Sample records for assisting informed decision

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making. (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas


    Objectif : La réglementation et le financement public des techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) varient d’une province canadienne à l’autre. En Alberta, les TPA ne sont ni réglementées ni financées par les deniers publics. Nous avons mené cette étude dans le but d’évaluer la rentabilité de l’offre de TPA en Alberta et les effets d’une telle mesure sur le budget albertain en fonction de trois scénarios de politique différents (une politique « restrictive », une politique fondée sur le modèle québécois et une politique « permissive »), par comparaison avec le statu quo. Méthodes : Pour prédire la rentabilité de ces trois options de politique (prévoyant l’offre de TPA financées par les deniers publics en Alberta) et leurs effets sur le budget provincial, nous avons élaboré un modèle économique en combinant un modèle Markov (transitions d’état) et un arbre décisionnel. Le coût par nouveau-né en santé issu d’une grossesse monofœtale constituait le critère d’évaluation principal. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité et des analyses probabilistes ont été menées. Résultats : La politique « restrictive » a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans deux sous-groupes d’âge (< 35 ans et 35-39 ans), tandis que la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans. L’analyse des effets sur le budget (jusqu’à ce que les enfants générés par le modèle ait atteint l’âge de 18 ans) a indiqué l’obtention d’économies de 8,33 millions de dollars pour ce qui est de la politique « restrictive » dans le sous-groupe des < 35 ans. Dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans, l’option de la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a mené à l’obtention d’économies totales de 3,75 millions de dollars. Les analyses de la sensibilité ont indiqué que les résultats modélisés

  2. Assisting informed decision making for labour analgesia: a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for labour analgesia versus a pamphlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvaldsen Siranda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women use some method of pain relief during labour. There is extensive research evidence available of pharmacological pain relief during labour; however this evidence is not readily available to pregnant women. Decision aids are tools that present evidence based information and allow preference elicitation. Methods We developed a labour analgesia decision aid. Using a RCT design women either received a decision aid or a pamphlet. Eligible women were primiparous, ≥ 37 weeks, planning a vaginal birth of a single infant and had sufficient English to complete the trial materials. We used a combination of affective (anxiety, satisfaction and participation in decision-making and behavioural outcomes (intention and analgesia use to assess the impact of the decision aid, which were assessed before labour. Results 596 women were randomised (395 decision aid group, 201 pamphlet group. There were significant differences in knowledge scores between the decision aid group and the pamphlet group (mean difference 8.6, 95% CI 3.70, 13.40. There were no differences between decisional conflict scores (mean difference -0.99 (95% CI -3.07, 1.07, or anxiety (mean difference 0.3, 95% CI -2.15, 1.50. The decision aid group were significantly more likely to consider their care providers opinion (RR 1.28 95%CI 0.64, 0.95. There were no differences in analgesia use and poor follow through between antenatal analgesia intentions and use. Conclusions This decision aid improves women's labour analgesia knowledge without increasing anxiety. Significantly, the decision aid group were more informed of labour analgesia options, and considered the opinion of their care providers more often when making their analgesia decisions, thus improving informed decision making. Trial Registration Trial registration no: ISRCTN52287533

  3. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep


    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  4. Financial Assistance Information (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  5. Perceptron system to assist in decision making and monitoring of quality of software development in Information Technology environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Sen Shia


    Full Text Available - Classical methods for software development require high costs and problems of communication between development teams, project risks and delays in the delivery of its services. In this work, the aim is to develop a perceptron model to demonstrate the ability to control, service quality assessment and decision-making in IT (Information Technology. For this, we used perceptron network techniques, standards of service quality measures and risk analysis model of applied projects in software engineering. With the network perceptron model implementation was possible to simulate the application of development in several requests for applications for software, in order to meet the management of schedules in all phases of the life cycle of the projects carried out. The tests with the perceptron model were applied in it environments to meet service requests from various fields. The results and analyses presented in these projects demonstrate that communication between development teams were more consistent. It was also possible to predict with more accuracy the delivery of services, decision making and risk reduction projects.

  6. Analytical and Decision Support Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding


    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Singh, Vikas K; Hickey, John M.; Xun, Xu; Marshall, David F; Wang, Jun; Edwards, David; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel


    To successfully implement genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) in crop improvement programs, efficient and effective analytical and decision support tools (ADSTs) are 'must haves' to evaluate and select plants for developing next-generation crops. Here we review the applications and deployment of appropriate ADSTs for GAB, in the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS), an emerging source of massive genomic information. We discuss suitable software tools and pipelines for marker-based approac...

  7. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases


    Seamon Matthew J; Polen Hyla H; Marsh Wallace A; Clauson Kevin A; Ortiz Blanca I


    Abstract Background Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information datab...

  8. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Ada


    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  9. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini


    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  10. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner


    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  11. Deliberation, Information Aggregation and Collective Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto); P.T. Wrasai (Phongthorn)


    textabstractWe study a model of collective decision making with endogenous information collection. Agents collect information about the consequences of a project, communicate, and then vote on the project. We examine under what conditions communication may increase the probability that good decision

  12. Information gap decision support for contaminant remediation (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; O'Malley, D.


    Uncertainty quantifications and decision analyses under severe lack of information are ubiquitous in every applied field of engineering, policy, and science. A severe lack of information precludes our ability to determine unbiased probabilistic distributions for model parameters and model predictions; therefore, model and decision uncertainties due to a severe lack of information cannot be characterized probabilistically. To circumvent this problem, information gap (info-gap) theory has been developed to explicitly recognize and quantify the implications of information gaps in decision making. Here we present a decision analysis based on info-gap theory developed for a source identification problem where the locations and mass fluxes of contaminants impacting groundwater resources are unknown. The problem is characterized with a lack of information related to (1) model parameters representing contaminant migration in the aquifer, and (2) observed contamination concentration in the existing monitoring wells. These two sources of uncertainty are coupled through an inverse model where the observed concentrations are applied to estimate model parameters. The decision goal is based on contaminant predictions at points of compliance. The decision analysis is demonstrated for synthetic and real-world test cases. The applied uncertainty-quantification, decision-support techniques and computational algorithms are implemented in code MADS (Model Analyses for Decision Support; MADS is C/C++ code that provides a framework for model-based decision support. MADS performs various types of model analyses including sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, model calibration, selection and averaging. To perform the analyses, MADS can be coupled with any external simulators. Our efforts target development of an interactive computer-based Decision Support System (DSS) that will help domain scientist, managers, regulators, and

  13. [The role of information in public health decision-making]. (United States)

    Cecchi, Catherine


    Public health, prevention, health education and health promotion are inseparable from the concepts of information and communication. Information should respond as much as possible to the needs of professionals, decision-makers, and consumers who are more and more concerned and conscious of its importance in light of "information overload", various dissemination channels and the multiplicity of its sources. There are numerous issues at stake ranging from comprehension, to the validation of health information, health education, health promotion, prevention, decision-making, as well as issues related to knowledge and power. Irrespective of the type of choice to be made, the need for information, knowledge, and know-how is inseparable from that of other tools or regulatory measures required for decision-making. Information is the same as competence, epidemiological and population data, health data, scientific opinion, and expert conferences--all are needed to assist in decision-making. Based on the principle of precaution, information must increasingly take into account the rejection of a society which often reasons on the basis of a presumption of zero-risk, in an idealistic manner, and which also excludes the possibility of new risks. The consumer positions himself as the regulator of decisions, specifically those with regard to the notion of acceptable level of risk. All of the actors involved in the health system are or become at one moment or another public health decision-makers. Their decision might be based either on an analytical approach, or on an intuitive approach. Although the act of decision-making is the least visible part of public health policy, it is certainly the driving force. This process should integrate the perspective of all of the relevant players, including consumers, who are currently situated more and more frequently at the heart of the health system. Public health decision-making is conducted as a function of political, strategic and

  14. Collective informed consent and decision power. (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka


    It has been suggested that, in addition to individual level decision-making, informed consent procedures could be used in collective decision-making too. One of the main criticisms directed at this suggestion concerns decision-making power. It is maintained that consent is a veto power concept and that, as such, it is not appropriate for collective decision-making. This paper examines this objection to collective informed consent. It argues that veto power informed consent can have some uses in the collective level and that when it is not appropriate the decision power a concerned party ought to have in connection with an arrangement should be made relative to the interest she has at stake in it. It concludes that the objection examined does not undermine collective informed consent.

  15. Decision Making Models Using Weather Forecast Information


    Hiramatsu, Akio; Huynh, Van-Nam; Nakamori, Yoshiteru


    The quality of weather forecast has gradually improved, but weather information such as precipitation forecast is still uncertainty. Meteorologists have studied the use and economic value of weather information, and users have to translate weather information into their most desirable action. To maximize the economic value of users, the decision maker should select the optimum course of action for his company or project, based on an appropriate decision strategy under uncertain situations. In...

  16. Administrative Assistants' Informal Learning and Related Factors (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin-Mo


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the causal relationship among informal learning, leader-member exchange (LMX), empowerment, job characteristics and job self-efficacy and the impact on administrative assistants in corporations. The study aims at providing information for administrative assistants who have worked with their current…

  17. Supporting Timely Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Decisions Through Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Tools (United States)


    Transnational Issues. Mike took time during and after his deployment to Iraq to teach me the tricks of the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Extension. Finally...Once a COP has been designed it is easy to update the COP by inserting new datasets. Adding the new datasets likewise updates the spatial analysis...availability of raw data in all forms, the growing usage of new information communication technology ( ICT ), and the emergence of three loosely

  18. Decision Making with Asymmetric Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia)


    textabstractEvery day individuals make numerous choices. What is important for making the right choice is that individuals have good information about the consequences of the different alternatives. However, investigating the full consequences of the different alternatives is complicated and cost

  19. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions. (United States)

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources.

  20. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)


    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  1. Sources of information and assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickton, S.G.


    The best sources of information on energy activities, including conservation and education, are the officials of the state and federal energy departments and offices, the editors of the trade and professional journals in the various branches of the energy field, and the directors of the organizations working on energy issues. A selected list of information sources includes the title and address rather than individual names in order to remain current. The directory begins with state energy offices, followed by DOE and other officials, and an alphabetical listing of schools, organizations, and institutions. The directory is the final chapter of New Approaches to Energy Conservation, a sourcebook published by New Directions for Higher Education.

  2. Information seeking by female apparel consumers in South Africa during the fashion decision-making process


    Van Aardt, Annette Marie; Van Staden, Johanna


    Fashion information is sought during the fashion decision-making process and can be obtained from various sources such as magazines, fashion consultants, websites and store displays. Various levels and methods such as internal and external search for information are used to assist the consumer in making informed fashion decisions. The broad research aim of this study was to determine which methods, sources and economics of fashion information are sought and used by female educators in Vanderb...

  3. Enabling joined-up decision making with geotemporal information (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Ahmed, S. E.; Purves, D. W.; Emmott, S.; Joppa, L. N.; Caldararu, S.; Visconti, P.; Newbold, T.; Formica, A. F.


    While the use of geospatial data to assist in decision making is becoming increasingly common, the use of geotemporal information: information that can be indexed by geographical space AND time, is much rarer. I will describe our scientific research and software development efforts intended to advance the availability and use of geotemporal information in general. I will show two recent examples of "stacking" geotemporal information to support land use decision making in the Brazilian Amazon and Kenya, involving data-constrained predictive models and empirically derived datasets of road development, deforestation, carbon, agricultural yields, water purification and poverty alleviation services and will show how we use trade-off analyses and constraint reasoning algorithms to explore the costs and benefits of different decisions. For the Brazilian Amazon we explore tradeoffs involved in different deforestation scenarios, while for Kenya we explore the impacts of conserving forest to support international carbon conservation initiatives (REDD+). I will also illustrate the cloud-based software tools we have developed to enable anyone to access geotemporal information, gridded (e.g. climate) or non-gridded (e.g. protected areas), for the past, present or future and incorporate such information into their analyses (e.g., including how we train new predictive models to such data using Bayesian techniques: on this latter point I will show how we combine satellite and ground measured data with predictive models to forecast how crops might respond to climate change.

  4. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph


    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  5. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)


    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  6. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.


    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  7. Intelligent Information System to support decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rodríguez Llanes


    Full Text Available Making decisions is complicated in a generalized way, the materials and humans resources of the entity we belong to depends on it, such as the fulfillment of its goals. But when the situations are complex, making decisions turns into a very difficult work, due to the great amount of aspects to consider when making the right choice. To make this efficiently the administration must to consult an important volume of information, which generally, is scattered and in any different formats. That’s why appears the need of developing software that crowd together all that information and be capable of, by using powerful search engines and process algorithms improve the good decisions making process. Considering previous explanation, a complete freeware developed product is proposed, this constitutes a generic and multi-platform solution, that using artificial intelligence techniques, specifically the cases based reasoning, gives the possibility to leaders of any institution or organism of making the right choice in any situation.With client-server architecture, this system is consumed from web as a service and it can be perfectly integrated with a management system or the geographic information system to facilitate the business process.

  8. Educational Assistance to the Urban Informal Sector. (United States)

    Oxenham, John


    The urban informal sector are the adolescents and adults of cities in developing countries who have had little or no education and expend much inventiveness and energy to avoid starvation, while working in activities such as pedlar or shoeshiner. What educational assistance could and should be provided for them is discussed. (RM)

  9. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc


    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  10. Computer-Assisted Community Planning and Decision Making. (United States)

    College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME.

    The College of the Atlantic (COA) developed a broad-based, interdisciplinary curriculum in ecological policy and community planning and decision-making that incorporates two primary computer-based tools: ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) and STELLA, a systems-dynamics modeling tool. Students learn how to use and apply these tools…

  11. An informationally structured room for robotic assistance. (United States)

    Tsuji, Tokuo; Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Chae, Hyunuk; Pyo, Yoonseok; Kusaka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Tsutomu; Morooka, Ken'ichi; Kurazume, Ryo


    The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  12. Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions. (United States)

    Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A


    Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision.

  13. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seamon Matthew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information databases. Methods Five commercially available and two freely available online drug information databases were evaluated according to scope (presence or absence of answer, completeness (the comprehensiveness of the answers, and ease of use. Additionally, a composite score integrating all three criteria was utilized. Fifteen weighted categories comprised of 158 questions were used to conduct the analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to summarize the evaluation components and make comparisons between databases. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure was used to determine statistically different scope and completeness scores. The composite score was subjected to sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the choice of percentages for scope and completeness. Results The rankings for the databases from highest to lowest, based on composite scores were Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Lexi-Comp Online, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Epocrates Online Premium,, and Epocrates Online Free. Differences in scope produced three statistical groupings with Group 1 (best performers being: Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Lexi-Comp Online, Group 2: Epocrates Premium and and Group 3: Epocrates Free (p Conclusion Online drug information databases, which belong to clinical decision support, vary in their ability to answer questions across a range of categories.

  14. Client Oriented Approach for Assisting Business Improvement Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pitic


    Full Text Available An important aspect of the corporate responsibility towards the customers is to ensure the correct value transfer, through the quality and price of the product/service. By using customer satisfaction in order to measure value and the quality provided to customers, this paper proposes a methodology of assisting management decisions in improving business processes. The proposed techniques and tools, specific to quality management, are used for determining the processes which need to be improved or innovated in order to increase customer satisfaction. Thus, the methodology contributes to the creation of a decision-making framework for an efficient orientation of the resources for maximising the generated value and minimising the costs. In order to illustrate its application, we present a study based on the responses regarding satisfaction elements of 679 companies, the customers of a distribution chain in the field of interior fittings. The research highlights the practical method of determining the priority processes for increasing customer satisfaction, taking into account the satisfaction targets and the nature of the necessary actions in order to maximize the created value and to minimize the costs of these processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Information and decision are two key elements economic entities management. Information represents the support of decision making by those managing the economic entity, helping them take the right decision for them to achieve set objectives. Strategic decisions provide long-term success of the economic entity outlining its internal and external stand. Those responsible for making strategic decisions have the ability to influence the economic entity’s success through these decisions they take, the role of the strategy being to ensure perfect correspondence between what the economic entity can do and what it could do, given the opportunities and threats in the environment they conduct business.

  18. Creating an organizational culture for evidence-informed decision making. (United States)

    Ward, Megan; Mowat, David


    A public health department in Ontario, Canada, set a 10-year strategic direction for evidence-informed decision making, defined as the systematic application of research evidence to program decisions. The multifaceted approach has identified eight key lessons for leadership, funding, infrastructure, staff development, partnerships, and change management. Results after 4 years include systematic and transparent application of research to > 15 program decisions and, increasingly, evidence-informed decision making as a cultural norm.

  19. Contaminant remediation decision analysis using information gap theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harp, Dylan R


    Decision making under severe lack of information is a ubiquitous situation in nearly every applied field of engineering, policy, and science. A severe lack of information precludes our ability to determine a frequency of occurrence of events or conditions that impact the decision; therefore, decision uncertainties due to a severe lack of information cannot be characterized probabilistically. To circumvent this problem, information gap (info-gap) theory has been developed to explicitly recognize and quantify the implications of information gaps in decision making. This paper presents a decision analysis based on info-gap theory developed for a contaminant remediation scenario. The analysis provides decision support in determining the fraction of contaminant mass to remove from the environment in the presence of a lack of information related to the contaminant mass flux into an aquifer. An info-gap uncertainty model is developed to characterize uncertainty due to a lack of information concerning the contaminant...

  20. Assistive Technologies for Communication and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Simsik


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT affect all aspects of life, in the time of technical progress there are also special assistive devices developed that makes the daily life easier. The use of the ICT is rapidly becoming an essential part of social, educational and economic of sphere of European citizens’ life. There is a concern whether the products and services, that are available nowadays, are fully accessible to the public area, but also to elderly people and people with disabilities. The aim of this article is to acquire an outline about recent programmes of information society (Slovakia and EU, to revue the basic knowledge about the accessible ICT related to the equal opportunities for people with disabilities and to the social inclusion and describes the principles of accessible technologies (design for all, accessible webpages, electronic services. ICTs offer the enormous potential to maintain, improve quality of life, integration and independence.

  1. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  2. Taking decision general theory and its application in the medical assistance field (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez


    Full Text Available Decision making is a necessary element in the medical work. This article is a part of a series of articles that is aimed at divulging some theoretical aspects about decision making and their concrete application in the medical assistance. This paper analyses the classic (rational and behavioural theories in decision making.

  3. Fuzzy Privacy Decision for Context-Aware Access Personal Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingsheng; QI Yong; ZHAO Jizhong; HOU Di; NIU Yujie


    A context-aware privacy protection framework was designed for context-aware services and privacy control methods about access personal information in pervasive environment. In the process of user's privacy decision, it can produce fuzzy privacy decision as the change of personal information sensitivity and personal information receiver trust. The uncertain privacy decision model was proposed about personal information disclosure based on the change of personal information receiver trust and personal information sensitivity. A fuzzy privacy decision information system was designed according to this model. Personal privacy control policies can be extracted from this information system by using rough set theory. It also solves the problem about learning privacy control policies of personal information disclosure.

  4. [Each person has to make their own individual decision - arguments for physician assisted suicide]. (United States)

    Posa, Andreas


    Since November 2015, businesslike assisted suicide is punishable in Germany. But who acts businesslike? The majority of the German population prefers to make own decisions about the circumstances of their arriving death, and many of them would also accept (physician) assisted suicide if necessary. Only a minority of physicians plead for prohibiting assisted suicide in general. In the end everyone should be able to take position on his own. No one is obliged to use or execute assisted suicide.

  5. The role of market research information in corporate decision making


    Csilla Máthé


    This paper aims at understanding the role of market research information in the corporate decision making process concerning marketing decisions (4Ps). Information is an asset and resource that is essential for decision-makers so that they can define the company’s short and long term goals, execute and evaluate them. The whole process can be supported by customized research and retail measurement results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Paul Virag


    Full Text Available In this work it is shown how the information provided by financial accounting information system used in the decision making process of the entities management. It also presents the implications of their use in planning and investments. Financial information are built in order to respond to the management for decision making, but also to meet the information needs of other external or internal users. In this respect it is presented the accounting information system and the qualitative features and the manner in which is built to have real value for planning, control and decision making.

  7. Information fusion measures of effectiveness (MOE) for decision support (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Breton, Richard; Valin, Pierre


    For decades, there have been discussions on measures of merits (MOM) that include measures of effectiveness (MOE) and measures of performance (MOP) for system-level performance. As the amount of sensed and collected data becomes increasingly large, there is a need to look at the architectures, metrics, and processes that provide the best methods for decision support systems. In this paper, we overview some information fusion methods in decision support and address the capability to measure the effects of the fusion products on user functions. The current standard Information Fusion model is the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) model that specifically addresses the needs of the user in an information fusion system. Decision support implies that information methods augment user decision making as opposed to the machine making the decision and displaying it to user. We develop a list of suggested measures of merits that facilitate decision support decision support Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) metrics of quality, information gain, and robustness, from the analysis based on the measures of performance (MOPs) of timeliness, accuracy, confidence, throughput, and cost. We demonstrate in an example with motion imagery to support the MOEs of quality (time/decision confidence plots), information gain (completeness of annotated imagery for situation awareness), and robustness through analysis of imagery over time and repeated looks for enhanced target identification confidence.

  8. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation...... of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from...... different Scandinavian companies. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression models across decision criteria dimensions and NPD stages as well as analyzing the combination of selected information sources. Rather than forwarding one optimal search behavior for the entire NPD process, we find optimal...

  9. Decentralized Decision-Making. ERS Information Aid. (United States)

    Powell, Janet F.

    In this paper, the current debate over decentralized decisionmaking is highlighted and facts, figures, and models based on a recent nationwide survey are presented. Decentralization in decisionmaking is defined as the involvement of building-level principals in district-wide decisions. Advantages and disadvantages of decentralization, the nature…

  10. Decision making and information flows in precision agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laiô; Blackmore, B.S.;

    A participative methology was developed in which farm managers decomposed their process of decision making in Precision Agriculture (PA) into brief secision statesments along with associated information requirements. The methodology was first developed on a university research farm in Denmark...... and further revised during testing on a number of research and commercial farms in Indiana, USA. Twenty-one decision analysis factors were idebfied to characterise a farm manager's decision-making process. Then a general data flow diagram (DFD) was constructed that describes the information flows "from data...... to decision". Illustrative examples of the model in the form of DFDs are presented for a strategic and an operational decision. The model was validated for a range of decisions related to operations by three university farm managers and by five commercial farmers practicing PA for cereal, corn and soybean...

  11. Role of information in decision making of social agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I


    The influence of additional information on the decision making of agents, who are interacting members of a society, is analyzed within the mathematical framework based on the use of quantum probabilities. The introduction of social interactions, which influence the decisions of individual agents, leads to a generalization of the quantum decision theory developed earlier by the authors for separate individuals. The generalized approach is free of the standard paradoxes of classical decision theory. This approach also explains the error-attenuation effects observed for the paradoxes occurring when decision makers, who are members of a society, consult with each other, increasing in this way the available mutual information. A precise correspondence between quantum decision theory and classical utility theory is formulated via the introduction of an intermediate probabilistic version of utility theory of a novel form, which obeys the requirement that zero-utility prospects should have zero probability weights.

  12. Building a culture of evidence-informed decision making in the community. (United States)

    Peach, Lindsay Campbell; Rankin, Elaine


    Growing fiscal pressures on health departments both provincially and locally necessitate tough decisions to be made. Although evidence-informed decision making may be commonly used for clinical decision making, the notion of evidence-informed decision making for managing physician office practice processes, primary care, long-term care, or continuing care is limited. In healthcare, much data are collected, yet only a small percentage is actually used in meaningful ways. The Executive Training for Research Application (EXTRA) program strives to not only assist healthcare executives in acquiring necessary skills but also aims to lead cultural change in the Canadian healthcare system. This article describes three brief examples in which a vice president and director with EXTRA training have started to explore and use data to drive change in the community.

  13. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus


    to the classic interpretation of financial information. The quantitative environmental information included in the experiment seems to mitigate rather than extend the directional effect of more environmental information. The evidence also seems to indicate that decision makers are not always aware which......This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...

  14. Decision support for information systems management: applying analytic hierarchy process


    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.


    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision making. AHP can be applied if the decision problem includes multiple objectives, conflicting criteria, incommensurable units, and aims at selecting an alternative from a known set of alternatives. ...

  15. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema


    The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... question: How are decisions regarding technologies informed in the early phases of innovation, when dealing with paradigmatic “new to the company” knowledge fields? To explore the question, a case study; investigating the decisions made for radical new innovations, and the knowledge needed for supporting...... early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...

  16. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward (United States)

    Miller, Randolph A.


    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  17. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.


    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  18. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.


    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  19. MINDS - Medical Information Network Decision Support System (United States)


    Information Technology, Department of Health and Human Services, 2005 7. The Lewin Group, Inc., “Health Information Technology Leadership Panel: Final...University of Chicago Kurt Rossman Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research (www- 8. University of Michigan Department

  20. Pruning a decision tree for selecting computer-related assistive devices for people with disabilities. (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Tseng, Li-Kai; Jang, Yuh


    Many disabled individuals lack extensive knowledge about assistive technology, which could help them use computers. In 1997, Denis Anson developed a decision tree of 49 evaluative questions designed to evaluate the functional capabilities of the disabled user and choose an appropriate combination of assistive devices, from a selection of 26, that enable the individual to use a computer. In general, occupational therapists guide the disabled users through this process. They often have to go over repetitive questions in order to find an appropriate device. A disabled user may require an alphanumeric entry device, a pointing device, an output device, a performance enhancement device, or some combination of these. Therefore, the current research eliminates redundant questions and divides Anson's decision tree into multiple independent subtrees to meet the actual demand of computer users with disabilities. The modified decision tree was tested by six disabled users to prove it can determine a complete set of assistive devices with a smaller number of evaluative questions. The means to insert new categories of computer-related assistive devices was included to ensure the decision tree can be expanded and updated. The current decision tree can help the disabled users and assistive technology practitioners to find appropriate computer-related assistive devices that meet with clients' individual needs in an efficient manner.

  1. Extracting clinical information to support medical decision based on standards. (United States)

    Gomoi, Valentin; Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile


    The paper presents a method connecting medical databases to a medical decision system, and describes a service created to extract the necessary information that is transferred based on standards. The medical decision can be improved based on many inputs from different medical locations. The developed solution is described for a concrete case concerning the management for chronic pelvic pain, based on the information retrieved from diverse healthcare databases.

