the different suitability requirements of wind farms (or different types of development projects) in a single suitability analysis system. The LADST makes this type of customized suitability analysis easily accessible to users who have no specialized software or experience with geographic information systems (GIS). It also may increase the transparency of the siting and permitting process for offshore wind farms, as it makes the suitability analysis equally accessible to resource managers, wind farm developers, and concerned citizens.

  12. [Prediction of regional soil quality based on mutual information theory integrated with decision tree algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fen-Fang; Wang, Ke; Yang, Ning; Yan, Shi-Guang; Zheng, Xin-Yu

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, some main factors such as soil type, land use pattern, lithology type, topography, road, and industry type that affect soil quality were used to precisely obtain the spatial distribution characteristics of regional soil quality, mutual information theory was adopted to select the main environmental factors, and decision tree algorithm See 5.0 was applied to predict the grade of regional soil quality. The main factors affecting regional soil quality were soil type, land use, lithology type, distance to town, distance to water area, altitude, distance to road, and distance to industrial land. The prediction accuracy of the decision tree model with the variables selected by mutual information was obviously higher than that of the model with all variables, and, for the former model, whether of decision tree or of decision rule, its prediction accuracy was all higher than 80%. Based on the continuous and categorical data, the method of mutual information theory integrated with decision tree could not only reduce the number of input parameters for decision tree algorithm, but also predict and assess regional soil quality effectively.

  13. Considering Information Up-to-Dateness to Increase the Accuracy of Therapy Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Jan; Cypko, Mario A; Oeltze-Jafra, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    During the diagnostic process a lot of information is generated. All this information is assessed when making a final diagnosis and planning the therapy. While some patient information is stable, e.g., gender, others may become outdated, e.g., tumor size derived from CT data. Quantifying this information up-to-dateness and deriving consequences are difficult. Especially for the implementation in clinical decision support systems, this has not been studied. When information entities tend to become outdated, in practice, clinicians intuitively reduce their impact when making decisions. Therefore, in a system's calculations their impact should be reduced as well. We propose a method of decreasing the certainty of information entities based on their up-to-dateness. The method is tested in a decision support system for TNM staging based on Bayesian networks. We compared the actual N-state in records of 39 patients to the N-state calculated with and without decreasing data certainty. The results under decreased certainty correlated better with the actual states (r=0.958, p=0.008). We conclude that the up-to-dateness must be considered when processing clinical information to enhance decision making and ensure more patient safety.

  14. Consumers' use of web-based information and their decisions about multiplex genetic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; McBride, Colleen M; Wade, Christopher; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Brody, Lawrence C; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2010-09-29

    Few data exist to inform concerns raised by online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic susceptibility tests, such as those offered by commercial entities like 23andme, Navigenics, and DNA Direct. The Multiplex Initiative, a population-based study of healthy adults, provides the first opportunity to evaluate how use of a Web-based decision tool that conveyed information about a genetic susceptibility test influenced individuals' test decisions. To inform the ongoing debate over whether individuals offered genetic susceptibility testing without the involvement of a health care provider (eg, through direct-to-consumer testing) can make informed decisions about testing when guided by online decision aids. Participants were 526 members of a large health maintenance organization aged 25 to 40 years old who visited a study website. Multivariate logistic regression models were tested to examine the association of website usage with downstream test decisions. Participants viewed an average of 2.9 of the 4 pages introducing the multiplex test, 2.2 of the 8 pages describing the health conditions, and 3.2 of the 15 pages describing the genes. For each page viewed, participants were more likely to describe their decision-making as easy (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.07) and to decide to be tested (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11). Healthy adults in this study perceived Web-based genomic information presented using evidence-based communications approaches to be helpful in supporting both decisions to test and not to test. Continued research is needed to ensure that these results generalize to target groups with lower literacy and less Internet savvy.

  15. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  16. Decisions on control of foot-and-mouth disease informed using model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, P.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome and cons......The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome...... and consequences would be useful to assist the veterinary authorities in the decision-making process. A previously proposed simple quantitative tool based on the first 14 days outbreaks (FFO) of FMD was used with results from an FMD simulation exercise. Epidemic outcomes included the number of affected herds......, epidemic duration, geographical size and costs. The first 14 days spatial spread (FFS) was also included to further support the prediction. The epidemic data was obtained from a Danish version (DTU-DADS) of a pre-existing FMD simulation model (Davis Animal Disease Spread – DADS) adapted to model the spread...

  17. Information and communication technologies for informal carers and paid assistants: benefits from micro-, meso-, and macro-levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Stephanie; Stewart, James; Centeno, Clara

    The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT)-based services for informal carers and paid assistants of older people living in the community. We cross-case analysed the effects of twelve initiatives in the EU, the USA and Canada, based on their individual analysis documented through interviews with promoters and a literature review. We carried out the cross-case analysis following a variables-oriented strategy on seven dimensions of impact at micro-, meso- and macro-levels: the quality of life of informal carers and paid assistants, quality of life of care recipients, quality of care, care efficiency and sustainability, acceptability, and infrastructure and accessibility. ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants improve the quality of life of older people and their carers and access to qualified care. They also generate savings which contribute to the sustainability of the care systems. These findings constitute a first look at the benefits of the use of ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants. Nevertheless, more research using experimental methods is needed to demonstrate the impact of these ICT-based services at meso- and macro-levels. This would help to support policy-makers to deploy these technologies for long-term care delivery.

  18. Could the decision of trial participation precede the informed consent process? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Paré Toe

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the number of clinical trials carried out in low-income countries with poor medical infrastructure and limited access to health care has increased. In these settings, the decision of participating in a clinical study may be influenced by factors related to participants' vulnerability that limit the efficacy of the informed consent.A mixed methods social science study, based on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged and semi-urban area of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The study aimed at assessing the relevance of the informed consent procedure on the decision-making process of the parents and/or guardians of potential participants in a pediatric malaria trial.For most parents (70.4%, the decision of participating had already been taken before undergoing the informed consent process and was based on the information conveyed through the community. Access to free and good quality health care often inspired this decision. In addition, the parents' willingness to have their child included in the trial made them develop active strategies to achieve this purpose.In a context of socio-economic vulnerability and poor access to free health care, the process of informed consent does not always accomplish its goal of informing people and enabling them to make a free and informed decision. This information role is somehow anticipated by the community and trial participation becomes a strategic action to secure otherwise unavailable health resources leading community members to decide on participation even prior to the informed consent process.

  19. Measuring the usefulness of social media information for new venture development decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    den Engelse, Natalie; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Social media are being adopted by a growing number of entrepreneurs. Yet, the majority of academic research has focused on social media as marketing tools. Little is known on how these media are used by entrepreneurs for information acquisition and to what extent entrepreneurs use social media information in their decision-making during venture development. This paper addresses this gap in two ways. First, by assessing to what extent entrepreneurs perform four entrepreneurial information acqu...

  20. Do as you say - Say as you do: Measuring the actual use of environmental information in investment decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed was based on an experiment where three groups were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts and information material from...... these companies. The overall conclusion of the paper is that even though environmental information is not enough in itself to shift decision preferences, it seems to have some impact on decision making. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between what decision makers say they do and what they actually do....... First, environmental information apparently has greater impact on decision making in the short run than the long run despite decision makers saying that they value environmental information more regarding long-run investments. Second, decision makers downplay the value of environmental information...

  1. 78 FR 32272 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Indian Self- Determination and... renewal for the collection of information titled, ``Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance... conducted under their joint regulations, 25 CFR part 900, implementing the Indian Self-Determination and...

  2. 75 FR 39620 - Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request... information needed to determine dependents of veterans beginning date to start their DEA benefits. DATES... (DEA) Election Request, VA Form Letter 22-909. OMB Control Number: 2900-0703. Type of Review: Extension...

  3. 78 FR 14517 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Technical Assistance To Promote the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... for Out-of- School Youth.'' The information will be used by the Department of Education and its... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Technical Assistance To Promote the Implementation of Re-Engagement Centers for Out-of-School Youth AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary...

  4. Differences between patient and provider perceptions of informed decision making about epidural analgesia use during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient-provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients' rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making.

  5. Randomised cluster trial to support informed parental decision-making for the MMR vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekker Hilary

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK public concern about the safety of the combined measles, mumps and rubella [MMR] vaccine continues to impact on MMR coverage. Whilst the sharp decline in uptake has begun to level out, first and second dose uptake rates remain short of that required for population immunity. Furthermore, international research consistently shows that some parents lack confidence in making a decision about MMR vaccination for their children. Together, this work suggests that effective interventions are required to support parents to make informed decisions about MMR. This trial assessed the impact of a parent-centred, multi-component intervention (balanced information, group discussion, coaching exercise on informed parental decision-making for MMR. Methods This was a two arm, cluster randomised trial. One hundred and forty two UK parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from six primary healthcare centres and six childcare organisations. The intervention arm received an MMR information leaflet and participated in the intervention (parent meeting. The control arm received the leaflet only. The primary outcome was decisional conflict. Secondary outcomes were actual and intended MMR choice, knowledge, attitude, concern and necessity beliefs about MMR and anxiety. Results Decisional conflict decreased for both arms to a level where an 'effective' MMR decision could be made one-week (effect estimate = -0.54, p Conclusions Whilst both the leaflet and the parent meeting reduced parents' decisional conflict, the parent meeting appeared to enable parents to act upon their decision leading to vaccination uptake.

  6. 12 CFR 792.56 - Notice of existence of records, access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decisions and disclosure of requested information; time limits. 792.56 Section 792.56 Banks and Banking... ADMINISTRATION REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA..., access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time limits. (a) The system manager identified...

  7. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Mitchell N; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haas, Romi; Lane, Haylee; Haines, Terry P

    2017-11-14

    It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles) met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles) were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A unidirectional, hierarchal flow was described from (1

  8. Intervention decision-making processes and information preferences of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, N; Rodger, S; Hoffmann, T

    2016-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with autism, parents are faced with the task of choosing from many different intervention options. To find information about the options available, parents turn to a number of different sources. This study explores parents' (n = 23) intervention decision-making processes and information preferences following the diagnosis of ASD for their child. Qualitative thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts from interviews and focus groups involving parents of children with an autism diagnosis was undertaken. Analysis of the results revealed that there are concurrent emotional and pragmatic intervention 'journeys' undertaken by parents post diagnosis, which encompass the primary themes of: (1) information sources used, (2) parents' information preferences and (3) factors influencing intervention decision making. Parents described a journey from the point of diagnosis that involved seeking information on ASD interventions from multiple sources, with the Internet being the primary source. They were overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information available, and their preferences for information varied according to their stage in the journey post diagnosis. Parents had a 'trial and error' approach to choosing ASD interventions, with confidence increasing as they became more familiar with their child's condition, and had opportunities to explore numerous information sources about their child's diagnosis. While confidence increased over time, consideration of the effectiveness or evidence supporting interventions remained largely absent throughout the journey. This study highlights the need for parents of children with ASD to be supported to make informed intervention decisions, particularly with consideration for research evidence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah

    2016-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.

  10. FlooDSuM - a decision support methodology for assisting local authorities in flood situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Decision making in flood situations is a difficult task, especially in small to medium-sized mountain catchments (30 - 500 km2) which are usually characterized by complex topography, high drainage density and quick runoff response to rainfall events. Operating hydrological models driven by numerical weather prediction systems, which have a lead-time of several hours up to few even days, would be beneficial in this case as time for prevention could be gained. However, the spatial and quantitative accuracy of such meteorological forecasts usually decrease with increasing lead-time. In addition, the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff models to inaccuracies in estimations of areal rainfall increases with decreasing catchment size. Accordingly, decisions on flood alerts should ideally be based on areal rainfall from high resolution and short-term numerical weather prediction, nowcasts or even real-time measurements, which is transformed into runoff by a hydrological model. In order to benefit from the best possible rainfall data while retaining enough time for alerting and for prevention, the hydrological model should be fast and easily applicable by decision makers within local authorities themselves. The proposed decision support methodology FlooDSuM (Flood Decision Support Methodology) aims to meet those requirements. Applying FlooDSuM, a few successive binary decisions of increasing complexity have to be processed following a flow-chart-like structure. Prepared data and straightforwardly applicable tools are provided for each of these decisions. Maps showing the current flood disposition are used for the first step. While danger of flooding cannot be excluded more and more complex and time consuming methods will be applied. For the final decision, a set of scatter-plots relating areal precipitation to peak flow is provided. These plots take also further decisive parameters into account such as storm duration, distribution of rainfall intensity in time as well as the

  11. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N

    1998-01-01

    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field. PMID:9803297

  12. Information management to enable personalized medicine: stakeholder roles in building clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Gregory J; Boyle, Scott N; Brinner, Kristin M; Osheroff, Jerome A

    2009-10-08

    Advances in technology and the scientific understanding of disease processes are presenting new opportunities to improve health through individualized approaches to patient management referred to as personalized medicine. Future health care strategies that deploy genomic technologies and molecular therapies will bring opportunities to prevent, predict, and pre-empt disease processes but will be dependent on knowledge management capabilities for health care providers that are not currently available. A key cornerstone to the potential application of this knowledge will be effective use of electronic health records. In particular, appropriate clinical use of genomic test results and molecularly-targeted therapies present important challenges in patient management that can be effectively addressed using electronic clinical decision support technologies. Approaches to shaping future health information needs for personalized medicine were undertaken by a work group of the American Health Information Community. A needs assessment for clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to support personalized medical practices was conducted to guide health future development activities. Further, a suggested action plan was developed for government, researchers and research institutions, developers of electronic information tools (including clinical guidelines, and quality measures), and standards development organizations to meet the needs for personalized approaches to medical practice. In this article, we focus these activities on stakeholder organizations as an operational framework to help identify and coordinate needs and opportunities for clinical decision support tools to enable personalized medicine. This perspective addresses conceptual approaches that can be undertaken to develop and apply clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to achieve personalized medical care. In addition, to represent meaningful benefits to personalized

  13. Information management to enable personalized medicine: stakeholder roles in building clinical decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinner Kristin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology and the scientific understanding of disease processes are presenting new opportunities to improve health through individualized approaches to patient management referred to as personalized medicine. Future health care strategies that deploy genomic technologies and molecular therapies will bring opportunities to prevent, predict, and pre-empt disease processes but will be dependent on knowledge management capabilities for health care providers that are not currently available. A key cornerstone to the potential application of this knowledge will be effective use of electronic health records. In particular, appropriate clinical use of genomic test results and molecularly-targeted therapies present important challenges in patient management that can be effectively addressed using electronic clinical decision support technologies. Discussion Approaches to shaping future health information needs for personalized medicine were undertaken by a work group of the American Health Information Community. A needs assessment for clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to support personalized medical practices was conducted to guide health future development activities. Further, a suggested action plan was developed for government, researchers and research institutions, developers of electronic information tools (including clinical guidelines, and quality measures, and standards development organizations to meet the needs for personalized approaches to medical practice. In this article, we focus these activities on stakeholder organizations as an operational framework to help identify and coordinate needs and opportunities for clinical decision support tools to enable personalized medicine. Summary This perspective addresses conceptual approaches that can be undertaken to develop and apply clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to achieve personalized medical care. In

  14. Quality and quantity of information in summary basis of decision documents issued by health Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Roojin; Lexchin, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada's Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) documents outline the clinical trial information that was considered in approving a new drug. We examined the ability of SBDs to inform clinician decision-making. We asked if SBDs answered three questions that clinicians might have prior to prescribing a new drug: 1) Do the characteristics of patients enrolled in trials match those of patients in their practice? 2) What are the details concerning the drug's risks and benefits? 3) What are the basic characteristics of trials? 14 items of clinical trial information were identified from all SBDs published on or before April 2012. Each item received a score of 2 (present), 1 (unclear) or 0 (absent). The unit of analysis was the individual SBD, and an overall SBD score was derived based on the sum of points for each item. Scores were expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible points, and then classified into five descriptive categories based on that score. Additionally, three overall 'component' scores were tallied for each SBD: "patient characteristics", "benefit/risk information" and "basic trial characteristics". 161 documents, spanning 456 trials, were analyzed. The majority (126/161) were rated as having information sometimes present (score of >33 to 66%). No SBDs had either no information on any item, or 100% of the information. Items in the patient characteristics component scored poorest (mean component score of 40.4%), while items corresponding to basic trial information were most frequently provided (mean component score of 71%). The significant omissions in the level of clinical trial information in SBDs provide little to aid clinicians in their decision-making. Clinicians' preferred source of information is scientific knowledge, but in Canada, access to such information is limited. Consequently, we believe that clinicians are being denied crucial tools for decision-making.