  2. Risk informed decision-making in nuclear power plants (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il


    The risk insight resulted from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is used in risk-informed decision-making including in-service inspection, in-service testing, graded quality assurance, and technical specification. This report is introducing the state of the art of the risk-informed decision-making. The contents of 1998 final version of U.S. regulatory guide concerning the risk informed decision-making are described. This report is also introducing U.S. maintenance rule since it is closely related to the risk informed desision-making. Research results of risk-informed in-service testing and technical specification optimization applided to Korean nuclear power plants are described.

  3. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko


    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  4. How Social Cognition Can Inform Social Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eLee


    Full Text Available Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social versus nonsocial contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g. mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.

  5. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut


    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  6. An Information Theoretic Analysis of Decision in Computer Chess

    CERN Document Server

    Godescu, Alexandru


    The basis of the method proposed in this article is the idea that information is one of the most important factors in strategic decisions, including decisions in computer chess and other strategy games. The model proposed in this article and the algorithm described are based on the idea of a information theoretic basis of decision in strategy games . The model generalizes and provides a mathematical justification for one of the most popular search algorithms used in leading computer chess programs, the fractional ply scheme. However, despite its success in leading computer chess applications, until now few has been published about this method. The article creates a fundamental basis for this method in the axioms of information theory, then derives the principles used in programming the search and describes mathematically the form of the coefficients. One of the most important parameters of the fractional ply search is derived from fundamental principles. Until now this coefficient has been usually handcrafted...

  7. Quantifying the Value of Downscaled Climate Model Information for Adaptation Decisions: When is Downscaling a Smart Decision? (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Wootten, A.; Eaton, M. J.; Runge, M. C.; Littell, J. S.; Bryan, A. M.; Carter, S. L.


    Two types of decisions face society with respect to anthropogenic climate change: (1) whether to enact a global greenhouse gas abatement policy, and (2) how to adapt to the local consequences of current and future climatic changes. The practice of downscaling global climate models (GCMs) is often used to address (2) because GCMs do not resolve key features that will mediate global climate change at the local scale. In response, the development of downscaling techniques and models has accelerated to aid decision makers seeking adaptation guidance. However, quantifiable estimates of the value of information are difficult to obtain, particularly in decision contexts characterized by deep uncertainty and low system-controllability. Here we demonstrate a method to quantify the additional value that decision makers could expect if research investments are directed towards developing new downscaled climate projections. As a proof of concept we focus on a real-world management problem: whether to undertake assisted migration for an endangered tropical avian species. We also take advantage of recently published multivariate methods that account for three vexing issues in climate impacts modeling: maximizing climate model quality information, accounting for model dependence in ensembles of opportunity, and deriving probabilistic projections. We expand on these global methods by including regional (Caribbean Basin) and local (Puerto Rico) domains. In the local domain, we test whether a high resolution (2km) dynamically downscaled GCM reduces the multivariate error estimate compared to the original coarse-scale GCM. Initial tests show little difference between the downscaled and original GCM multivariate error. When propagated through to a species population model, the Value of Information analysis indicates that the expected utility that would accrue to the manager (and species) if this downscaling were completed may not justify the cost compared to alternative actions.

  8. Image-assisted knowledge discovery and decision support in radiation therapy planning. (United States)

    Liu, Brent J; Law, Maria Y Y; Documet, Jorge; Gertych, Arkadiusz


    The need for quantified knowledge and decision-support tools to handle complex radiation therapy (RT) imaging and informatics data is becoming steadily apparent. Lessons can be learned from current CAD applications in radiology. This paper proposes a methodology to develop this quantified knowledge and decision-support tools to facilitate RT treatment planning. The methodology is applied to cancer patient cases treated by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The use of the "inverse treatment planning" and imaging intensive nature of IMRT allows for the development of such image-assisted tools for supporting decision-making thus providing better workflow efficiency and more precise dose predictions.

  9. Intrinsic Valuation of Information in Decision Making under Uncertainty (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Brydevall, Maja; Murawski, Carsten


    In a dynamic world, an accurate model of the environment is vital for survival, and agents ought regularly to seek out new information with which to update their world models. This aspect of behaviour is not captured well by classical theories of decision making, and the cognitive mechanisms of information seeking are poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether information is valued only for its instrumental use, or whether humans also assign it a non-instrumental intrinsic value. To address this question, the present study assessed preference for non-instrumental information among 80 healthy participants in two experiments. Participants performed a novel information preference task in which they could choose to pay a monetary cost to receive advance information about the outcome of a monetary lottery. Importantly, acquiring information did not alter lottery outcome probabilities. We found that participants were willing to incur considerable monetary costs to acquire payoff-irrelevant information about the lottery outcome. This behaviour was well explained by a computational cognitive model in which information preference resulted from aversion to temporally prolonged uncertainty. These results strongly suggest that humans assign an intrinsic value to information in a manner inconsistent with normative accounts of decision making under uncertainty. This intrinsic value may be associated with adaptive behaviour in real-world environments by producing a bias towards exploratory and information-seeking behaviour. PMID:27416034

  10. The Allied Health Care Professional's Role in Assisting Medical Decision Making at the End of Life (United States)

    Lambert, Heather


    As a patient approaches the end of life, he or she faces a number of very difficult medical decisions. Allied health care professionals, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and occupational therapists (OTs), can be instrumental in assisting their patients to make advance care plans, although their traditional job descriptions do not…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuihua ZHANG; Haibin YU; Guangshu CHANG


    In this paper, the issue of quality evaluation level decision problem in outsourcing is studied under different information backgrounds. Based on the quality contracting optimization models of Stanley and others, a principal agent model concerned with quality prevention level and evaluation level is set up with regards to buyer as principal and supplier as agent. In the models, quality prevention level is a variable decided by the supplier, quality evaluation level and transfer payment are variables decided by the buyer. We focus on the study of quality evaluation level and transfer payment decision in outsourcing under asymmetric information. Maximal principle is used to get the solution to quality evaluation level when supplier quality prevention level information is hidden. At last simulation calculation is performed concerned with tractor production outsourcing business of an agricultural machine company. Simulation results under different information backgrounds are analyzed and compared.

  12. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.


    George, Bert; Desmidt, Sebastian


    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision making and (b) decision makers contribute to strategic-decision quality by exchanging information during decision making. These assumptions are tested upon 55 Flemish pupil guidance centers. Rational ...

  13. Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameling Jessica M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients’ treatment and support patients’ decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function. Methods We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in “stages.” For the video, stages included (1 directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2 video production, and (3 screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1 preliminary content design, (2 a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3 screening the handbook with patients and their families. Results The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals’ testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients’ and families

  14. Measuring Intuition: Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Decision Accuracy and Confidence. (United States)

    Lufityanto, Galang; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel


    The long-held popular notion of intuition has garnered much attention both academically and popularly. Although most people agree that there is such a phenomenon as intuition, involving emotionally charged, rapid, unconscious processes, little compelling evidence supports this notion. Here, we introduce a technique in which subliminal emotional information is presented to subjects while they make fully conscious sensory decisions. Our behavioral and physiological data, along with evidence-accumulator models, show that nonconscious emotional information can boost accuracy and confidence in a concurrent emotion-free decision task, while also speeding up response times. Moreover, these effects were contingent on the specific predictive arrangement of the nonconscious emotional valence and motion direction in the decisional stimulus. A model that simultaneously accumulates evidence from both physiological skin conductance and conscious decisional information provides an accurate description of the data. These findings support the notion that nonconscious emotions can bias concurrent nonemotional behavior-a process of intuition.

  15. A Proposed Computer-Assisted Decision Making System for the Hellenic Navy Decision Makers (United States)


    creates and sustains a corporate moral code. It appears that nations with a long history, especially of fighting defensive wars, are’ more likely to...experiences and needs of the potential adopters. An idea that is not comnatible with the prevalent values and norms of a cultural and social Estem will...Decision Support Systems, ed: \\V. C. House, Petrocelli Books, New YorK/Princeton, 1983. " Corporate war rooms pluginto the computer," Business Week, August

  16. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas


    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  17. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.


    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  18. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  19. Decisions-to-Data using Level 5 information fusion (United States)

    Blasch, Erik


    Over the last decade, there has been interest in presenting information fusion solutions to the user and ways to incorporate visualization, interaction, and command and control. In this paper, we explore Decisions-to-Data (D2D) in information fusion design: (1) sensing: from data to information (D2I) processing, (2) reporting: from human computer interaction (HCI) visualizations to user refinement (H2U), and (3) disseminating: from collected to resourced (C2R) information management. D2I supports net-centric intelligent situation awareness that includes processing of information from non-sensor resources for mission effectiveness. H2U reflects that completely automated systems are not realizable requiring Level 5 user refinement for efficient decision making. Finally, C2R moves from immediate data collection to fusion of information over an enterprise (e.g., data mining, database queries and storage, and source analysis for pedigree). By using D2I, H2U, and C2R concepts, they serve as informative themes for future complex information fusion interoperability standards, integration of man and machines, and efficient networking for distribution user situation understanding.

  20. Information seeking: a component of client decisions and health behavior. (United States)

    Lenz, E R


    The information-seeking patterns of clients have received little attention in nursing theory and research, but they are important antecedents of health-related decisions and behavior. The concept of information seeking is analyzed within the framework of a six-step process model. Inter-related dimensions of the information search process are identified and the impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes is postulated. Sociodemographic, experiential, personality, and contextual variables suggested by prior research to predict variation in search behavior are identified, and implications for nursing theory and research are discussed.

  1. Decision Assistance in Risk Assessment – Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available High security must be a primary and permanent concern of the leadership of an organization and it must be ensured at any time. For this, a risk analysis is compulsory and imperative to be done during the risk management cycle. Security risk analysis and security risk management components mostly use estimative data during the whole extensive process. The further evolution of the events might not be reflected in the obtained results. If we were to think about the fact that hazard must be modeled, this concern is absolutely normal. Though, we must find a way to model the events that a company is exposed to, events that damage the informational security. In the following lines of this paper we will use the Monte-Carlo method in order to model a set of security parameters that are used in security risk analysis. The frequency of unwanted events, damages and their impact will represent our main focus and will be applied to both the quantitative and qualitative security risk analysis approach. The obtained results will act as a guide for experts to better allocation of resources for decreasing or eliminating the risk and will also represent a warning for the leadership about certain absolutely necessary investments.

  2. The Design of the Assistant Decision Support System of Cross-Regional Rural Labor Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The framework of the assistant decision support system of cross-regional rural labor flow is established,the system combines the cross-regional rural labor flow with DSS,which provides the leaders with the maximum assistant decision-making function in the regulation and guidance of rural labors as well as in relevant programs.The assistant decision support system functions are discussed,the function modules of this system are introduced from four aspects,including the analysis of labor flow,the prediction of labor flow,the regulation of cross-regional flow and the configuration of decision support system;based on the data base obtained from dynamic tracking of the migrant workers and combining other data sources,the data warehouse model is established,for example,in the analysis of the labor migration times,a star multi-dimensional data model is designed from the time dimension,place dimension,the type of work dimension,accompaniers dimension and so on;the trans-regional flow of rural labor force is analyzed and predicted by using OLAP from the labor’s migration times,migration places and other various perspectives.The operation principles of the assistant decision support system of trans-regional labor flow are introduced,it is pointed out that the system serves the policy-makers of the regulation of labor flow and other relevant enterprises,the system will play an important role in the tracking monitoring and cross-regional regulation of the rural labor flow.

  3. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette


    . The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information...... included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital......Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes...

  4. Performance of online drug information databases as clinical decision support tools in infectious disease medication management. (United States)

    Polen, Hyla H; Zapantis, Antonia; Clauson, Kevin A; Clauson, Kevin Alan; Jebrock, Jennifer; Paris, Mark


    Infectious disease (ID) medication management is complex and clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) can provide valuable assistance. This study evaluated scope and completeness of ID drug information found in online databases by evaluating their ability to answer 147 question/answer pairs. Scope scores produced highest rankings (%) for: Micromedex (82.3), Lexi-Comp/American Hospital Formulary Service (81.0), and Medscape Drug Reference (81.0); lowest includes: Epocrates Online Premium (47.0), Johns Hopkins ABX Guide (45.6), and PEPID PDC (40.8).

  5. The role of behavioral decision theory for cockpit information management (United States)

    Jonsson, Jon E.


    The focus of this report is the consideration of one form of cognition, judgment and decision making, while examining some information management issues associated with the implementation of new forms of automation. As technology matures and more tasks become suitable to automation, human factors researchers will have to consider the effect that increasing automation will have on operator performance. Current technology allows flight deck designers the opportunity to automate activities involving substantially more cognitive processing.

  6. Impacts of Hospitals' Innovativeness on Information System Outsourcing Decisions


    Park, Jae Sung


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hospitals' innovativeness on outsourcing decision-making regarding four information system (IS) functions, namely, software programs, network maintenance, hardware systems, and PC/printer maintenance. Methods Using the 2011 roster of the Korean Hospital Association, this study selected 311 general hospitals as a study population. After identifying the managers who were in charge of outsourcing, this study administered questio...

  7. Information and shared decision-making are top patients' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronstein Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profound changes in medical care and the recent stress on a patient-centered approach mandate evaluation of current patient priorities. Methods Hospitalized and ambulatory patients at an academic medical center in central Israel were investigated. Consecutive patients (n = 274 indicated their first and second priority for a change or improvement in their medical care out of a mixed shortlist of 6 issues, 3 related to patient-physician relationship (being better informed and taking part in decisions; being seen by the same doctor each time; a longer consultation time and 3 issues related to the organizational aspect of care (easier access to specialists/hospital; shorter queue for tests; less charges for drugs. Results Getting more information from the physician and taking part in decisions was the most desirable patient choice, selected by 27.4% as their first priority. The next choices – access and queue – also relate to more patient autonomy and control over that of managed care regulations. Patients studied were least interested in continuity of care, consultation time or cost of drugs. Demographic or clinical variables were not significantly related to patients' choices. Conclusion Beyond its many benefits, being informed by their doctor and shared decision making is a top patient priority.

  8. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  9. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin


    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  10. An Information Theory Analysis of Spatial Decisions in Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott


    Full Text Available Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages five to ten years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of cognitive entropy were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1 the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2 the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured chunking of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  11. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development. (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P


    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of "cognitive entropy" were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured "chunking" of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  12. Assistive system for people with Apraxia using a Markov decision process. (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Emilie M D; Russell, Martin; Rothstein, Pia


    CogWatch is an assistive system to re-train stroke survivors suffering from Apraxia or Action Disorganization Syndrome (AADS) to complete activities of daily living (ADLs). This paper describes the approach to real-time planning based on a Markov Decision Process (MDP), and demonstrates its ability to improve task's performance via user simulation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the remaining challenges and future enhancements.

  13. Using Bayesian networks to support decision-focused information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Elsaesser, C.; Seligman, L. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)


    This paper has described an approach to controlling the process of pulling data/information from distributed data bases in a way that is specific to a persons specific decision making context. Our prototype implementation of this approach uses a knowledge-based planner to generate a plan, an automatically constructed Bayesian network to evaluate the plan, specialized processing of the network to derive key information items that would substantially impact the evaluation of the plan (e.g., determine that replanning is needed), automated construction of Standing Requests for Information (SRIs) which are automated functions that monitor changes and trends in distributed data base that are relevant to the key information items. This emphasis of this paper is on how Bayesian networks are used.

  14. Decision tools for coral reef managers: Using participatory decision support to integrate potential climate impacts and informed decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Fletcher


    Full Text Available The decline in coral reef health presents a complex management issue. While several causes of decline have been identified and are under continued study, it is often difficult to discern management actions necessary to address multiple near- and far-field stressors to these ecosystems. As a result, resource managers seek tools to improve the understanding of ecosystem condition and to develop management responses to reduce local and regional pressures in the wake of larger, global impacts. A research study conducted from 2010 to 2014 in southeast Florida, USA consisted of two objectives: (1 conduct a needs assessment survey with coral reef and marine resource managers to identify data needs and the preferred design and delivery of climate information; and (2 develop and evaluate prototype decision support tools. The needs assessment process was helpful for identifying the types of climate information managers would like to obtain to inform decision making and to specify the preferred format for the delivery of that information. Three prototype tools were evaluated by managers using pre/post surveys that included hands-on tutorials to explore the functionality of each. Manager responses were recorded using a five-point scale with 1 being No or Not Useful to 5 being Absolutely or Very Useful. The median responses rated the usefulness of the tools (4, if they would consider using the tool (4, and if they would recommend using the tool to other managers (4 or 5. The median response for increasing manager’s knowledge about climate impacts after completing a tutorial of each of the climate tools was a 3 (moderately useful. Of the managers surveyed in the pre/post-survey, all but one stated they believed they would use the decision support tools in the future with the single response due to wealth of data availability in their institution.

  15. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review. (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C


    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  16. Ability of online drug databases to assist in clinical decision-making with infectious disease therapies


    Jebrock Jennifer; Clauson Kevin A; Zapantis Antonia; Polen Hyla H; Paris Mark


    Abstract Background Infectious disease (ID) is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. However, there is a dearth of information on the abilities of CDSTs, such as drug information databases. This study evaluated online drug information databases when answering infectious disease-specific queries. Methods Eight subscription drug information databases: A...

  17. Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics (United States)

    Forrester, Alan

    In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.

  18. Brain networks for exploration decisions utilizing distinct modeled information types during contextual learning. (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Voss, Joel L


    Exploration permits acquisition of the most relevant information during learning. However, the specific information needed, the influences of this information on decision making, and the relevant neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We modeled distinct information types available during contextual association learning and used model-based fMRI in conjunction with manipulation of exploratory decision making to identify neural activity associated with information-based decisions. We identified hippocampal-prefrontal contributions to advantageous decisions based on immediately available novel information, distinct from striatal contributions to advantageous decisions based on the sum total available (accumulated) information. Furthermore, network-level interactions among these regions during exploratory decision making were related to learning success. These findings link strategic exploration decisions during learning to quantifiable information and advance understanding of adaptive behavior by identifying the distinct and interactive nature of brain-network contributions to decisions based on distinct information types.

  19. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision]. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying


    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  20. 77 FR 74002 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Technical Assistance Needs Assessments... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Technical Assistance Needs Assessments... collection request (ICR), ``Technical Assistance Needs Assessments (TANAs) at Superfund Remedial or Removal... removal site; whether the community needs additional assistance in order to understand and respond to...

  1. 75 FR 19986 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services (United States)


    ... the information collection, titled ``Financial Assistance & Social Services, 25 CFR 20.'' The... part 20 to eligible Indians when comparable financial assistance or social services either are not... application form was revised to include all Financial Assistance and Social Service components...

  2. Value of information and natural resources decision-making (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.


    Though the potential for information to measurably improve management has been highlighted for several decades, in recent years the “value of information” has surfaced with increasing frequency in natural resources. However, the use of this phrase belies the fact that many in natural resources have only a limited understanding about what it actually means, how to measure it, and what to do with it. We introduce and describe several forms of the value of information in a context of the management of renewable natural resources. The value of information is discussed in terms of a potential gain in value with the addition of new information, as well as a loss in value associated with the absence of information. Value metrics are developed for uncertainty about resource status as well as resource processes and responses to management. We provide a common notation for the metrics of value, and discuss linkages of the value of information to strategic approaches such as adaptive resources management and partially observable decision processes.

  3. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim


    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  4. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)


    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision mak

  5. Asymmetrical Information and Public Failure in the Myriad Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Shareef


    Full Text Available The Public Value concept is a Public Management normative process that utilizes efficiency and ethics as co-equal determinants to assess organizational outcomes. As such, Public Value represents what Ghoshal calls intellectual pluralism or the utilization of normative management processes in the social sciences to challenge the intellectual absolutism of the Chicago School. One discipline where Public Value can be used to assess normative results is Legal Studies’ antitrust field. This research applies Public Value criteria in evaluating the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2013 ruling in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. The conclusions tentatively found the Court’s decision will (a create Public Value at the macro level but (b trigger public failure at the micro level for poor women because of an asymmetrical information network. This outcome fits with Stiglitz’s hypothesis concerning asymmetrical information and market failure. Further empirical research on Myriad’s policy is recommended.

  6. The Importance of Management Information Systems in Decision-Making Process in Najran University


    Mohamed Sultan Mahasneh


    Management information systems is very important for organizations especially decision-making process. This study is to answer the question related to the Importance of Management Information Systems on Decision-Making Process in Najran University, by exploring the role of management information systems in providing the necessary information to make decisions, the role of management information systems in decisionmaking, exploring the relationship of management information systems with deci...

  7. An ethics framework for assisting clinician-managers in resource allocation decision making. (United States)

    Meslin, E M; Lemieux-Charles, L; Wortley, J T


    In response to continued pressure on the Canadian healthcare system, hospitals are implementing structural changes to address issues of cost containment, utilization, and resource allocation. One strategy has been to decentralize managerial decision making to clinicians, creating "clinician-managers" (CMs). We surveyed 3,000 hospital-based CMs in Ontario, Canada (including physicians, nurses, and other health professionals), in order to understand the nature and frequency of the ethical issues they face as a consequence of their involvement in resource allocation decisions, and to identify mechanisms for dealing with these problems in their hospitals. Based on the survey results, we developed a Management Ethics Framework to assist CMs to reach an ethically justifiable resolution of these types of problems, both individually, and in the context of their membership in the healthcare team. The results, and particularly the discussion that follows, represent a confluence of philosophical, clinical, and organizational perspective on ethics and resource allocation by clinicians.

  8. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process (United States)

    Booth, Sara


    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  9. Pipeline information system, a tool for making decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, R.P.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)


    Issues regarding the operation, maintenance, safety and inspection of the 11,000 km of pipeline located in 24 of the 32 Mexican states was discussed with focus on the technical information system that Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica established to integrate digitalized pipeline trajectory with several geographic maps and technical databases. The objective was to establish a means for technical consultation in decision-making processes. Most of the pipelines carry natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas or basic petrochemical products. Information managing and worker safety in surrounding populated areas requires an effective system to accurately locate transportation and distribution facilities. Pemex's technical information system makes use of a geographic positioning satellite (GPS) to show aboveground facilities and pipeline trajectory on digitized geographic maps. The system can also be used to manipulate technical databases, upgrade pipelines' cathodic protection values, plus measure and pinpoint regular or serious problems detected by internal surveillance inspection equipment. Some of the most important parameters that the system deals with is the integration of information on pipe construction codes, pipe thickness and diameter, design and construction year, and pipe maximum allowance pressure. The authors emphasized how important data transmission through digital media will be in the coming years. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  10. 77 FR 37390 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability... (United States)


    ... Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service. ACTION: Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming... Inviting Informal Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming...

  11. NOAA Climate Information and Tools for Decision Support Services (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Higgins, W.; Strager, C.; Horsfall, F. M.


    NOAA is an active participant of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) contributing data, information, analytical capabilities, forecasts, and decision support services to the Climate Services Partnership (CSP). These contributions emerge from NOAA's own climate services, which have evolved to respond to the urgent and growing need for reliable, trusted, transparent, and timely climate information across all sectors of the U.S. economy. Climate services not only enhance development opportunities in many regions, but also reduce vulnerability to climate change around the world. The NOAA contribution lies within the NOAA Climate Goal mission, which is focusing its efforts on four key climate priority areas: water, extremes, coastal inundation, and marine ecosystems. In order to make progress in these areas, NOAA is exploiting its fundamental capabilities, including foundational research to advance understanding of the Earth system, observations to preserve and build the climate data record and monitor changes in climate conditions, climate models to predict and project future climate across space and time scales, and the development and delivery of decision support services focused on risk management. NOAA's National Weather Services (NWS) is moving toward provision of Decision Support Services (DSS) as a part of the Roadmap on the way to achieving a Weather Ready National (WRN) strategy. Both short-term and long-term weather, water, and climate information are critical for DSS and emergency services and have been integrated into NWS in the form of pilot projects run by National and Regional Operations Centers (NOC and ROCs respectively) as well as several local offices. Local offices with pilot projects have been focusing their efforts on provision of timely and actionable guidance for specific tasks such as DSS in support of Coastal Environments and Integrated Environmental Studies. Climate information in DSS extends the concept of climate services to

  12. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience (United States)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry


    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  13. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chung


    Full Text Available Background Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies.Objective To explore Bruce’s framework of informed decision making (IDM for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders.Method The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis.Results Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension.Conclusion This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  14. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Toan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation, and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for

  15. Settling decisions and heterospecific social information use in shrikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hromada

    Full Text Available Animals often settle near competitors, a behavior known as social attraction, which belies standard habitat selection theory. Two hypotheses account for these observations: individuals obtain Allee benefits mediated by the physical presence of a competitor, or they use successfully settled individual as a source of information indicating the location of high quality habitat. We evaluated these hypotheses experimentally in two species of shrikes. These passerine birds with a raptor-like mode of life impale prey to create larders that serve as an indicator of male/habitat quality. Thus, two forms of indirect information are available in our system: a successfully settled shrike and its larder. Typically these two cues are associated with each other, however, our experimental treatment created an unnatural situation by disassociating them. We manipulated the presence of larders of great grey shrikes and examined the settling decisions of red-backed shrikes within and outside the great grey shrike territories. Male red-backed shrikes did not settle sooner on plots with great grey shrikes compared to plots that only contained artificial larders indicating that red-backed shrikes do not use the physical presence of a great grey shrike when making settling decisions which is inconsistent with the Allee effect hypothesis. In contrast, for all plots without great grey shrikes, red-backed shrikes settled, paired and laid clutches sooner on plots with larders compared to plots without larders. We conclude that red-backed shrikes use larders of great grey shrikes as a cue to rapidly assess habitat quality.

  16. Risk Engineering, Sciences, Computation, and Informed Decisions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wrong decisions during the missions can lead to an unsafe condition or immediate failure, while correct decisions can help continue the missions even from faulty...