  15. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC DECISION AND FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in reflecting reality, as secular science and practice, accounting has demonstrated continuously opening towards progress and social involvement. The information provided by operators underlie the economic and political decision of a wide range of users. The variety of funding determines the specific behavior of the company. In an economic environment with largely financing through bank loans, companies and their creditors directs its decision in particular on collateral, receivables and payables at a time. In an environment with its own financing, the interests of users of accounting information is moving mainly on growth equity, results and cash holdings.

  16. Increased decision thresholds enhance information gathering performance in juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias U Hauser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD can be described as cautious and hesitant, manifesting an excessive indecisiveness that hinders efficient decision making. However, excess caution in decision making may also lead to better performance in specific situations where the cost of extended deliberation is small. We compared 16 juvenile OCD patients with 16 matched healthy controls whilst they performed a sequential information gathering task under different external cost conditions. We found that patients with OCD outperformed healthy controls, winning significantly more points. The groups also differed in the number of draws required prior to committing to a decision, but not in decision accuracy. A novel Bayesian computational model revealed that subjective sampling costs arose as a non-linear function of sampling, closely resembling an escalating urgency signal. Group difference in performance was best explained by a later emergence of these subjective costs in the OCD group, also evident in an increased decision threshold. Our findings present a novel computational model and suggest that enhanced information gathering in OCD can be accounted for by a higher decision threshold arising out of an altered perception of costs that, in some specific contexts, may be advantageous.

  17. Increased decision thresholds enhance information gathering performance in juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tobias U; Moutoussis, Michael; Iannaccone, Reto; Brem, Silvia; Walitza, Susanne; Drechsler, Renate; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-04-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be described as cautious and hesitant, manifesting an excessive indecisiveness that hinders efficient decision making. However, excess caution in decision making may also lead to better performance in specific situations where the cost of extended deliberation is small. We compared 16 juvenile OCD patients with 16 matched healthy controls whilst they performed a sequential information gathering task under different external cost conditions. We found that patients with OCD outperformed healthy controls, winning significantly more points. The groups also differed in the number of draws required prior to committing to a decision, but not in decision accuracy. A novel Bayesian computational model revealed that subjective sampling costs arose as a non-linear function of sampling, closely resembling an escalating urgency signal. Group difference in performance was best explained by a later emergence of these subjective costs in the OCD group, also evident in an increased decision threshold. Our findings present a novel computational model and suggest that enhanced information gathering in OCD can be accounted for by a higher decision threshold arising out of an altered perception of costs that, in some specific contexts, may be advantageous.

  18. Evidence-informed decision making for nutrition: African experiences and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Holdsworth, Michelle; Taljaard, Christine; Hounkpatin, Waliou Amoussa; Colecraft, Esi; Lachat, Carl; Nago, Eunice; Hailu, Tesfaye; Kolsteren, Patrick; Verstraeten, Roos

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial amount of nutrition research is conducted in Africa, the research agenda is mainly donor-driven. There is a clear need for a revised research agenda in Africa which is both driven by and responding to local priorities. The present paper summarises proceedings of a symposium on how evidence can guide decision makers towards context-appropriate priorities and decisions in nutrition. The paper focuses on lessons learnt from case studies by the Evidence Informed Decision Making in Nutrition and Health Network implemented between 2015 and 2016 in Benin, Ghana and South Africa. Activities within these countries were organised around problem-oriented evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM), capacity strengthening and leadership and horizontal collaboration. Using a combination of desk-reviews, stakeholder influence-mapping, semi-structured interviews and convening platforms, these country-level studies demonstrated strong interest for partnership between researchers and decision makers, and use of research evidence for prioritisation and decision making in nutrition. Identified capacity gaps were addressed through training workshops on EIDM, systematic reviews, cost-benefit evaluations and evidence contextualisation. Investing in knowledge partnerships and development of capacity and leadership are key to drive appropriate use of evidence in nutrition policy and programming in Africa.

  19. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  20. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David

    2013-05-01

    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  1. Capturing intruders based on Voronoi diagrams assisted by information networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoek Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a scenario of deploying multiple robots to capture all intruders in a cluttered workspace with many obstacles. Here, we say that a robot captures an intruder in the case where the intruder is within the maximum range of a weapon on the robot. All robots use the Voronoi diagram as the topological map of the workspace. Due to obstacles, intruders are confined to move along a passage between obstacles. Suppose the weapons on every robot are powerful enough to cover a passage in the workspace. Then, we can consider a simplified scenario such that robots and intruders are restricted to stay on the Voronoi diagram. We assume that a robot can detect the position of any intruder using the information network. This article presents an intruder capturing strategy that is robust to time delay in data transfer using the network. Our strategy does not require the localization of a node or a robot. Based on this strategy, we provide an upper bound for the minimum number of robots required to capture all intruders on a general graph, which leads to a result of the Voronoi diagram. Lastly, we provide MATLAB (version 7.10.0 R2010a simulations to verify the effectiveness of our capturing strategy.

  2. Robust CO2 Injection: Application of Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasinger, M.; O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Karra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration has the potential to reduce greenhouse gasemissions. However, care must be taken when choosing a site for CO2 seques-tration to ensure that the CO2 remains sequestered for many years, and thatthe environment is not harmed in any way. Making a rational decision be-tween potential sites for sequestration is not without its challenges because, asin the case of many environmental and subsurface problems, there is a lot ofuncertainty that exists. A method for making decisions under various typesand severities of uncertainty, Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIGDT), is presented. BIG DT was coupled with a numerical model for CO2 wellinjection and the resulting framework was then applied to a problem of selectingbetween two potential sites for CO2 sequestration. The results of the analysisare presented, followed by a discussion of the decision process.

  3. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  4. Feasibility of a patient decision aid regarding disclosure of personal health information: qualitative evaluation of the Health Care Information Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns regarding the privacy of health information are escalating owing both to the growing use of information technology to store and exchange data and to the increasing demand on the part of patients to control the use of their medical records. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Care Information Directive (HCID, a recently-developed patient decision aid that aims to delineate the level of health information an individual is willing to share. Methods We convened a series of four focus group meetings with several communities in a large Canadian city. A total of 28 men and women participated, representing health care consumer advocates, urban professionals, senior citizens, and immigrants who speak English as a second language. Data were analysed using qualitative methods. Results Participants lacked substantial knowledge regarding the fate and uses of personal health information. They expressed mistrust concerning how their information will be used and protected. Several suggestions were made towards customizing the use of data according to specific needs rather than broad and full access to their charts. Furthermore, despite concern regarding the implementation of a tool like the HCID, participants were hopeful that a refined instrument could contribute to the improved regulation of health information. Conclusion This study indicated poor knowledge concerning the uses of personal health information, distrust concerning security provisions, and cautious support for a patient decision aid such as the HCID to improve control over health data.

  5. The impacts of political cues and practical information on climate change decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-03-01

    Adapting to climate change will require people to make measured decisions, informed by the science relevant to those choices. Communicating that science is complicated by the politicization of the topic. In two studies, we ask how political cues, designed to evoke individuals’ sense of identity as believers or nonbelievers in global warming, affect a hypothetical decision: buying a home vulnerable to coastal flooding exacerbated by global warming using the Zillow® real estate website. In both studies, we manipulate participants’ frame of reference by focusing them on risks due to ‘elevation’, ‘global warming’, or both, or mentioning neither. We also examine how immersion in practical details affects the power of these cues by manipulating whether participants have access to Risk Finder (http://sealevel.climatecentral.org), an interactive decision aid. Study 1 asks about global warming beliefs after their decision; Study 2 asks beforehand. Both find that immersion in practical information, using Risk Finder, overrode political identity cues. When framed in terms of both elevation and global warming and without explicit expression of global warming beliefs (Study 1), participants’ responses reflected their beliefs. The results suggest that communications should acknowledge political differences and then focus on practical decisions and the science that can inform them.

  6. [The Role and Function of Informatics Nurses in Information Technology Decision-Making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying

    2017-08-01

    The medical environment has changed greatly with the coming of the information age, and, increasingly, the operating procedures for medical services have been altered in keeping with the trend toward mobile, paperless services. Informatization has the potential to improve the working efficiency of medical personnel, enhance patient care safety, and give medical organizations a positive image. Informatics nurses play an important role in the decision-making processes that accompany informatization. As one of the decision-making links in the information technology lifecycle, this role affects the success of the development and operation of information systems. The present paper examines the functions and professional knowledge that informatics nurses must possess during the technology lifecycle, the four stages of which include: planning, analysis, design/development/revision, and implementation/assessment/support/maintenance. The present paper further examines the decision-making shortcomings and errors that an informatics nurses may make during the decision-making process. We hope that this paper will serve as an effective and useful reference for informatics nurses during the informatization decision-making process.

  7. Foundations for context-aware information retrieval for proactive decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Lin, Jessica; Li, Qingzhe; Gao, Yifeng; Rangwala, Huzefa; Shargo, Peter; Robinson, Joshua; Rose, Carolyn; Tunison, Paul; Turek, Matt; Thomas, Stephen; Hanselman, Phil

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence analysts and military decision makers are faced with an onslaught of information. From the now ubiquitous presence of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms providing large volumes of sensor data, to vast amounts of open source data in the form of news reports, blog postings, or social media postings, the amount of information available to a modern decision maker is staggering. Whether tasked with leading a military campaign or providing support for a humanitarian mission, being able to make sense of all the information available is a challenge. Due to the volume and velocity of this data, automated tools are required to help support reasoned, human decisions. In this paper we describe several automated techniques that are targeted at supporting decision making. Our approaches include modeling the kinematics of moving targets as motifs; developing normalcy models and detecting anomalies in kinematic data; automatically classifying the roles of users in social media; and modeling geo-spatial regions based on the behavior that takes place in them. These techniques cover a wide-range of potential decision maker needs.

  8. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eFREY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs. We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision. EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target, subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent, subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51-120ms after fixation onset spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400, reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N+1 and N+2.

  9. Probabilistic Decision Making with Spikes: From ISI Distributions to Behaviour via Information Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Javier A.; Lepora, Nathan F.; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Computational theories of decision making in the brain usually assume that sensory 'evidence' is accumulated supporting a number of hypotheses, and that the first accumulator to reach threshold triggers a decision in favour of its associated hypothesis. However, the evidence is often assumed to occur as a continuous process whose origins are somewhat abstract, with no direct link to the neural signals - action potentials or 'spikes' - that must ultimately form the substrate for decision making in the brain. Here we introduce a new variant of the well-known multi-hypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT) for decision making whose evidence observations consist of the basic unit of neural signalling - the inter-spike interval (ISI) - and which is based on a new form of the likelihood function. We dub this mechanism s-MSPRT and show its precise form for a range of realistic ISI distributions with positive support. In this way we show that, at the level of spikes, the refractory period may actually facilitate shorter decision times, and that the mechanism is robust against poor choice of the hypothesized data distribution. We show that s-MSPRT performance is related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) or information gain between ISI distributions, through which we are able to link neural signalling to psychophysical observation at the behavioural level. Thus, we find the mean information needed for a decision is constant, thereby offering an account of Hick's law (relating decision time to the number of choices). Further, the mean decision time of s-MSPRT shows a power law dependence on the KLD offering an account of Piéron's law (relating reaction time to stimulus intensity). These results show the foundations for a research programme in which spike train analysis can be made the basis for predictions about behavior in multi-alternative choice tasks. PMID:25923907

  10. Connecting terror management and dissonance theory: Evidence that mortality salience increases the preference for supporting information after decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Greenberg, Jeff; Frey, Dieter

    2003-09-01

    From the perspective of terror management theory, reminders of mortality should intensify the desire to pursue cognitive consistency. The authors investigated this notion with regard to dissonance theory starting from the finding of research on "selective exposure to information" that after having made a decision, people prefer consonant over dissonant information. The authors found that following mortality salience, people indeed showed an increased preference for information that supported their decision compared to information conflicting with it. However, this only occurred with regard to a worldview-relevant decision case. For a fictitious decision scenario, mortality salience did not affect information seeking. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  11. Using Multiattribute Evaluation Techniques for Assisting Reallocation Decisions in Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Kallsen, Lincoln A.

    This paper reports on the development and use of a multiattribute evaluation model for making resource reallocation decisions in a large College of Education. Multiple criteria with measurable attributes, procedures for use, and software templates are identified, along with data from a recent cycle of reviews. Final estimates on weighted utility…

  12. An analytical procedure to assist decision-making in a government research organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Dean Claxton; Giuseppe Rensi

    1972-01-01

    An analytical procedure to help management decision-making in planning government research is described. The objectives, activities, and restrictions of a government research organization are modeled in a consistent analytical framework. Theory and methodology is drawn from economics and mathe-matical programing. The major analytical aspects distinguishing research...

  13. Place of Accounting Information in Business Decision Making Within Tuzla Canton Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Puskarevic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the primary research regarding management relations towards accounting information that is used in the business decision making process applied in manufacturing companies of the Tuzla Canton (here on: “TC”. The research commences from the fact that the interaction between accounting function organization quality and business decision making is important, because it has direct effect on applied practice when managing operating performances of a company. Taking into consideration management relations towards accounting information in the decision making process, dysfunctional areas within accounting function organization segments are identified. This opens up possibilities to affect modernization of the performance management through the process of redesign of those dysfunctional areas. According to our knowledge, similar research has not been conducted on the area of B&H manufacturing companies' operations.

  14. Use of online health information to manage children's health care: a prospective study investigating parental decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne M; Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K

    2015-04-02

    The use of the internet to access information is rapidly increasing; however, the quality of health information provided on various online sites is questionable. We aimed to examine the underlying factors that guide parents' decisions to use online information to manage their child's health care, a behaviour which has not yet been explored systematically. Parents (N = 391) completed a questionnaire assessing the standard theory of planned behaviour (TPB) measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention as well as the underlying TPB belief-based items (i.e., behavioural, normative, and control beliefs) in addition to a measure of perceived risk and demographic variables. Two months later, consenting parents completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their use of online information to manage their child's health care during the previous 2 months. We found support for the TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and PBC as well as the additional construct of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to use online information to manage their child's health care, with further support found for intentions, but not PBC, in predicting parents' behaviour. The results of the TPB belief-based analyses also revealed important information about the critical beliefs that guide parents' decisions to engage in this child health management behaviour. This theory-based investigation to understand parents' motivations and online information-seeking behaviour is key to developing recommendations and policies to guide more appropriate help-seeking actions among parents.

  15. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masemola-Yende, J P F; Mataboge, Sanah M

    2015-11-05

    The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  16. A Microscopic Information System (MIS) to assist in petrographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rock texture results from all the petrological processes that have affected the rock system. The interpretation of a rock texture relies on the analysis of the morphometric parameters of the constituting components (e.g. crystals or grains). A consistent and statistically sound quantification of components size and shape is crucial to adequately unravel the petrology of a rock, but the gathering of these measurements may be time-consuming or difficult to achieve using low-cost facilities. The basic technique for texture analysis of rocks is the observation of thin sections in transmitted light by using a petrographic microscope. To automate and speed-up textural measurements from thin section in transmitted light, several image processing procedures have been published in the last two decades. Nevertheless, the complexity of the optical properties of crystals hampered the determination of a method that is completely satisfactory, especially for complex polymineralic plutonic rocks. This work provides a contribution to solve this problem. We present a novel composite procedure based on four approaches: i) the use of a slide scanner to acquire the input imagery in transmitted light from thin sections without using the petrographic microscope; ii) the storage of the resulting images in a GIS-like database structure that is extremely useful to retrieve, browse and analyze a large archive of images from a high number of thin sections; iii) the application of a custom image analysis procedure based on two region growing functions; iv) the refinement of the regions after raster to vector conversion using GIS software. We call the obtained analysis system a Microscopic Information System (MIS), because it relies on GIS software but it is not a geographic system. In this study we apply this technique to analyze 137 thin sections obtained from 49 samples of 8 different granitoid rocks that are commonly used in the decorative stone industry. For each thin section 5 collimated

  17. Pharmacists' awareness of clinical decision support in pharmacy information systems: an exploratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lisa E; Saverno, Kim R; Warholak, Terri L; Taylor, Ann; Grizzle, Amy J; Murphy, John E; Malone, Daniel C

    2011-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS), such as drug-drug interaction (DDI) and drug-allergy checking, has been used in pharmacy information systems for several decades; however, there has been limited research on CDS use by practicing pharmacists. The purpose of this study was to document pharmacists' awareness of DDI and other medication-related CDS features available within pharmacy information systems. Researchers conducted on-site interviews with pharmacists throughout the state of Arizona from December 2008 to November 2009 regarding their pharmacy information systems features. Pharmacists were asked to provide information about DDI and other medication-related decision support features of the pharmacy software at their practice site. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize interview responses. Sixty-one pharmacists from a variety of practice settings completed the interview. All respondents indicated that their pharmacy system provided drug-allergy and DDI alerts. Approximately 60% of the pharmacists reported that their DDI decision support systems included recommendations for managing drug interactions. Two-thirds of respondents reported that their pharmacy's computer system permitted the addition of medications from other pharmacies and/or over-the-counter products to a patient's profile. Approximately 40% of the pharmacists reported that some drugs entered into the pharmacy computer system were not included in (or linked to) the electronic DDI checking. Most pharmacists indicated the presence of other medication-related decision support features, such as drug-disease (78%), drug-age precautions (67%), and inappropriate dosage alerts (79%). However, fewer pharmacists reported more advanced functionality, such as laboratory recommendations (34%) and pediatric dosing (39%). Overall, pharmacists' awareness regarding the many decision support functionalities of their systems was limited. Based on the study findings, it appears that there are a number of

  18. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  19. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  20. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  1. Forest landowner decisions and the value of information under fire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the value of three types of information about fire risk to a nonindustrial forest landowner: the relationship between fire arrival rates and stand age, the magnitude of fire arrival rates, and the efficacy of fuel reduction treatment. Our model incorporates planting density and the level and timing of fuel reduction treatment as landowner decisions. These...