  17. The Demise of Decision Making: How Information Superiority Degrades Our Ability to Make Decisions (United States)


    decision-making-process.html. 4 Gary A. Klein, Sources of Power : How People Make Decisions (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999), eBook Collection...and Giroux, 2011. Klein, Gary A. Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost

  18. Clinical decision support for perioperative information management systems. (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M


    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems are being used to optimize the increasingly complex care that our health care system delivers. These systems have become increasingly important in the delivery of perioperative care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular procedures. The adoption of perioperative information management systems (PIMS) has allowed these technologies to enter the operating room and support the clinical work flow of anesthesiologists and operational processes. Constructing effective CDS systems necessitates an understanding of operative work flow and technical considerations as well as achieving integration with existing information systems. In this review, we describe published examples of CDS for PIMS, including support for cardiopulmonary bypass separation physiological alarms, β-blocker guideline adherence, enhanced revenue capture for arterial line placement, and detection of hemodynamic monitoring gaps. Although these and other areas are amenable to CDS systems, the challenges of latency and data reliability represent fundamental limitations on the potential application of these tools to specific types of clinical issues. Ultimately, we expect that CDS will remain an important tool in our efforts to optimize the quality of care delivered.

  19. Diabetes and disabilities: assistive tools, services, and information. (United States)

    Bartos, Bonnie J; Cleary, Margaret E; Kleinbeck, Connie; Petzinger, Ruth Ann; Sokol-McKay, Debra A; Whittington, Anne; Williams, Ann S


    The purpose of this guide is to provide diabetes educators with a comprehensive list of assistive tools, services, and information for diabetes self-management for people with visual, manual, and hearing disabilities. A list of tools and products has been compiled by members of the Disabilities Specialty Practice Group (DSPG) and is updated periodically. The original list was assembled in 1988 with the support of a grant from the Diabetes Research and Education Foundation, Bridgewater, New Jersey. The last revised list was titled "Diabetes Aids and Products for People With Visual or Physical Impairment" and was published in Diabetes Educ. 1992;18:121-138. In addition to tools and products, organizations that provide services and information for people with disabilities are provided to diabetes educators.

  20. The Impact of Management Information Systems Adoption in Managerial Decision Making: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hasan


    Full Text Available Data are the lifeblood of today’s organizations, and the effective and efficient management of data is considered an integral part of organizational strategy. Successful organizations should collect high quality data which will lead to high quality of information. For a successful and effective managerial decision making, it is necessary to provide accurate, timely and relevant information to decision makers. Management Information System is type of information systems that take internal data from the system and summarized it to meaningful and useful forms as management reports to use in managerial decision making. Management information system improves information quality and subsequently affects on managerial decision-making. This research provides a better and clearer understanding of technology adoption and information system success in managerial decision making by reviewing current literature. The expected outcome of this study is propose integrated model for MIS and managerial decision making.

  1. Group Decision-Making Information Security Risk Assessment Based on AHP and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowen Tan


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of over-reliance on subjective assignment is a challenging task in the information security risk assessment process. This study deals with this problem. We have presented a group decisionmaking information security risk assessment method by combining Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with Information entropy. When AHP is used to assess the security risk of information systems, the elements of the Criteria level are the risk probability, impact and uncontrollability. The priorities of the Alternatives as risk factors with respect to the Criteria level are determined by applying the group decision-making approach. And the experts’ weights are obtained through information entropy. The experts’ judgments are aggregated into a consensus matrix. The consensus matrix reduces the subjectivity of judgments due to the experts’ preferences.

  2. The use of personal digital assistants in clinical decision making by health care professionals: a systematic review. (United States)

    Divall, Pip; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Baker, Richard


    Ownership of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smartphones by health professionals is increasingly common. Providing the best available evidence at the point of care is important for time-poor clinical staff and may lead to benefits in the processes and outcomes of clinical care. This review was performed to investigate the usefulness of PDAs in the clinical setting. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 2000 to March 2010. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects on the processes or outcomes of clinical care of using PDAs compared with not using a PDA were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations and abstracts, assessed full text articles and abstracted data from the studies. Seven trials met the review inclusion criteria, of which only three were of satisfactory quality. Studies investigated the use of PDAs either in recording patient information or in decision support for diagnoses or treatment. An increase in data collection quality was reported, and the appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment decisions was improved. PDAs appear to have potential in improving some processes and outcomes of clinical care, but the evidence is limited and reliable conclusions on whether they help, in what circumstances and how they should be used are not possible. Further research is required to assess their value and ensure full benefits from their widespread use, but the pace of technological development creates problems for the timely evaluation of these devices and their applications.

  3. Informing Urban Decision Making with an Array of Things (United States)

    Jacob, R. L.; Catlett, C.; Beckman, P. H.; Sankaran, R.


    Over the next several decades, the population of the world's cities is projected to nearly double, increasing by 2.6 billion people and requiring massive urban expansion globally. This massive growth in urban density and scale will compound ongoing city challenges related to climate change, energy, infrastructure, public health, and more. Cities are using data they already collect such as 311 calls, bus and train operations, street repair orders, census data and building permits to help understand the complex interactions between the human, built and natural systems within a city and inform their decision making. Helping to guide urban decision-making is The Array of Things (AoT): a new tool for measuring many aspects of the physical environment of urban areas at the city block scale with continuous, reliable, integrated data from a variety of sensors. An AoT node includes multiple sensors to measure basic meteorological quantities such as pressure, temperature and humidity as well as light and trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. The sensors operate 24/7 with ingest frequencies as high as 1Hz. The nodes are modular and allow new sensors to be added or swapped out. The hardware/software backbone of an AoT node is provided by the Waggle architecture. Each AoT node includes, via Waggle, compute power from a single board computer running Linux that allows data to be processed in-situ and, if needed, command and control of components of the node. Data is communicated in near real-time typically through WiFi, 3G or wired ethernet to a designated host and resilience is built-in to prevent data loss if communication is disrupted. The AoT includes a software stack with a programmable API and cloud-based infrastructure for performing data ingest and further analysis. The first full instance of AoT will comprise 500 nodes deployed in the City of Chicago, each with power, Internet, and a base set of sensing and embedded information

  4. 75 FR 58374 - 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System) (United States)


    ... AGENCY 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System) AGENCY... Decision Information System (CADDIS). This Web site was developed to help scientists find, develop... information useful for causal evaluations in aquatic systems. CADDIS is based on EPA's Stressor...

  5. Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search after Decisions (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Fischer, Julia; Frey, Dieter; Crelley, David


    Previous studies on the impact of perceived threat on confirmatory information search (selective exposure) in the context of decision making have yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested that confirmatory information search is reduced, yet others have found contradictory effects. The present series of 5 studies consistently found that…

  6. What Defines "Enough" Information? How Policy Workers Make Judgements and Decisions during Information Seeking: Preliminary Results from an Exploratory Study (United States)

    Berryman, Jennifer


    Introduction: Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method:…

  7. 78 FR 71665 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information... (United States)


    ... of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information Collection... the General Services Administration set forth terms and conditions delegating FPB operation to the DOL, Office of the Assistant Secretary for ] Administration and Management (OASAM). The delegation sets...

  8. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions-- Readmission for Servicemembers....

  9. 77 FR 60413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions Non- Title IV Revenue Requirements (90/10)....

  10. What's New in Software? Current Sources of Information Boost Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction. (United States)

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.


    This article reviews current resources on computer-assisted instruction. Included are sources of software and hardware evaluations, advances in current technology, research, an information hotline, and inventories of available technological assistance. (DB)

  11. Management decision making for fisher populations informed by occupancy modeling (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Linden, Daniel W.; Royle, J. Andrew


    Harvest data are often used by wildlife managers when setting harvest regulations for species because the data are regularly collected and do not require implementation of logistically and financially challenging studies to obtain the data. However, when harvest data are not available because an area had not previously supported a harvest season, alternative approaches are required to help inform management decision making. When distribution or density data are required across large areas, occupancy modeling is a useful approach, and under certain conditions, can be used as a surrogate for density. We collaborated with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to conduct a camera trapping study across a 70,096-km2 region of southern New York in areas that were currently open to fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) harvest and those that had been closed to harvest for approximately 65 years. We used detection–nondetection data at 826 sites to model occupancy as a function of site-level landscape characteristics while accounting for sampling variation. Fisher occupancy was influenced positively by the proportion of conifer and mixed-wood forest within a 15-km2 grid cell and negatively associated with road density and the proportion of agriculture. Model-averaged predictions indicated high occupancy probabilities (>0.90) when road densities were low (0.50). Predicted occupancy ranged 0.41–0.67 in wildlife management units (WMUs) currently open to trapping, which could be used to guide a minimum occupancy threshold for opening new areas to trapping seasons. There were 5 WMUs that had been closed to trapping but had an average predicted occupancy of 0.52 (0.07 SE), and above the threshold of 0.41. These areas are currently under consideration by NYSDEC for opening a conservative harvest season. We demonstrate the use of occupancy modeling as an aid to management decision making when harvest-related data are unavailable and when budgetary

  12. Indicators of Informal and Formal Decision-Making about a Socioscientific Issue (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Lute, Michelle L.; Straka, Olivia


    We propose two contrasting types of student decision-making based on social and cognitive psychology models of separate mental processes for problem solving. Informal decision-making uses intuitive reasoning and is subject to cognitive biases, whereas formal decision-making uses effortful, logical reasoning. We explored indicators of students'…

  13. Integrating multimodal information for intraoperative assistance in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann U.


    Full Text Available Computer-assisted planning of complex neurosurgical interventions benefits from a variety of specific functions and tools. However, commercial planning- and neuronavigation systems are rather restrictive concerning the availability of innovative methods such as novel imaging modalities, fiber tracking algorithms or electrical dipole mapping. In this respect there is a demand for modular neurosurgical planning systems offering flexible interfaces for easy enhancement. Furthermore all relevant planning information should be available within neuron-avigation. In this work we present a planning system providing these capabilities and its suitability and application in a clinical setting. Our Multimodal Planning System (MOPS 3D offers a variety of tools such as definition of trajectories for minimally invasive surgery, segmentation of ROIs, integration of functional information from atlas maps or magnetoencephalography. It also supplies plugin interfaces for future extensions. For intraoperative application MOPS is coupled with the neuronavigation system Brainlab Vector Vision Cranial/ENT (VVC. We evaluated MOPS in the Department of Neurosurgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg. Surgical planning and navigation was performed in 5 frequently occurring clinical cases. The time necessary for planning was between 5 and 15 minutes including data import, segmentation and planning tasks. The additional information intraoperatively provided by MOPS 3D was highly appreciated by the neurosurgeons and the performance was satisfactory.

  14. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions (United States)

    Turner, Sheldon


    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  15. Design of a decision support system, trained on GPU, for assisting melanoma diagnosis in dermatoscopy images (United States)

    Glotsos, Dimitris; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Lalissidou, Stella; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Asvestas, Pantelis; Konstandinou, Christos; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Konstantina Nikolatou, Eirini; Perakis, Konstantinos; Bouras, Thanassis; Cavouras, Dionisis


    The purpose of this study was to design a decision support system for assisting the diagnosis of melanoma in dermatoscopy images. Clinical material comprised images of 44 dysplastic (clark's nevi) and 44 malignant melanoma lesions, obtained from the dermatology database Dermnet. Initially, images were processed for hair removal and background correction using the Dull Razor algorithm. Processed images were segmented to isolate moles from surrounding background, using a combination of level sets and an automated thresholding approach. Morphological (area, size, shape) and textural features (first and second order) were calculated from each one of the segmented moles. Extracted features were fed to a pattern recognition system assembled with the Probabilistic Neural Network Classifier, which was trained to distinguish between benign and malignant cases, using the exhaustive search and the leave one out method. The system was designed on the GPU card (GeForce 580GTX) using CUDA programming framework and C++ programming language. Results showed that the designed system discriminated benign from malignant moles with 88.6% accuracy employing morphological and textural features. The proposed system could be used for analysing moles depicted on smart phone images after appropriate training with smartphone images cases. This could assist towards early detection of melanoma cases, if suspicious moles were to be captured on smartphone by patients and be transferred to the physician together with an assessment of the mole's nature.

  16. Is information always a good thing? Helping patients make "good" decisions. (United States)

    Ubel, Peter A


    In most cases, patient preferences are crucial in making good health care decisions. For example, choices between chemotherapy and radiation treatment usually hinge on trade-offs that only patients can decide about. In recognition of the importance of patient preferences in clinical decisions, health services researchers have begun developing decision aids to help patients understand complex medical information. But these decision aids might lead to "bad choices"-choices that are inconsistent with people's stated preferences. In this paper, the author provides examples of how people make inconsistent medical decisions, and briefly discusses future directions for exploring ways of structuring information so that patients are less likely to make inconsistent choices.

  17. Improving Decision Making with Information Systems Technology – A theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mihane Berisha- Namani


    Full Text Available Traditionally, information systems were used to support operational functions and to reduce costs by automating many of business operations. As business has become more aware of the importance of information systems, the role of information systems has changed. From its conventional function of supporting business operations, today information systems are used to reduce business risks and to ensure that correct information is made available, so managers can make better decisions. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding how businesses are using information systems to achieve their goals. It specifically addresses more closely the impact that information systems have in improving the decision making. Althought limited this paper sets out to explore the importance of information systems in decision making and concludes that more attention should be paid to information systems usage for decision making purposes. Finally, suggestions for further research are made.

  18. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behavior with the computer-based information-display-matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, Ulrich


    The former judgement that the process-tracing method information-display-matrix (IDM) lacks external validity should be questioned in the light of technical advances and changing consumer behaviour. The new research environment offers possibilities for a close-to-realistic refinement and further...... development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  19. The neglected topic: presentation of cost information in patient decision AIDS. (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S; Robinson, Emily; Cantor, Scott B; Naik, Aanand D; Russell, Heidi Voelker; Volk, Robert J


    Costs are an important component of patients' decision making, but a comparatively underemphasized aspect of formal shared decision making. We hypothesized that decision aids also avoid discussion of costs, despite their being tools designed to facilitate shared decision making about patient-centered outcomes. We sought to define the frequency of cost-related information and identify the common modes of presenting cost and cost-related information in the 290 decision aids catalogued in the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute's Decision Aid Library Inventory (DALI) system. We found that 56% (n = 161) of the decision aids mentioned cost in some way, but only 13% (n = 37) gave a specific price or range of prices. We identified 9 different ways in which cost was mentioned. The most common approach was as a "pro" of one of the treatment options (e.g., "you avoid the cost of medication"). Of the 37 decision aids that gave specific prices or ranges of prices for treatment options, only 2 were about surgery decisions despite the fact that surgery decision aids were the most common. Our findings suggest that presentation of cost information in decision aids is highly variable. Evidence-based guidelines should be developed by the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration.

  20. Application of geographical information system technology to epidemiological surveillance and prevention and cure decision-making for SARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-hui; QU Jing-hui; XU De-zhong; YAN Yong-ping; ZHANG Heng; ZHANG Zhi-ying


    Objective:To expound geographical information system (GIS) technology is a very important tool when it was employed to assist to present the distribution by time and place and the model of transmission of infectious disease. Methods: We illustrated the assistant decision-making support function of GIS with an example of the spatial decision support system for SARS controlling in Shaanxi province of China which was developed by us. Results: The spatial decision support system established by applying GIS technology fulfilled the needs of real-time collection and management and dissemination SARS information and of surveillance and analysis the epidemic situation of SARS. Conclusion: Occurrence and epidemic of diseases, implement prevention and intervention measures and collocation hygienic resources are all with the characteristic of the variation of time and space, therefore, GIS technology has become a powerful tool for identifying risk factors of diseases, providing clues of causation of diseases, evaluating the effects of intervention measures and drawing a health management plan.

  1. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.


    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  2. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality. (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R W; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W


    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes.

  3. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R. W.; Ten Velden, Femke S.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.


    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes. PMID:28074896

  4. Decision Making: A Computer-Science and Information-Technology Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bohanec


    Full Text Available We address the phenomenon of decision making from the viewpoint of computer science and information technology. The basic question from this viewpoint is: what can the computer offer to decision makers and how it can support their work? Therefore, the main issue is to provide support to people who make complex decisions. In this article, we first present the taxonomy of disciplines that are concerned with methodological and operational aspects of decision support. At the main level, we distinguish between decision sciences, which are concerned with human decision making, and decision systems, which address computer decision making. This is followed by basic definitions related to decision processes and their components. We also describe properties that characterise different classes of decision problems. In the main part of the article, we present three prevailing approaches to decision support and give illustrative examples of their application: decision analysis, operational research, and decision support systems. Finally, we make a short overview of the area of decision systems and its achievements.

  5. A Tutorial on Probablilistic Risk Assessement and its Role in Risk-Informed Decision Making (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon


    This slide presentation reviews risk assessment and its role in risk-informed decision making. It includes information on probabilistic risk assessment, typical risk management process, origins of risk matrix, performance measures, performance objectives and Bayes theorem.

  6. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups. (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D


    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.

  7. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani


    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  8. Department of Veterans Affairs' Implementation of Information Security Education Assistance Program. GAO-10-170R (United States)

    Wilshusen, Gregory C.; Melvin, Valerie C.


    The Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006 authorizes the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to establish an educational assistance program for information security. The Information Security Education Assistance Program is envisioned as a means for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to attract and retain individuals…

  9. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick


    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  10. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana


    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  11. Thermodynamics as a theory of decision-making with information processing costs

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A


    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we propose an information-theoretic formalization of bounded rational decision-making where decision-makers trade off expected utility and information processing costs. As a result, the decision-making problem can be rephrased in terms of well-known concepts from thermodynamics and statistical physics, such that the same exponential family distributions that govern statistical ensembles can be used to describe the stochastic choice behavior of bounded decision-makers. This framework does not only explain some well-known experimental deviations from expected utility theory, but also reproduces psychophysical choice pattern captured by diffusion-to-bound models. Furthermore, this framework allows rederiving a number of decision-making schemes including risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) decision-making as well as more recent approximately optimal schemes that are...

  12. 76 FR 15993 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for Financial Assistance and Social Services (United States)


    ... Budget a revision to the information collection, titled ``Financial Assistance & Social Services, 25 CFR... OMB Control Number: 1076-0017. Title: Financial Assistance and Social Services, 25 CFR 20. Brief.... Respondents: Individual Indians seeking financial assistance or social services from BIA. Number...

  13. Assessing ecosystem services for informing land-use decisions: a problem-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Förster


    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services (ES, that aim at informing decisions on land management, are increasing in number around the globe. Despite selected success stories, evidence for ES information being used in decision making is weak, partly because ES assessments are found to fall short in targeting information needs by decision makers. To improve their applicability in practice, we compared existing concepts of ES assessments with focus on informing land use decisions and identified opportunities for enhancing the relevance of ES assessments for decision making. In a process of codesign, building on experience of four projects in Brazil, China, Madagascar, and Vietnam, we developed a step-wise approach for better targeting ES assessments toward information needs in land use decisions. Our problem-oriented approach aims at (1 structuring ES information according to land use problems identified by stakeholders, (2 targeting context-specific ES information needs by decision makers, and (3 assessing relevant management options. We demonstrate how our approach contributes to making ES assessments more policy relevant and enhances the application of ES assessments as a tool for decision support.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihu Liu


    Full Text Available Our main work in this study is to make a detailed discussion on the multi-criteria decision making with incomplete information systems. At first, an algorithm is constructed to retrieve the missing criteria values by taking into account the local similarity as well as global similarity of each two alternatives. Then, in view of different evaluation information representation, we establish different making methods for the corresponding completed information system. By transforming interval-valued information into intuitionistic fuzzy number, the cosine simi-larity measure based method is introduced to the decision making problem with interval-valued evaluation information. Moreover, the aggregation operator based method is established for set-valued information. Especially, we propose a novel decision making approach for the hybrid evaluation information from viewpoint of rough set theory. The validity of these decision making methods are demonstrated by corresponding synthetic examples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin


    Full Text Available The quality conditioning of an accountant's job corresponds thus with the competitive level in the company. The operationalization of the used specialty language, on the one hand and on the other hand the efficient management of the financial situation acquire a significant role regarding a strategic partnership at the micro and macroeconomic level in business as long as the managerial structures of understanding the economic reality are put in correlation with the accountant's socio-professional training in the firm/concern. Even if the professional accountant is paid by a determined client, which is the final beneficiary of the development service or audit financial statements, the information drawn from these financial statements are used by those who form the public. In this way, the accounting profession is distinguished from the other profession by accepting its responsibility to the public. There are numerous studies on an international level, dealing with various methods of improving the decision making process. The most competitive multinational companies have already considered the opportunities favored by financial adjustments, directed at streamlining the accounting functions and they have also trained professionals in the field of accounting that would successfully perform as business partners, thus assisting the decision making process within the organization. The financial adjustments have become essential for many companies that have thus gained a significant competitive advantage. The plan for improving the efficiency of the financial function is very clear, but the training of the business partners who would provide assistance in making decisions still remains a challenge. The economic perspective on the account reality highlights a pragmatic materialization, at the company’s level, of some specific skills designed to support the important role that the financial situations have. So, the individual significations of the

  16. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail:; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)


    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  17. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network. (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F


    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  18. Explicit representation of confidence informs future value-based decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Tomas; Jacobsen, Catrine; Fleming, Stephen M.;


    Humans can reflect on decisions and report variable levels of confidence. But why maintain an explicit representation of confidence for choices that have already been made and therefore cannot be undone? Here we show that an explicit representation of confidence is harnessed for subsequent changes...... of mind. Specifically, when confidence is low, participants are more likely to change their minds when the same choice is presented again, an effect that is most pronounced in participants with greater fidelity in their confidence reports. Furthermore, we show that choices reported with high confidence...... of confidence has a positive impact on the quality of future value-based decisions....

  19. Decision e Informacion en Solucion de Problemas. Publicacion No. 77 (Information and Decision Making in Problem Solving. Publication No. 77). (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.; And Others

    A technique using information and decision-making theories to evaluate problem solving tactics is presented. In problem solving, the process of solution is evaluated by investigating the questions that the subject doing the problem solving asks. The sequence of questions asked is called a tactic. It is assumed that: (1) tactics are the observable…

  20. Digital Decisions: Educators, Caregivers and Parents Must Be well Informed When Making Decisions about Children's Use of Technology and Media (United States)

    Pepper, Stephanie Puckett


    Increasingly, technology plays an important role in the daily lives of children, both at home and at school. Making informed decisions about the wise application and frequency of technology and media use can be both challenging and overwhelming for parents, caregivers and educators. Many issues surround the unwise use of technology and media by…

  1. Nutritional supplement products: does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active? (United States)


    Background The increase in sales of nutritional supplement globally can be attributed, in part, to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, rather than because the nutritional supplements have become more effective. Furthermore, the accuracy of the labelling often goes unchallenged. Therefore, any effects of the supplement, may be due to contaminants or adulterants in these products not reflected on the label. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine how consumers of nutritional supplements acquired information to assist their decision-making processes, when purchasing a product. The study was approved by the University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of seven, closed and open-ended questions. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to a defined list of statements. A total of 259 participants completed and returned questionnaires. The data and processing of the returned questionnaires was captured using Windows-based Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 SP 1 (Excel © 1985–2003 Microsoft Corporation). Statistica Version 10 (copyright © Stat Soft, Inc. 1984–2011) was used to calculate the descriptive statistics. Results The main finding of the study was that nearly 70% of the respondents who purchased supplements were strongly influenced by container label information that stipulated that the nutritional supplement product is free of banned substances. The second finding was that just over 50% of the respondents attached importance to the quality of the nutritional supplement product information on the container label. The third finding was that about 40% of the respondents were strongly influenced by the ingredients on the labels when they purchased nutritional supplements. Conclusion This study, (i) identifies short-comings in current labelling information practices, (ii) provides opportunities to improve label and non-label information and

  2. Dialogue and Decision Games for Information Exchanging Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, Henk-Jan


    Our aim is to model the decision-making and communication of software agents, such that justifications of their beliefs are preserved. To model this, we address the following issues. We provide a use-semantics for epistemic statements such that we can express what it means for an agent to believe pr

  3. Using Research Evidence to Inform Public Policy Decisions (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen


    The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…

  4. Human Information Processing Guidelines for Decision-Aiding Displays. (United States)


    5 4. Pachella, R. G. "The Interpretation of Reaction Time in Information Processing Research." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Pro- cessing... Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Proces- sing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974. 65...Finite Number of Inputs." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Processing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence

  5. Ability of online drug databases to assist in clinical decision-making with infectious disease therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebrock Jennifer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease (ID is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. However, there is a dearth of information on the abilities of CDSTs, such as drug information databases. This study evaluated online drug information databases when answering infectious disease-specific queries. Methods Eight subscription drug information databases: American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information (AHFS, Clinical Pharmacology (CP, Epocrates Online Premium (EOP, Facts & Comparisons 4.0 Online (FC, Lexi-Comp (LC, Lexi-Comp with AHFS (LC-AHFS, Micromedex (MM, and PEPID PDC (PPDC and six freely accessible: DailyMed (DM, DIOne (DIO, Epocrates Online Free (EOF, Internet Drug Index (IDI, Johns Hopkins ABX Guide (JHAG, and Medscape Drug Reference (MDR were evaluated for their scope (presence of an answer and completeness (on a 3-point scale in answering 147 infectious disease-specific questions. Questions were divided among five classifications: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, and vaccination/immunization. Classifications were further divided into categories (e.g., dosage, administration, emerging resistance, synergy, and spectrum of activity. Databases were ranked based on scope and completeness scores. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to determine differences between individual databases and between subscription and free databases. Results Scope scores revealed three discrete tiers of database performance: Tier 1 (82-77%, Tier 2 (73-65% and Tier 3 (56-41% which were significantly different from each other (p Conclusion Drug information databases used in ID practice as CDSTs can be valuable resources. MM, MDR, LC-AHFS, AHFS, and CP were shown to be superior in their scope and completeness of information, and MM, AHFS, and MDR provided no erroneous answers. There is room for improvement in

  6. Information search in health care decision-making: a study of word-of-mouth and internet information users. (United States)

    Snipes, Robin L; Ingram, Rhea; Jiang, Pingjun


    This paper investigates how individual consumers may differ in their information search behavior in health care decision-making. Results indicate that most consumers still use word-of-mouth as a primary information source for health care decisions. However, usage of the Internet is increasing. The results of this study indicate that consumers who are most likely to use the Internet for health care information are single, younger, and less educated, whereas consumers who are most likely to use word-of-mouth are middle-aged, married, with higher income and higher education. Surprisingly, no significant gender difference was found in information search behavior for health care decision-making. The results also suggest that consumers with the highest tendency to use word-of-mouth are also the lowest users of the Internet in health care decision-making. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Balancing the presentation of information and options in patient decision aids: an updated review


    Abhyankar, P.; Volk, R.J.; Blumenthal-Barby, J.; Bravo, P.; A. Buchholz; Ozanne, E.; Vidal, D.C.; Col, N; Stalmeier, P F M


    Background Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals’ knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what const...