  2. 46 CFR 501.41 - Public requests for information and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public requests for information and decisions. 501.41 Section 501.41 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL... Services; (7) Office of the Managing Director; (i) Office of Budget and Finance; (ii) Office of Human...

  3. Probabilistic Flood Maps to support decision-making: Mapping the Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and disruptive natural hazards that affect man. Annually, significant flood damage is documented worldwide. Flood mapping is a common preimpact flood hazard mitigation measure, for which advanced methods and tools (such as flood inundation models) are used to estimate potential flood extent maps that are used in spatial planning. However, these tools are affected, largely to an unknown degree, by both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. Over the past few years, advances in uncertainty analysis with respect to flood inundation modeling show that it is appropriate to adopt Probabilistic Flood Maps (PFM) to account for uncertainty. However, the following question arises; how can probabilistic flood hazard information be incorporated into spatial planning? Thus, a consistent framework to incorporate PFMs into the decision-making is required. In this paper, a novel methodology based on Decision-Making under Uncertainty theories, in particular Value of Information (VOI) is proposed. Specifically, the methodology entails the use of a PFM to generate a VOI map, which highlights floodplain locations where additional information is valuable with respect to available floodplain management actions and their potential consequences. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified example and also applied to a real case study in the South of France, where a VOI map is analyzed on the basis of historical land use change decisions over a period of 26 years. Results show that uncertain flood hazard information encapsulated in PFMs can aid decision-making in floodplain planning.

  4. Build, Buy, Open Source, or Web 2.0?: Making an Informed Decision for Your Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit; Keach, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    When improving a web presence, today's libraries have a choice: using a free Web 2.0 application, opting for open source, buying a product, or building a web application. This article discusses how to make an informed decision for one's library. The authors stress that deciding whether to use a free Web 2.0 application, to choose open source, to…

  5. The Bigelow Junior High School Field Test. Information System for Vocational Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Patricia; Madoff, Marjorie

    All aspects of a five-week field test of the Information System for Vocational Decisions (ISVD) are reported. Sixteen students were involved; each averaged 3.5 sessions with the system. Results indicate that the most frequently accessed script was the Occupational Preference Script. Nearly half of the students (seven) accessed three data files,…

  6. Use of Climate Information for Decision-Making and Impacts Research: State of Our Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the models successfully simulate, but cannot fully replicate, the observed temporal variability and global impact of semi -periodic climate cycles...northern lee side of the Alaska Range, experiences a comparatively much more arid , continental climate . For example, the city of Fairbanks, in the...SERDP REPORT USE OF CLIMATE INFORMATION FOR DECISION- MAKING AND IMPACTS RESEARCH: STATE OF OUR UNDERSTANDING MARCH 2016 Rao

  7. Exploring the Influence of Information Overload on Middle Management Decision-Making in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlevale, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study was an exploration of information overload and how it influenced middle management decision-making in a single organization. In-depth interviews were used to gather lived experiences of 22 middle managers at XYZ Defense Company in California. Data were analyzed using both HyperRESEARCH TM 2.8 software and a manual…

  8. Internet use in pregnancy informs women's decision making: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George

    2010-06-01

    Internet access and usage is almost ubiquitous, providing new opportunities and increasing challenges for health care practitioners and users. With pregnant women reportedly turning to the Internet for information during pregnancy, a better understanding of this behavior is needed. The objective of this study was to ascertain why and how pregnant women use the Internet as a health information source, and the overall effect it had on their decision making. Kuhlthau's (1993) information-seeking model was adapted to provide the underpinning theoretical framework for the study. The design was exploratory and descriptive. Data were collected using a valid and reliable web-based questionnaire. Over a 12-week period, 613 women from 24 countries who had confirmed that they had used the Internet for pregnancy-related information during their pregnancy completed and submitted a questionnaire. Most women (97%) used search engines such as Google to identify online web pages to access a large variety of pregnancy-related information and to use the Internet for pregnancy-related social networking, support, and electronic commerce (i.e., e-commerce). Almost 94 percent of women used the Internet to supplement information already provided by health professionals and 83 percent used it to influence their pregnancy decision making. Nearly half of the respondents reported dissatisfaction with information given by health professionals (48.6%) and lack of time to ask health professionals questions (46.5%) as key factors influencing them to access the Internet. Statistically, women's confidence levels significantly increased with respect to making decisions about their pregnancy after Internet usage (p < 0.05). In this study, the Internet played a significant part in the respondents' health information seeking and decision making in pregnancy. Health professionals need to be ready to support pregnant women in online data retrieval, interpretation, and application.

  9. A simulation optimisation approach for inventory management decision support based on incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Katrien

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is twofold. First, the demand process is described under the condition of incomplete information. Then a framework is developed for inventory management decision support for intermittent demand. Related to the first objective, two main contributions are proposed. Under the condition of incomplete information on demand, characteristics as demand shape and unimodality are identified and the optimal inventory level given a desired performance level is determi...

  10. Robust Priority for Strategic Environmental Assessment with Incomplete Information Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Daeryong Park; Yeonjoo Kim; Myoung-Jin Um; Sung-Uk Choi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the priority rankings for dam construction sites vary with multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and generation approaches for incomplete information. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) seeks to recommend sustainable dam construction sites based on their environmental and ecological impacts in a long-term plan for dam construction (LPDC) in South Korea. However, if specific information is missing, the SEA is less useful for choosing a dam construct...

  11. Information and decision support needs in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Nina; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes and its sequelae cause a growing burden of morbidity and mortality. For many patients living with diabetes, the Internet is an important source of health information and support. In the course of the development of an Interactive Health Communication Application, combining evidence-based information with behavior change and decision support, we assessed the characteristics, information, and decision support needs of patients with type 2 diabetes.The needs assessment was performed in two steps. First, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 patients and seven physicians. In the second step, we developed a self-assessment questionnaire based on the results of the interviews and administered it to a new and larger sample of diabetes patients (N = 178). The questionnaire comprised four main sections: (1) Internet use and Internet experience, (2) diabetes knowledge, (3) relevant decisions and decision preferences, and (4) online health information needs. Descriptive data analyses were performed.In the questionnaire study, the patient sample was heterogeneous in terms of age, time since diagnosis, and glycemic control. (1) Most participants (61.7%) have searched the web for health information at least once. The majority (62%) of those who have used the web use it at least once per month. (2) Diabetes knowledge was scarce: Only a small percentage (1.9%) of the respondents answered all items of the knowledge questionnaire correctly. (3) The most relevant treatment decisions concerned glycemic control, oral medication, and acute complications. The most difficult treatment decision was whether to start insulin treatment. Of the respondents, 69.4 percent thought that medical decisions should be made by them and their doctor together. (4) The most important information needs concerned sequelae of diabetes, blood glucose control, and basic diabetes information.The Internet seems to be a feasible way to reach people with type 2 diabetes. The heterogeneity of the

  12. [Withdrawal of assisted ventilation in the home: making decisions in paediatric palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salido, A; Monleón-Luque, M; Barceló-Escario, M; Del Rincón-Fernández, C; Catá-Del Palacio, E; Martino-Alba, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    End-of-life care is of growing interest in Paediatrics. The number of children with diseases being treated using high-technology as palliative treatment has also increased. The creation of multidisciplinary care teams with 24/7 hours home care may prevent prolonged hospital stays in these patients. To adapt the treatment in order to avoid new hospital admissions and to obtain a better quality of life is a desirable objective. The taking of decisions and subsequent withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in the home is presented, along with the underlying disease and the acute event that led to the worsening of the patient. The decision-making and clinical management until the death of the patient is then discussed and reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Symptoms and Characteristic Features of Lead Poisoning and their Assistance in Clinical Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    D'souza HS; Menezes G; Dsouza SA; Venkatesh T

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the symptoms and characteristics features in lead based industrial workers and accessing their reliability in clinical decision making and diagnosing lead toxicity. Study involves 15 industrial workers (exposed) and 15 non-exposed individuals, matched for age, sex and nationality selected from Bangalore, India. Association of various symptoms and characteristic features in exposed and non-exposed groups were evaluated and their association with high ...

  14. EEG-fMRI based information theoretic characterization of the human perceptual decision system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Ostwald

    Full Text Available The modern metaphor of the brain is that of a dynamic information processing device. In the current study we investigate how a core cognitive network of the human brain, the perceptual decision system, can be characterized regarding its spatiotemporal representation of task-relevant information. We capitalize on a recently developed information theoretic framework for the analysis of simultaneously acquired electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging data (fMRI (Ostwald et al. (2010, NeuroImage 49: 498-516. We show how this framework naturally extends from previous validations in the sensory to the cognitive domain and how it enables the economic description of neural spatiotemporal information encoding. Specifically, based on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data features from n = 13 observers performing a visual perceptual decision task, we demonstrate how the information theoretic framework is able to reproduce earlier findings on the neurobiological underpinnings of perceptual decisions from the response signal features' marginal distributions. Furthermore, using the joint EEG-fMRI feature distribution, we provide novel evidence for a highly distributed and dynamic encoding of task-relevant information in the human brain.

  15. Religious Coping and Types and Sources of Information Used in Making Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Janice V; Bell, Caryn N; Ewing, Altovise; Kinlock, Ballington; Ezema, Ashley; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    Treatment experiences for prostate cancer survivors can be challenging and dependent on many clinical and psychosocial factors. One area that is less understood is the information needs and sources men utilize. Among these is the influence of religion as a valid typology and the value it may have on treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between race, religion, and cancer treatment decisions in African American men compared with White men. Data were from the Diagnosis and Decisions in Prostate Cancer Treatment Outcomes Study that consisted of 877 African American and White men. The main dependent variables sought respondents' use of resources or advisors when making treatment decisions. Questions also assessed men perceptions of prostate cancer from the perspective of religious coping. After adjusting for age, marital status, education, and insurance status, race differences in the number of sources utilized were partially mediated by cancer was a punishment from God (β = -0.46, SE = 0.012, p information used and the number of advisors utilized for treatment decision making for prostate cancer.

  16. Relational representation for improved decisions with an information-theoretic CADe system: initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-02-01

    Our previously presented information-theoretic computer-aided detection (IT-CADe) system for distinguishing masses and normal parenchyma in mammograms is an example of a case-based system. IT-CAD makes decisions by evaluating the querys average similarity with known mass and normal examples stored in the systems case base. Pairwise case similarity is measured in terms of their normalized mutual information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether incorporating a new machine learning concept of relational representation to IT-CAD is a more effective strategy than the decision algorithm that is currently in place. A trainable relational representation classifier builds a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. Instead of describing a case by a vector of intrinsic features, the case is described by its NMI-based similarity to a set of known examples. For this study, we first applied random mutation hill climbing algorithm to select the concise set of knowledge cases and then we applied a support vector machine to derive a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. We performed the study with a database of 600 mammographic regions of interest (300 with masses and 300 with normal parenchyma). Our experiments indicate that incorporating the concept of relational representation with a trainable classifier to IT-CAD provides an improvement in performance as compared with the original decision rule. Therefore, relational representation is a promising strategy for IT-CADe.

  17. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. 76 FR 6694 - Disclosure of Medical Information to the Surrogate of a Patient Who Lacks Decision-Making Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Lacks Decision-Making Capacity AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This..., otherwise protected medical information with the representative of a patient who lacks decision-making... follows: ``To a representative of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity, when a practitioner deems...

  19. How do informal information sources influence women's decision-making for birth? A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ruth A; Crozier, Kenda

    2018-01-10

    Women approach birth using various methods of preparation drawing from conventional healthcare providers alongside informal information sources (IIS) outside the professional healthcare context. An investigation of the forms in which these informal information sources are accessed and negotiated by women, and how these disconnected and often conflicting elements influence women's decision-making process for birth have yet to be evaluated. The level of antenatal preparedness women feel can have significant and long lasting implications on their birth experience and transition into motherhood and beyond. The aim of this study was to provide a deeper understanding of how informal information sources influence women's preparation for birth. Seven electronic databases were searched with predetermined search terms. No limitations were imposed for year of publication. English language studies using qualitative methods exploring women's experiences of informal information sources and their impact upon women's birth preparation were included, subject to a quality appraisal framework. Searches were initiated in February 2016 and completed by March 2016. Studies were synthesised using an interpretive meta-ethnographic approach. Fourteen studies were included for the final synthesis from Great Britain, Australia, Canada and the United States. Four main themes were identified: Menu Birth; Information Heaven/Hell; Spheres of Support; and Trust. It is evident that women do not enter pregnancy as empty vessels devoid of a conceptual framework, but rather have a pre-constructed embodied knowledge base upon which other information is superimposed. Allied to this, it is clear that informal information was sought to mitigate against the widespread experience of discordant information provided by maternity professionals. Women's access to the deluge of informal information sources in mainstream media during pregnancy have significant impact on decision making for birth. These informal

  20. An information decision support system towards the formulation of a modern energy companies' environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Pappa, Anna; Psarras, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 15773, Athens (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    The development of the renewable energy sources (RES) and the energy efficiency (EE) is related to the enhancement of the energy companies' (energy producers by RES and energy services companies - ESCOs) operational environment. The aim of this paper is to present an information decision support system, which consists of an expert subsystem, as well as a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) subsystem. The system supports the state toward the formulation of a modern environment, since it incorporates the 'new parameters' of the energy market, namely the liberalization and the climate change. The system was successfully applied in the 13 accession member states of the EU. (author)

  1. A Survey of Standard Information Models for Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Roudsari, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    HL7 CDA, vMR, and openEHR archetypes have been utilized as standard information models for clinical decision support systems. Compared to openEHR archetypes, vMR typically requires less time to develop and extend which makes it a good fit for rapid prototyping and pilot projects, while openEHR archetypes handle the data and semantic specification better. Using CDA for clinical decision support systems is discouraged due to its complexity, steep learning curve, and potential safety issues.

  2. GAIA: A Collaborative Organization for Climate Change Information and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Babin, S. M.; Pikas, C. K.; Simpkins, S.; Swartz, W. H.; Weiss, M.

    2010-12-01

    The impacts of global climate change are wide ranging and profound, and will require a collaboration between scientists, climate modelers, decision makers, and policy analysts. The new GAIA project headed by JHU/APL aims to create a collaborative space to distill the science of climate change and its implications to actionable information that can be used to make decisions of national importance. Climate forecasts, regional climate model data, Earth science data and visualization tools will be brought together into a virtual collaborative environment where policy and decision makers can create a user-defined interface to information, and can communicate freely with scientists and climate modelers. The benefit of this organization will be to better educate policy makers on climate change impacts and to help scientists focus on the most relevant questions of importance to society at large. The goal is for GAIA to help the community to convert scientific data into knowledge and knowledge into actionable information that can be used for decision support. The framework will include a data portal, visualization tools, and a knowledge management system tied together through a single interface. Plans for the new project and the collaborative framework will be presented.

  3. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen; Mowat, David

    2012-02-20

    Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM). However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27) with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services), fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  4. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  5. 78 FR 75368 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Restrictions on Assistance to Noncitizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... purpose of this notice is to allow for 60 days of public comment. DATES: Comments Due Date: February 10... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Restrictions on Assistance to...