  8. Route Planning and Route Choice: An Empirical Investigation into Information Processing and Decision Making in Orienteering. (United States)

    Seiler, Roland


    Investigates kinds of map information selected and supplementary information desired by experienced orienteers. Reports that, based on lab and field studies, that contour lines were the most important map information, followed by information reducing physical or technical requirements. Concludes action theory is applicable to decision-making…

  9. 45 CFR 205.50 - Safeguarding information for the financial assistance programs. (United States)


    ... FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... recipients will be limited to purposes directly connected with: (A) The administration of the plan of the... the release of information cannot be obtained, the family or individual is informed whenever...

  10. 77 FR 55505 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information... (United States)


    ... of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; Agency Information Collection.... Agency: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management. Type of Review: Extension... respond to an information collection, unless it is approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  11. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program (United States)


    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal...

  12. Pricing and collecting decisions in a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jie; Govindan, Kannan; Li, Yongjian;


    The optimal decision problem of a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information structures is considered using game theory in this paper. The paper aims to explore how the manufacturer and the retailer make their own decisions about wholesale price, retail price, and collection....... The optimal strategies in closed form are given under the decision scenarios with symmetric information; moreover, the first order conditions that the optimal retail price, optimal wholesale price, and optimal collection rate satisfy are given under the decision scenarios with asymmetric information...... rate under symmetric and asymmetric information conditions. Four game models are established, which allow one to examine the strategies of each firm and explore the role of the manufacturer and the retailer in four different game scenarios under symmetric and asymmetric information structures...

  13. Fuzzy Decision-Making in Enterprise Information Management

    CERN Document Server

    Kahraman, Cengiz


    Information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense for many organizations. Intelligent information management is a set of processes and underlying technology solutions that enable organizations to understand, organize and manage all sorts of data types. This e-book provides a useful source of ideas, techniques, and methods for further research in intelligent information management.

  14. Combining Global and Local Information for Knowledge-Assisted Image Analysis and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezaris V


    Full Text Available A learning approach to knowledge-assisted image analysis and classification is proposed that combines global and local information with explicitly defined knowledge in the form of an ontology. The ontology specifies the domain of interest, its subdomains, the concepts related to each subdomain as well as contextual information. Support vector machines (SVMs are employed in order to provide image classification to the ontology subdomains based on global image descriptions. In parallel, a segmentation algorithm is applied to segment the image into regions and SVMs are again employed, this time for performing an initial mapping between region low-level visual features and the concepts in the ontology. Then, a decision function, that receives as input the computed region-concept associations together with contextual information in the form of concept frequency of appearance, realizes image classification based on local information. A fusion mechanism subsequently combines the intermediate classification results, provided by the local- and global-level information processing, to decide on the final image classification. Once the image subdomain is selected, final region-concept association is performed using again SVMs and a genetic algorithm (GA for optimizing the mapping between the image regions and the selected subdomain concepts taking into account contextual information in the form of spatial relations. Application of the proposed approach to images of the selected domain results in their classification (i.e., their assignment to one of the defined subdomains and the generation of a fine granularity semantic representation of them (i.e., a segmentation map with semantic concepts attached to each segment. Experiments with images from the personal collection domain, as well as comparative evaluation with other approaches of the literature, demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors. (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy


    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  16. Usability of clinical decision support system as a facilitator for learning the assistive technology adaptation process. (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and

  17. Ethnic differences in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Fransen; M.L. Essink-Bot; I. Vogel; J.P. Mackenbach; E.A.P. Steegers; H.I.J. Wildschut


    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess ethnic variations in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome and to examine the contribution of background and decision-making variables. METHODS: Pregnant women of Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese origin were recruited betwe

  18. The Interplay between Information and Control Theory within Interactive Decision-Making Problems (United States)

    Gorantla, Siva Kumar


    The context for this work is two-agent team decision systems. An "agent" is an intelligent entity that can measure some aspect of its environment, process information and possibly influence the environment through its action. In a collaborative two-agent team decision system, the agents can be coupled by noisy or noiseless interactions…

  19. Distributed Information and Group Decision-Making: Effects of Diversity and Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kooij-de Bode (Hanneke)


    textabstractOrganizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making s

  20. Models in animal collective decision-making: information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa


    Collective decision-making plays a central part in the lives of many social animals. Two important factors that influence collective decision-making are information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. Here, I bring together, and briefly review, basic models relating to animal collective decision-making in situations with information uncertainty and in situations with conflicting preferences between group members. The intention is to give an overview about the different types of modelling approaches that have been employed and the questions that they address and raise. Despite the use of a wide range of different modelling techniques, results show a coherent picture, as follows. Relatively simple cognitive mechanisms can lead to effective information pooling. Groups often face a trade-off between decision accuracy and speed, but appropriate fine-tuning of behavioural parameters could achieve high accuracy while maintaining reasonable speed. The right balance of interdependence and independence between animals is crucial for maintaining group cohesion and achieving high decision accuracy. In conflict situations, a high degree of decision-sharing between individuals is predicted, as well as transient leadership and leadership according to needs and physiological status. Animals often face crucial trade-offs between maintaining group cohesion and influencing the decision outcome in their own favour. Despite the great progress that has been made, there remains one big gap in our knowledge: how do animals make collective decisions in situations when information uncertainty and conflict of interest operate simultaneously?

  1. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.


    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that gr

  2. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.


    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  3. A Framework for Determining the Value of Diagnostic Information for Instructional Decision-Making (United States)

    Armstrong, David G.


    A procedure designed to help instructional decision-makers evaluate individual sources of diagnostic information in terms of their functional utility may add a desirable measure of precision to their instructional prescriptions for learners. (Author)

  4. JINR Digital Information Resources: Concept and Technological Decisions (United States)

    Borisovsky, Valery F.; Kalmykova, Lidiya A.; Kekelidze, Marina G.; Korenkov, Vladimir V.; Nikonov, Edward G.; Strizh, Tatyana A.; Filozova, Irina A.

    The report is dedicated to the problems of integration and effective use of the electronic informational resources of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Some possibilities are considered on organizing a unified and transparent access to various data sources as well as optimizing a scientific information retrieval.

  5. Social Positioning Theory as a lens for exploring health information seeking and decision making. (United States)

    Genuis, Shelagh K


    In this article I use Social Positioning Theory to explore the experiences of women as they interact with and make sense of evolving health information mediated by formal and informal sources. I investigate how women position themselves within their accounts of information seeking, and the influence of positioning on interactions with health professionals (HPs). Interviewed women gathered and valued information from a range of sources, and were likely to position themselves as autonomous, rather than collaborative or dependent. Faced with evolving health information, women felt responsible not only for information seeking, but also for making sense of gathered and encountered information. Participants did, however, value information provided by HPs and were likely to view decision making as collaborative when HPs fostered information exchange, appeared to appreciate different types of knowledge and cognitive authority, and supported women in their quests for information. Implications for shared decision making are discussed.

  6. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women. (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel


    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  7. 75 FR 35457 - Draft of the 2010 Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS) (United States)


    ... AGENCY Draft of the 2010 Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS) AGENCY... investigators find, access, organize, and share information useful for causal evaluations in aquatic systems... ``anonymous access'' system, which means that EPA will not know your identity or contact information...

  8. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control (United States)

    Morgan, Grayson B.


    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  9. Use of Value of Information in Healthcare Decision Making: Exploring Multiple Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, J.; Ramaekers, B.; Ramos, I.C.; Mohseninejad, L.; Knies, S.; Grutters, J.P.; Postma, M.; Al, M.; Feenstra, T.; Joore, M.


    BACKGROUND: Value of information (VOI) is a tool that can be used to inform decisions concerning additional research in healthcare. VOI estimates the value of obtaining additional information and indicates the optimal design for additional research. Although it is recognized as good practice in hand

  10. Framing of information: its influence upon decisions of doctors and patients. (United States)

    Marteau, T M


    Prospect theory postulates that decisions are influenced not only by probability and value of possible outcomes, but also by the manner in which these probabilities are presented. Variations in the presentation of the same information, in several areas of care, are considered to determine their influence upon health decisions of both doctors and patients. Three health-related predicaments involving varying levels of risk are presented either in a positive or a negative frame and were given to 74 medical students who stated whether they would advise a patient or be prepared themselves to undergo one of three medical procedures. The influence of framing upon these decisions was evident both when subjects responded as patients and as doctors, but its influence was bounded by the level of risk and the type of health decision. These findings raise questions concerning how probabilistic information should be presented to both patients and doctors to counteract the effect of framing upon their decisions.

  11. Improving Decision Making with Information Systems Technology – A theoretical approach


    Dr.Sc. Mihane Berisha- Namani; Mr.Sc. Albana Qehaja


    Traditionally, information systems were used to support operational functions and to reduce costs by automating many of business operations. As business has become more aware of the importance of information systems, the role of information systems has changed. From its conventional function of supporting business operations, today information systems are used to reduce business risks and to ensure that correct information is made available, so managers can make better decisions. The purpose ...

  12. Classification decision tree algorithm assisting in diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodule by SPECT/CT fusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Yongqian; Guo Youmin; Jin Chenwang; Liu Min; Yang Aimin; Wang Qiuping; Niu Gang


    Objective To develop a classification tree algorithm to improve diagnostic performances of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT fusion imaging in differentiating solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods Forty-four SPNs, including 30 malignant cases and 14 benign ones that were eventually pathologically identified, were included in this prospective study. All patients received 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT scanning at an early stage and a delayed stage before operation. Thirty predictor variables, including 11 clinical variables, 4 variables of emission and 15 variables of transmission information from SPECT/CT scanning, were analyzed independently by the classification tree algorithm and radiological residents. Diagnostic rules were demonstrated in tree-topology, and diagnostic performances were compared with Area under Curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). Results A classification decision tree with lowest relative cost of 0.340 was developed for 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT scanning in which the value of Target/Normal region of 99Tcm-MIBI uptake in the delayed stage and in the early stage, age, cough and specula sign were five most important contributors. The sensitivity and specificity were 93.33% and 78. 57e, respectively, a little higher than those of the expert. The sensitivity and specificity by residents of Grade one were 76.67% and 28.57%, respectively, and AUC of CART and expert was 0.886±0.055 and 0.829±0.062, respectively, and the corresponding AUC of residents was 0.566±0.092. Comparisons of AUCs suggest that performance of CART was similar to that of expert (P=0.204), but greater than that of residents (P<0.001). Conclusion Our data mining technique using classification decision tree has a much higher accuracy than residents. It suggests that the application of this algorithm will significantly improve the diagnostic performance of residents.

  13. Public Health Triangulation to inform decision-making in Belgium. (United States)

    Bossuyt, N; Van Casteren, V; Goderis, G; Wens, J; Moreels, S; Vanthomme, K; De Clercq, E


    We assessed the impact of a nation-wide ambulatory care complex intervention (the "care trajectory program") on quality of care in Belgium. We used the three-step public health triangulation method described in this paper and data from four different data sources: a national reimbursement database, an electronic patient record-based general practitioner network, the Belgian general practitioner sentinel network, and a new national registry for care trajectory patients. By applying our method and using the available evidence, we identified key findings that have been accepted by experts and stakeholders. We also produced timely recommendations for the decision-making process, four years after the start of the care trajectory program.

  14. Accounting Information in a Business Decision-Making Process – Evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ježovita Ana


    Full Text Available The objective of the conducted research includes examining importance of financial statements and financial statements analysis in business decision-making process. Conducted empirical research is focused on analysis of determining and evaluating the frequency of using accounting data and annual financial statements within the business decision-making process. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that more than 60% of examines frequently use accounting information and information available from annual financial statements within business decision-making process, and that they are familiar with methods of using technics of financial statements analysis for purposes of evaluating financial position and business efficiency.

  15. Delivering information: A descriptive study of Australian women’s information needs for decision-making about birth facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Rachel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is known about what information women want when choosing a birth facility. The objective of this study was to inform the development of a consumer decision support tool about birth facility by identifying the information needs of maternity care consumers in Queensland, Australia. Methods Participants were 146 women residing in both urban and rural areas of Queensland, Australia who were pregnant and/or had recently given birth. A cross-sectional survey was administered in which participants were asked to rate the importance of 42 information items to their decision-making about birth facility. Participants could also provide up to ten additional information items of interest in an open-ended question. Results On average, participants rated 30 of the 42 information items as important to decision-making about birth facility. While the majority of information items were valued by most participants, those related to policies about support people, other women’s recommendations about the facility, freedom to choose one’s preferred position during labour and birth, the aesthetic quality of the facility, and access to on-site neonatal intensive care were particularly widely valued. Additional items of interest frequently focused on postnatal care and support, policies related to medical intervention, and access to water immersion. Conclusions The women surveyed had significant and diverse information needs for decision-making about birth facility. These findings have immediate applications for the development of decision support tools about birth facility, and highlight the need for tools which provide a large volume of information in an accessible and user-friendly format. These findings may also be used to guide communication and information-sharing by care providers involved in counselling pregnant women and families about their options for birth facility or providing referrals to birth facilities.

  16. A new task format for investigating information search and organization in multiattribute decisions. (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt; Henninger, Mirka


    In research on multiattribute decisions, information is typically preorganized in a well-structured manner (e.g., in attributes-by-options matrices). Participants can therefore conveniently identify the information needed for the decision strategy they are using. However, in everyday decision situations, we often face information that is not well-structured; that is, we not only have to search for, but we also need to organize the information. This latter aspect--subjective information organization--has so far largely been neglected in decision research. The few exceptions used crude experimental manipulations, and the assessment of subjective organization suffered from laborious methodology and a lack of objectiveness. We introduce a new task format to overcome these methodological issues, and we provide an organization index (OI) to assess subjective organization of information objectively and automatically. The OI makes it possible to assess information organization on the same scale as the strategy index (SI) typically used for assessing information search behavior. A simulation study shows that the OI has a similar distribution as the SI but that the two indices are a priori largely independent. In a validation experiment with instructed strategy use, we demonstrate the usefulness of the task to trace decision processes in multicue inference situations.

  17. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  18. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences (United States)

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew


    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  19. Automation of information decision support to improve e-learning resources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Danchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. In conditions of active development of e-learning the high quality of e-learning resources is very important. Providing the high quality of e-learning resources in situation with mass higher education and rapid obsolescence of information requires the automation of information decision support for improving the quality of e-learning resources by development of decision support system. Methodology. The problem is solved by methods of artificial intelligence. The knowledge base of information structure of decision support system that is based on frame model of knowledge representation and inference production rules are developed. Findings. According to the results of the analysis of life cycle processes and requirements to the e-learning resources quality the information model of the structure of the knowledge base of the decision support system, the inference rules for the automatically generating of recommendations and the software implementation are developed. Practical value. It is established that the basic requirements for quality are performance, validity, reliability and manufacturability. It is shown that the using of a software implementation of decision support system for researched courses gives a growth of the quality according to the complex quality criteria. The information structure of a knowledge base system to support decision-making and rules of inference can be used by methodologists and content developers of learning systems.

  20. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel


    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents’ attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals’ demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several “upstream” climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  1. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions: The European Union Perspective. (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R; Garner, Sarah

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public participation can improve decision making, increase acceptance of decisions, and improve adherence to treatments. The assessment of risk versus benefit requires not only information on clinical outcomes but also value judgments about which outcomes are important and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. There are a number of mechanisms for capturing the input of patients, and regulatory bodies within the European Union are participating in several initiatives. These can include patients directly participating in the regulatory decision-making process or using information derived from patients in empirical studies as part of the evidence considered. One promising method that is being explored is the elicitation of "patient preferences." Preferences, in this context, refer to the individual's evaluation of health outcomes and can be understood as statements regarding the relative desirability of a range of treatment options, treatment characteristics, and health states. Several methods for preference measurement have been proposed, and pilot studies have been undertaken to use patient preference information in regulatory decision making. This article describes how preferences are currently being considered in the benefit-risk assessment context, and shows how different methods of preference elicitation are used to support decision making within the European context.

  2. Information search and decision making: effects of age and complexity on strategy use. (United States)

    Queen, Tara L; Hess, Thomas M; Ennis, Gilda E; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel


    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults' performance. Participants utilized 2 decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using process tracing software and an algorithm developed to assess decision strategy, we recorded search behavior, strategy selection, and final decision. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not more likely than the younger age groups to engage in information-minimizing search behaviors in response to increases in task complexity. Similarly, adults of all ages used comparable decision strategies and adapted their strategies to the demands of the task. We also examined decision outcomes in relation to participants' preferences. Overall, it seems that older adults utilize simpler sets of information primarily reflecting the most valued attributes in making their choice. The results of this study suggest that older adults are adaptive in their approach to decision making and that this ability may benefit from accrued knowledge and experience.

  3. 77 FR 60412 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance... (United States)


    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions Annual Fire Safety Report. OMB Control... postsecondary institutions to collect statistics on fires in on-campus student housing facilities, including...

  4. Environmental information systems - practicable decision aids. Umweltinformationssysteme - praktikable Entscheidungshilfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Environmental information systems are classified in documentation systems and environmental planning systems. In environmental information systems emphasis is laid on scientific documentation. Environmental planning systems, on the other hand, involve facts on the state of the environment with respect to the air, noise, water, soil, waste management, the ecology and nature conservation. They can be used as instruments for documenting trends in enviromental pollution and the state of the art in environmental engineering. The relation polluter-environment-enforcement plays a central role for the protection of the environment (integration in terms of the KMSYS). The 'trade and process-specific emissions' system already represents an instrument for the transfer of knowledge in the field of air pollution abatement (see, e.g., Clean Air Technical Code, and the backfitting of existing plants). (DG).

  5. The information value of early career productivity in mathematics: a ROC analysis of prediction errors in bibliometricly informed decision making. (United States)

    Lindahl, Jonas; Danell, Rickard


    The aim of this study was to provide a framework to evaluate bibliometric indicators as decision support tools from a decision making perspective and to examine the information value of early career publication rate as a predictor of future productivity. We used ROC analysis to evaluate a bibliometric indicator as a tool for binary decision making. The dataset consisted of 451 early career researchers in the mathematical sub-field of number theory. We investigated the effect of three different definitions of top performance groups-top 10, top 25, and top 50 %; the consequences of using different thresholds in the prediction models; and the added prediction value of information on early career research collaboration and publications in prestige journals. We conclude that early career performance productivity has an information value in all tested decision scenarios, but future performance is more predictable if the definition of a high performance group is more exclusive. Estimated optimal decision thresholds using the Youden index indicated that the top 10 % decision scenario should use 7 articles, the top 25 % scenario should use 7 articles, and the top 50 % should use 5 articles to minimize prediction errors. A comparative analysis between the decision thresholds provided by the Youden index which take consequences into consideration and a method commonly used in evaluative bibliometrics which do not take consequences into consideration when determining decision thresholds, indicated that differences are trivial for the top 25 and the 50 % groups. However, a statistically significant difference between the methods was found for the top 10 % group. Information on early career collaboration and publication strategies did not add any prediction value to the bibliometric indicator publication rate in any of the models. The key contributions of this research is the focus on consequences in terms of prediction errors and the notion of transforming uncertainty

  6. Utilization of Information Technology to Assist Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The advance of information technologies has provided educational reform with favorable material conditions and means of support. This paper is an attempt to explore the ways to utilize information technology to facilitate the development of modern translation teaching.

  7. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902... Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief...

  8. Improving Decision Making by Means of a Marketing Decision Support System


    Gerrit H. van Bruggen; Ale Smidts; Berend Wierenga


    Marketing decision makers are confronted with an increasing amount of information. This leads to a complex decision environment that may cause decision makers to lapse into using mental-effort-reducing heuristics such as anchoring and adjustment. In an experimental study, we find that the use of a marketing decision support system (MDSS) increases the effectiveness of marketing decision makers. An MDSS is effective because it assists its users in identifying the important decision variables a...

  9. Bounded rationality, abstraction and hierarchical decision-making: an information-theoretic optimality principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGenewein


    Full Text Available Abstraction and hierarchical information-processing are hallmarks of human and animal intelligence underlying the unrivaled flexibility of behavior in biological systems. Achieving such a flexibility in artificial systems is challenging, even with more and more computational power. Here we investigate the hypothesis that abstraction and hierarchical information-processing might in fact be the consequence of limitations in information-processing power. In particular, we study an information-theoretic framework of bounded rational decision-making that trades off utility maximization against information-processing costs. We apply the basic principle of this framework to perception-action systems with multiple information-processing nodes and derive bounded optimal solutions. We show how the formation of abstractions and decision-making hierarchies depends on information-processing costs. We illustrate the theoretical ideas with example simulations and conclude by formalizing a mathematically unifying optimization principle that could potentially be extended to more complex systems.

  10. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.


    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information c

  11. 38 CFR 53.10 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. (United States)


    ... RETENTION OF NURSES AT STATE VETERANS HOMES § 53.10 Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. The Chief Consultant, Geriatrics and Extended Care, will make all determinations regarding..., notifications, and additional information. 53.10 Section 53.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans'...

  12. Integrated Risk-Informed Decision-Making for an ALMR PRISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Denning, Richard S. [Self Employed


    Decision-making is the process of identifying decision alternatives, assessing those alternatives based on predefined metrics, selecting an alternative (i.e., making a decision), and then implementing that alternative. The generation of decisions requires a structured, coherent process, or a decision-making process. The overall objective for this work is that the generalized framework is adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision-making modules that can perform a given set of tasks rationally, consistently, and reliably. Risk-informed decision-making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the supervisory control system is based on the control actions associated with an ALMR PRISM. Newly incorporated into the probabilistic models are the prognostic/diagnostic models developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These allow decisions to incorporate the health of components into the decision–making process. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic portion of the decision-making engine uses thermal-hydraulic modeling and components for an advanced liquid-metal reactor Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module. The deterministic multi

  13. Informed Consent Obtainment, Malpractice Litigation, and the Potential Role of Shared Decision Making Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren


    Internationally, there is increasing recognition of Shared Decision Making (SDM) and Decision Aids (DAs) as measures to increase patient involvement in – and satisfaction with - decision making (DM), improve health care communication, and address bioethical autonomy principles and informed consent...... (eg patient unawareness of intermittent adv. events, case 0658915). Findings confront the sometimes expressed opinion that patients just want the doctor to decide. Patients claim their right to DM participation and in many situations SDM DAs seem applicable. IC judgments may only display the tip...

  14. Towards an interoperable information infrastructure providing decision support for genomic medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Samwald, Matthias; Dumontier, Michel; Marshall, M Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; 10.3233/978-1-60750-806-9-165


    Genetic dispositions play a major role in individual disease risk and treatment response. Genomic medicine, in which medical decisions are refined by genetic information of particular patients, is becoming increasingly important. Here we describe our work and future visions around the creation of a distributed infrastructure for pharmacogenetic data and medical decision support, based on industry standards such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and the Arden Syntax.

  15. Using outcomes to inform social decision-making in schizophrenia: Implications for motivation and functioning


    Campellone, Timothy Ryan


    The outcomes of decisions we make are integral for guiding our behavior. In this study, we investigated if and how people with and without schizophrenia use positive and negative social outcomes and social partners’ emotional displays to inform decisions to trust as well as whether they could detect reversals in behavior even as emotion displays remained unchanged. Thirty-two people with schizophrenia and 29 control participants completed a task where they decided how much trust to place in s...

  16. Online Health Information Impacts Patients’ Decisions to Seek Emergency Department Care


    Pourmand, Ali; Sikka, Neal


    Objective: To investigate the impact of online health information (OHI) and patients’ decisions to seek emergency department (ED) care. Methods: We conducted a survey of a convenience sample of 489 ambulatory patients at an academic ED between February and September 2006. The primary measure was the prevalence of Internet use, and the secondary outcome was the impact of OHI on patients’ decision to seek ED care. Results: The study group comprised 175 (38%) males. Mean age wa...

  17. Fuzzy Multi-Objective Decision Model of Supplier Selection with Preference Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Supplier selection is a multi-objective decision problem, which must be considered many objectives, someobjectives are qualitative, and others are quantitative. Meanwhile, manufacturer has preference for different suppliers.In this paper, a new multi-objective decision model with preference information of supplier is established. A practicalexample of supplier selection problem utilizing this model is studied. The result demonstrates the feasibility andeffectiveness of the methods proposed in the paper.

  18. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.


    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous......-variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate...... quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous-variable quantum-key distribution scheme...

  19. 'Should I Use a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System?' It Depends on Where Your Career Decision-Making Difficulties Lie. (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa; Krausz, Mina


    Examines the effectiveness of computer assisted career guidance system (CACGS) in reducing the career decision making difficulties of young adults in Israel. Difficulties were found to be highest for individuals who were prior to the pre-screening stage of the career decision making process and lowest for those who were at the choice stage.…

  20. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Beulen, Lean; van den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N


    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range of prenatal tests is expanding due to the development of new techniques such as non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), autonomous reproductive decision-making is increasingly challenging. In this study, a randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a web-based multimedia decision aid on decision-making regarding prenatal testing. The decision aid provided both written and audiovisual information on prenatal tests currently available, that is, prenatal screening by first-trimester combined testing, NIPT and invasive diagnostic testing through chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Furthermore, it contained values clarification exercises encouraging pregnant women to reflect on the potential harms and benefits of having prenatal tests performed. The use of the decision aid improved informed decision-making regarding prenatal testing. Of pregnant women allocated to the intervention group (n=130) 82.3% made an informed choice compared with 66.4% of women in the control group (n=131), P=0.004. As the vast majority of pregnant women made decisions consistent with their attitudes towards having prenatal testing performed, this improvement in informed decision-making could be attributed mainly to an increase in decision-relevant knowledge. This study shows that the implementation of a web-based multimedia decision aid directly facilitates the ultimate goal of prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities, which is enabling informed autonomous reproductive choice.