  6. 75 FR 9879 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information Magnet Schools Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information Magnet Schools Assistance Program; Notice... eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) and consortia of LEAs to support magnet schools that are part of an approved desegregation plan. Through the implementation of magnet schools, these program resources...

  7. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality Control...

  8. Enhancing the Delivery of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education through Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Network for a Healthy California (Network) employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the target audience and plan program activities because GIS is a powerful tool for assisting in data integration and planning. This paper describes common uses of GIS by Network contractors as well as demonstrating the possibilities of GIS as a…

  9. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... an important opportunity for HUD to learn about rent- setting strategies and case management services... strategies employed by participating public housing authorities (PHAs) for providing case management to help... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance...

  10. 78 FR 48197 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... subsequent placement in a job, higher education or the military, as well as the name of the placement... for young Americans. Job Corps was established in 1964 by the Economic Opportunity Act, and currently... Information Collection for Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record, Extension Without Revisions AGENCY...

  11. 75 FR 73050 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; College Assistance Migrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; College Assistance Migrant Program... provide academic and financial support to help migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children... regulations in 34 CFR part 206. (c) The definitions of a migratory agricultural worker in 34 CFR 200.81(d...

  12. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (In)formed Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Laura; McEvoy, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children's rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of…

  13. Selecting essential information for biosurveillance--a multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generous, Nicholas; Margevicius, Kristen J; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Biosurveillance defines biosurveillance as "the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels." However, the strategy does not specify how "essential information" is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being "essential". The question of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of "essential information" for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system.

  14. Use of health-related quality of life information in managed care formulary decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenchen Kenneth; Sause, Robert B; Zacker, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The extent to which the increased volume of available health-related quality of life (HRQOL) information and heightened education has increased the acceptance and use of HRQOL remains unclear. Likewise, the value of HRQOL information in the formulary decision-making process continues to be undefined. To investigate the perceptions and use of HRQOL by managed care decision-makers in the formulary development process. A mail survey was sent to a nationwide sample of 108 Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) members who were involved in formulary management. Survey candidates were identified according to their job titles listed in the 1999-2000 AMCP membership directory. The survey process began in May 2000 and ended in August 2000. The main outcome measures included (a) managed care formulary decision-makers' assessment of HRQOL as a treatment outcome, (b) the existing role and future use of HRQOL information in formulary decisions, and (c) the level of understanding of HRQOL concepts and the benefits attributable to favorable HRQOL results. A response rate of 51.9% was obtained. Most of the respondents (>70%) believed that patients consider HRQOL as an important treatment outcome. Fewer respondents (43%) felt that payers view HRQOL outcomes as an important quality indicator. Most respondents (95%) considered HRQOL data in making formulary decisions, and many (73%) believe that HRQOL outcomes will play a more important role in future formulary decisions. Respondents indicated a better understanding of disease-specific and generic HRQOL measurements than utility measurement and interpretation of results. A minority of respondents (34%) would be willing to pay a higher price for a product with better HRQOL outcomes. When asked which factors would lead to increased use of HRQOL information, respondents indicated that health care cost savings and increased productivity were considered important (77% and 65%, respectively). A drug product with better HRQOL outcomes

  15. Overcoming barriers during the co-production of climate information for decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Briley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments program (GLISA has led the co-development of usable climate information for decision-making in several case study projects. Although each case study is with a unique partnering organization made up of different stakeholders with varying information needs and capabilities, several patterns have emerged that GLISA has identified and overcome to advance the practice of applied climate information. There are three main barriers that GLISA encounters at the onset of many of the case studies: (1 mismatched terminology used by scientists and stakeholders to describe the types of information that are available and needed for problem solving (translation; (2 unrealistic expectations regarding the development of climate information products for problem solving; and (3 disordered integration of when stakeholders want to bring climate information into decision-making processes. Although some or all of these barriers are likely to exist at the onset of any new climate information partnership, GLISA has developed methods for overcoming them more quickly so that the process of co-developing usable climate information is more efficient and effective. In this paper we describe in detail GLISA’s experiences that have led to the realization of these barriers and the steps GLISA has taken to overcome them. We also relate these barriers to literature on the “usability gap” between climate science and information use in decision-making as well as uncertainty cascades in climate change adaptation. These experiences demonstrate that climate scientists performing outreach experience similar struggles as the stakeholders they interact with. However, they also reveal the potential for climate-centered boundary organizations to cultivate their own capacities to overcome these challenges in their partnerships.

  16. Effective presentation of health care performance information for consumer decision making: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Ellen T; Greene, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the effective presentation of health care performance information for consumer decision making. Six databases were searched for articles published in English between September 2003 and April 2014. Experimental studies comparing consumers' responses to performance information when one or more presentation feature was altered were included. A thematic analysis was performed and practical guidelines derived. All 31 articles retained, the majority which tested responses to various presentations of health care cost and/or quality information, found that consumers better understand and make more informed choices when the information display is less complex. Simplification can be achieved by reducing the quantity of choices, displaying results in a positive direction, using non-technical language and evaluative elements, and situating results in common contexts. While findings do not offer a prescriptive design, this synthesis informs approaches to enhancing the presentation of health care performance information and areas that merit additional research. Guidelines derived from these results can be used to enhance health care performance reports for consumer decision making including using recognizable, evaluative graphics and customizable formats, limiting the amount of information presented, and testing presentation formats prior to use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Forensic Psychiatric Assessment with the Claim of Incitement, Solicitation, Assistance to Suicide, and Reinforcement of Suicide Decision: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Sercan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Although the act of suicide is not considered a crime in Turkish Criminal Law, any contribution (incitement, solicitation, assistance and reinforcement of suicide decision) to the commitment of suicide is a crime according to the 84th item. However, the number of cases opened with respect to this item as well as request for forensic psychiatric expertise is very rare. In these cases, forensic psychiatric expertise depends on the psychiatric evaluation of the individual that committed suicide and the analysis of his/her relationship with the person that incited the suicide. If the suicide is completed, then the psychiatric process gains the qualification of a "psychological autopsy". In this paper, we examined a reporting process prepared for an individual that died as a result of suicide and the person accused of inciting him to suicide.Evidence and forensic aspects are discussed.

  18. The Research of Spatial-Temporal Analysis and Decision-Making Assistant System for Disabled Person Affairs Based on Mapworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Yang, J.; Sun, Y. S.

    2015-06-01

    This system combines the Mapworld platform and informationization of disabled person affairs, uses the basic information of disabled person as center frame. Based on the disabled person population database, the affairs management system and the statistical account system, the data were effectively integrated and the united information resource database was built. Though the data analysis and mining, the system provides powerful data support to the decision making, the affairs managing and the public serving. It finally realizes the rationalization, normalization and scientization of disabled person affairs management. It also makes significant contributions to the great-leap-forward development of the informationization of China Disabled Person's Federation.

  19. Assisting Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Policy Planning with the Sim4Tree Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Dalemans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As European forest policy increasingly focuses on multiple ecosystem services and participatory decision making, forest managers and policy planners have a need for integrated, user-friendly, broad spectrum decision support systems (DSS that address risks and uncertainties, such as climate change, in a robust way and that provide credible advice in a transparent manner, enabling effective stakeholder involvement. The Sim4Tree DSS has been accordingly developed as a user-oriented, modular and multipurpose toolbox. Sim4Tree supports strategic and tactical forestry planning by providing simulations of forest development, ecosystem services potential and economic performance through time, from a regional to a stand scale, under various management and climate regimes. Sim4Tree allows comparing the performance of different scenarios with regard to diverse criteria so as to optimize management choices. This paper explains the concept, characteristics, functionalities, components and use of the current Sim4Tree DSS v2.5, which was parameterized for the region of Flanders, Belgium, but can be flexibly adapted to allow a broader use. When considering the current challenges for forestry DSS, an effort has been made towards the participatory component and towards integration, while the lack of robustness remains Sim4Tree’s weakest point. However, its structural flexibility allows many possibilities for future improvement and extension.

  20. Concept of information technology of monitoring and decision-making support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Aleksandr S.; Tymchyk, Sergey V.; Kostyshyn, Sergey V.; Zlepko, Sergey M.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Burlibay, Aron; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    Presented concept of information technology monitoring and decision support to determine the health of students. The preconditions of a concept formulated its goal and purpose. Subject area concepts proposed to consider a set of problems, grouped into 8 categories, which in turn necessitates the application when creating technology basic principles from the principles of "first head" and "systems approach" to the principles of "interoperability" and "system integration ". The content of the information providing IT, its position in the segment of single information space, stages of creation. To evaluate the efficiency of the IT system developed proposed criteria.

  1. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad

    2016-04-01

    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  2. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA): A novel practical guidance for Climate Resilient Investments and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Ad; Mendoza, Guillermo; Matthews, John; Ray, Patrick; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Gilroy, Kristin; Olsen, Rolf; Kucharski, John; Stakhiv, Gene; Cushing, Janet; Brown, Casey

    2016-04-01

    over time. They are part of the Dutch adaptive planning approach Adaptive Delta Management, executed and develop by the Dutch Delta program. Both decision scaling and adaptation pathways have been piloted in studies worldwide. The objective of CRIDA is to mainstream effective climate adaptation for professional water managers. The CRIDA publication, due in april 2016, follows the generic water design planning design cycle. At each step, CRIDA describes stepwise guidance for incorporating climate robustness: problem definition, stress test, alternatives formulation and recommendation, evaluation and selection. In the presentation the origin, goal, steps and practical tools available at each step of CRIDA will be explained. In two other abstracts ("Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region" by Gilroy et al., "The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia, by Kucharski et al.), the application of CRIDA to cases is explained

  3. Decision Support Systems: The Need, The Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of decision support systems (DSS) has enabled computer and information technology to assist the management process of decision making. Decision support systems are designed to look forward in time, to forecast outcomes of uncertain events. A 70-item bibliography is included. (MLW)

  4. Involved, inputting or informing: "Shared" decision making in adult mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Eleanor; Green, Debra

    2017-08-04

    A diagnosis of serious mental illness can impact on the whole family. Families informally provide significant amounts of care but are disproportionately at risk of carer burden when compared to those supporting people with other long-term conditions. Shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical model of health communication associated with positive health outcomes; however, there has been little research to evaluate how routinely family is invited to participate in SDM, or what this looks like in practice. This UK study aimed to better understand how the family caregivers of those diagnosed with SMI are currently involved in decision making, particularly decisions about treatment options including prescribed medication. Objectives were to Explore the extent to which family members wish to be involved in decisions about prescribed medication Determine how and when professionals engage family in these decisions Identify barriers and facilitators associated with the engagement of family in decisions about treatment. Open-ended questions were sent to professionals and family members to elicit written responses. Qualitative responses were analysed thematically. Themes included the definition of involvement and "rules of engagement." Staff members are gatekeepers for family involvement, and the process is not democratic. Family and staff ascribe practical, rather than recovery-oriented roles to family, with pre-occupation around notions of adherence. Staff members need support, training and education to apply SDM. Time to exchange information is vital but practically difficult. Negotiated teams, comprising of staff, service users, family, peers as applicable, with ascribed roles and responsibilities could support SDM. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  6. Effect of positioning on the accuracy of decision making of association football top-class referees and assistant referees during competitive matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Javier; Frutos, Pablo Gonzalez; Juárez, Daniel; Navarro, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of positioning on the correctness of decision making of top-class referees and assistant referees during international games. Match analyses were carried out during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Confederations Cup 2009 and 380 foul play incidents and 165 offside situations were examined. The error percentage for the referees when indicating the incidents averaged 14%. The lowest error percentage occurred in the central area of the field, where the collaboration of the assistant referee is limited, and was achieved when indicating the incidents from a distance of 11-15 m, whereas this percentage peaked (23%) in the last 15-min match period. The error rate for the assistant referees was 13%. Distance of the assistant referee to the offside line did not have an impact on the quality of the offside decision. The risk of making incorrect decisions was reduced when the assistant referees viewed the offside situations from an angle between 46 and 60°. Incorrect offside decisions occurred twice as often in the second as in the first half of the games. Perceptual-cognitive training sessions specific to the requirements of the game should be implemented in the weekly schedule of football officials to reduce the overall error rate.

  7. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  8. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  9. Informing Health Policy Decision Makers: A Nebraska Scope of Practice Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazure, Linda L; Cramer, Mary E; Hoebelheinrich, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Medicare patients seeking care from nurse practitioners (NPs) increased 15-fold from 1998 to 2010, and a 2.5-fold patient increase was recorded in states that have eased the regulatory environment for NPs. It is increasingly important that state regulatory and licensing boards-charged with protecting the public through the assurance of a qualified health-care workforce-examine whether their state regulatory environment restricts or promotes public access to quality health care. This article presents a case study of a statutory scope of practice credentialing review process for NPs in Nebraska. It examines in depth what individuals involved in policy change processes found most useful for informed decision making. The methodology included observation of the process, review of submitted documents, and a survey to individuals involved in the decision-making process (n = 22/48). The study findings have application for those seeking scope of practice policy changes, with specific suggestions for how to better prepare themselves and present information in formats that are helpful to decision makers. Our results also shed new light on what specific evidence submitted during a scope of practice review process is most valued for promoting the understanding of decision makers to effect change. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. New elements for informed decision making: a qualitative study of older adults' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Kuby, Alma; Levinson, Wendy; Braddock, Clarence Henry

    2012-03-01

    To explore older adults' views of existing informed decision making (IDM) elements and investigate the need for additional elements. We recruited persons 65 and older to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed questionnaires about IDM preferences, and discussed videotapes of idealized patient-physician interactions in light of seven IDM elements: (1) discussion of the patient's role in decision making; (2) discussion of the clinical issue; (3) discussion of alternatives; (4) discussion of benefits/risks; (5) discussion of uncertainties; (6) assessment of patient understanding; and (7) exploration of patient preference. We used a modified grounded theory approach to assess agreement with existing IDM elements and identify new elements. In questionnaires, 97-100% of 59 participants rated each IDM element as "somewhat" or "very" important. Qualitative analysis supported existing elements and suggested two more: opportunity for input from trusted others, and discussion of decisions' impacts on patients' daily lives. Elements overlapped with global communication themes. Focus groups affirmed existing IDM elements and suggested two more with particular relevance for older patients. Incorporation of additional IDM elements into clinical practice can enhance informed participation of older adults in decision making. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Bai-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Jin, Xue-Bo; Xu, Ji-Ping; Su, Ting-Li; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-10-28

    Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches' ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method's rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.

  12. A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Bai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches’ ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method’s rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.

  13. Effects of Information Visualization on Older Adults' Decision-Making Performance in a Medicare Plan Selection Task: A Comparative Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Margaux M; Crumley-Branyon, Jessica J; Leidheiser, William R; Pak, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Technology gains have improved tools for evaluating complex tasks by providing environmental supports (ES) that increase ease of use and improve performance outcomes through the use of information visualizations (info-vis). Complex info-vis emphasize the need to understand individual differences in abilities of target users, the key cognitive abilities needed to execute a decision task, and the graphical elements that can serve as the most effective ES. Older adults may be one such target user group that would benefit from increased ES to mitigate specific declines in cognitive abilities. For example, choosing a prescription drug plan is a necessary and complex task that can impact quality of life if the wrong choice is made. The decision to enroll in one plan over another can involve comparing over 15 plans across many categories. Within this context, the large amount of complex information and reduced working memory capacity puts older adults' decision making at a disadvantage. An intentionally designed ES, such as an info-vis that reduces working memory demand, may assist older adults in making the most effective decision among many options. The objective of this study is to examine whether the use of an info-vis can lower working memory demands and positively affect complex decision-making performance of older adults in the context of choosing a Medicare prescription drug plan. Participants performed a computerized decision-making task in the context of finding the best health care plan. Data included quantitative decision-making performance indicators and surveys examining previous history with purchasing insurance. Participants used a colored info-vis ES or a table (no ES) to perform the decision task. Task difficulty was manipulated by increasing the number of selection criteria used to make an accurate decision. A repeated measures analysis was performed to examine differences between the two table designs. Twenty-three older adults between the ages of 66

  14. Can Neuroscience Assist Us in Constructing Better Patterns of Economic Decision-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lăzăroiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We draw on outstanding research (Sanfey et al., 2006; McCabe, 2008; Bernheim, 2009; Camerer, 2013; Radu and McClure, 2013; Declerck and Boone, 2016 to substantiate that neuroeconomics covers the investigation of the biological microfoundations of economic cognition and economic conduct, attempts to prove that a superior grasp of how choices are made brings about superior expectations regarding which options are selected, preserves the strictness of economic analysis in defining value-based decision, and associates imaging techniques with economic pattern to explain how individuals decide on a strategy taking into account various possible choices. Neuroeconomics is adequately prepared to regulate the notion of how choices are determined by mental states. The position that will be elaborated in this article is that neuroeconomic patterns are enabled and enhanced in descriptive capacity by psychological outcomes and substantiated in biological processes. Advancement in neuroeconomics takes place when outcomes from distinct procedures are coherent with an ordinary mechanistic clarification of what generates choice, construed by a computational pattern. We will develop this point further by proving that economics improves the concerted effort of neuroeconomics by using its observations in the various results that may stem from the planned and market interplays of diverse participants, and via a series of accurate, explicit, mathematical patterns to construe such interplays and results. Neuroeconomics experiments employ a mixture of brain imaging/stimulation tests advanced in the cognitive neurosciences and microeconomic systems/game theory tests advanced in the economic sciences. Our analyses indicate that neuroeconomics aims to employ the supplementary input gained from brain investigations, associated with the decision maker’s selection, with the purpose of better grasping the cogitation process and to utilize the outcomes to enhance economic

  15. Creation of an Open Framework for Point-of-Care Computer-Assisted Reporting and Decision Support Tools for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Bizzo, Bernardo C; Berland, Lincoln L; Nair, Sujith; Pandharipande, Pari V; Harvey, H Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Decreasing unnecessary variation in radiology reporting and producing guideline-concordant reports is fundamental to radiology's success in value-based payment models and good for patient care. In this article, we present an open authoring system for point-of-care clinical decision support tools integrated into the radiologist reporting environment referred to as the computer-assisted reporting and decision support (CAR/DS) framework. The CAR/DS authoring system, described herein, includes: (1) a definition format for representing radiology clinical guidelines as structured, machine-readable Extensible Markup Language documents and (2) a user-friendly reference implementation to test the fidelity of the created definition files with the clinical guideline. The proposed definition format and reference implementation will enable content creators to develop CAR/DS tools that voice recognition software (VRS) vendors can use to extend the commercial tools currently in use. In making the definition format and reference implementation software freely available, we hope to empower individual radiologists, expert groups such as the ACR, and VRS vendors to develop a robust ecosystem of CAR/DS tools that can further improve the quality and efficiency of the patient care that our field provides. We hope that this initial effort can serve as the basis for a community-owned open standard for guideline definition that the imaging informatics and VRS vendor communities will embrace and strengthen. To this end, the ACR Assist™ initiative is intended to make the College's clinical content, including the Incidental Findings Committee White Papers, available for decision support tool creation based upon the herein described CAR/DS framework. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shared decision making through informed consent in chiropractic management of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Simon; Brady, O'Dane; Haldeman, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose questions that may be helpful to educate patients considering treatment approaches to manage low back pain (LBP) and to determine if the information currently presented in informed consent (IC) documents at chiropractic colleges is sufficient to help a patient considering chiropractic management of LBP make a fully informed decision. Questions to inform decision making for a patient contemplating any intervention for LBP were developed by the authors based on their clinical and research experience. Answers to the questions were suggested based on findings from recent clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews. Institutions that are members of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges (ACC) were surveyed and asked to provide a copy of the IC documents currently used in their outpatient educational clinics. The IC documents were analyzed to determine if they stated (or implied) information that may be helpful in addressing each of the proposed questions. The list of 20 questions included 4 questions on each of the following 5 topics: condition, proposed treatment, potential benefits, potential harms, and possible alternatives. A total of 21 ACC institutions were contacted, of which 20 responded. The number of questions that could potentially be answered with information provided in the IC documents ranged from 2 to 13, with a mean of 6.5, including a mean of 3.6 stated answers and 2.9 implied answers. Some information to help patients consider chiropractic management of LBP is currently included in the IC documents used in clinics of ACC institutions. However, many of the questions that could help achieve shared decision making are not included. Modifying IC documents may help patients understand the nature, benefits, harms, costs, and alternatives to LBP care. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities.Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa.Method: In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens.Results: Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information.Conclusion: Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  18. Health literacy skills for informed decision making in colorectal cancer screening: Perceptions of screening invitees and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Anke J.; Timmermans, Daniëlle R. M.; Uiters, Ellen; Dekker, Evelien; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of informed decision making (IDM) requires an adequate level of health literacy. To ensure that all individuals have equal opportunity to make an informed decision in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, it is essential to gain more insight into which health literacy skills are needed for

  19. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  20. The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI as a Marketing Instrument for Obtaining Information about Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Westhoff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our article is not to report an empirical study but to present a toolkit which can help to collect valid information about brands. The Decision-Oriented Interview, hereafter, DOI presents empirically proven behavior regularities in interviews as a collection of checklists. The DOI has shown its usefulness in different fields of interviewing e.g. as a selection interview, in forensic assessment or a method for oral examinations. The DOI collection of explicit rules for interview design, execution and summary is described as a toolkit for collecting information relevant in marketing. The purchase decisions are presented as a basis for describing brand-differentiating situations. The use of the rules collected in the DOI checklists has clear advantages over the conventional approach in which success depends on the experience of individual project managers.

  1. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  2. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  4. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongmin A Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information with those of others (social information. Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal. By testing different theoretical models, we showed that a social Bayesian inference model captured changes in judgments better than 2 other models. Our results showed that participants updated their beliefs by appropriately weighting individual and social sources of information according to their respective credibility. When investigating 2 fundamental computations of Bayesian inference, belief updates and credibility estimates of social information, we found that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC computed the level of belief updates, while the bilateral frontopolar cortex (FPC was more engaged in individuals who assigned a greater credibility to the judgments of a larger group. Moreover, increased functional connectivity between these 2 brain regions reflected a greater influence of group size on the relative credibility of social information. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the computational roles of the FPC-dACC network in steering judgment adaptation to a group's opinion. Taken together, these findings provide a computational account of how the human brain integrates individual and social information for decision-making in groups.

  5. Federated health information architecture: Enabling healthcare providers and policymakers to use data for decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Mostafa, Javed; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in India, as in most other developing countries, support public health management but fail to enable healthcare providers to use data for delivering quality services. Such a failure is surprising, given that the population healthcare data that the system collects are aggregated from patient records. An important reason for this failure is that the health information architecture (HIA) of the HIS is designed primarily to serve the information needs of policymakers and program managers. India has recognised the architectural gaps in its HIS and proposes to develop an integrated HIA. An enabling HIA that attempts to balance the autonomy of local systems with the requirements of a centralised monitoring agency could meet the diverse information needs of various stakeholders. Given the lack of in-country knowledge and experience in designing such an HIA, this case study was undertaken to analyse HIS in the Bihar state of India and to understand whether it would enable healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers to use data for decision-making. Based on a literature review and data collected from interviews with key informants, this article proposes a federated HIA, which has the potential to improve HIS efficiency; provide flexibility for local innovation; cater to the diverse information needs of healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers; and encourage data-based decision-making.

  6. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goïame, Sidney; O'Connor, David A.; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal. By testing different theoretical models, we showed that a social Bayesian inference model captured changes in judgments better than 2 other models. Our results showed that participants updated their beliefs by appropriately weighting individual and social sources of information according to their respective credibility. When investigating 2 fundamental computations of Bayesian inference, belief updates and credibility estimates of social information, we found that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) computed the level of belief updates, while the bilateral frontopolar cortex (FPC) was more engaged in individuals who assigned a greater credibility to the judgments of a larger group. Moreover, increased functional connectivity between these 2 brain regions reflected a greater influence of group size on the relative credibility of social information. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the computational roles of the FPC-dACC network in steering judgment adaptation to a group’s opinion. Taken together, these findings provide a computational account of how the human brain integrates individual and social information for decision-making in groups. PMID:28658252

  7. Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer decision tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lauren A Fleishman; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions from the electricity sector will likely require policies that encourage the widespread deployment of a diverse mix of low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Public discourse informs such policies. To make informed decisions and to productively engage in public discourse, citizens need to understand the trade-offs between electricity technologies proposed for widespread deployment. Building on previous paper-and-pencil studies, we developed a computer tool that aimed to help nonexperts make informed decisions about the challenges faced in achieving a low-carbon energy future. We report on an initial usability study of this interactive computer tool. After providing participants with comparative and balanced information about 10 electricity technologies, we asked them to design a low-carbon electricity portfolio. Participants used the interactive computer tool, which constrained portfolio designs to be realistic and yield low CO2 emissions. As they changed their portfolios, the tool updated information about projected CO2 emissions, electricity costs, and specific environmental impacts. As in the previous paper-and-pencil studies, most participants designed diverse portfolios that included energy efficiency, nuclear, coal with carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas, and wind. Our results suggest that participants understood the tool and used it consistently. The tool may be downloaded from http://cedmcenter.org/tools-for-cedm/informing-the-public-about-low-carbon-technologies/ .

  8. Executable behavioral modeling of system- and software-architecture specifications to inform resourcing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Farah-Stapleton, Monica F.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The size, cost, and slow rate of change of Department of Defense (DOD) Information Technology (IT) systems make introducing new capabilities challenging. Without considering the whole system and its environment, design decisions may result in unintended operational and financial impacts, often not visible until later testing. These complex systems and their interactions are not cheap to maintain, impacting intellectual, programmatic, a...

  9. Exact Methods for Multi-echelon Inventory Control : Incorporating Shipment Decisions and Detailed Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Stenius, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in information technologies and an increased environmental awareness have altered the prerequisites for successful logistics. For companies operating on a global market, inventory control of distribution systems is often an essential part of their logistics planning. In this context, the research objective of this thesis is: To develop exact methods for stochastic inventory control of multi-echelon distribution systems incorporating shipment decisions and/or detailed d...

  10. Information-sharing ethical dilemmas and decision-making for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chisato; Ota, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Information sharing is one of the most important means of public health nurses collaborating with other healthcare professionals and community members. There are complicated ethical issues in the process. To describe the ethical dilemmas associated with client information sharing that Japanese public health nurses experience in daily practice and to clarify their decision-making process to resolve these dilemmas. Data were collected using a three-phase consensus method consisting of semi-structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires and a group interview. We surveyed administrative public health nurses in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 administrative public health nurses, and the self-administered questionnaires were sent to all 899 administrative public health nurses. The group interview was carried out with eight administrative public health nurses. Ethical approval was granted by the ethics committee of the School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan (8-158, 9-130). Information-sharing ethical dilemmas occurred most often when clients' decisions did not coincide with the nurses' own professional assessments, particularly when they faced clinical issues that were inherently ambiguous. In their decision-making processes, nurses prioritised 'protection of health and life'. These findings suggest that, above all, they sought to address urgent risks to clients' lives while upholding the principle of client autonomy as much as possible. In such cases, the nurses made decisions regarding whether to share information about the client depending on the individual situation. Public health nurses should protect the client's health while taking into consideration their relationship with the client. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The impact of scientific information on ecosystem management: making sense of the contextual gap between information providers and decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F

    2008-05-01

    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  12. The limits of scientific information for informing forest policy decisions under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.

  13. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  14. Issues in the interpretation of climate model ensembles to inform decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David A; Downing, Thomas E; Washington, Richard; Lopez, Ana; New, Mark

    2007-08-15

    There is a scientific consensus regarding the reality of anthropogenic climate change. This has led to substantial efforts to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate the impacts of climate change on a global scale. Despite these efforts, we are committed to substantial further changes over at least the next few decades. Societies will therefore have to adapt to changes in climate. Both adaptation and mitigation require action on scales ranging from local to global, but adaptation could directly benefit from climate predictions on regional scales while mitigation could be driven solely by awareness of the global problem; regional projections being principally of motivational value. We discuss how recent developments of large ensembles of climate model simulations can be interpreted to provide information on these scales and to inform societal decisions. Adaptation is most relevant as an influence on decisions which exist irrespective of climate change, but which have consequences on decadal time-scales. Even in such situations, climate change is often only a minor influence; perhaps helping to restrict the choice of 'no regrets' strategies. Nevertheless, if climate models are to provide inputs to societal decisions, it is important to interpret them appropriately. We take climate ensembles exploring model uncertainty as potentially providing a lower bound on the maximum range of uncertainty and thus a non-discountable climate change envelope. An analysis pathway is presented, describing how this information may provide an input to decisions, sometimes via a number of other analysis procedures and thus a cascade of uncertainty. An initial screening is seen as a valuable component of this process, potentially avoiding unnecessary effort while guiding decision makers through issues of confidence and robustness in climate modelling information. Our focus is the usage of decadal to centennial time-scale climate change simulations as inputs to

  15. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  16. RESEARCH OF MULTICRITERIAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Serbin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Decision-making model is offered for informational and educational systems. The study of multi-criteria model is carried out taking into account knowledge, reaction and doubt. Method. The model of material proficiency by the user is based on identification of the personal characteristics when operating with the system. As a result of personal characteristics tracking in the system, an image is formed for each user that can be used for identifying his state: knowledge level, proportion of error, handwriting information, etc. During registration the user is passing an input test. Multi-criteria test results are automatically stored in the user's personal database (agent matrix and accounted for psychological comfort, formation of the next system content, management of knowledge levels, decision-making when working with the system. The proposed method gives a more clear and "transparent situational picture" for objective decision-making. Main Results. Implementation of multi-criteria decision-making model contributes to the quality of distance education. Also, the method makes it possible to reduce the probability of guessing the correct answer, thus increases the objectivity of knowledge level evaluation in diagnostic systems for management of learning process based on remote technologies. Practical Relevance. Obtained theoretical results of the work are used in training systems on the basis of multi-criteria decision models. Thus, the proposed model leads to an increase in the average score of about 0.3-0.4 points and reduces the training time in 1.5 to 2.0 times.

  17. Selecting Essential Information for Biosurveillance—A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generous, Nicholas; Margevicius, Kristen J.; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J.; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W. Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Biosurveillancedefines biosurveillance as “the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels.” However, the strategy does not specify how “essential information” is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being “essential”. Thequestion of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of “essential information” for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system. PMID:24489748

  18. Process of making decisions on loan currency: Influence of representativeness on information processing and coherence with consumption motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationality of decision maker is often reduced by heuristics and biases, and also by different types of external stimuli. In decision-making process individuals simplify phases of information selection and information processing by using heuristics, simple rules which are focused on one aspect of complex problem and ignore other aspects, and in that way 'speed up' decision-making process. This method of making decisions, although efficient in making simple decisions, can lead to mistakes in probability assessment and diminish rationality of decision maker. In that way it can influence drastically on transaction outcome for which decision is being made. The subject of this study is influence of representativeness heuristic on making financial decisions by individuals, and influence of consumption motives on stereotypical elements in information processing phase. Study was conducted by determining attitudes of respondents toward currencies, and then by conducting experiments with aim of analyzing method of making decisions on loan currency. Aim of study was determining whether and to what extent representativeness influence choice of currency in process of making loan decisions. Results of conducted behavioral experiments show that respondents, opposite to rational model, do not asses probability by processing available information and in accordance with their preferences, but by comparing decision objects with other objects which have same attributes, showing in that way moderate positive correlation between stereotypical attitudes and choice of loan currency. Experiments have shown that instrumental motive significantly influence representativeness heuristics, that is, individuals are prone to process information with diminished influence of stereotypical attitudes caused by external stimuli, in situations where there is no so called 'hedonistic decision-making'. Respondents have been making more efficient decisions if they had motive which does

  19. Information and decision-making needs among people with affective disorders – results of an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebherz S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Liebherz, Lisa Tlach, Martin Härter, Jörg Dirmaier Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Background: Patient decision aids are one possibility for enabling and encouraging patients to participate in medical decisions.Objective: This paper aims to describe patients’ information and decision-making needs as a prerequisite for the development of high-quality, web-based patient decision aids for affective disorders.Design: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey by using a self-administered questionnaire including items on Internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making, and important treatment decisions, performing descriptive and comparative statistical analyses.Participants: A total of 210 people with bipolar disorder/mania as well as 112 people with unipolar depression participated in the survey.Results: Both groups specified general information search as their most relevant information need and decisions on treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient as well as decisions on pharmacological treatment as the most difficult treatment decisions. For participants with unipolar depression, decisions concerning psychotherapeutic treatment were also especially difficult. Most participants of both groups preferred shared decisions but experienced less shared decisions than desired.Discussion and conclusion: Our results show the importance of information for patients with affective disorders, with a focus on pharmacological treatment and on the different treatment settings, and highlight patients’ requirements to be involved in the decision-making process. Since our sample reported a chronic course of disease, we do not know if our results are applicable for newly diagnosed patients. Further studies should consider how the reported needs could be addressed in health care practice. Keywords: bipolar disorder, computer/Internet technology, depression

  20. The Decision of Information Safety Problems at Processing of the Biometric Personal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Gorshkov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The requirements imposed on transfer by the personal biometric information in systems and communication networks according to Federal Law № 152 “Personal data” are defined. Lacks of used decisions protection of such biometric data, as the test speech information, including parameters of a speech path, and also acoustic signals of tones and noise of heart of the person on an example of telemedicine systems construction with the using of a network telephone channels general using and wireless networks Wi-Fi are considered. Directions of works are formulated on safety of the personal biometric data transferred in telecommunication systems.