  1. Do as you say - Say as you do: Measuring the actual use of environmental information in investment decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus


    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed was based on an experiment where three groups were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts and information material from...... these companies. The overall conclusion of the paper is that even though environmental information is not enough in itself to shift decision preferences, it seems to have some impact on decision making. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between what decision makers say they do and what they actually do....... First, environmental information apparently has greater impact on decision making in the short run than the long run despite decision makers saying that they value environmental information more regarding long-run investments. Second, decision makers downplay the value of environmental information...

  2. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  3. Informing watershed connectivity barrier prioritization decisions: A synthesis (United States)

    McKay, S. K.; Cooper, A. R.; Diebel, M.W.; Elkins, D.; Oldford, G.; Roghair, C.; Wieferich, Daniel J.


    Water resources and transportation infrastructure such as dams and culverts provide countless socio-economic benefits; however, this infrastructure can also disconnect the movement of organisms, sediment, and water through river ecosystems. Trade-offs associated with these competing costs and benefits occur globally, with applications in barrier addition (e.g. dam and road construction), reengineering (e.g. culvert repair), and removal (e.g. dam removal and aging infrastructure). Barrier prioritization provides a unique opportunity to: (i) restore and reconnect potentially large habitat patches quickly and effectively and (ii) avoid impacts prior to occurrence in line with the mitigation hierarchy (i.e. avoid then minimize then mitigate). This paper synthesizes 46 watershed-scale barrier planning studies and presents a procedure to guide barrier prioritization associated with connectivity for aquatic organisms. We focus on practical issues informing prioritization studies such as available data sets, methods, techniques, and tools. We conclude with a discussion of emerging trends and issues in barrier prioritization and key opportunities for enhancing the body of knowledge.

  4. Fuzzy logics acquisition and simulation modules for expert systems to assist operator`s decision for nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averkin, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Computer centre


    A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator`s decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator`s way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system.

  5. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter


    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  6. Randomised cluster trial to support informed parental decision-making for the MMR vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekker Hilary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK public concern about the safety of the combined measles, mumps and rubella [MMR] vaccine continues to impact on MMR coverage. Whilst the sharp decline in uptake has begun to level out, first and second dose uptake rates remain short of that required for population immunity. Furthermore, international research consistently shows that some parents lack confidence in making a decision about MMR vaccination for their children. Together, this work suggests that effective interventions are required to support parents to make informed decisions about MMR. This trial assessed the impact of a parent-centred, multi-component intervention (balanced information, group discussion, coaching exercise on informed parental decision-making for MMR. Methods This was a two arm, cluster randomised trial. One hundred and forty two UK parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from six primary healthcare centres and six childcare organisations. The intervention arm received an MMR information leaflet and participated in the intervention (parent meeting. The control arm received the leaflet only. The primary outcome was decisional conflict. Secondary outcomes were actual and intended MMR choice, knowledge, attitude, concern and necessity beliefs about MMR and anxiety. Results Decisional conflict decreased for both arms to a level where an 'effective' MMR decision could be made one-week (effect estimate = -0.54, p Conclusions Whilst both the leaflet and the parent meeting reduced parents' decisional conflict, the parent meeting appeared to enable parents to act upon their decision leading to vaccination uptake.

  7. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo


    Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.

  8. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues. (United States)

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M


    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity.

  9. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision. (United States)

    Dean, Marleah


    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.

  10. The Use of Metadata Visualisation Assist Information Retrieval (United States)


    aspect of the popularity scale (Ahlberg & Shneirderman, 1994). The different genres (including drama, mystery, comedy, western, horror , action etc...organised with metadata for each item within the library, providing information describing the author, the genre , the title, the publisher, the year it...album title, the track length and the genre of music. Again, any of these pieces of information can be used to quickly search and locate specific

  11. Information management to enable personalized medicine: stakeholder roles in building clinical decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinner Kristin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology and the scientific understanding of disease processes are presenting new opportunities to improve health through individualized approaches to patient management referred to as personalized medicine. Future health care strategies that deploy genomic technologies and molecular therapies will bring opportunities to prevent, predict, and pre-empt disease processes but will be dependent on knowledge management capabilities for health care providers that are not currently available. A key cornerstone to the potential application of this knowledge will be effective use of electronic health records. In particular, appropriate clinical use of genomic test results and molecularly-targeted therapies present important challenges in patient management that can be effectively addressed using electronic clinical decision support technologies. Discussion Approaches to shaping future health information needs for personalized medicine were undertaken by a work group of the American Health Information Community. A needs assessment for clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to support personalized medical practices was conducted to guide health future development activities. Further, a suggested action plan was developed for government, researchers and research institutions, developers of electronic information tools (including clinical guidelines, and quality measures, and standards development organizations to meet the needs for personalized approaches to medical practice. In this article, we focus these activities on stakeholder organizations as an operational framework to help identify and coordinate needs and opportunities for clinical decision support tools to enable personalized medicine. Summary This perspective addresses conceptual approaches that can be undertaken to develop and apply clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to achieve personalized medical care. In


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anchored in reflecting reality, as secular science and practice, accounting has demonstrated continuously opening towards progress and social involvement. The information provided by operators underlie the economic and political decision of a wide range of users. The variety of funding determines the specific behavior of the company. In an economic environment with largely financing through bank loans, companies and their creditors directs its decision in particular on collateral, receivables and payables at a time. In an environment with its own financing, the interests of users of accounting information is moving mainly on growth equity, results and cash holdings.

  13. Regional System for Planting Resources Management and Assistant Decision-Making Based on GIS%基于GIS的区域种植业资源管理与辅助决策系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟杰; 史同鑫; 张俊; 王秀徽; 李素梅


      Planting resource is an important part of agricultural resources, and Information management of planting resource is an important safeguard for sustainable development of regional modern agriculture. Regional system for planting resources management and assistant decision-making was designed and developed based on GIS, which applied XML, webservices and WebGIS as core technology, and built five subsystems for soil quality assessment, management and decision-making of fertility, agricultural production management, evaluation of crops suitability, and evaluation of crops layout. The system was applied in zhongshan city of Guangdong province. The results show that, we could describe and manage planting resource effectively using system, and make sharing between data and service. Thus,we can provide information service and technical support for informatization of regional agricultural resources and scientific decision-making of agricultural production practice.

  14. Allocating health care: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, or the veil of ignorance? (United States)

    Goold, S D


    Assuming that rationing health care is unavoidable, and that it requires moral reasoning, how should we allocate limited health care resources? This question is difficult because our pluralistic, liberal society has no consensus on a conception of distributive justice. In this article I focus on an alternative: Who shall decide how to ration health care, and how shall this be done to respect autonomy, pluralism, liberalism, and fairness? I explore three processes for making rationing decisions: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, and applications of the veil of ignorance. I evaluate these processes as examples of procedural justice, assuming that there is no outcome considered the most just. I use consent as a criterion to judge competing processes so that rationing decisions are, to some extent, self-imposed. I also examine the processes' feasibility in our current health care system. Cost-utility analysis does not meet criteria for actual or presumed consent, even if costs and health-related utility could be measured perfectly. Existing structures of government cannot creditably assimilate the information required for sound rationing decisions, and grassroots efforts are not representative. Applications of the veil of ignorance are more useful for identifying principles relevant to health care rationing than for making concrete rationing decisions. I outline a process of decision making, specifically for health care, that relies on substantive, selected representation, respects pluralism, liberalism, and deliberative democracy, and could be implemented at the community or organizational level.

  15. Robust CO2 Injection: Application of Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory (United States)

    Grasinger, M.; O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Karra, S.


    Carbon capture and sequestration has the potential to reduce greenhouse gasemissions. However, care must be taken when choosing a site for CO2 seques-tration to ensure that the CO2 remains sequestered for many years, and thatthe environment is not harmed in any way. Making a rational decision be-tween potential sites for sequestration is not without its challenges because, asin the case of many environmental and subsurface problems, there is a lot ofuncertainty that exists. A method for making decisions under various typesand severities of uncertainty, Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIGDT), is presented. BIG DT was coupled with a numerical model for CO2 wellinjection and the resulting framework was then applied to a problem of selectingbetween two potential sites for CO2 sequestration. The results of the analysisare presented, followed by a discussion of the decision process.

  16. Foundations for context-aware information retrieval for proactive decision support (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Lin, Jessica; Li, Qingzhe; Gao, Yifeng; Rangwala, Huzefa; Shargo, Peter; Robinson, Joshua; Rose, Carolyn; Tunison, Paul; Turek, Matt; Thomas, Stephen; Hanselman, Phil


    Intelligence analysts and military decision makers are faced with an onslaught of information. From the now ubiquitous presence of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms providing large volumes of sensor data, to vast amounts of open source data in the form of news reports, blog postings, or social media postings, the amount of information available to a modern decision maker is staggering. Whether tasked with leading a military campaign or providing support for a humanitarian mission, being able to make sense of all the information available is a challenge. Due to the volume and velocity of this data, automated tools are required to help support reasoned, human decisions. In this paper we describe several automated techniques that are targeted at supporting decision making. Our approaches include modeling the kinematics of moving targets as motifs; developing normalcy models and detecting anomalies in kinematic data; automatically classifying the roles of users in social media; and modeling geo-spatial regions based on the behavior that takes place in them. These techniques cover a wide-range of potential decision maker needs.

  17. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar eAyal


    Full Text Available A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  18. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eFREY


    Full Text Available Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs. We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision. EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target, subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent, subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51-120ms after fixation onset spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400, reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N+1 and N+2.

  19. Probabilistic Decision Making with Spikes: From ISI Distributions to Behaviour via Information Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Caballero

    Full Text Available Computational theories of decision making in the brain usually assume that sensory 'evidence' is accumulated supporting a number of hypotheses, and that the first accumulator to reach threshold triggers a decision in favour of its associated hypothesis. However, the evidence is often assumed to occur as a continuous process whose origins are somewhat abstract, with no direct link to the neural signals - action potentials or 'spikes' - that must ultimately form the substrate for decision making in the brain. Here we introduce a new variant of the well-known multi-hypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT for decision making whose evidence observations consist of the basic unit of neural signalling - the inter-spike interval (ISI - and which is based on a new form of the likelihood function. We dub this mechanism s-MSPRT and show its precise form for a range of realistic ISI distributions with positive support. In this way we show that, at the level of spikes, the refractory period may actually facilitate shorter decision times, and that the mechanism is robust against poor choice of the hypothesized data distribution. We show that s-MSPRT performance is related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD or information gain between ISI distributions, through which we are able to link neural signalling to psychophysical observation at the behavioural level. Thus, we find the mean information needed for a decision is constant, thereby offering an account of Hick's law (relating decision time to the number of choices. Further, the mean decision time of s-MSPRT shows a power law dependence on the KLD offering an account of Piéron's law (relating reaction time to stimulus intensity. These results show the foundations for a research programme in which spike train analysis can be made the basis for predictions about behavior in multi-alternative choice tasks.

  20. Depleting Capital? Race, Wealth and Informal Financial Assistance (United States)

    O'Brien, Rourke L.


    Recent work suggests that part of the racial gap in wealth is explained by racial differences in network poverty. In this article, data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 2005 and 2007 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) are used to demonstrate that middle- and upper-income blacks are more likely to provide informal financial…

  1. Information and communication technologies for informal carers and paid assistants: benefits from micro-, meso-, and macro-levels. (United States)

    Carretero, Stephanie; Stewart, James; Centeno, Clara

    The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT)-based services for informal carers and paid assistants of older people living in the community. We cross-case analysed the effects of twelve initiatives in the EU, the USA and Canada, based on their individual analysis documented through interviews with promoters and a literature review. We carried out the cross-case analysis following a variables-oriented strategy on seven dimensions of impact at micro-, meso- and macro-levels: the quality of life of informal carers and paid assistants, quality of life of care recipients, quality of care, care efficiency and sustainability, acceptability, and infrastructure and accessibility. ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants improve the quality of life of older people and their carers and access to qualified care. They also generate savings which contribute to the sustainability of the care systems. These findings constitute a first look at the benefits of the use of ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants. Nevertheless, more research using experimental methods is needed to demonstrate the impact of these ICT-based services at meso- and macro-levels. This would help to support policy-makers to deploy these technologies for long-term care delivery.

  2. Evaluation of DILearn: An Interactive Computer-Assisted Learning Program for Drug Information. (United States)

    Tunget, Cynthia L.; And Others


    Use of an interactive computer-assisted learning program to teach basic skills in obtaining drug information was investigated with 26 doctoral pharmacy students and a control group of 25 students receiving lecture instruction. Findings indicated no significant differences in short-term retention of drug information between groups and that students…

  3. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David


    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  4. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Van Den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; Van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N.


    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range o

  5. [Standards in information technology-assisted tumor documentation]. (United States)

    Altmann, U; Wächter, W; Dudeck, J


    Data standards are a irrevocable pre-condition for a variety of applications in information technology, e.g. documentation, communication, and analysis. For this purpose, contents as well as rules for the representation of contents have to be defined. Tumour documentation has a long standing tradition. This contribution shows, which standards exist, how they are related to each other, what they are used for, and which tools exist.

  6. SynBlast: Assisting the analysis of conserved synteny information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F


    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation In the last years more than 20 vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, and the rate at which genomic DNA information becomes available is rapidly accelerating. Gene duplication and gene loss events inherently limit the accuracy of orthology detection based on sequence similarity alone. Fully automated methods for orthology annotation do exist but often fail to identify individual members in cases of large gene families, or to distinguish missing data from traceable gene losses. This situation can be improved in many cases by including conserved synteny information. Results Here we present the SynBlast pipeline that is designed to construct and evaluate local synteny information. SynBlast uses the genomic region around a focal reference gene to retrieve candidates for homologous regions from a collection of target genomes and ranks them in accord with the available evidence for homology. The pipeline is intended as a tool to aid high quality manual annotation in particular in those cases where automatic procedures fail. We demonstrate how SynBlast is applied to retrieving orthologous and paralogous clusters using the vertebrate Hox and ParaHox clusters as examples. Software The SynBlast package written in Perl is available under the GNU General Public License at

  7. Assessing the value of risk: Perspectives on the role of risk information in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.; Smith, Graham; Maul, P. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)


    The authors of this paper profess no formal ethical or philosophical training from which to develop their position on Values in Decisions on Risk. However, as scientists with practical experience in carrying out a range of quantitative studies, we consider that we have some understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in environmental risk assessment. Moreover, in attempting to use the results of such assessments, we have observed some of the ways in which quantitative risk information is used and abused. In this paper, therefore, we offer a practitioner's perspective that underlines the essential role of risk as a tool to inform and guide decisions, while at the same time emphasising the need for its proportionate use in a complex arena. We draw on experience that includes assessments for radioactive waste management and disposal, but also incorporates a range of assignments where assessment of the scale of potential environmental liabilities was a critical factor in decision making. We do not pretend to offer a resolution to the challenges laid before this Symposium, but seek to explore common themes and lessons learned regarding the role of risk information in goal-setting, performance monitoring and the overall decision process. Policy makers and regulators must act responsibly to protect confidence, not just the health of people and the environment. In doing this, to ignore risk information as a key component of strategic thinking is equally as disproportionate as making it the sole basis for decision making. There is a clear need to explain better the basis of, and motives behind, decisions - not only in terms of transparency in risk assessment but also to distinguish between the scientific and the socio-political component of the argument.

  8. Human–Information Interaction with Complex Information for Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Albers


    Full Text Available Human–information interaction (HII for simple information and for complex information is different because people’s goals and information needs differ between the two cases. With complex information, comprehension comes from understanding the relationships and interactions within the information and factors outside of a design team’s control. Yet, a design team must consider all these within an HII design in order to maximize the communication potential. This paper considers how simple and complex information requires different design strategies and how those strategies differ.

  9. Doing the right things and doing things right : inpatient drug surveillance assisted by clinical decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmons, Pieter J.; Suijkerbuijk, Bas O.; Nannan Panday, Prashant V.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.


    Increased budget constraints and a continuous focus on improved quality require an efficient inpatient drug surveillance process. We describe a hospital-wide drug surveillance strategy consisting of a multidisciplinary evaluation of drug surveillance activities and using clinical decision support to

  10. Challenges in 3D Geo Information and Participatory Design and Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Cremers, A.H.M.; Kessens, J.M.


    The scope of 3D geo information applications is broadening to include for instance crises management and training. These new applications are no longer restricted to expert users, but aimed at involving a multitude of (non-professional) stakeholders in a participatory design and decision process. Th

  11. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.


    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate informatio

  12. Personalised risk communication for informed decision making about taking screening tests (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.G.; Evans, R.; Dundon, J.; Haigh, S.; Hood, K.; Elwyn, G.


    BACKGROUND: There is a trend towards greater patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Adequate discussion of the risks and benefits associated with different choices is often required if involvement is to be genuine and effective. Achieving both the adequate involvement of consumers and informed

  13. How Do Expert Soccer Players Encode Visual Information to Make Decisions in Simulated Game Situations? (United States)

    Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean


    The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Online Travel Agency Information and Traveler Destination Transaction Decisions (United States)

    Yerby, Dennis


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that available Online Travel Agency (OTA) destination information may have on a traveler's perceptions and intent in transaction decisions with that respective OTA. Specifically, this research examined a pleasure traveler's transaction perceptions and intentions with an OTA…

  15. Towards Informed Maintenance Decision Making: Guiding the Application of Advanced Maintenance Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiddens, W.W.; Braaksma, A.J.J.; Tinga, T.


    Advanced maintenance techniques (AMTs) are practices that can help practitioners to make better-informed maintenance decisions, such as ensuring just-in-time maintenance, corporate business planning or lifetime extension of physical assets. These techniques take the current, but preferably also the

  16. Towards Informed Maintenance Decision Making: Identifying and Mapping Successful Diagnostic and Prognostic Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiddens, W.W.; Braaksma, A.J.J.; Tinga, T.; Grubbström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.


    Advanced maintenance techniques (AMTs) are practices that can support informed maintenance decision making by taking the current, but preferably also the future state of physical assets into account. These techniques can be worthwhile to companies when they are well applied. However, only few compan

  17. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.


    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  18. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  19. Religious Coping and Types and Sources of Information Used in Making Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions. (United States)

    Bowie, Janice V; Bell, Caryn N; Ewing, Altovise; Kinlock, Ballington; Ezema, Ashley; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A


    Treatment experiences for prostate cancer survivors can be challenging and dependent on many clinical and psychosocial factors. One area that is less understood is the information needs and sources men utilize. Among these is the influence of religion as a valid typology and the value it may have on treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between race, religion, and cancer treatment decisions in African American men compared with White men. Data were from the Diagnosis and Decisions in Prostate Cancer Treatment Outcomes Study that consisted of 877 African American and White men. The main dependent variables sought respondents' use of resources or advisors when making treatment decisions. Questions also assessed men perceptions of prostate cancer from the perspective of religious coping. After adjusting for age, marital status, education, and insurance status, race differences in the number of sources utilized were partially mediated by cancer was a punishment from God (β = -0.46, SE = 0.012, p information used and the number of advisors utilized for treatment decision making for prostate cancer.

  20. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of the need for research-based information by decision-makers working in community-based organizations. It is part of a more comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy that seeks to understand both the content required and the format/methods by which such information should be presented. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions covered current practices, research use, and demographic information, as well as preferences for receiving research information. Three types of organizations participated: Children's Treatment Centres of Ontario (CTCs; Ontario Community Care Access Centres (CCACs; and District Health Councils (DHCs. The analysis used descriptive statistics and analyses of variance (ANOVA to describe and explore variations across organizations. Results The participation rate was 70%. The highest perception of barriers to the use of research information was reported by the CCAC respondents, followed by CTCs and DHCs. The CTCs and DHCs reported greater use of research evidence in planning decisions as compared to the CCACs. Four sources of information transfer were consistently identified. These were websites, health-related research journals, electronic mail, and conferences and workshops. Preferred formats for receiving information were executive summaries, abstracts, and original articles. Conclusion There were a number of similarities across organization type with respect to perceived barriers to research transfer, as well as the types of activities the organizations engaged in to promote research use in decision-making. These findings support the importance of developing interactive, collaborative knowledge transfer strategies, as well as the need to foster relationships with health care decision-makers, practitioners and policymakers.

  1. The Credit-Risk Decision Mechanism on Fixed Loan Interest Rate with Imperfect Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, decision mechanism of credit-risk for banks is studied when the loan interest rate is fixed with asymmetry information in credit market. We give out the designs of rationing and non-rationing on credit risky decision mechanism when collateral value provided by an entrepreneur is not less than the minimum demands of the bank. It shows that under the action of the mechanism, banks could efficiently identify the risk size of the project. Finally, the condition of the project investigation of bank is given over again.

  2. Information Processing at Successive Stages of Decision Making: Need for Cognition and Inclusion-Exclusion Effects. (United States)

    Levin; Huneke; Jasper


    Levin and Jasper's (1995) phased narrowing technique for tracking changes in information usage across successive stages of the decision-making process was combined with Huneke's (1996) "pull-down menu" extension of Payne, Bettman, and Johnson's (1988) software package for generating measures of information processing. Because this technique provided considerable data for each individual subject at each stage, we were able to focus on individual differences in information processing across stages, most notably differences related to need for cognition (NC; Cacioppo & Petty, 1982). In a computerized information search and decision task, 60 college students were first asked to narrow their options for purchasing a notebook computer to form a consideration set and were then asked to make a final choice from this set. At the consideration set formation stage, half the subjects were instructed to adopt a mindset to include options while the other half were asked to exclude options. Especially in the inclusion condition where subjects showed greater narrowing of options, high NC subjects processed information in a more focused manner with greater depth and breadth than did low NC subjects, and the quality of their selections tended to be higher. There was no evidence of widespread shifts in strategy as individuals moved from set formation to final choice but, as a group, high NC subjects were more successful at adaptive decision making. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Preference-driven biases in decision makers' information search and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Chaxel


    Full Text Available While it is well established that the search for information after a decision is biased toward supporting that decision, the case of preference-supporting search before the decision remains open. Three studies of consumer choices consistently found a complete absence of a pre-choice bias toward searching for preference-supporting information. The absence of this confirming search bias occurred for products that were both hedonic and utilitarian, both expensive and inexpensive, and both high and low in expected brand loyalty. Experiment 3 also verified the presence of the expected post-choice search bias to support the chosen alternative. Therefore the absence of a pre-choice search bias in all three studies was not likely to be due to our using a method that was so insensitive that a search bias would not be observed under any circumstances. In addition to the absence of an effect of prior preferences on information selection, subjects' self-reported search strategies exhibited a clear tendency toward a balance of positive and negative information. Across the three studies, we also tested for the presence of a preference-supporting bias in the evaluation of the information acquired in the search process. This evaluation bias was found both pre- and post-choice.

  4. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part II: Decision Experiments to Estimate Economic Value. (United States)

    Sonka, Steven T.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hofing, Steven


    Difficulty in evaluating the economic effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment to expanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and an empirical economic analysis was implemented in this paper as a mans to conduct such an economic evaluation. The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a major seed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision, wore provided forecasts of July and August temperature and precipitation. Their responses to that information were evaluated in terms of cost savings for the firm. Across the range of relevant parameter values tested, savings from the use of perfect forecast information were estimated to be 2% to 5% of production costs. Interestingly, imperfect forecasts of relatively adverse conditions were shown to have considerable value. For example, forecasts of adverse condition accurate only 50% of the time, wore shown to have about two-thirds of the value of perfect forecast information.

  5. Selecting essential information for biosurveillance--a multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Generous

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Biosurveillance defines biosurveillance as "the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels." However, the strategy does not specify how "essential information" is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being "essential". The question of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of "essential information" for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system.

  6. Selecting essential information for biosurveillance--a multi-criteria decision analysis. (United States)

    Generous, Nicholas; Margevicius, Kristen J; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina


    The National Strategy for Biosurveillance defines biosurveillance as "the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels." However, the strategy does not specify how "essential information" is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being "essential". The question of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of "essential information" for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system.

  7. Designing a Decision Making Support Information System for the Operational Control of Industrial Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Faradian


    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic is a new and innovative technology that was used in order to develop a realization of engineering control. In recent years, fuzzy logic proved its great potential especially applied to automatization of industrial process control, where it enables the control design to be formed based on experience of experts and results of experiments. The projects that have been realized reveal that the application of fuzzy logic in the technological process control has already provided us with better decisions compared to that of standard control technique. Fuzzy logic provides an opportunity to design an advisory system for decision-making based on operator experience and results of experiments not taking a mathematical model as a basis. The present work deals with a specific technological process ─ designing a support decision making information system for the operational control of the lime kiln with the use of fuzzy logic based on creation of the relevant expert-objective knowledge base.

  8. At the Intersection of Health Information Technology and Decision Support: Measurement Feedback Systems... and Beyond. (United States)

    Chorpita, Bruce F; Daleiden, Eric L; Bernstein, Adam D


    We select and comment on concepts and examples from the target articles in this special issue on measurement feedback systems, placing them in the context of some of our own insights and ideas about measurement feedback systems, and where those systems lie at the intersection of technology and decision making. We contend that, connected to the many implementation challenges relevant to many new technologies, there are fundamental design challenges that await a more elaborate specification of the clinical information and decision models that underlie these systems. Candidate features of such models are discussed, which include referencing multiple evidence bases, facilitating observed and expected value comparisons, fostering collaboration, and allowing translation across multiple ontological systems. We call for a new metaphor for these technologies that goes beyond measurement feedback and encourages a deeper consideration of the increasingly complex clinical decision models needed to manage the uncertainty of delivering clinical care.

  9. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA): A novel practical guidance for Climate Resilient Investments and Planning (United States)

    Jeuken, Ad; Mendoza, Guillermo; Matthews, John; Ray, Patrick; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Gilroy, Kristin; Olsen, Rolf; Kucharski, John; Stakhiv, Gene; Cushing, Janet; Brown, Casey


    over time. They are part of the Dutch adaptive planning approach Adaptive Delta Management, executed and develop by the Dutch Delta program. Both decision scaling and adaptation pathways have been piloted in studies worldwide. The objective of CRIDA is to mainstream effective climate adaptation for professional water managers. The CRIDA publication, due in april 2016, follows the generic water design planning design cycle. At each step, CRIDA describes stepwise guidance for incorporating climate robustness: problem definition, stress test, alternatives formulation and recommendation, evaluation and selection. In the presentation the origin, goal, steps and practical tools available at each step of CRIDA will be explained. In two other abstracts ("Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region" by Gilroy et al., "The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia, by Kucharski et al.), the application of CRIDA to cases is explained

  10. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad


    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  11. The Research of Spatial-Temporal Analysis and Decision-Making Assistant System for Disabled Person Affairs Based on Mapworld (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Yang, J.; Sun, Y. S.