  1. Information Technology for Agriculture: Using it tools to aid decision-making process in small properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Ferraz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the current scenario of agricultural competitiveness, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools has become increasingly common in the rural community, making life easier for farmers. The information obtained through Agroinformatics (Information Technology applied to agribusiness, serves as a basis for both decision-making, planning, and application of the best techniques and production processes. In Brazil, companies such as EMPRAPA (The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation work in the research and development of new technological tools, which seek to boost the agricultural production of small rural producers, reducing their costs and improving their results. But for this, it is necessary that the producers understand the concept of the importance in carrying out information collection in a correct way, because the information will be processed according to what is inserted in the systems. In this sense, this article aims to demonstrate through an explanatory research of qualitative nature and bibliographical character the importance of the use of ICT to support decision-making in the Brazilian rural sector. Also highlighting the benefits originated by the use of ICT in all stages of agricultural production and its accounting management, through examples of tools.

  2. An evidence-based decision assistance model for predicting training outcome in juvenile guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Naomi D; Craigon, Peter J; Blythe, Simon A; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Working dog organisations, such as Guide Dogs, need to regularly assess the behaviour of the dogs they train. In this study we developed a questionnaire-style behaviour assessment completed by training supervisors of juvenile guide dogs aged 5, 8 and 12 months old (n = 1,401), and evaluated aspects of its reliability and validity. Specifically, internal reliability, temporal consistency, construct validity, predictive criterion validity (comparing against later training outcome) and concurrent criterion validity (comparing against a standardised behaviour test) were evaluated. Thirty-nine questions were sourced either from previously published literature or created to meet requirements identified via Guide Dogs staff surveys and staff feedback. Internal reliability analyses revealed seven reliable and interpretable trait scales named according to the questions within them as: Adaptability; Body Sensitivity; Distractibility; Excitability; General Anxiety; Trainability and Stair Anxiety. Intra-individual temporal consistency of the scale scores between 5-8, 8-12 and 5-12 months was high. All scales excepting Body Sensitivity showed some degree of concurrent criterion validity. Predictive criterion validity was supported for all seven scales, since associations were found with training outcome, at at-least one age. Thresholds of z-scores on the scales were identified that were able to distinguish later training outcome by identifying 8.4% of all dogs withdrawn for behaviour and 8.5% of all qualified dogs, with 84% and 85% specificity. The questionnaire assessment was reliable and could detect traits that are consistent within individuals over time, despite juvenile dogs undergoing development during the study period. By applying thresholds to scores produced from the questionnaire this assessment could prove to be a highly valuable decision-making tool for Guide Dogs. This is the first questionnaire-style assessment of juvenile dogs that has shown value in predicting

  3. Assisting patients with motor neurone disease to make decisions about their care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND), is a progressive terminal illness affecting the central nervous system, causing paralysis of the muscles affecting limb movement, breathing and bulbar function, with an average life expectancy of 2-4 years. Patients are presented with repeated loss and the constant need to make adjustments to their lifestyle and expectations. Within palliative care there has been a move to formalise planning by undertaking advance care planning, giving the patient the opportunity to plan whether they would consider medical interventions and how they would like their care and death to be managed. There are now a multitude of forms and documents to complete if the patient is willing to do so. Advance care planning may not be something all patients wish to embrace, and this poses the question of whether there are cases where the repeated demand to think forward to a time when further losses are experienced is serving the agenda of the health professional at the expense of the patient. Nevertheless, health professionals might be concerned that a delay in decision making could impact on the patient's future care. There is potential for conflict between the wish of the patient--to remain focused on the positive--and the health professional's perception of the benefits of completing an advance care plan or discussing interventions which, if persued, might lead to a breakdown of the therapeutic relationship. A more flexible approach, focusing on the agenda set by the patient, underpinned by a therapeutic and trusting relationship, can avoid distress for the patient, while ensuring good care and the best outcome for the patient.

  4. Clinical decision support for whole genome sequence information leveraging a service-oriented architecture: a prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M; Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information could soon be routinely available to clinicians to support the personalized care of their patients. At such time, clinical decision support (CDS) integrated into the clinical workflow will likely be necessary to support genome-guided clinical care. Nevertheless, developing CDS capabilities for WGS information presents many unique challenges that need to be overcome for such approaches to be effective. In this manuscript, we describe the development of a prototype CDS system that is capable of providing genome-guided CDS at the point of care and within the clinical workflow. To demonstrate the functionality of this prototype, we implemented a clinical scenario of a hypothetical patient at high risk for Lynch Syndrome based on his genomic information. We demonstrate that this system can effectively use service-oriented architecture principles and standards-based components to deliver point of care CDS for WGS information in real-time.

  5. Prediction model for demands of the health meteorological information using a decision tree method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kim, Byungsoo

    2010-09-01

    Climate change affects human health and calls for health meteorological services. The purpose of this study is to find the significant predictors for the demands of the health meteorological information. This study used a descriptive design through structured self-report questionnaires. Data from 956 participants who were at least 18 years old and living in Busan, Korea, were collected from June 1 to July 31, 2009. The data was analyzed using a decision tree method, one of the data mining techniques by SAS 9.1 and Enterprise Miner 4.3 program. Two hundred and ninety participants (30.3%) demanded the information, and 505 of them (52.8%) perceived the necessity of health meteorological information. From the decision tree method, the predictors related to the demands of the health meteorological information were determined as "the perception of the necessity of health meteorological information," "the coping to the weather warnings" and "the importance of the weather forecasting in daily life." In Particular, the significant different variables in the perception of the necessity of health meteorological information were "female," "aged over 40" and "environmental diseases." Thus, the model derived in this study is considered for explaining and predicting the demands of health meteorological information. It can be effectively used as a reference model for future studies and is a suggested direction in health meteorological information service and policy development. We suggest health forecasting as a nursing service and a primary health care network for healthier and more comfortable life. Copyright © 2010 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by . All rights reserved.

  6. Informing Adaptation Decisions: What Do We Need to Know and What Do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such

  7. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  8. Review of Current Data Exchange Practices: Providing Descriptive Data to Assist with Building Operations Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingood, W.; Stein, J.; Considine, T.; Sloup, C.

    2011-05-01

    Retailers who participate in the U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) identified the need to enhance communication standards. The means are available to collect massive numbers of buildings operational data, but CBEA members have difficulty transforming the data into usable information and energy-saving actions. Implementing algorithms for automated fault detection and diagnostics and linking building operational data to computerized maintenance management systems are important steps in the right direction, but have limited scalability for large building portfolios because the algorithms must be configured for each building.

  9. New elements for informed decision making: a qualitative study of older adults’ views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Kuby, Alma; Levinson, Wendy; Braddock, Clarence H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore older adults’ views of existing Informed Decision Making (IDM) elements and investigate the need for additional elements. Methods We recruited persons 65 and older to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed questionnaires about IDM preferences, and discussed videotapes of idealized patient-physician interactions in light of seven IDM elements: 1) discussion of the patient's role in decision-making; 2) discussion of the clinical issue; 3) discussion of alternatives; 4) discussion of benefits/risks; 5) discussion of uncertainties; 6) assessment of patient understanding; and 7) exploration of patient preference. We used a modified grounded theory approach to assess agreement with existing IDM elements and identify new elements. Results In questionnaires, 97–100% of 59 participants rated each IDM element as “somewhat” or “very” important. Qualitative analysis supported existing elements and suggested two more: opportunity for input from trusted others, and discussion of decisions’ impacts on patients’ daily lives. Elements overlapped with global communication themes. Conclusion Focus groups affirmed existing IDM elements and suggested two more with particular relevance for older patients. Practice implications Incorporation of additional IDM elements into clinical practice can enhance informed participation of older adults in decision-making. PMID:21757315

  10. Transforming Patient-Centered Care: Development of the Evidence Informed Decision Making through Engagement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer E; Titler, Marita G; Kane Low, Lisa; Dalton, Vanessa K; Sampselle, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    In response to the passage of the Affordable Care Act in the United States, clinicians and researchers are critically evaluating methods to engage patients in implementing evidence-based care to improve health outcomes. However, most models on implementation only target clinicians or health systems as the adopters of evidence. Patients are largely ignored in these models. A new implementation model that captures the complex but important role of patients in the uptake of evidence may be a critical missing link. Through a process of theory evaluation and development, we explore patient-centered concepts (patient activation and shared decision making) within an implementation model by mapping qualitative data from an elective induction of labor study to assess the model's ability to capture these key concepts. The process demonstrated that a new, patient-centered model for implementation is needed. In response, the Evidence Informed Decision Making through Engagement Model is presented. We conclude that, by fully integrating women into an implementation model, outcomes that are important to both the clinician and patient will improve. In the interest of providing evidence-based care to women during pregnancy and childbirth, it is essential that care is patient centered. The inclusion of concepts discussed in this article has the potential to extend beyond maternity care and influence other clinical areas. Utilizing the newly developed Evidence Informed Decision Making through Engagement Model provides a framework for utilizing evidence and translating it into practice while acknowledging the important role that women have in the process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Equilibrium Decision Method for Earthquake First-Aid Medicine Allocation Based on Demand Information Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of rescue resources after an earthquake has become a popular research topic in the field of emergency management. The allocation of first-aid medicine for earthquake rescue has stronger time sensitivity than that of general rescue materials. This study focuses on the problem of first-aid medicine allocation in earthquake response. First, we consider the incompleteness and renewal of decision information in an emergency environment, as well as the balance between the risk of decision error and delay. Second, we propose an equilibrium decision method for the allocation of first-aid medicine in earthquake rescue based on information update. This method attempts to realize a fair allocation to all disaster places and minimize total transport time loss. Third, a simulation analysis is performed in which the proposed method is applied to the first-aid medicine allocation problem in the Wenchuan earthquake response. Results show that the method can be used to create a good allocation plan in an earthquake rescue situation.

  12. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  13. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Zander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored information useless once the system stops operating. The River Basin Information System (RBIS presented here is designed to fit not only the requirements of one research project, but focuses on generic functions, extensibility and standards compliance typically found in interdisciplinary environmental research. Developed throughout more than 10 years of research cooperation worldwide, RBIS is designed to manage different types of environmental data with and without spatial context together with a rich set of metadata. Beside data management and storage, RBIS provides functions for the visualization, linking, analysis and processing of different types of data to support research, decision making, result dissemination and information discovery for all kinds of users. The focus of this paper is on the description of the technical implementation and the presentation of functions. This will be complemented by an overview of example applications and experiences during RBIS development and operation.

  14. Information overload or search-amplified risk? Set size and order effects on decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T; Noguchi, Takao; Gibbert, Michael

    2013-10-01

    How do changes in choice-set size influence information search and subsequent decisions? Moreover, does information overload influence information processing with larger choice sets? We investigated these questions by letting people freely explore sets of gambles before choosing one of them, with the choice sets either increasing or decreasing in number for each participant (from two to 32 gambles). Set size influenced information search, with participants taking more samples overall, but sampling a smaller proportion of gambles and taking fewer samples per gamble, when set sizes were larger. The order of choice sets also influenced search, with participants sampling from more gambles and taking more samples overall if they started with smaller as opposed to larger choice sets. Inconsistent with information overload, information processing appeared consistent across set sizes and choice order conditions, reliably favoring gambles with higher sample means. Despite the lack of evidence for information overload, changes in information search did lead to systematic changes in choice: People who started with smaller choice sets were more likely to choose gambles with the highest expected values, but only for small set sizes. For large set sizes, the increase in total samples increased the likelihood of encountering rare events at the same time that the reduction in samples per gamble amplified the effect of these rare events when they occurred-what we call search-amplified risk. This led to riskier choices for individuals whose choices most closely followed the sample mean.

  15. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  16. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  17. Factors Associated with Informed Decisions and Participation in Bowel Cancer Screening among Adults with Lower Education and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sian K; Simpson, Judy M; Trevena, Lyndal J; McCaffery, Kirsten J

    2014-08-01

    Making informed decisions about cancer screening involves understanding the benefits and harms in conjunction with personal values. There is little research examining factors associated with informed decision making or participation in screening in the context of a decision aid trial. To identify factors associated with informed choice and participation in fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) among lower education populations. Randomized controlled trial of an FOBT decision aid conducted between July and November 2008. Socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Included 572 adults aged 55 to 64 years with lower education. Sociodemographic variables, perceived health literacy, and involvement preferences in decision making were examined to identify predictors of informed choice (knowledge, attitudes, and behavior). Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of making an informed choice as having higher education (relative risk [RR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.95; P = 0.001), receiving the decision aid (RR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.87-4.44; P education had greater difficulties making an informed choice about participation in bowel screening. Alternative methods are needed to support informed decision making among lower education populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Data policy and availability supporting global change research, development, and decision-making: An information perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bonnie C.; Jack, Robert F.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    An explosion of information has created a crisis for today's information age. It has to be determined how to use the best available information sources, tools, and technology. To do this it is necessary to have leadership at the interagency level to promote a coherent information policy. It is also important to find ways to educate the users of information regarding the tools available to them. Advances in technology resulted in efforts to shift from Disciplinary and Mission-oriented Systems to Decision Support Systems and Personalized Information Systems. One such effort is being made by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IAWGDMGC). Five federal agencies - the Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and Department of Defense (DOD) - have an on-going cooperative information management group, CENDI (Commerce, Energy, NASA, NLM, and Defense Information), that is meeting the challenge of coordinating and integrating their information management systems. Although it is beginning to be technically feasible to have a system with text, bibliographic, and numeric data online for the user to manipulate at the user's own workstation, it will require national recognition that the resource investment in such a system is worthwhile, in order to promote its full development. It also requires close cooperation between the producers and users of the information - that is, the research and policy community, and the information community. National resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move people into the next generation of information support systems.

  19. "Do your homework…and then hope for the best": the challenges that medical tourism poses to Canadian family physicians' support of patients' informed decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-09-22

    Medical tourism-the practice where patients travel internationally to privately access medical care-may limit patients' regular physicians' abilities to contribute to the informed decision-making process. We address this issue by examining ways in which Canadian family doctors' typical involvement in patients' informed decision-making is challenged when their patients engage in medical tourism. Focus groups were held with family physicians practicing in British Columbia, Canada. After receiving ethics approval, letters of invitation were faxed to family physicians in six cities. 22 physicians agreed to participate and focus groups ranged from two to six participants. Questions explored participants' perceptions of and experiences with medical tourism. A coding scheme was created using inductive and deductive codes that captured issues central to analytic themes identified by the investigators. Extracts of the coded data that dealt with informed decision-making were shared among the investigators in order to identify themes. Four themes were identified, all of which dealt with the challenges that medical tourism poses to family physicians' abilities to support medical tourists' informed decision-making. Findings relevant to each theme were contrasted against the existing medical tourism literature so as to assist in understanding their significance. Four key challenges were identified: 1) confusion and tensions related to the regular domestic physician's role in decision-making; 2) tendency to shift responsibility related to healthcare outcomes onto the patient because of the regular domestic physician's reduced role in shared decision-making; 3) strains on the patient-physician relationship and corresponding concern around the responsibility of the foreign physician; and 4) regular domestic physicians' concerns that treatments sought abroad may not be based on the best available medical evidence on treatment efficacy. Medical tourism is creating new challenges for

  20. Research-informed Outreach informs Research: Using games to inform and understand farmer decisions in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Yeung, K.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers from the Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptation to Precipitation Trends in Sri Lanka (ADAPT-SL) team have been working for the past six years to understand Sri Lanka's agricultural vulnerability to climate change and how farmers and policy makers can adapt to and mitigate the variety of threats and uncertainties that climate change brings. In addition to academic publications, the compiled and developed knowledge from the ADAPT-SL research efforts are shared routinely with Sri Lankan stakeholders directly. While presentations are the norm for academic and government stakeholder outreach, we decided that an interactive component would increase farmers' learning. Drawing on teaching pedagogies, we designed a place-based, hands-on game that incorporated local climate and market characteristics to convey the impact of climate change on crop water needs for the Sri Lanka farmers. The process of developing the game, however, revealed gaps in our research knowledge, specifically regarding how farmers balance uncertainties associated with weather and market conditions. So we took advantage of the opportunity offered by the outreach effort to collect data; findings from the game led to the development of a system dynamics model. The game was well received by farmers and other Sri Lankan stakeholders in January 2016, with the former expressing that they played the game as if it was emulating actual farming decisions. The farmers also expressed a desire for more outreach efforts to be designed in such an interactive way. The game has since been used to engage U.S. students (from 5th grade to college seniors majoring in Sociology) regarding the complexities of tackling climate change issues.