    This system combines the Mapworld platform and informationization of disabled person affairs, uses the basic information of disabled person as center frame. Based on the disabled person population database, the affairs management system and the statistical account system, the data were effectively integrated and the united information resource database was built. Though the data analysis and mining, the system provides powerful data support to the decision making, the affairs managing and the public serving. It finally realizes the rationalization, normalization and scientization of disabled person affairs management. It also makes significant contributions to the great-leap-forward development of the informationization of China Disabled Person's Federation.

  12. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick


    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  13. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.


    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  14. Presenting evidence and summary measures to best inform societal decisions when comparing multiple strategies. (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R


    Multiple strategy comparisons in health technology assessment (HTA) are becoming increasingly important, with multiple alternative therapeutic actions, combinations of therapies and diagnostic and genetic testing alternatives. Comparison under uncertainty of incremental cost, effects and cost effectiveness across more than two strategies is conceptually and practically very different from that for two strategies, where all evidence can be summarized in a single bivariate distribution on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. Alternative methods for comparing multiple strategies in HTA have been developed in (i) presenting cost and effects on the cost-disutility plane and (ii) summarizing evidence with multiple strategy cost-effectiveness acceptability (CEA) and expected net loss (ENL) curves and frontiers. However, critical questions remain for the analyst and decision maker of how these techniques can be best employed across multiple strategies to (i) inform clinical and cost inference in presenting evidence, and (ii) summarize evidence of cost effectiveness to inform societal reimbursement decisions where preferences may be risk neutral or somewhat risk averse under the Arrow-Lind theorem. We critically consider how evidence across multiple strategies can be best presented and summarized to inform inference and societal reimbursement decisions, given currently available methods. In the process, we make a number of important original findings. First, in presenting evidence for multiple strategies, the joint distribution of costs and effects on the cost-disutility plane with associated flexible comparators varying across replicates for cost and effect axes ensure full cost and effect inference. Such inference is usually confounded on the cost-effectiveness plane with comparison relative to a fixed origin and axes. Second, in summarizing evidence for risk-neutral societal decision making, ENL curves and frontiers are shown to have advantages over the CEA frontier

  15. Data-Informed Decision Making on High-Impact Strategies: Developing and Validating an Instrument for Principals (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.; Ma, Xin; Reeves, Patricia L.; Burt, Walter L.; Rainey, J. Mark; Yuan, Wenhui


    In this study, the authors connect 3 streams of literature to develop an instrument for measuring the degree to which principals engage in data-informed decision making on high-impact strategies that are empirically associated with higher student achievement. The 3 literature streams are (a) the importance of data-informed decision making, (b) the…

  16. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.


    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  17. Modeling Protected Species Habitat and Assigning Risk to Inform Regulatory Decisions (United States)

    Montgomery, Robert A.; Rubeck-Schurtz, C. Nichole; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Roloff, Gary J.; Whalon, Mark E.; Olsen, Larry G.


    In the United States, environmental regulatory agencies are required to use “best available” scientific information when making decisions on a variety of issues. However, agencies are often hindered by coarse or incomplete data, particularly as it pertains to threatened and endangered species protection. Stakeholders often agree that more resolute and integrated processes for decision-making are desirable. We demonstrate a process that uses species occurrence data for a federally endangered insect (Karner blue butterfly), a readily available habitat modeling tool, and spatially explicit information about an important Michigan commodity (tart cherries). This case study has characteristics of many protected species regulatory decisions in that species occurrence data were sparse and unequally distributed; regulatory decisions (on pesticide use) were required with potentially significant impacts on a viable agricultural industry; and stakeholder relations were diverse, misinformed, and, in some situations, unjustly contentious. Results from our process include a large-scale, empirically derived habitat suitability map for the focal species and a risk ranking of tart cherry orchards with risk based on the likelihood that pesticide applications will influence the focal protected species. Although the majority (77%) of pesticide-influence zones overlapped Karner blue butterfly habitat, risk scores associated with each orchard were low. Through our process we demonstrated that spatially explicit models can help stakeholders visualize and quantify potential protected species effects. In addition, model outputs can serve to guide field activities (e.g., species surveys and implementation of pesticide buffer zones) that help minimize future effects.

  18. A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Bai


    Full Text Available Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches’ ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method’s rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.

  19. Online Health Information Impacts Patients’ Decisions to Seek Emergency Department Care (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Sikka, Neal


    Objective: To investigate the impact of online health information (OHI) and patients’ decisions to seek emergency department (ED) care. Methods: We conducted a survey of a convenience sample of 489 ambulatory patients at an academic ED between February and September 2006. The primary measure was the prevalence of Internet use, and the secondary outcome was the impact of OHI on patients’ decision to seek ED care. Results: The study group comprised 175 (38%) males. Mean age was 33 years old; 222 (45.4%) patients were white, 189 (38.7%) patients were African American, and 33 (6.7%) were Hispanic. 92.6% had Internet access, and 94.5% used email; 58.7% reported that OHI was easy to locate, while 49.7% felt that it was also easy to understand. Of the subjects who had Internet access, 15.1% (1.6, 95% CI 1.3–2.0) stated that they had changed their decision to seek care in the ED. Conclusion: This study suggests that Internet access in an urban adult ED population may mirror reported Internet use among American adults. Many ED patients report that they are able to access and understand online health information, as well as use it to make decisions about seeking emergency care. PMID:21691522

  20. Online Health Information Impacts Patients’ Decisions to Seek Emergency Department Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand, Ali


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of online health information (OHI and patients’ decisions to seek emergency department (ED care.Methods: We conducted a survey of a convenience sample of 489 ambulatory patients at an academic ED between February and September 2006. The primary measure was the prevalence of Internet use, and the secondary outcome was the impact of OHI on patients’ decision to seek ED care.Results: The study group comprised 175 (38% males. Mean age was 33 years old; 222 (45.4% patients were white, 189 (38.7% patients were African American, and 33 (6.7% were Hispanic. 92.6% had Internet access, and 94.5% used email; 58.7% reported that OHI was easy to locate, while 49.7% felt that it was also easy to understand. Of the subjects who had Internet access, 15.1% (1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0 stated that they had changed their decision to seek care in the ED.Conclusion: This study suggests that Internet access in an urban adult ED population may mirror reported Internet use among American adults. Many ED patients report that they are able to access and understand online health information, as well as use it to make decisions about seeking emergency care. [West J Emerg Med. 2011; 12(2:174-177.

  1. Opportunities and Examples for Integration of Socio-environmental Approaches to Support Climate-informed Decisions (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.


    Climate and environmental decisions require science that couples human and natural systems to quantify or articulate the observed physical, natural, and societal changes or likely consequences of different decision options. Despite the need for such policy-relevant research, multidisciplinary collaborations can be wrought with challenges of data integration, model interoperability, and communication across disciplinary divides. In this talk, I will present several examples where I have collaborated with colleagues from the physical, natural, and social sciences to develop novel, actionable science to inform decision-making. Specifically, I will discuss a cost analysis of water and sediment diversions to optimize land building in the Mississippi River delta (winner of American Geophysical Union Water Resources Research Editor's Choice Award 2014) and the development of a National Climate Indicator System that uses knowledge across the physical, natural, and social sciences to establish an end-to-end indicator system of climate changes, impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses. The latter project is in the process of moving from research to operations, an additional challenge and opportunity, as we work with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and their affiliated Federal agencies to establish it beyond the research prototype. Using these examples, I will provide some lessons learned that would have general applicability to socio-environmental research collaborations and integration of data, models, and information systems to support climate and environmental decision-making.

  2. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (In)formed Views (United States)

    Lundy, Laura; McEvoy, Lesley


    Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children's rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of…

  3. 77 FR 51021 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance... (United States)


    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General Provisions--Student Right To Know SUMMARY: The proposed changes to the current regulations require... undergraduate students, and completion and graduation rate data disaggregated by gender, race, and grant or...

  4. 76 FR 5192 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0170-Coastal Impact Assistance Program (CIAP... (United States)


    ...: 1010-0170--Coastal Impact Assistance Program (CIAP), Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY... extension of an information collection (1010- 0170). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of..., Virginia 20170-4817. Please reference ICR 1010-0170 in your comment and include your name and...

  5. 75 FR 54898 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Restrictions on Assistance to... (United States)


    ... hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal..., telephone numbers are not toll-free.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arlette Mussington, Office of Policy...-Dixon, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy, Program and Legislative Initiatives....

  6. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende


    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities.Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa.Method: In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens.Results: Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information.Conclusion: Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  7. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig


    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  8. Multi-criteria decision-making approach with incomplete certain information based on ternary AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang


    It is not uncommon in multiple criteria decision-making that the numerical values of alternatives of some criteria are subject to imprecision, uncertainty and indetermination and the information on weights of criteria is incomplete certain. A new multiple criteria decision- making method with incomplete certain information based on ternary AHP is proposed. This improves on Takeda's method. In this method, the ternary comparison matrix of the alternatives under each pseudo-criteria is constructed, the eigenvector associated with the maximum eigenvalue of the ternary comparison matrix is attained as to normalize priority vector of the alternatives, then the order of alternatives is obtained by solving two kinds of linear programming problems. Finally, an example is given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  9. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  10. Research on Decision-Making Support of Chineserural Land Tenure Information System (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Su, Hongyou

    Since 1949, the information of land tenure has a positive effect on defining the scope of collective land and state-owned land, implementing the system of cultivated land protection and land use control, designing general land use planning, etc. But as the economic and social development, the existing land tenure information is not appropriate anymore and results in many problems. The emphasis in the near future should be placed on establishing rural land tenure information system including cadastral management system, the uniform property registration system and cadastral management information system, defining the scope and content of various collective land ownership, securing peasants' land tenure rights, shortening the gap between urban and rural areas, all of which will guarantee the effective use of information of land tenure for the government's decision-making.

  11. Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer decision tool. (United States)

    Mayer, Lauren A Fleishman; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger


    Reducing CO2 emissions from the electricity sector will likely require policies that encourage the widespread deployment of a diverse mix of low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Public discourse informs such policies. To make informed decisions and to productively engage in public discourse, citizens need to understand the trade-offs between electricity technologies proposed for widespread deployment. Building on previous paper-and-pencil studies, we developed a computer tool that aimed to help nonexperts make informed decisions about the challenges faced in achieving a low-carbon energy future. We report on an initial usability study of this interactive computer tool. After providing participants with comparative and balanced information about 10 electricity technologies, we asked them to design a low-carbon electricity portfolio. Participants used the interactive computer tool, which constrained portfolio designs to be realistic and yield low CO2 emissions. As they changed their portfolios, the tool updated information about projected CO2 emissions, electricity costs, and specific environmental impacts. As in the previous paper-and-pencil studies, most participants designed diverse portfolios that included energy efficiency, nuclear, coal with carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas, and wind. Our results suggest that participants understood the tool and used it consistently. The tool may be downloaded from .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. A. R. Chitupe


    Full Text Available In recent years due to physical and mental stress in the working environments the cases of medicaldiagnosis using ECG are increasing up-bounds. The critical decisions in diagnosis referring to the normal ECG or indicative dysfunctions of the heart results into overlapped data values causing ambiguities. This research paper performs analytical processing and related mining to classify normal and abnormalities of the ECG. The ECG is agraphical representation generated due to polarities of the weak electrical signals generated in certain defined timely manner. With reference to time an ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as some special behaviour of the patient. ECG can be used to investigate heart abnormalities.

  13. Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations. (United States)

    Glick, Roger; Bish, Douglas R; Agca, Esra


    The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital's emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Serbin


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Decision-making model is offered for informational and educational systems. The study of multi-criteria model is carried out taking into account knowledge, reaction and doubt. Method. The model of material proficiency by the user is based on identification of the personal characteristics when operating with the system. As a result of personal characteristics tracking in the system, an image is formed for each user that can be used for identifying his state: knowledge level, proportion of error, handwriting information, etc. During registration the user is passing an input test. Multi-criteria test results are automatically stored in the user's personal database (agent matrix and accounted for psychological comfort, formation of the next system content, management of knowledge levels, decision-making when working with the system. The proposed method gives a more clear and "transparent situational picture" for objective decision-making. Main Results. Implementation of multi-criteria decision-making model contributes to the quality of distance education. Also, the method makes it possible to reduce the probability of guessing the correct answer, thus increases the objectivity of knowledge level evaluation in diagnostic systems for management of learning process based on remote technologies. Practical Relevance. Obtained theoretical results of the work are used in training systems on the basis of multi-criteria decision models. Thus, the proposed model leads to an increase in the average score of about 0.3-0.4 points and reduces the training time in 1.5 to 2.0 times.

  15. Collaborative distributed sensor management and information exchange flow control for multitarget tracking using Markov decision processes (United States)

    Akselrod, Dimitry; Kirubarajan, T.


    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative management of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. In addition to providing a solution to the problem of controlling individual UAVs, we present a method for controlling the information flow among them. The latter provides a solution to one of the main problems in decentralized tracking, namely, distributed information transfer and fusion among the participating platforms. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of UAVs, carrying out surveillance over a region, which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets with the goal to track confirmed targets and detects new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible, maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as an operation of a group of decision makers. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. A decision mechanism for collaborative distributed data fusion provides each UAV with the required data for the fusion process while substantially reducing redundancy in the information flow in the overall system. We consider a distributed data fusion system consisting of UAVs that are decentralized, heterogenous, and potentially unreliable. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  16. Consumer perspectives on information and other inputs to decision-making: implications for evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J


    This study is an exploration of mental health consumers' perspectives on information, including scientific information, and on other inputs to decision-making. Four focus groups were held with severely mentally ill consumers at two sites in the summer of 2005. Consumers varied in age, race and diagnosis. Participant responses were coded by theme and into subthematic categories. Implications for evidence-based decision-making included that: consumers desire and seek information about their illnesses and the mental health system; consumers identify scientific studies as information with special and welcome properties; and consumers also identify other influences on their decision-making, most of which fall under the "recovery" rubric.

  17. The impact of scientific information on ecosystem management: making sense of the contextual gap between information providers and decision makers. (United States)

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F


    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  18. Reconstruction of transcriptional network from microarray data using combined mutual information and network-assisted regression. (United States)

    Wang, X-D; Qi, Y-X; Jiang, Z-L


    Many methods had been developed on inferring transcriptional network from gene expression. However, it is still necessary to design new method that discloses more detailed and exact network information. Using network-assisted regression, the authors combined the averaged three-way mutual information (AMI3) and non-linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) model to infer the transcriptional network, and to obtain both the topological structure and the regulatory dynamics. Synthetic and experimental data were used to evaluate the performance of the above approach. In comparison with the previous methods based on mutual information, AMI3 obtained higher precision with the same sensitivity. To describe the regulatory dynamics between transcription factors and target genes, network-assisted regression and regression without network, respectively, were applied in the steady-state and time series microarray data. The results revealed that comparing with regression without network, network-assisted regression increased the precision, but decreased the fitting goodness. Then, the authors reconstructed the transcriptional network of Escherichia coli and simulated the regulatory dynamics of genes. Furthermore, the authors' approach identified potential transcription factors regulating yeast cell cycle. In conclusion, network-assisted regression, combined AMI3 and ODE model, was a more precisely to infer the topological structure and the regulatory dynamics of transcriptional network from microarray data. [Includes supplementary material].

  19. The Use of Decision Making Information: A Comparative Exploratory Study of Slovene Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ivankovič


    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify the use of decision making information, which will be provided by the management accounting system (MAS. The use of MAS information by general managers (GMS and department managers (DMS for measuring the performance of hotel enterprises will be investigated. The basis for the analysis is the contingence theory which was adapted to specific circumstances and conditions of the hotel industry. The analysis was performed on the basis of a questionnaire that was previously already used in the case of Australian hotels. The research is conducted on Slovene hotels that have more than 100 rooms. The results are the subject of comparison with the previous five year period. The results demonstrate that GMS actually differ from DMS with respect to their use of MAS information for making decisions. GMS and DMS do not use MAS information with the same frequency. Their satisfaction with MAS information is not equal and, furthermore, they do not use the financial and non-financial performance indicators with the same frequency.

  20. The Neural Substrate and Functional Integration of Uncertainty in Decision Making: An Information Theory Approach (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Fernández-Seara, María; Loayza, Francis R.; Heukamp, Franz H.; Pastor, María A.


    Decision making can be regarded as the outcome of cognitive processes leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Borrowing a central measurement from information theory, Shannon entropy, we quantified the uncertainties produced by decisions of participants within an economic decision task under different configurations of reward probability and time. These descriptors were used to obtain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlates of uncertainty and two clusters codifying the Shannon entropy of task configurations were identified: a large cluster including parts of the right middle cingulate cortex (MCC) and left and right pre-supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA) and a small cluster at the left anterior thalamus. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses using the psycho-physiological interactions model identified areas involved in the functional integration of uncertainty. Results indicate that clusters mostly located at frontal and temporal cortices experienced an increased connectivity with the right MCC and left and right pre-SMA as the uncertainty was higher. Furthermore, pre-SMA was also functionally connected to a rich set of areas, most of them associative areas located at occipital and parietal lobes. This study provides a map of the human brain segregation and integration (i.e., neural substrate and functional connectivity respectively) of the uncertainty associated to an economic decision making paradigm. PMID:21408065

  1. Clinical Decision Support for Whole Genome Sequence Information Leveraging a Service-Oriented Architecture: a Prototype (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M.; Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku


    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information could soon be routinely available to clinicians to support the personalized care of their patients. At such time, clinical decision support (CDS) integrated into the clinical workflow will likely be necessary to support genome-guided clinical care. Nevertheless, developing CDS capabilities for WGS information presents many unique challenges that need to be overcome for such approaches to be effective. In this manuscript, we describe the development of a prototype CDS system that is capable of providing genome-guided CDS at the point of care and within the clinical workflow. To demonstrate the functionality of this prototype, we implemented a clinical scenario of a hypothetical patient at high risk for Lynch Syndrome based on his genomic information. We demonstrate that this system can effectively use service-oriented architecture principles and standards-based components to deliver point of care CDS for WGS information in real-time. PMID:25954430

  2. Bootstrap Methods for the Empirical Study of Decision-Making and Information Flows in Social Systems

    CERN Document Server

    DeDeo, Simon; Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim


    We characterize the statistical bootstrap for the estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, with particular reference to its use in the study of large-scale social phenomena. Our methods allow one to preserve, approximately, the underlying axiomatic relationships of information theory---in particular, consistency under arbitrary coarse-graining---that motivate use of these quantities in the first place, while providing reliability comparable to the state of the art for Bayesian estimators. We show how information-theoretic quantities allow for rigorous empirical study of the decision-making capacities of rational agents, and the time-asymmetric flows of information in distributed systems. We provide illustrative examples by reference to ongoing collaborative work on the semantic structure of the British Criminal Court system and the conflict dynamics of the contemporary Afghanistan insurgency.

  3. Secondary students' use of social and natural world information in a land use decision context (United States)

    Kumler, Laura M.

    Many societal problems, including land use issues, are complex integrated human-ecological challenges that require an understanding of social and natural world connections. This dissertation investigates how secondary students perceive the social and natural world dimensions of land use, how they might act to support sustainable land use, and how Kaplan and Kaplan's (2008) Reasonable Person Model can inform teaching approaches to prepare students for such complex decisions and action-taking. The dissertation argues that subject compartmentalization in high schools adversely impacts students' abilities to use and to integrate information from various subjects to make a land use decision. Nine secondary science and social studies teachers and their students (n=500) participated in a quasi-experiment using pre- and posttests with treatment and comparison groups to gauge students' requests for social versus natural world information to make land use decisions. Students' self-reported actions and knowledge of actions to support sustainable land use were also measured. Additional data included classroom observations, teacher logs and interviews, and 52 student interviews. Results indicated that students requested social world over natural world information and preferred to consult with social scientists and stakeholders over natural scientists. Results also suggested that experiencing an integrated curriculum increased students' requests for natural world information relevant to the land use decision. Interestingly, this effect occurred even among social studies students whose teachers reported putting scant emphasis on the natural world curriculum content. Moreover, the type of course in which students experienced the curriculum predicted student information use. Finally, students were found to have a limited repertoire of land use actions and knowledge of actions and generally reported undertaking and thinking of individual actions such as recycling or trash pick

  4. The limits of scientific information for informing forest policy decisions under changing climate (United States)

    McLachlan, J. S.


    The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.

  5. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance. (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree


    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  6. Online information as a decision making aid for cancer patients: recommendations from the Eurocancercoms project. (United States)

    Maddock, Carol; Camporesi, Silvia; Lewis, Ian; Ahmad, Kafait; Sullivan, Richard


    A pan-European survey was conducted under the auspices of the FP7 Eurocancercoms project during the period September 2010-March 2011. It was designed to broaden public policy understanding of patients' specific needs when seeking online cancer information and aimed to identify gaps in the online cancer information provision across Europe. In this paper we describe the methodology and main findings of the Tenovus survey, and draw some recommendations on the use of online information as a decision making aid for cancer patients and their families, namely: (1) transparency and accountability of the sources of information presented online; (2) accreditation of information by different recognised forms of authority and expertise, i.e. both by health-care professional and by patients/public members belonging to patient advocacy groups; (3) scaling up of information: we envisage a 3-tiered system that would enable patients to access different levels of complexity and volume of information from summary to detailed; (4) embedding of custom search tools and interactive search technologies to allow users to define requirements tailored on their needs and be context-driven; (5) communication across discipline boundaries, as patients' and doctors' online communities have very little or no contact among one another. These recommendations were applied for building the online platform EcancerHub, also under the auspices of the Eurocancercoms project, which by bringing together the different cancer communities seeks to break down traditional information boundaries, and through the interactions produce a surplus knowledge that could aid patients in difficult decision making times.

  7. Informing Adaptation Decisions: What Do We Need to Know and What Do We Need to Do? (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.


    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such

  8. Computer-assisted information management for the pediatric residency review process. (United States)

    Kallen, R J


    Directors of training programs must systematically compile information on the patient population used for graduate education. The revised special requirements and application form of the Residency Review Committee for Pediatrics of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education call for detailed information on the patient-centered activities of residents. Since data on patient contacts cumulate rapidly, the Pediatrics Residency Program of the Mt. Sinai Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, instituted a microcomputer-assisted information management system. Under the system, a personal computer with a fixed disk and data-base management software provides the means for documenting the residents' patient contacts and learning experiences.

  9. Towards Quantifying Robust Uncertainty Information for Climate Change Decision-making (United States)

    Forest, C. E.; Libardoni, A. G.; Tsai, C. Y.; Sokolov, A. P.; Monier, E.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.


    The expected future impacts of climate change can be a manageable problem provided the risks to society can be properly assessed. Given our current understanding of both the climate system and the related decision problems, we strive to develop tools that can assess these risks and provide robust strategies given possible futures. In this talk, we will present two examples from recent work ranging from global to regional scales to highlight these issues. Typically, we begin by assessing the probability of events without information on impacts specifically, however, recent developments allow us to address the risk management problem directly. In the first example, we discuss recent advances in quantifying probability distributions for equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). A comprehensive examination of factors all contributing to the total uncertainty in ECS can include updates to estimates of observed climate changes (oceanic, atmospheric, and surface records), improved understanding of radiative forcing and internal variability, revised statistical calibration methods, and overall longer records. In a second example, we contrast the assessment of probabilistic information for global scale climate change with that for regional changes. The relative importance of model structural uncertainty, uncertainty in future forcing, and the role of internal variability will be compared within the context of the decision making problem. In both cases, robust estimates of uncertainty are desired and needed… but surprises happen. Incorporating these basic issues into robust decision making frameworks is a long-term research goal with near-term implications.

  10. New elements for informed decision making: a qualitative study of older adults’ views (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Kuby, Alma; Levinson, Wendy; Braddock, Clarence H.


    Objective To explore older adults’ views of existing Informed Decision Making (IDM) elements and investigate the need for additional elements. Methods We recruited persons 65 and older to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed questionnaires about IDM preferences, and discussed videotapes of idealized patient-physician interactions in light of seven IDM elements: 1) discussion of the patient's role in decision-making; 2) discussion of the clinical issue; 3) discussion of alternatives; 4) discussion of benefits/risks; 5) discussion of uncertainties; 6) assessment of patient understanding; and 7) exploration of patient preference. We used a modified grounded theory approach to assess agreement with existing IDM elements and identify new elements. Results In questionnaires, 97–100% of 59 participants rated each IDM element as “somewhat” or “very” important. Qualitative analysis supported existing elements and suggested two more: opportunity for input from trusted others, and discussion of decisions’ impacts on patients’ daily lives. Elements overlapped with global communication themes. Conclusion Focus groups affirmed existing IDM elements and suggested two more with particular relevance for older patients. Practice implications Incorporation of additional IDM elements into clinical practice can enhance informed participation of older adults in decision-making. PMID:21757315

  11. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher


    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  12. Assisting patients with motor neurone disease to make decisions about their care. (United States)

    Gale, Caroline


    Motor neurone disease (MND), is a progressive terminal illness affecting the central nervous system, causing paralysis of the muscles affecting limb movement, breathing and bulbar function, with an average life expectancy of 2-4 years. Patients are presented with repeated loss and the constant need to make adjustments to their lifestyle and expectations. Within palliative care there has been a move to formalise planning by undertaking advance care planning, giving the patient the opportunity to plan whether they would consider medical interventions and how they would like their care and death to be managed. There are now a multitude of forms and documents to complete if the patient is willing to do so. Advance care planning may not be something all patients wish to embrace, and this poses the question of whether there are cases where the repeated demand to think forward to a time when further losses are experienced is serving the agenda of the health professional at the expense of the patient. Nevertheless, health professionals might be concerned that a delay in decision making could impact on the patient's future care. There is potential for conflict between the wish of the patient--to remain focused on the positive--and the health professional's perception of the benefits of completing an advance care plan or discussing interventions which, if persued, might lead to a breakdown of the therapeutic relationship. A more flexible approach, focusing on the agenda set by the patient, underpinned by a therapeutic and trusting relationship, can avoid distress for the patient, while ensuring good care and the best outcome for the patient.