  1. Design and Implementation of Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datunaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFSDMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO’s area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic de cision as fast as possible.

  2. Should the model for risk-informed regulation be game theory rather than decision theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Vicki M; Lin, Shi-Woei

    2013-02-01

    Risk analysts frequently view the regulation of risks as being largely a matter of decision theory. According to this view, risk analysis methods provide information on the likelihood and severity of various possible outcomes; this information should then be assessed using a decision-theoretic approach (such as cost/benefit analysis) to determine whether the risks are acceptable, and whether additional regulation is warranted. However, this view ignores the fact that in many industries (particularly industries that are technologically sophisticated and employ specialized risk and safety experts), risk analyses may be done by regulated firms, not by the regulator. Moreover, those firms may have more knowledge about the levels of safety at their own facilities than the regulator does. This creates a situation in which the regulated firm has both the opportunity-and often also the motive-to provide inaccurate (in particular, favorably biased) risk information to the regulator, and hence the regulator has reason to doubt the accuracy of the risk information provided by regulated parties. Researchers have argued that decision theory is capable of dealing with many such strategic interactions as well as game theory can. This is especially true in two-player, two-stage games in which the follower has a unique best strategy in response to the leader's strategy, as appears to be the case in the situation analyzed in this article. However, even in such cases, we agree with Cox that game-theoretic methods and concepts can still be useful. In particular, the tools of mechanism design, and especially the revelation principle, can simplify the analysis of such games because the revelation principle provides rigorous assurance that it is sufficient to analyze only games in which licensees truthfully report their risk levels, making the problem more manageable. Without that, it would generally be necessary to consider much more complicated forms of strategic behavior (including

  3. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  4. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery D; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design) Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for assisting health consumers to find reliable online health information, and to assess outcomes via objective measures.

  5. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. PURPOSE: To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. STUDY SELECTION: Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. DATA EXTRACTION: Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. LIMITATIONS: While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for

  6. A proposed clinical decision support architecture capable of supporting whole genome sequence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M; Loya, Salvador Rodriguez; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-04-04

    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information may soon be widely available to help clinicians personalize the care and treatment of patients. However, considerable barriers exist, which may hinder the effective utilization of WGS information in a routine clinical care setting. Clinical decision support (CDS) offers a potential solution to overcome such barriers and to facilitate the effective use of WGS information in the clinic. However, genomic information is complex and will require significant considerations when developing CDS capabilities. As such, this manuscript lays out a conceptual framework for a CDS architecture designed to deliver WGS-guided CDS within the clinical workflow. To handle the complexity and breadth of WGS information, the proposed CDS framework leverages service-oriented capabilities and orchestrates the interaction of several independently-managed components. These independently-managed components include the genome variant knowledge base, the genome database, the CDS knowledge base, a CDS controller and the electronic health record (EHR). A key design feature is that genome data can be stored separately from the EHR. This paper describes in detail: (1) each component of the architecture; (2) the interaction of the components; and (3) how the architecture attempts to overcome the challenges associated with WGS information. We believe that service-oriented CDS capabilities will be essential to using WGS information for personalized medicine.

  7. [The added value of information summaries supporting clinical decisions at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzi, Rita; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Kwag, Koren Hyogene; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Evidence-based healthcare requires the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patients' values. International publishers are developing evidence-based information services and resources designed to overcome the difficulties in retrieving, assessing and updating medical information as well as to facilitate a rapid access to valid clinical knowledge. Point-of-care information summaries are defined as web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. Their validity must be assessed against marketing claims that they are evidence-based. We periodically evaluate the content development processes of several international point-of-care information summaries. The number of these products has increased along with their quality. The last analysis done in 2014 identified 26 products and found that three of them (Best Practice, Dynamed e Uptodate) scored the highest across all evaluated dimensions (volume, quality of the editorial process and evidence-based methodology). Point-of-care information summaries as stand-alone products or integrated with other systems, are gaining ground to support clinical decisions. The choice of one product over another depends both on the properties of the service and the preference of users. However, even the most innovative information system must rely on transparent and valid contents. Individuals and institutions should regularly assess the value of point-of-care summaries as their quality changes rapidly over time.

  8. Effect of a multimedia-assisted informed consent procedure on the information gain, satisfaction, and anxiety of cataract surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipotsch-Maca, Saskia M; Varsits, Ralph M; Ginzel, Christian; Vecsei-Marlovits, Pia V

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether a multimedia-assisted preoperative informed consent procedure has an effect on patients' knowledge concerning cataract surgery, satisfaction with the informed consent process, and reduction in anxiety levels. Hietzing Hospital, Vienna, Austria. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients participated in an informed consent procedure for age-related cataract surgery that included the standard approach only (reading the information brochure and having a standardized face-to-face discussion) or supplemented with a computer-animated video. The main outcome was information retention assessed by a questionnaire. Further outcome measures used were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Visual Function-14 score, and an assessment of satisfaction. The study included 123 patients (64 in standard-only group; 59 in computer-animated video group). Both groups scored well on the questionnaire; however, patients who watched the video performed better (82% retention versus 72%) (P = .002). Scores tended to decrease with increasing age (r = -0.25, P = .005); however, this decrease was smaller in the group that watched the video. Both groups had elevated anxiety levels (means in video group: anxiety concerning the current situation [S-anxiety] = 63.8 ± 9.6 [SD], general tendency toward anxiety [T-anxiety] = 65.5 ± 7.9; means in control group: S-anxiety = 61.9 ± 10.3, T-anxiety = 66.2 ± 7.8). A high level of information retention was achieved using an informed consent procedure consisting of an information brochure and a standardized face-to-face discussion. A further increase in information retention was achieved, even with increasing patient age, by adding a multimedia presentation. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Informed decision-making about prenatal cfDNA screening: An assessment of written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Marsha; Kraft, Stephanie A; Minear, Mollie A; Ryan, Roberta R; Allyse, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of prenatal cfDNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and other genetic conditions has exacerbated concerns about informed decision-making in clinical prenatal testing. To assess the information provided to patients to facilitate decisions about cfDNA screening, we collected written patient education and consent documents created by laboratories and clinics. Informed consent documents (IC) were coded by two independent coders. Each IC was assessed for readability, attention to elements of informed consent, and completeness of information about the test and the screened conditions. We found variance between IC produced by commercial laboratories versus those provided by local clinics or health care systems, and considerable variance among materials from all sources. "Commercial" IC were longer and written at a more difficult reading level than "non-commercial" IC, and were less likely to state explicitly that cfDNA only screens for certain conditions. About one-third of IC were combined with laboratory order forms. Though most IC recommended confirmatory testing for positive results, only about half clearly stated that results could be incorrect-including mentions of false positives or false negatives. About one-third of IC explicitly stated that cfDNA screening was optional. While nearly all IC from any source listed the conditions screened by the test, only about half of the IC included any phenotypic descriptions of these conditions. Few IC mentioned psychosocial considerations, and only one IC mentioned the availability of support groups for families of children with genetic conditions. Based on our findings, we recommend that written and well-informed consent be sought before performing cfDNA screening, and we offer minimal and recommended standards for patient education and consent materials.

  10. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  11. Neural mechanisms of selective exposure: an EEG study on the processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Reinweber, Matthias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne; Volberg, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers tend to prefer decision-consistent information and/or neglect decision-inconsistent information (selective exposure). In the present EEG study the neural mechanisms of the classic selective exposure effect were examined by investigating oscillatory brain responses to consistent vs. inconsistent information. Twenty participants made an economic decision and subsequently were exposed to 45 consistent and 45 inconsistent images concerning their decision. EEG was recorded from 31 electrodes and differences between oscillatory brain responses towards consistent and inconsistent information were examined. The main result was an increase of induced theta power (5-8Hz, 0-0.7s) in the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition at right temporo-parietal electrodes, as well as a corresponding increase of evoked theta power at frontal electrodes. Since theta oscillations are often observed during memory formation, we conclude that decision-consistent information triggers memory formation, whereas decision-inconsistent information seems not to do so. This finding supports the classic motivational perspective of Leon Festinger on the selective exposure effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for assisting dialysis decision-making in Spanish ACKD units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llana, Helena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Barbero, Javier; Selgas, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare professionals currently working in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (ACKD) units must cope with difficult situations regarding assisting patients with the dialysis decision-making process, and they are often untrained for these conversations. Although we have evidence from the literature that these skills can be learned, few professionals feel confident in this area. A Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for ACKD staff (physicians, nurses and allied health professionals) was developed to improve their ability and self-confidence in conducting these conversations. A four-stage study was conducted: (1) development of the CoBiT program, beginning with the creation of an interdisciplinary focus group (N = 10); (2) design of a questionnaire to assess self-confidence based on the areas identified by the focus group. The face validity of the instrument was tested using an inter-judge methodology (N = 6); (3) design of the format and contents of the program; (4) piloting the program. Thirty-six health professionals took an 8-h workshop based on role-playing methodology. Participants assessed their self-confidence in their communication skills before and after the program using self-report measures. The results show that after the program, participants reported significantly higher levels of self-confidence measured with a five-point Likert scale (p CoBiT program improves ACKD Unit healthcare professionals' self-confidence in their ability to perform a specific communication task.

  13. Measurements of Rationality: Individual Differences in Information Processing, the Transitivity of Preferences and Decision Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Sleboda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to validate the Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT through checking their relation to the transitivity axiom. The second goal was to test the relation between decision strategies and cognitive style as well as the relation between decision strategies and the transitivity of preferences. The following characteristics of strategies were investigated: requirements for trade-offs, maximization vs. satisficing and option-wise vs. attribute-wise information processing. Respondents were given choices between two multi-attribute options. The options were designed so that the choice indicated which strategy was applied. Both the REI-R and the CRT were found to be good predictors of the transitivity of preferences. Respondents who applied compensatory strategies and the maximization criterion scored highly on the REI-R and in the CRT, whereas those who applied the satisficing rule scored highly on the REI-R but not in the CRT. Attribute-wise information processing was related to low scores in both measurements. Option-wise information processing led to a high transitivity of preferences.

  14. The Switching Decision: Are Members of Superannuation Funds Rational and Informed Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Delpachitra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent Cooper Review (Cooper 2010 attempted to address governance, structure, efficiency and operational problems by recommending changes without pinpointing the root causes and systematic design flaws of the Australian Superannuation System. Despite overwhelming evidence that members’ disengagement was a root cause of the problems, little attention was paid to the motivation and background of members to facilitate participation and decision-making. For instance, a very small percentage of members take their role in the superannuation industry seriously. This is evidenced by the fact that a very small percentage of members (2.5% in 2007 actively changed superannuation fund and most new fund members ‘defaulted’ into employer-selected funds (Bateman 2009. This may be that they are serious but lack the ability or time to monitor investments in a way required by a sophisticated system. This paper explores the drivers of switching superannuation funds of those working-age Australians. It also analyses the presentation of fund information to the sample population to examine how members use information in their superannuation decisions. This may add insight to the ways fund information is made available and also to the types of members who may need more protection, support or education.

  15. [Do media reports and public brochures facilitate informed decision making about cervical cancer prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer-Gromen, A; Bodemer, N; Müller, S M; Gigerenzer, G

    2011-11-01

    With the introduction and recommendation of the new HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination in 2007, cervical cancer prevention has evoked large public interest. Is the public able to make informed decisions on the basis of media reports and brochures? To answer this question, an analysis of media coverage of HPV vaccination (Gardasil®) and Pap (Papanicolaou) screening was conducted from 2007-2009, which investigated the minimum requirement of completeness (pros and cons), transparency (absolute numbers), and correctness (references concerning outcome, uncertainty, magnitude) of the information. As a bench mark, facts boxes with concise data on epidemiology, etiology, benefits, harms, and costs were compiled in advance. Although all vaccination reports and brochures covered the impact of prevention, only 41% provided concrete numbers on effectiveness (90/220) and 2% on absolute risk reductions for the cancer surrogate dysplasia (5/220), whereby none of the latter numbers was correct. The prevention potential was correctly presented once. Only 48% (105/220) mentioned pros and cons. With regard to screening, 20% (4/20) provided explicit data on test quality and one expressed these in absolute numbers, while 25% (5/20) reported the prevention potential; all given numbers were correct. Finally, 25% (5/20) mentioned the possibility of false positive results. Minimum requirements were fulfilled by 1/220 vaccination and 1/20 screening reports. At present, informed decision making based on media coverage is hardly possible.

  16. Measuring informed decision making about prostate cancer screening in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Amy; Daskalakis, Constantine; Braddock, Clarence H; Kunkel, Elisabeth J S; Cocroft, James R; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Riggio, Jeffrey M; Capkin, Mark; Myers, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    To measure the extent of informed decision making (IDM) about prostate cancer screening in physician-patient encounters, describe the coding process, and assess the reliability of the IDM measure. Audiorecoded encounters of 146 older adult men and their primary care physicians were obtained in a randomized controlled trial of mediated decision support related to prostate cancer screening. Each encounter was dual coded for the presence or absence of 9 elements that reflect several important dimensions of IDM, such as information sharing, patient empowerment, and engaging patients in preference clarification. An IDM-9 score (range = 0-9) was determined for each encounter by summing the number of elements that were coded as present. Estimates of coding reliability and internal consistency were calculated. Male patients tended to be white (59%), married (70%), and between the ages of 50 and 59 (70%). Physicians tended to be white (90%), male (74%), and have more than 10 years of practice experience (74%). IDM-9 scores ranged from 0 to 7.5 (mean [SD], 2.7 [2.1]). Reliability (0.90) and internal consistency (0.81) of the IDM-9 were both high. The IDM dimension observed most frequently was information sharing (74%), whereas the dimension least frequently observed was engagement in preference clarification (3.4%). In physician-patient encounters, the level of IDM concerning prostate cancer screening was low. The use of a dual-coding approach with audiorecorded encounters produced a measure of IDM that was reliable and internally consistent.

  17. Prospect of Future as a Support to Search for Information for Business Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Daishiro Yoshida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of future studies methodologies to provide information for decision making has been studied in this research. The objectives of the research are to identify the association of methods to different information categories, the importance of future studies, the frequency of use, the time horizon and users perceived satisfaction with the results. The research is implemented through a mixed-methods methodology, with a survey and case studies. Combined results have been analyzed in a complementary approach. Results fromthe sample indicate that there is an association of methods with information categories. Evaluation of the importance of future studies is high and depends on the decision type to be strategic or tactical,it also influences the frequency of use. Time horizon is associated to methods. The most used methods are the ones with high personal interaction, on the other hand, objective methods, e.g. mathematical techniques, are not among the most used. In the case studies results, methods based on judgment and opinion with high personal interaction are the most used. There were concerns about the need for more structure to deal with future studies in the company and also about its practice in accordance with methodological recommendations.

  18. The impact of architectural decisions on quality attributes of enterprise information systems: a survey of the design space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; ir. Krukkert, D.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2004-01-01

    Design of enterprise information systems is a problem-solving activity. A system architect, designer and programmer make numerous decisions about the structure and behaviour of the system on various levels. These decisions define the quality of the system under design (SuD) in all its aspects. An

  19. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  20. The Impact of Geographic Information Systems on Emergency Management Decision Making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven Gray

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not…

  1. THE ACCOUNTING INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM, ESTABLISHED WITHIN THE STATE TREASURY, AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT IN SUBSTANTIATING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicoleta GUNI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The exercise of the management functions and relationships at the level of the organizations is achieved through the leadership system (or management. The management system of the group represents the assembly of elements of a decision making nature, organizational, informational, motivational, etc. through which it is ensured a greater effectiveness and a maximum efficiency. In the design and implementation of the management system there must be taken into account the specific elements of each entity, particularly the profile, size and structure of the human resources, material and financial, the position of the entity in the national and international economic context, etc.

  2. Transportation Big Data: Unbiased Analysis and Tools to Inform Sustainable Transportation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Today, transportation operation and energy systems data are generated at an unprecedented scale. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the go-to source for expertise in providing data and analysis to inform industry and government transportation decision making. The lab's teams of data experts and engineers are mining and analyzing large sets of complex data -- or 'big data' -- to develop solutions that support the research, development, and deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Decision-making capacity and informed consent to participate in research by cognitively impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cherie

    2010-11-01

    Obtaining informed consent is a fundamental part of conducting research that balances the need for participant autonomy and calls on the principal investigator to exercise beneficence. This is especially true in research involving persons with dementia and mild cognitive impairment where the ability to understand and reason may be compromised. Performing an assessment of decision-making capacity to consent to research should be the first step in helping the researcher decide who signs the consent. This article reviews the current literature available on instrumentation and procedures for capacity assessment, and in the absence of universal guidelines offers implications and suggestions for practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Values clarification in a decision aid about fertility preservation: does it add to information provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvelink, Mirjam M; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Stiggelbout, Anne M; de Vries, Marieke

    2014-08-09

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of a decision aid (DA) with information only compared to a DA with values clarification exercise (VCE), and to study the role of personality and information seeking style in DA-use, decisional conflict (DC) and knowledge. Two scenario-based experiments were conducted with two different groups of healthy female participants. Dependent measures were: DC, knowledge, and DA-use (time spent, pages viewed, VCE used). Respondents were randomized between a DA with information only (VCE-) and a DA with information plus a VCE(VCE+) (experiment 1), or between information only (VCE-), information plus VCE without referral to VCE(VCE+), and information plus a VCE with specific referral to the VCE, requesting participants to use the VCE(VCE++) (experiment 2). In experiment 2 we additionally measured personality (neuroticism/conscientiousness) and information seeking style (monitoring/blunting). Experiment 1. There were no differences in DC, knowledge or DA-use between VCE- (n=70) and VCE+ (n=70). Both DAs lead to a mean gain in knowledge from 39% at baseline to 73% after viewing the DA. Within VCE+, VCE-users (n=32, 46%) reported less DC compared to non-users. Since there was no difference in DC between VCE- and VCE+, this is likely an effect of VCE-use in a self-selected group, and not of the VCE per se. Experiment 2. There were no differences in DC or knowledge between VCE- (n=65), VCE+ (n=66), VCE++ (n=66). In all groups, knowledge increased on average from 42% at baseline to 72% after viewing the DA. Blunters viewed fewer DA-pages (R=0.38, pknowledge after viewing the DA (R=0.15, pknowledge in healthy populations making hypothetical decisions, and use of the VCE did not improve knowledge or DC. Personality characteristics were associated to some extent with DA-use, information seeking styles with aspects of DC. More research is needed to make clear recommendations regarding the need for tailoring of information provision to personality

  5. Risk-informed decision-making in the presence of epistemic uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Didier; Guyonnet, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    An important issue in risk analysis is the distinction between epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. In this paper, the use of distinct representation formats for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties is advocated, the latter being modelled by sets of possible values. Modern uncertainty theories based on convex sets of probabilities are known to be instrumental for hybrid representations where aleatory and epistemic components of uncertainty remain distinct. Simple uncertainty representation techniques based on fuzzy intervals and p-boxes are used in practice. This paper outlines a risk analysis methodology from elicitation of knowledge about parameters to decision. It proposes an elicitation methodology where the chosen representation format depends on the nature and the amount of available information. Uncertainty propagation methods then blend Monte Carlo simulation and interval analysis techniques. Nevertheless, results provided by these techniques, often in terms of probability intervals, may be too complex to interpret for a decision-maker and we, therefore, propose to compute a unique indicator of the likelihood of risk, called confidence index. It explicitly accounts for the decision-maker's attitude in the face of ambiguity. This step takes place at the end of the risk analysis process, when no further collection of evidence is possible that might reduce the ambiguity due to epistemic uncertainty. This last feature stands in contrast with the Bayesian methodology, where epistemic uncertainties on input parameters are modelled by single subjective probabilities at the beginning of the risk analysis process.

  6. How Uncertain Information on Service Capacity Influences the Intermodal Routing Decision: A Fuzzy Programming Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity uncertainty is a common issue in the transportation planning field. However, few studies discuss the intermodal routing problem with service capacity uncertainty. Based on our previous study on the intermodal routing under deterministic capacity consideration, we systematically explore how service capacity uncertainty influences the intermodal routing decision. First of all, we adopt trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to describe the uncertain information of the service capacity, and further transform the deterministic capacity constraint into a fuzzy chance constraint based on fuzzy credibility measure. We then integrate such fuzzy chance constraint into the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model proposed in our previous study to develop a fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. To enable the improved model to be effectively programmed in the standard mathematical programming software and solved by exact solution algorithms, a crisp equivalent linear reformulation of the fuzzy chance constraint is generated. Finally, we modify the empirical case presented in our previous study by replacing the deterministic service capacities with trapezoidal fuzzy ones. Using the modified empirical case, we utilize sensitivity analysis and fuzzy simulation to analyze the influence of service capacity uncertainty on the intermodal routing decision, and summarize some interesting insights that are helpful for decision makers.

  7. Towards the Significance of Decision Aid in Building Information Modeling (BIM Software Selection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM has been considered as a solution in construction industry to numerous problems such as delays, increased lead in times and increased costs. This is due to the concept and characteristic of BIM that will reshaped the way construction project teams work together to increase productivity and improve the final project outcomes (cost, time, quality, safety, functionality, maintainability, etc.. As a result, the construction industry has witnesses numerous of BIM software available in market. Each of this software has offers different function, features. Furthermore, the adoption of BIM required high investment on software, hardware and also training expenses. Thus, there is indentified that there is a need of decision aid for appropriated BIM software selection that fulfill the project needs. However, research indicates that there is limited study attempt to guide decision in BIM software selection problem. Thus, this paper highlight the importance of decision making and support for BIM software selection as it is vital to increase productivity, construction project throughout building lifecycle.

  8. Decision Trees for Continuous Data and Conditional Mutual Information as a Criterion for Splitting Instances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis, Georgios; Moledina, Saadiq; Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Sarimveis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Decision trees are renowned in the computational chemistry and machine learning communities for their interpretability. Their capacity and usage are somewhat limited by the fact that they normally work on categorical data. Improvements to known decision tree algorithms are usually carried out by increasing and tweaking parameters, as well as the post-processing of the class assignment. In this work we attempted to tackle both these issues. Firstly, conditional mutual information was used as the criterion for selecting the attribute on which to split instances. The algorithm performance was compared with the results of C4.5 (WEKA's J48) using default parameters and no restrictions. Two datasets were used for this purpose, DrugBank compounds for HRH1 binding prediction and Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation predicted bioactivities for therapeutic class annotation. Secondly, an automated binning method for continuous data was evaluated, namely Scott's normal reference rule, in order to allow any decision tree to easily handle continuous data. This was applied to all approved drugs in DrugBank for predicting the RDKit SLogP property, using the remaining RDKit physicochemical attributes as input.

  9. Contributions to risk informed decision-making. Operational risk analysis in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeed, Willy

    2006-08-15

    This thesis addresses the use of risk analyses to support decision-making, to find the balance between different concerns, such as for example safety of personnel and operational costs, i.e. economic values. The focus is on the offshore oil and gas industry, but many of the discussions and conclusions are general and could also be applied to other industries. The thesis applies an understanding of risk being the combination of the two basic dimensions (a) possible consequences (outcomes) and (b) associated uncertainties. This risk concept is general, and risk analyses can be used to provide decision-making support to all kinds of decision problems. However, our main focus is on risk analyses in the operational phase, so-called operational risk analyses, and in particular evaluation of safety barrier performance, for the protection of personnel, environment and assets. Hence, the main focus in this thesis is upon risks in terms of hazardous events. The challenges in the operational phase differ from the planning phase, and many risk analyses carried out today do not reflect installation-specific information obtained in the operational phase to the extent that is wanted. There is a need for more suitable risk analysis tools, and the thesis gives some contributions to development of such tools

  10. Data collection and information presentation for optimal decision making by clinical managers--the Autocontrol Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A M; Richard, Y; Deland, E; Després, N; de Lorenzi, F; Dagenais, A; Buteau, M

    1997-01-01

    The Autocontrol methodology has been developed in order to support the optimisation of decision-making and the use of resources in the context of a clinical unit. The theoretical basis relates to quality assurance and information systems and is influenced by management and cognitive research in the health domain. The methodology uses population rather than individual decision making and because of its dynamic feedback design promises to have rapid and profound effect on practice. Most importantly the health care professional is the principle user of the Autocontrol system. In this methodology we distinguish three types of evidence necessary for practice change: practice based or internal evidence, best evidence derived from the literature or external evidence concerning the practice in question, and process based evidence on how to optimise the process of practice change. The software used by the system is of the executive decision support type which facilitates interrogation of large databases. The Autocontrol system is designed to interrogate the data of the patient medical record however the latter often lacks data on concomitant resource use and this must be supplemented. This paper reviews the Autocontrol methodology and gives examples from current studies.

  11. Clinical genomics information management software linking cancer genome sequence and clinical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Stuart; Jiao, Wei; Brown, Andrew M K; Petrocelli, Teresa; Tran, Ben; Zhang, Tong; McPherson, John D; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Bedard, Philippe L; Onetto, Nicole; Hudson, Thomas J; Dancey, Janet; Siu, Lillian L; Stein, Lincoln; Ferretti, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Using sequencing information to guide clinical decision-making requires coordination of a diverse set of people and activities. In clinical genomics, the process typically includes sample acquisition, template preparation, genome data generation, analysis to identify and confirm variant alleles, interpretation of clinical significance, and reporting to clinicians. We describe a software application developed within a clinical genomics study, to support this entire process. The software application tracks patients, samples, genomic results, decisions and reports across the cohort, monitors progress and sends reminders, and works alongside an electronic data capture system for the trial's clinical and genomic data. It incorporates systems to read, store, analyze and consolidate sequencing results from multiple technologies, and provides a curated knowledge base of tumor mutation frequency (from the COSMIC database) annotated with clinical significance and drug sensitivity to generate reports for clinicians. By supporting the entire process, the application provides deep support for clinical decision making, enabling the generation of relevant guidance in reports for verification by an expert panel prior to forwarding to the treating physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concerns and hopes about outsourcing decisions regarding health information management services at two teaching hospitals in Semnan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Farrokhi, Maryam; Abadi, Zahra Nasr; Karimi, Arefe

    2016-04-01

    Changes in health programs in Iran have led to an increase in administrative costs. One cost-saving option available to hospital administrators is to outsource administrative services. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of hospital staff towards outsourcing health information management services in advance of a decision being taken, to assist healthcare organisations to assess the potential benefits and challenges of outsourcing such services. Six hundred and four clinical and allied health employees in two hospitals in Iran, who had had prior experience with outsourcing hospital services, responded to a survey designed to measure staff attitudes towards outsourcing health information management services, based on their perceptions of potential costs and benefits for the organisation and their own employment prospects. A 16-item attitude scale, developed by the researchers, was used in the study and demographic data were also collected. Summary statistics showed that approximately one third of the sample (34.53%) had a negative view of outsourcing, one third (35.16%) had a positive view, and 30.31% were neutral. An exploratory factor analysis of items on the attitude scale identified three underlying constructs, labelled: data security and management; workplace environment; and staff and customer satisfaction. One item (concern about the impact of outsourcing on staffing levels) did not load on any of the factors. A separate analysis of this single item showed a significant relationship between the sex of participants and their views on the impact of outsourcing on the number of hospital staff employed (pinformation management services would be positive for the organisation, their working environment or for staff and patient satisfaction. These findings have important implications for healthcare organisations planning to outsource health information services. Further research that focuses on communication skills of senior managers and their ability to

  13. Impact of informed consent on patient decisions regarding third molar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göcmen, G; Atalı, O; Gonul, O; Goker, K

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether the order in which patients learned about complication risks affected their anxiety about and willingness to undergo the removal of their third molar. In total, 171 patients (65 males, 106 females) were included in the study. The distributions of gender and the position of mandibular third molars were recorded. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate anxiety. Associations of anxiety with timing (pre/post), gender, and the order in which the information was presented in the consent form were analyzed. The most common angulations were horizontal (26.3%) and mesioangular (60.2%), and these were more common in women. All patients obtained significantly higher anxiety scores after reading the consent form. There was no significant difference in anxiety scores, according to the order of information. In total, 88 patients underwent surgery, whereas 83 postponed the extraction after reading the consent form. Women were significantly more anxious than men before the procedure. Patients showed lower anxiety levels after the procedure (P anxiety was not associated with the order in which information was presented in the informed consent form. However, the informed consent form itself was a major contributor to increased patient anxiety. Further studies regarding the contents of consent forms and their effects on patient anxiety and decisions regarding third molar removal are needed.

  14. Dynamic integration of reward and stimulus information in perceptual decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gao

    Full Text Available In perceptual decision-making, ideal decision-makers should bias their choices toward alternatives associated with larger rewards, and the extent of the bias should decrease as stimulus sensitivity increases. When responses must be made at different times after stimulus onset, stimulus sensitivity grows with time from zero to a final asymptotic level. Are decision makers able to produce responses that are more biased if they are made soon after stimulus onset, but less biased if they are made after more evidence has been accumulated? If so, how close to optimal can they come in doing this, and how might their performance be achieved mechanistically? We report an experiment in which the payoff for each alternative is indicated before stimulus onset. Processing time is controlled by a "go" cue occurring at different times post stimulus onset, requiring a response within msec. Reward bias does start high when processing time is short and decreases as sensitivity increases, leveling off at a non-zero value. However, the degree of bias is sub-optimal for shorter processing times. We present a mechanistic account of participants' performance within the framework of the leaky competing accumulator model [1], in which accumulators for each alternative accumulate noisy information subject to leakage and mutual inhibition. The leveling off of accuracy is attributed to mutual inhibition between the accumulators, allowing the accumulator that gathers the most evidence early in a trial to suppress the alternative. Three ways reward might affect decision making in this framework are considered. One of the three, in which reward affects the starting point of the evidence accumulation process, is consistent with the qualitative pattern of the observed reward bias effect, while the other two are not. Incorporating this assumption into the leaky competing accumulator model, we are able to provide close quantitative fits to individual participant data.

  15. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  16. “The problem often is that we do not have a family spokesperson but a spokesgroup”: Family Member Informal Roles in End-of-Life Decision-Making in Adult ICUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jill R.; Schmitt, Madeline; Baggs, Judith Gedney; Norton, Sally A.; Dombeck, Mary T.; Sellers, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Background To support the process of effective family decision-making, it is important to recognize and understand informal roles various family members may play in the end-of-life decision-making process. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe some informal roles consistently enacted by family members involved in the process of end-of-life decision-making in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Ethnographic study. Data were collected via participant observation with field notes and semi-structured interviews on four ICUs in an academic health center in the mid-Atlantic United States from 2001 to 2004. The units studied were a medical ICU, a surgical ICU, a burn and trauma ICU, and a cardiovascular ICU. Participants Participants included health care clinicians, patients, and family members. Results Informal roles for family members consistently observed were:, Primary Caregiver, Primary Decision Maker, Family Spokesperson, Out-of-Towner, Patient Wishes Expert, Protector, Vulnerable Member, and Health Care Expert. The identified informal roles were part of family decision making processes, and each role was part of a potentially complicated family dynamic for end-of-life decision-making within the family system, and between the family and health care domains. Conclusions These informal roles reflect the diverse responses to demands for family decision making in what is usually a novel and stressful situation. Identification and description of these family member informal roles can assist clinicians to recognize and understand the functions of these roles in family decision making at the end-of-life, and guide development of strategies to support and facilitate increased effectiveness of family discussions and decision-making processes. PMID:22210699

  17. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobek Jr., A.; Zbořilová, B.; Procházka, M.; Šilhánová, E.; Koutná, O.; Klásková, E.; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2015), s. 756-760 ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monozygotic twins * genetics * assisted reproduction techniques * infertility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.426, year: 2015

  18. In the Clouds: The Implications of Cloud Computing for Higher Education Information Technology Governance and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaney, Malik H.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies challenge the management of information technology in organizations. Paradigm changing technologies, such as cloud computing, have the ability to reverse the norms in organizational management, decision making, and information technology governance. This study explores the effects of cloud computing on information technology…

  19. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  20. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.