  13. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Zander


    Full Text Available An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored information useless once the system stops operating. The River Basin Information System (RBIS presented here is designed to fit not only the requirements of one research project, but focuses on generic functions, extensibility and standards compliance typically found in interdisciplinary environmental research. Developed throughout more than 10 years of research cooperation worldwide, RBIS is designed to manage different types of environmental data with and without spatial context together with a rich set of metadata. Beside data management and storage, RBIS provides functions for the visualization, linking, analysis and processing of different types of data to support research, decision making, result dissemination and information discovery for all kinds of users. The focus of this paper is on the description of the technical implementation and the presentation of functions. This will be complemented by an overview of example applications and experiences during RBIS development and operation.

  14. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice. (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar


    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  15. Design and Implementation of Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datunaya Wahyudi Sumari


    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFSDMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO’s area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic de cision as fast as possible.

  16. Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings. (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M


    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired.

  17. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko


    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  18. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.


    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  19. Review of Current Data Exchange Practices: Providing Descriptive Data to Assist with Building Operations Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingood, W.; Stein, J.; Considine, T.; Sloup, C.


    Retailers who participate in the U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) identified the need to enhance communication standards. The means are available to collect massive numbers of buildings operational data, but CBEA members have difficulty transforming the data into usable information and energy-saving actions. Implementing algorithms for automated fault detection and diagnostics and linking building operational data to computerized maintenance management systems are important steps in the right direction, but have limited scalability for large building portfolios because the algorithms must be configured for each building.

  20. Neural mechanisms of selective exposure: an EEG study on the processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information. (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Reinweber, Matthias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne; Volberg, Gregor


    Decision makers tend to prefer decision-consistent information and/or neglect decision-inconsistent information (selective exposure). In the present EEG study the neural mechanisms of the classic selective exposure effect were examined by investigating oscillatory brain responses to consistent vs. inconsistent information. Twenty participants made an economic decision and subsequently were exposed to 45 consistent and 45 inconsistent images concerning their decision. EEG was recorded from 31 electrodes and differences between oscillatory brain responses towards consistent and inconsistent information were examined. The main result was an increase of induced theta power (5-8Hz, 0-0.7s) in the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition at right temporo-parietal electrodes, as well as a corresponding increase of evoked theta power at frontal electrodes. Since theta oscillations are often observed during memory formation, we conclude that decision-consistent information triggers memory formation, whereas decision-inconsistent information seems not to do so. This finding supports the classic motivational perspective of Leon Festinger on the selective exposure effect.

  1. Should the model for risk-informed regulation be game theory rather than decision theory? (United States)

    Bier, Vicki M; Lin, Shi-Woei


    Risk analysts frequently view the regulation of risks as being largely a matter of decision theory. According to this view, risk analysis methods provide information on the likelihood and severity of various possible outcomes; this information should then be assessed using a decision-theoretic approach (such as cost/benefit analysis) to determine whether the risks are acceptable, and whether additional regulation is warranted. However, this view ignores the fact that in many industries (particularly industries that are technologically sophisticated and employ specialized risk and safety experts), risk analyses may be done by regulated firms, not by the regulator. Moreover, those firms may have more knowledge about the levels of safety at their own facilities than the regulator does. This creates a situation in which the regulated firm has both the opportunity-and often also the motive-to provide inaccurate (in particular, favorably biased) risk information to the regulator, and hence the regulator has reason to doubt the accuracy of the risk information provided by regulated parties. Researchers have argued that decision theory is capable of dealing with many such strategic interactions as well as game theory can. This is especially true in two-player, two-stage games in which the follower has a unique best strategy in response to the leader's strategy, as appears to be the case in the situation analyzed in this article. However, even in such cases, we agree with Cox that game-theoretic methods and concepts can still be useful. In particular, the tools of mechanism design, and especially the revelation principle, can simplify the analysis of such games because the revelation principle provides rigorous assurance that it is sufficient to analyze only games in which licensees truthfully report their risk levels, making the problem more manageable. Without that, it would generally be necessary to consider much more complicated forms of strategic behavior (including

  2. Technology-Assisted Patient Access to Clinical Information: An Evaluation Framework for Blue Button (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K


    Background Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on “Blue Button,” a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. Objective We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. Methods A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VA’s ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Results Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. Conclusions The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations. PMID:24675395

  3. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences. (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew


    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  4. Information as a tool for management decision making: a case study of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of how Singapore's managers behave as information users and determine if their behavioural patterns are similar to their counterparts in other countries (as disclosed in the literature or if it differs, in what ways. A total of 369 questionnaires were mailed to individual members of Singapore's Institute of Management. Only twenty members responded. The main focus of the survey was the relative uses of the different types of information sources. The survey also touched briefly on the relative importance of domains, and the correlation between hierarchical and functional levels. Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision making included Competitor Trends followed by Regional Economic Trends. Types of information considered important included Business news followed by Political, Social, and Supplier trends, Regulatory information, Use of Information Technology, Demographic Trends and New Management methods. Sources given a very high preference rating were Personal Contact for Competitor Trends and the use of Government Publications for obtaining regulatory information. Respondents also preferred use of Government Publications for Local Economic information and the use of Newspapers for Political Trends and Business News. Internal computer printouts were used for forecasting information and company performance. Subordinate managers were referred to for information on the use of technology, Forecasting, and Company Performance. Because the Company Library provided access to newspapers (very high usage and business news, information about Political Trends, International and Local Economic Information and Competitor Trends were associated with it. However, the Company Library was perceived as a storage facility rather than a dynamic information resource. Local libraries were also used for Regional and International Economic information. Radio

  5. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  6. The Impact of Geographic Information Systems on Emergency Management Decision Making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (United States)

    King, Steven Gray


    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not…

  7. 45 CFR 2522.470 - What other factors or information may the Corporation consider in making final funding decisions? (United States)


    ... Corporation consider in making final funding decisions? 2522.470 Section 2522.470 Public Welfare Regulations... information may the Corporation consider in making final funding decisions? (a) The Corporation will seek to... diverse and includes innovative programs, and projects in rural, high poverty, and economically...

  8. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Pieterse, A.H.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Knaapen, L.; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.


    BACKGROUND: To explore how clinical practice guidelines can be adapted to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: This was a qualitative key-informant study with group discussions and semi-structured interviews. First, 75 experts in guideline development or shared decision making participated in

  9. [The added value of information summaries supporting clinical decisions at the point-of-care. (United States)

    Banzi, Rita; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Kwag, Koren Hyogene; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo


    Evidence-based healthcare requires the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patients' values. International publishers are developing evidence-based information services and resources designed to overcome the difficulties in retrieving, assessing and updating medical information as well as to facilitate a rapid access to valid clinical knowledge. Point-of-care information summaries are defined as web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. Their validity must be assessed against marketing claims that they are evidence-based. We periodically evaluate the content development processes of several international point-of-care information summaries. The number of these products has increased along with their quality. The last analysis done in 2014 identified 26 products and found that three of them (Best Practice, Dynamed e Uptodate) scored the highest across all evaluated dimensions (volume, quality of the editorial process and evidence-based methodology). Point-of-care information summaries as stand-alone products or integrated with other systems, are gaining ground to support clinical decisions. The choice of one product over another depends both on the properties of the service and the preference of users. However, even the most innovative information system must rely on transparent and valid contents. Individuals and institutions should regularly assess the value of point-of-care summaries as their quality changes rapidly over time.

  10. The Switching Decision: Are Members of Superannuation Funds Rational and Informed Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Delpachitra


    Full Text Available The recent Cooper Review (Cooper 2010 attempted to address governance, structure, efficiency and operational problems by recommending changes without pinpointing the root causes and systematic design flaws of the Australian Superannuation System. Despite overwhelming evidence that members’ disengagement was a root cause of the problems, little attention was paid to the motivation and background of members to facilitate participation and decision-making. For instance, a very small percentage of members take their role in the superannuation industry seriously. This is evidenced by the fact that a very small percentage of members (2.5% in 2007 actively changed superannuation fund and most new fund members ‘defaulted’ into employer-selected funds (Bateman 2009. This may be that they are serious but lack the ability or time to monitor investments in a way required by a sophisticated system. This paper explores the drivers of switching superannuation funds of those working-age Australians. It also analyses the presentation of fund information to the sample population to examine how members use information in their superannuation decisions. This may add insight to the ways fund information is made available and also to the types of members who may need more protection, support or education.

  11. Mapping the decision points and climate information use of agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Haigh


    Full Text Available The usefulness of climate information for agricultural risk management hinges on its availability and relevance to the producer when climate-sensitive decisions are being made. Climate information providers are challenged with the task of balancing forecast availability and lead time with acceptable forecast skill, which requires an improved understanding of the timing of agricultural decision making. Achieving a useful balance may also require an expansion of inquiry to include use of non-forecast climate information (i.e. historical climate information in agricultural decision making. Decision calendars have proven valuable for identifying opportunities for using different types of climate information. The extent to which decision-making time periods are localized versus generalized across major commodity-producing regions is yet unknown, though, which has limited their use in climate product development. Based on a 2012 survey of more than 4770 agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt region, we found variation in the timing of decision-making points in the crop year based on geographic variation as well as crop management differences. Many key decisions in the cropping year take place during the preceding fall and winter, months before planting, raising questions about types of climate information that might be best inserted into risk management decisions at that time. We found that historical climate information and long term climate outlooks are less influential in agricultural risk management than current weather, short term forecasts, or monthly climate projections, even though they may, in fact, be more useful to certain types of decision making.

  12. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions. (United States)

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong


    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions.

  13. Transportation Big Data: Unbiased Analysis and Tools to Inform Sustainable Transportation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Today, transportation operation and energy systems data are generated at an unprecedented scale. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the go-to source for expertise in providing data and analysis to inform industry and government transportation decision making. The lab's teams of data experts and engineers are mining and analyzing large sets of complex data -- or 'big data' -- to develop solutions that support the research, development, and deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  15. Clinical genomics information management software linking cancer genome sequence and clinical decisions. (United States)

    Watt, Stuart; Jiao, Wei; Brown, Andrew M K; Petrocelli, Teresa; Tran, Ben; Zhang, Tong; McPherson, John D; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Bedard, Philippe L; Onetto, Nicole; Hudson, Thomas J; Dancey, Janet; Siu, Lillian L; Stein, Lincoln; Ferretti, Vincent


    Using sequencing information to guide clinical decision-making requires coordination of a diverse set of people and activities. In clinical genomics, the process typically includes sample acquisition, template preparation, genome data generation, analysis to identify and confirm variant alleles, interpretation of clinical significance, and reporting to clinicians. We describe a software application developed within a clinical genomics study, to support this entire process. The software application tracks patients, samples, genomic results, decisions and reports across the cohort, monitors progress and sends reminders, and works alongside an electronic data capture system for the trial's clinical and genomic data. It incorporates systems to read, store, analyze and consolidate sequencing results from multiple technologies, and provides a curated knowledge base of tumor mutation frequency (from the COSMIC database) annotated with clinical significance and drug sensitivity to generate reports for clinicians. By supporting the entire process, the application provides deep support for clinical decision making, enabling the generation of relevant guidance in reports for verification by an expert panel prior to forwarding to the treating physician.

  16. Towards the Significance of Decision Aid in Building Information Modeling (BIM Software Selection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Faizal


    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM has been considered as a solution in construction industry to numerous problems such as delays, increased lead in times and increased costs. This is due to the concept and characteristic of BIM that will reshaped the way construction project teams work together to increase productivity and improve the final project outcomes (cost, time, quality, safety, functionality, maintainability, etc.. As a result, the construction industry has witnesses numerous of BIM software available in market. Each of this software has offers different function, features. Furthermore, the adoption of BIM required high investment on software, hardware and also training expenses. Thus, there is indentified that there is a need of decision aid for appropriated BIM software selection that fulfill the project needs. However, research indicates that there is limited study attempt to guide decision in BIM software selection problem. Thus, this paper highlight the importance of decision making and support for BIM software selection as it is vital to increase productivity, construction project throughout building lifecycle.

  17. [FY 2014 progress report]: Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for the Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning project covers activities during...

  18. [FY 2016 progress report]: Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for the Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning project covers activities during...

  19. Informed Consent in Medical Decision-Making in Commercial Gestational Surrogacy: A Mixed Methods Study in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. DESIGN: Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Fertility clinics and agenc...

  20. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers (United States)

    Lamp, Sandra A.


    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  1. In the Clouds: The Implications of Cloud Computing for Higher Education Information Technology Governance and Decision Making (United States)

    Dulaney, Malik H.


    Emerging technologies challenge the management of information technology in organizations. Paradigm changing technologies, such as cloud computing, have the ability to reverse the norms in organizational management, decision making, and information technology governance. This study explores the effects of cloud computing on information technology…

  2. Dynamic Integration of Value Information into a Common Probability Currency as a Theory for Flexible Decision Making. (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios; Schrater, Paul R


    Decisions involve two fundamental problems, selecting goals and generating actions to pursue those goals. While simple decisions involve choosing a goal and pursuing it, humans evolved to survive in hostile dynamic environments where goal availability and value can change with time and previous actions, entangling goal decisions with action selection. Recent studies suggest the brain generates concurrent action-plans for competing goals, using online information to bias the competition until a single goal is pursued. This creates a challenging problem of integrating information across diverse types, including both the dynamic value of the goal and the costs of action. We model the computations underlying dynamic decision-making with disparate value types, using the probability of getting the highest pay-off with the least effort as a common currency that supports goal competition. This framework predicts many aspects of decision behavior that have eluded a common explanation.

  3. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. PURPOSE: To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. STUDY SELECTION: Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. DATA EXTRACTION: Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. LIMITATIONS: While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for

  4. Bring Hidden Hazards to the Publics Attention, Understanding, and Informed Decision by Coordinating Federal Education Initiatives (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Karsten, J. L.; Wei, M.; Jadin, J.


    In the 2010 National Research Council’s America’s Climate Choices’ report on Informing Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change concluded; “Education and communication are among the most powerful tools the nation has to bring hidden hazards to public attention, understanding, and action.” They conclude that the “current and future students, the broader public, and policymakers need to understand the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to climate change, develop scientific thinking and problem-solving skills, and improve their ability to make informed decisions.” The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) works to integrate the climate related activities of these different agencies, with oversight from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and other White House offices. USGCRP’s focus is now on evaluating optimal strategies for addressing climate change risks, improving coordination among the Federal agencies, engaging stakeholders (including national policy leaders and local resource managers) on the research results to all and improving public understanding and decision-making related to global change. Implicit to these activities is the need to educate the public about the science of climate change and its consequences, as well as coordinate Federal investments related to climate change education. In a broader sense, the implementation of the proposed Interagency Taskforce on Climate Change Communication and Education will serve the evolving USGCRP mandates around cross-cutting, thematic elements, as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC, 2009) and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Revised Research Plan: An update to the 2003 Strategic Plan (USGCRP, 2008), to help the Federal government “capitalize on its investments and aid in the development of increased climate literacy for the Nation.” This session will update the participants on the work to date and the near term coordinated plans

  5. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.


    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  6. The use of condition monitoring information for maintenance planning and decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K.; Rosqvist, T. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Paulsen, J.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    A survey is presented outlining the use of condition monitoring information in three Nordic nuclear power plants. The questions of the survey relate to the role of condition monitoring in strategic, as well as operative, maintenance planning and decision-making. The survey indicates that condition monitoring is increasingly implemented at nuclear power plants, but very selectively and in a rather slow pace for predictive maintenance. A combined strategy of condition based maintenance and predetermined preventive maintenance is applied for important equipment such as main circulation pumps and steam turbines. A realistic aim is to reduce the number of costly or error prone maintenance and disassembling inspection activities by condition monitoring given that the approach enables a good diagnosis and prediction. Systematic follow-up and analysis of such condition monitoring information followed by a case-specific planning and decision making of timely and rightly directed maintenance actions can justify an extension of the intervals of a number of predetermined inspection, maintenance or periodic testing tasks. (au)

  7. The language of prostate cancer treatments and implications for informed decision making by patients. (United States)

    Rot, I; Ogah, I; Wassersug, R J


    Previous research has shown that cancer patients lack knowledge about treatments particularly for reproductive system cancers. Focusing on prostate cancer, we explored how the language used to describe treatments and their side effects is understood by both men and women. Since the language around prostate cancer is often euphemised to reduce distress and stigma, our aim was to elucidate how language (e.g. hormone therapy vs. androgen deprivation therapy) affects both patients' and partners' attitudes towards treatment decision making. We surveyed 690 male and female cancer patients and non-patients through an online questionnaire. A large proportion of participants did not understand the terminology used to describe prostate cancer treatments. Most did not know that the terms 'chemical castration', 'hormonal therapy' and 'androgen deprivation' are synonymous. Male respondents stated that they would more readily agree to hormonal therapy than to castration to treat prostate cancer and felt significantly more strongly than women about how androgen deprivation therapy, described in various terms, affected masculinity. Men and women differed substantially in their opinion about the impact of androgen deprivation. For patients and partners to make informed decisions and cope effectively with treatment side effects, it is important that healthcare practitioners provide accurate information using language that is unambiguous.

  8. Just-in-time information improved decision-making in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "Just-in-time Information" (JIT librarian consultation service was designed to provide rapid information to answer primary care clinical questions during patient hours. This study evaluated whether information provided by librarians to answer clinical questions positively impacted time, decision-making, cost savings and satisfaction. METHODS AND FINDING: A randomized controlled trial (RCT was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 1,889 questions were sent to the service by 88 participants. The object of the randomization was a clinical question. Each participant had clinical questions randomly allocated to both intervention (librarian information and control (no librarian information groups. Participants were trained to send clinical questions via a hand-held device. The impact of the information provided by the service (or not provided by the service, additional resources and time required for both groups was assessed using a survey sent 24 hours after a question was submitted. The average time for JIT librarians to respond to all questions was 13.68 minutes/question (95% CI, 13.38 to 13.98. The average time for participants to respond their control questions was 20.29 minutes/question (95% CI, 18.72 to 21.86. Using an impact assessment scale rating cognitive impact, participants rated 62.9% of information provided to intervention group questions as having a highly positive cognitive impact. They rated 14.8% of their own answers to control question as having a highly positive cognitive impact, 44.9% has having a negative cognitive impact, and 24.8% with no cognitive impact at all. In an exit survey measuring satisfaction, 86% (62/72 responses of participants scored the service as having a positive impact on care and 72% (52/72 indicated that they would use the service frequently if it were continued. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, providing timely information to clinical questions had a highly positive impact on

  9. Information, the decision forum, and third-party effects in water transfers (United States)

    Nunn, Susan Christopher; Ingram, Helen M.


    Transfers of water from irrigation to municipal and industrial uses are seen as a low-cost approach to the water supply problems of western cities. Rural areas of origin protest that market transfers ignore indirect economic, political, social, fiscal, and environmental effects of changes in water use. The capacity of five different water transfer institutions: the market, courts, legislature, special purpose districts, and administrative agencies, to develop and weigh information about indirect and nonuser impacts is analyzed and compared. All five forums are found to have biases regarding the type of information used. Markets process information on direct economic costs and benefits well but ignore third-party costs; legislative bodies are sensitive to information about indirect and nonuser impacts but distort information on direct benefits and costs; neither the judiciary nor the water agency is likely to consider community and social impacts of water transfers. Special districts could consider both direct and indirect values but are often controlled by a leadership elite, pursuing narrow goals with minimum membership participation. The appropriate forum for decision making depends upon our priorities among values and on the values that are at stake in particular issues.

  10. Video-Assisted Informed Consent for Cataract Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangcai; Tang, Haoying; Yang, Weizhong; Xian, Zhuanhua; Lu, Min


    Purpose. To investigate whether adding video assistance to traditional verbal informed consent advisement improved satisfaction among cataract surgery patients. Methods. This trial enrolled 80 Chinese patients with age-related cataracts scheduled to undergo unilateral phacoemulsification surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups: the video group watched video explaining cataract-related consent information and rewatched specific segments of the video at their own discretion, before receiving traditional verbal consent advisement; the control group did not watch the video. Outcomes included patient satisfaction, refusal to consent, time to complete the consent process, and comprehension measured by a ten-item questionnaire. Results. All 80 enrolled patients signed informed consent forms. Compared with the control group, members of the video group exhibited greater satisfaction (65% versus 86%, p = 0.035) and required less time to complete the consent process (12.3 ± 6.7 min versus 5.6 ± 5.4 min, p < 0.001), while also evincing levels of comprehension commensurate with those reported for patients who did not watch the video (accuracy rate, 77.5% versus 80.2%, p = 0.386). Conclusion. The video-assisted informed consent process had a positive impact on patients' cataract surgery experiences. Additional research is needed to optimize patients' comprehension of the video. PMID:28191349

  11. 风险决策中的情报价值%On the Value of Intelligence Information and Risk Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    情报对于决策者以及决策的结果来说非常重要,在风险决策中,为了提高决策的科学性,引入情报价值,探讨样本情报价值的风险决策方法。%Information is very important for policymakers as well as the decision making ,especially in risk decision .In order to improve the decision -making more scientific ,the paper show s several introduc-tion for information valuing process .Moreover ,the paper discusses the value of the sample to present in-formation risk decision -making method .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiane Benedetti Corso


    Full Text Available The article seeks to determine how time pressure and missing information in decision-making affect the behavior of decision makers. Data was collected through an experimental task of simulating the purchase of a car, which was structured with the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria method in a Decision Support System. When pressured by time, the experimental subjects focused on the car of their choice; whereas with no time pressure, some of them rationalized more, used the information, and did not agree with the chosen car. Assumptions of the Theory of Image justified some findings, indicating that previously structured images in the mind of the decision maker are a way to cope with time pressure. Given the missing information, the use of background knowledge and individual experience were the most prominent coping strategy.

  13. Integrated Data & Analysis in Support of Informed and Transparent Decision Making (United States)

    Guivetchi, K.


    The California Water Plan includes a framework for improving water reliability, environmental stewardship, and economic stability through two initiatives - integrated regional water management to make better use of local water sources by integrating multiple aspects of managing water and related resources; and maintaining and improving statewide water management systems. The Water Plan promotes ways to develop a common approach for data standards and for understanding, evaluating, and improving regional and statewide water management systems, and for common ways to evaluate and select from alternative management strategies and projects. The California Water Plan acknowledges that planning for the future is uncertain and that change will continue to occur. It is not possible to know for certain how population growth, land use decisions, water demand patterns, environmental conditions, the climate, and many other factors that affect water use and supply may change by 2050. To anticipate change, our approach to water management and planning for the future needs to consider and quantify uncertainty, risk, and sustainability. There is a critical need for information sharing and information management to support over-arching and long-term water policy decisions that cross-cut multiple programs across many organizations and provide a common and transparent understanding of water problems and solutions. Achieving integrated water management with multiple benefits requires a transparent description of dynamic linkages between water supply, flood management, water quality, land use, environmental water, and many other factors. Water Plan Update 2013 will include an analytical roadmap for improving data, analytical tools, and decision-support to advance integrated water management at statewide and regional scales. It will include recommendations for linking collaborative processes with technical enhancements, providing effective analytical tools, and improving and sharing

  14. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1 the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2 how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3 factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence

  15. Genetic testing likelihood: the impact of abortion views and quality of life information on women's decisions. (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Gail M; Thorn, Judith M


    Little is known about factors predicting the likelihood of choosing genetic testing in college aged women versus older women, including knowledge of quality of life (QOL) associated with a disorder. Using vignettes with female college students (Experiment 1: n=257, mean age=19.70 yrs) and female faculty/staff/alumni (Experiment 2: n (nulliparous)=83, mean age=30.20 yrs; n (mothers)=53, mean age=33.77 yrs), we examined the contribution of multiple factors to predicting genetic testing likelihood for cystic fibrosis. We investigated malleable situational factors (style of genetic risk presentation and providing QOL information including physical and social aspects) and stable dispositional factors (abortion views). Parity (i.e., prior births) was more influential in women's genetic testing likelihood than was age. Greater acceptability of abortion for oneself and self-assessed knowledge following QOL information were predictors of higher testing likelihood for college students. Greater acceptability of abortion for another person was a predictor for nulliparous women. Abortion views moderated the effect of predictors for nulliparous women and mothers. Findings encourage genetic counselors to utilize QOL information to promote informed decision making through genetic testing.

  16. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions. (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G


    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  17. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals. (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon


    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh-an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories-Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries.

  18. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni


    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  19. How attitude strength and information influence moral decision making: Evidence from event-related potentials. (United States)

    Hundrieser, Manuela; Stahl, Jutta


    Moral judgments are based on complex processing. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of moral decisions. Participants (N = 32) were asked to express their opinion on various moral issues while ERPs were recorded. After reading texts containing either confirming or contradicting arguments regarding the issues, participants were asked to express their opinion again. A higher N400 amplitude and a higher amplitude of the late positive potential for value-incongruent words compared to value-congruent words could be observed. Furthermore, after participants had read conflicting arguments, slower responses and larger N400 differences (value-incongruent minus value-congruent) were observed. These results showed that language processing for a moral context is influenced by the subjective value system, and it can be assumed that a demanding cognitive elaboration contributed to the observed RT and N400 priming effects. This is the first ERP study comparing moral judgments before and after reading confirming or conflicting information; it revealed that evaluative reasoning can influence neural processing for moral decisions.

  20. Information-Dispersion-Entropy-Based Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes in Soft Decision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Zhang


    Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Development and evaluation of a decision aid about fertility preservation for Dutch breast cancer patients : informing patients about fertility preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein


    In the Netherlands, information provision about fertility preservation (FP) for young women with breast cancer is not sufficient. Since an increasing number of Dutch breast cancer patients will face this preference-sensitive decision each year, there is a clear need for improvement of information pr

  2. 12 CFR 792.56 - Notice of existence of records, access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time... (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of existence of records, access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time limits. 792.56 Section 792.56 Banks and Banking...; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 792.56 Notice of existence of...

  3. Communication and Decision-Making Behavior of IEC (Information, Education, and Communication) Administrators in the Philippines and Malaysia. (United States)

    Ellingsworth, Huber W.; Rosario, Florangel Z.

    This report is part of a case study of the organization and administration of family planning in information, education and communication programs in the Philippines and Malaysia. The study focused on the communication behavior and role perceptions of administrators, who must disseminate information and make decisions within their communication…

  4. Older women breast cancer survivors: decision making, sources of information and wellness activities in Malaysia. (United States)

    Mohamed, Nor Aini; Muhamad, Mazanah


    The purpose of this study ??s to profile older breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. In a survey study, ? custom made questionnaire was administered to 69 breast cancer patients and survivors between 60 and 84 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic group recorded was Chinese, followed by Malay and Indian. The majority of women were married (87%) and had children (84.1%). Just over half (53.6%) had primary and secondary education, whereas 24.7% had higher education. Fifty five percent of the study participants made their own decision on treatment, 60.8% exercised at least 3 times in a week, and 56.6% sought information from specialists. Our study suggests that older breast cancer survivors are aware of the importance of exercise in their daily lives and make attempts to be cancer free (e.g. doing exercise, recreational activity and have good relationships with friends and family).

  5. Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia. (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill


    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  6. A hybrid method for decision making with dependence & feedback under incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weijie


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method to tackle multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete weight information in the context of fuzzy soft sets. In order to determine the weights of criteria, we develop a comprehensive two-stage framework. Stage One: We first define the distance between two fuzzy soft numbers. Next, we establish an optimization model based on ideal point of attribute values, by which the attrib-ute weights can be determined. Stage Two: To get the global weights, we use fuzzy cognitive maps to depict the dependent and feedback effect among criteria. Next, we require constructing fuzzy soft set to decide the desirable alternative. Finally, a case study is given to clarify the proposed approach of this paper.

  7. Electricity procurement for large consumers based on Information Gap Decision Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Kazem; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa; Sheikh El Eslami, Mohammad Kazem [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran)


    In the competitive electricity market, consumers seek strategies to meet their electricity needs at minimum cost and risk. This paper provides a technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different procurement strategies for large consumers. Supply sources include bilateral contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is considered that the pool price is uncertain and its volatility around the estimated value is modeled using an IGDT model. The proposed method does not minimize the procurement cost but assesses the risk aversion or risk-taking nature of some procurement strategies with regard to the minimum cost. Using this method, the robustness of experiencing costs higher than the expected one is optimized and the related strategy is determined. The proposed method deals with optimizing the opportunities to take advantage of low procurement costs or low pool prices. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique. (author)

  8. Informed shared decision-making in planning for the end of life. (United States)

    Price, Jane

    In recent years, a number of shortcomings in the NHS have been identified in end-of-life care delivered in hospital for people with long-term conditions other than terminal cancer. This article gives an overview of the findings of a Dignity in Care travel scholarship, which was undertaken to establish whether an American shared informed decision aid, specifically designed to initiate therapeutic conversations for this patient group, might reasonably be adopted in an NHS setting. One tool specifically for this purpose was in use in the USA at the time, and its efficacy formed part of a broader research study being carried out at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) in New England. Concurrently in the UK, The Health Foundation supported a 3-year study that focused exclusively on the development of a range of 'option grids' for clinical interventions and did not include an end-of-life model.

  9. Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making approach with incomplete information based on evidential reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Wang; Hongyu Zhang; Zhong Zhang


    The weights of criteda are incompletely known and the criteria values are incomplete and uncertain or even default in some fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making problems.For those problems,an approach based on evidential reasoning is proposed,in which the criteria values are integrated on the basis of analytical algorithm of evidential reasoning,and then nonlinear programming models of each alternative are developed with the incomplete information on weights.The genetic algorithm is employed to solve the models,producing the weights and the utility interval of each alternative,and the ranking of the whole set of alternatives can be attained.Finally,an example shows the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Decision-making methods in IT-outsourcing for enterprise information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Poluektova


    . Feature of this method is the ability to use the criteria estimates, which are presented in the any values that fluctuate (interval, fuzzy, and others and can be evaluated by interval or fuzzy expert assessments. The method uses a Hamming distance to obtain estimates for each criterion. The procedure for alternatives ranking calculation allows to select a solution that takes into the minimal distance from the ideal option both individual and averaged preferences. This article contains an example of selecting provider of IT outsourcing services using the VICOR method. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Suggested models of substantiate decisions regarding transfer of certain information service functions to the outsourcing model in combination with approach to outsourcing services provider selecting based on modified VIKOR method allows to apply the latest technological solutions in development of information system and to improve its general and institutional effectiveness.

  11. A Decision Support Information System for Urban Landscape Management Using Thermal Infrared Data (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Howell, Burgess F.


    In this paper, we describe efforts to use remote sensing data within the purview of an information support system, to assess urban thermal landscape characteristics as a means for developing more robust models of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. We also present a rationale on how we have successfully translated the results from the study of urban thermal heating and cooling regimes as identified from remote sensing data, to decision-makers, planners, government officials, and the public at large in several US cities to facilitate better understanding of how the UHI affects air quality. Additionally, through the assessment of the spatial distribution of urban thermal landscape characteristics using remote sensing data, it is possible to develop strategies to mitigate the UHI that hopefully will in turn, drive down ozone levels and improve overall urban air quality. Four US cities have been the foci for intensive analysis as part of our studies: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. The remote sensing data for each of these cities has been used to generate a number of products for use by "stakeholder" working groups to convey information on what the effects are of the UHI and what measures can be taken to mitigate it. In turn, these data products are used to both educate and inform policy-makers, planners, and the general public about what kinds of UHI mitigation strategies are available.

  12. Beyond informed choice: Prenatal risk assessment, decision-making and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nete Schwennesen


    Full Text Available In 2004 prenatal risk assessment (PRA was implemented as a routine offer to all pregnant women in Denmark. It was argued that primarily the new programme would give all pregnant women an informed choice about whether to undergo prenatal testing. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork in an ultrasound clinic in Denmark and interviews with pregnant women and their partners, we call into question the assumption underlying the new guidelines that more choice and more objective information is a source of empowerment and control. We focus on one couple's experience of PRA. This case makes it evident how supposed choices in the context of PRA may not be experienced as such. Rather, they are experienced as complicated processes of meaning-making in the relational space between the clinical setting, professional authority and the social life of the couples. PRA users are reluctant to make choices and abandon health professionals as authoritative experts in the face of complex risk knowledge. When assumptions about autonomy and self-determination are inscribed into the social practice of PRA, authority is transferred to the couple undergoing PRA and a new configuration of responsibility evolves between the couple and their relationship to the foetus. It is argued that al-though the new programme of prenatal testing in Denmark presents itself in opposition to quasi-eugenic and paternalistic forms of governing couples' decisions it represents another form of government that works through the notion of choice. An ethics of a shared responsibility of PRA and its outcome would be more in agreement with how decisions are actually made.

  13. Intelligent information extraction to aid science decision making in autonomous space exploration (United States)

    Merényi, Erzsébet; Tasdemir, Kadim; Farrand, William H.


    Effective scientific exploration of remote targets such as solar system objects increasingly calls for autonomous data analysis and decision making on-board. Today, robots in space missions are programmed to traverse from one location to another without regard to what they might be passing by. By not processing data as they travel, they can miss important discoveries, or will need to travel back if scientists on Earth find the data warrant backtracking. This is a suboptimal use of resources even on relatively close targets such as the Moon or Mars. The farther mankind ventures into space, the longer the delay in communication, due to which interesting findings from data sent back to Earth are made too late to command a (roving, floating, or orbiting) robot to further examine a given location. However, autonomous commanding of robots in scientific exploration can only be as reliable as the scientific information extracted from the data that is collected and provided for decision making. In this paper, we focus on the discovery scenario, where information extraction is accomplished with unsupervised clustering. For high-dimensional data with complicated structure, detailed segmentation that identifies all significant groups and discovers the small, surprising anomalies in the data, is a challenging task at which conventional algorithms often fail. We approach the problem with precision manifold learning using self-organizing neural maps with non-standard features developed in the course of our research. We demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this approach on multi-spectral imagery from the Mars Exploration Rovers Pancam, and on synthetic hyperspectral imagery.

  14. A Study of Secondary Students' Decision-Making Processes with Respect to Information Use, Particularly Students' Judgements of Relevance and Reliability (United States)

    Watson, Curtis L.


    This report details an ongoing investigation of the decision-making processes of a group of secondary school students in south-eastern Australia undertaking information search tasks. The study is situated in the field of information seeking and use, and, more broadly, in decision making. Research questions focus on students' decisions about the…

  15. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth


    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account the most relevant criteria for the social, economic and political dimensions....

  16. Information used in the decision-making process regarding influenza vaccination policy: perceptions of stakeholders in France and the Netherlands.


    Silva, M. L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, J.; Mosnier, A; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J. M.; Späth, H.M.


    Objectives: To minimize the medical and societal impact of influenza, most WHO countries recommend seasonal vaccination in targeted populations; however, little is known about the decision-making procedures at a country-level. In Europe, the Netherlands has the highest rate of influenza vaccination and France is not far behind. Our purpose was to analyze differences and similarities in the information used in the decision-making process between these two countries, according to the stakeholde...

  17. Bayesian Information-Gap Decision Analysis Applied to a CO2 Leakage Problem (United States)

    O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.


    We describe a decision analysis in the presence of uncertainty that combines a non-probabilistic approach (information-gap decision theory) with a probabilistic approach (Bayes' theorem). Bayes' theorem is one of the most popular techniques for probabilistic uncertainty quantification (UQ). It is effective in many situations, because it updates our understanding of the uncertainties by conditioning on real data using a mathematically rigorous technique. However, the application of Bayes' theorem in science and engineering is not always rigorous. There are two reasons for this: (1) We can enumerate the possible outcomes of dice-rolling, but not the possible outcomes of real-world contamination remediation; (2) We can precisely determine conditional probabilities for coin-tossing, but substantial uncertainty surrounds the conditional probabilities for real-world contamination remediation. Of course, Bayes' theorem is rigorously applicable beyond dice-rolling and coin-tossing, but even in cases that are constructed to be simple with ostensibly good probabilistic models, applying Bayes' theorem to the real world may not work as well as one might expect. Bayes' theorem is rigorously applicable only if all possible events can be described, and their conditional probabilities can be derived rigorously. Outside of this domain, it may still be useful, but its use lacks at least some rigor. The information-gap approach allows us to circumvent some of the highlighted shortcomings of Bayes' theorem. In particular, it provides a way to account for possibilities beyond those described by our models, and a way to deal with uncertainty in the conditional distribution that forms the core of Bayesian analysis. We have developed a three-tiered technique enables one to make scientifically defensible decisions in the face of severe uncertainty such as is found in many geologic problems. To demonstrate the applicability, we apply the technique to a CO2 leakage problem. The goal is to

  18. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System. (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert


    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  19. Decision Tool for optimal deployment of radar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.H.


    A Decision Tool for air defence is presented. This Decision Tool, when provided with information about the radar, the environment, and the expected class of targets, informs the radar operator about detection probabilities. This assists the radar operator to select the optimum radar parameters. n th

  20. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information (United States)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  1. Costs associated with implementation of computer-assisted clinical decision support system for antenatal and delivery care: case study of Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.

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    Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS in selected health care centres in Ghana. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND. CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention were collected for the period between 2009-2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs and equipment costs (capital cost. We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. RESULTS: Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64% and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death. The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272 was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044. Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917. When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128-lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice

  2. Taming Data to Make Decisions: Using a Spatial Fuzzy Logic Decision Support Framework to Inform Conservation and Land Use Planning (United States)

    Sheehan, T.; Baker, B.; Degagne, R. S.


    With the abundance of data sources, analytical methods, and computer models, land managers are faced with the overwhelming task of making sense of a profusion of data of wildly different types. Luckily, fuzzy logic provides a method to work with different types of data using language-based propositions such as "the landscape is undisturbed," and a simple set of logic constructs. Just as many surveys allow different levels of agreement with a proposition, fuzzy logic allows values reflecting different levels of truth for a proposition. Truth levels fall within a continuum ranging from Fully True to Fully False. Hence a fuzzy logic model produces continuous results. The Environmental Evaluation Modeling System (EEMS) is a platform-independent, tree-based, fuzzy logic modeling framework. An EEMS model provides a transparent definition of an evaluation model and is commonly developed as a collaborative effort among managers, scientists, and GIS experts. Managers specify a set of evaluative propositions used to characterize the landscape. Scientists, working with managers, formulate functions that convert raw data values into truth values for the propositions and produce a logic tree to combine results into a single metric used to guide decisions. Managers, scientists, and GIS experts then work together to implement and iteratively tune the logic model and produce final results. We present examples of two successful EEMS projects that provided managers with map-based results suitable for guiding decisions: sensitivity and climate change exposure in Utah and the Colorado Plateau modeled for the Bureau of Land Management; and terrestrial ecological intactness in the Mojave and Sonoran region of southern California modeled for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan.

  3. Making an Informed Decision on Freshwater Management by Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Traditional Data (United States)

    Hyon, Jason J.


    The US National Research Council (NRC) recommended that: "The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth-observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications." in response to the NASA Earth Science Division's request to prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those objectives. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach to connect remote sensing science to decision support applications by establishing a framework to integrate direct measurements, earth system models, inventories, and other information to accurately estimate fresh water resources in global, regional, and local scales. We will discuss our demonstration projects and lessons learned from the experience. Deploying a monitoring system that offers sustained, accurate, transparent and relevant information represents a challenge and opportunity to a broad community spanning earth science, water resource accounting and public policy. An introduction to some of the scientific and technical infrastructure issues associated with monitoring systems is offered here to encourage future treatment of these topics by other contributors as a concluding remark.

  4. Decisions on Implementing Service-Learning: Perceptions of Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty within a State Technical College System (United States)

    Herlitzke, Mary Ann


    The Commission on Accreditation of Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) requires that graduates of physical therapist assistant programs demonstrate a commitment to social responsibility. Service-learning, a method of instruction in which students apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to a community need, can assist in the development…

  5. A decision aid to assist decisions on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: protocol for the CORAL exploratory randomised controlled trial

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    Henderson Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for employers to ask health questions before making an offer of employment except in certain circumstances. While the majority of employers would prefer applicants to disclose a mental illness at the application stage, many people either wait until they have accepted the job and then disclose to an occupational health professional, or do not do so at all due to the anticipation of discrimination or a wish for privacy. However, non disclosure precludes the ability to request reasonable adjustments in the workplace or to make a claim of direct discrimination. Disclosure to employers is therefore a difficult decision. A recent pilot study by our group of the CORAL decision aid showed that it helped mental health service users clarify their needs and values regarding disclosure and led to reduction in decisional conflict. The present proof of concept trial aims to determine whether a full scale randomised controlled trial (RCT is justifiable and feasible, and to optimise its design. Methods In this single blind exploratory RCT in London, a total of 80 participants (inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, on the caseload of a specialist employment adviser working with people with mental illness; referred to the adviser either from primary care via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies or secondary mental health service; currently seeking or interested in either paid or voluntary employment, and a Decisional Conflict Scale score of 37.5 or greater and stage of decision score 1–5 will be recruited from vocational advice services. After completing a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions (1 Use of the CORAL Decision Aid (DA in addition to treatment as usual or (2 Treatment as usual. Those allocated to the DA condition will be given it to read and complete, and the researcher will be present to record the time taken and any content that

  6. Food Assistance: Financial Information on WIC Nutrition Services and Administrative Costs. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees. (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded nutrition assistance program administered by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). Responding to Congressional requests for information regarding program costs, this report provides information on: (1) funding…

  7. Co-Designing Ambient Assisted Living (AAL Environments: Unravelling the Situated Context of Informal Dementia Care

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    Amy S. Hwang


    Full Text Available Ambient assisted living (AAL aims to help older persons “age-in-place” and manage everyday activities using intelligent and pervasive computing technology. AAL research, however, has yet to explore how AAL might support or collaborate with informal care partners (ICPs, such as relatives and friends, who play important roles in the lives and care of persons with dementia (PwDs. In a multiphase codesign process with six (6 ICPs, we envisioned how AAL could be situated to complement their care. We used our codesigned “caregiver interface” artefacts as triggers to facilitate envisioning of AAL support and unpack the situated, idiosyncratic context within which AAL aims to assist. Our findings suggest that AAL should be designed to support ICPs in fashioning “do-it-yourself” solutions that complement tacitly improvised care strategies and enable them to try, observe, and adapt to solutions over time. In this way, an ICP could decide which activities to entrust to AAL support, when (i.e., scheduled or spontaneous and how a system should provide support (i.e., using personalized prompts based on care experience, and when adaptations to system support are needed (i.e., based alerting patterns and queried reports. Future longitudinal work employing participatory, design-oriented methods with care dyads is encouraged.

  8. Climate science informs participatory scenario development and applications to decision making in Alaska (United States)

    Welling, L. A.; Winfree, R.; Mow, J.


    climate and social drivers of change to ecological processes and decision making. Components included review and synthesis of climate observations and projections, effects and impacts, and information on other relevant factors (e.g., subsistence activities, land cover, fire activity, land use change, sea level shifts). Although workshops focused primarily on park lands and waters, nearby communities and other land management units also participated. Results include a framework through which managers are beginning to analyze uncertainties associated with climate change and ecosystem responses and evaluate appropriate and effective actions. For example, at Kenai Fjords National Park, melting from the Harding Icefield and Exit Glacier is changing how managers respond to local flooding issues. The Exit Glacier is one of the park's iconic visitor experiences and in the last four years, the road to the glacier has been subject to mid-summer/fair weather flooding which are outside the historic norms. Rather than seek a traditional solution to the issue, park management has been working with highway engineers to evolve interim solutions as this dynamic system continues to rapidly change. Climate change scenarios established a set of possible plausible futures for the park and are also being used to "wind tunnel" potential responses.

  9. Solutions for decision support in university management

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    Andrei STANCIU


    Full Text Available The paper proposes an overview of decision support systems in order to define the role of a system to assist decision in university management. The authors present new technologies and the basic concepts of multidimensional data analysis using models of business processes within the universities. Based on information provided by scientific literature and on the authors’ experience, the study aims to define selection criteria in choosing a development environment for designing a support system dedicated to university management. The contributions consist in designing a data warehouse model and models of OLAP analysis to assist decision in university management.

  10. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions


    Bell, Andrew T.


    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  11. Informing policy and programme decisions for scaling up the PMTCT and paediatric HIV response through joint technical missions. (United States)

    Jashi, Mariam; Viswanathan, Rekha; Ekpini, Rene; Chandan, Upjeet; Idele, Priscilla; Luo, Chewe; Legins, Ken; Chatterjee, Anirban


    In 2005, due to slow global progress in the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV programmes, the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on the Prevention of HIV infection among Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children initiated joint technical missions (JTMs) to countries of high HIV disease burden. The JTMs were intended to galvanize country actions for a more comprehensive response to PMTCT and paediatric HIV by bringing national and global stakeholders together to review national policies and programmes and develop country-specific recommendations for accelerating scale-up. Between 2005 and 2010, the IATT conducted JTMs in 18 low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, to assess the role played by the missions, a review in the first eight countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) that hosted JTMs was undertaken. Country progress was assessed through desk review and key informant interviews. For each country, documents reviewed included JTM reports, baseline data for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment, and 2004 to 2007 trend data on key PMTCT and paediatric HIV indicators. Drawing upon the findings, this paper posits that JTMs contributed to national scale-up of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes through strengthening governance and co-ordination mechanisms for the programmes, promoting enabling policy environments, and supporting the development of national scale-up plans, which have been critical for leveraging additional financial resources for scale-up. Although the impact of the JTMs could be enhanced through greater follow-up and continued targeted assistance in technical areas such as infant and young child feeding, community-based programming and supply chain management, findings indicate that the JTMs are a useful mechanism for informing policy and programme decisions necessary for scaling up PMTCT and paediatric HIV responses. Moreover, by bringing

  12. Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology. (United States)

    Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh


    This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China.

  13. Conception and limits of robust perceptual hashing: towards side information assisted hash functions (United States)

    Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav; Koval, Oleksiy; Beekhof, Fokko; Pun, Thierry


    In this paper, we consider some basic concepts behind the design of existing robust perceptual hashing techniques for content identification. We show the limits of robust hashing from the communication perspectives as well as propose an approach that is able to overcome these shortcomings in certain setups. The consideration is based on both achievable rate and probability of error. We use the fact that most robust hashing algorithms are based on dimensionality reduction using random projections and quantization. Therefore, we demonstrate the corresponding achievable rate and probability of error based on random projections and compare with the results for the direct domain. The effect of dimensionality reduction is studied and the corresponding approximations are provided based on the Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma. Side-information assisted robust perceptual hashing is proposed as a solution to the above shortcomings.

  14. The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program: The Environmental Protection Agency’s Research Approach to Assisting Community Decision-Making

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    Kevin Summers


    Full Text Available A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs on environmental, economic, and social fronts. The United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program aims to assist communities (large and small to make decisions for their long term sustainability with respect to the three pillars of human well-being—environmental, economic and social—and are tempered in a way that ensures social equity, environmental justice and intergenerational equity. The primary tool being developed by the Sustainable and Healthy Communities (SHC research program to enhance sustainable decision making is called TRIO (Total Resources Impacts and Outcomes. The conceptual development of this tool and the SHC program attributes are discussed.

  15. Some considerations about taking decisions in the medical assistance area. Algunas consideraciones sobre la toma de decisiones en el campo de la asistencia médica.

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    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    Full Text Available The determination of the main elements that forms the decision taking process in medical assistance facilitates the comprehension of the process to be put in practice by the physician, as well as the evaluation of the professional performance. In this article the most outstanding characteristics of the medical decision taking are identified: the decisions transcendence, great influence of time factor; probabilistic character of Medicine as a science, ¨relative¨ predictability of pathologic phenomena, variability of medical knowledge, patient involving in decisions, and limited objectivity of problems and decisions. For being the auxiliary medical attention a decision taking process, this elements determine by far the medical professional performance.La determinación de los principales elementos que matizan el proceso de toma de decisiones en la asistencia médica facilita la comprensión del proceso a ejecutar por el médico, así como la evaluación de la actuación profesional. En este artículo son identificadas las características más esenciales de la toma de decisiones médicas: trascendencia de las decisiones; gran influencia del factor tiempo; carácter probabilístico de la Medicina como ciencia; predecibilidad ¨relativa¨ de los fenómenos patológicos; variabilidad del conocimiento médico; la participación del paciente en las decisiones; y objetividad limitada de los problemas y las decisiones. Por ser la atención médica asistencial un proceso de toma de decisiones, estos elementos o rasgos determinan en gran medida la actuación del profesional médico.

  16. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean


    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary


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    Javier García DÍEZ


    Full Text Available A diagnostic tool on the decision of investing in Information and Communication Technology (ICT in small and medium enterprises (SME suggested in Judith Redoli et al. (2008, showed its usefulness helping to understand how an enterprise uses ICT and ‘‘how’’ and ‘‘when’’ a company should incorporate new technological elements. The model was applied successfully in the assessment of 500 SME; as a result a technology deployment project was given to each enterprise in which a priority project was also defined. This short paper presents the second part of that study: a second assessment was made to those SME oriented to detect whether the enterprises on which the analysis was conducted did achieve the deployment of the technologies identified within six months, and the relationship between this fact and the existence of an associated grant. On the other hand, in this research the correlation between the priority project established in the first assessment and the one that was finally completed was demonstrated.

  18. A Novel Method for Multiattribute Decision Making with Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Triangular Linguistic Information

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    Yanbing Ju


    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiattribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements and the weights of attributes take the form of real numbers. Firstly, to solve the situation where the membership degree and the nonmembership degree of an element to a triangular linguistic variable, the concept, operational laws, score function, and accuracy function of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements (DHFTLEs are defined. Then, some dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic geometric aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the DHFTLEs, including dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (DHFTLWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (DHFTLOWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic hybrid geometric (DHFTLHG operator, generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (GDHFTLWG operator, and generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (GDHFTLOWG operator. Furthermore, some desirable properties of these operators are investigated in detail. Based on the proposed operators, an approach to MADM with dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a numerical example for investment alternative selection is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  19. Modeling mercury biomagnification (South River, Virginia, USA) to inform river management decision making. (United States)

    Tom, Kyle R; Newman, Michael C; Schmerfeld, John


    Mercury trophic transfer in the South River (VA, USA) was modeled to guide river remediation decision making. Sixteen different biota types were collected at six sites within 23 river miles. Mercury biomagnification was modeled using a general biomagnification model based on delta(15)N and distance from the historic mercury release. Methylmercury trophic transfer was clearer than that for total Hg and, therefore, was used to build the predictive model (r(2) (prediction) = 0.76). The methylmercury biomagnification factors were similar among sites, but model intercept did increase with distance down river. Minimum Akaike's Information Criterion Estimation (MAICE) justified the incorporation of distance in the model. A model with a very similar biomagnification factor to the South River (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.38-0.52) was produced for a second contaminated Virginia river, the North Fork Holston River (95% CI = 0.41-0.55). Percent of total Hg that was methylmercury increased monotonically with trophic position. Trophic models based on delta(15)N were adequate for predicting changes in mercury concentrations in edible fish under different remediation scenarios.

  20. The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia (United States)

    Kucharski, John; Tkach, Mark; Olszewski, Jennifer; Chaudhry, Rabia; Mendoza, Guillermo


    This presentation demonstrates the application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) at Zambia's principal water treatment facility, The Iolanda Water Treatment Plant. The water treatment plant is prone to unacceptable failures during periods of low hydropower production at the Kafue Gorge Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant. The case study explores approaches of increasing the water treatment plant's ability to deliver acceptable levels of service under the range of current and potential future climate states. The objective of the study is to investigate alternative investments to build system resilience that might have been informed by the CRIDA process, and to evaluate the extra resource requirements by a bilateral donor agency to implement the CRIDA process. The case study begins with an assessment of the water treatment plant's vulnerability to climate change. It does so by following general principals described in "Confronting Climate Uncertainty in Water Resource Planning and Project Design: the Decision Tree Framework". By utilizing relatively simple bootstrapping methods a range of possible future climate states is generated while avoiding the use of more complex and costly downscaling methodologies; that are beyond the budget and technical capacity of many teams. The resulting climate vulnerabilities and uncertainty in the climate states that produce them are analyzed as part of a "Level of Concern" analysis. CRIDA principals are then applied to this Level of Concern analysis in order to arrive at a set of actionable water management decisions. The principal goals of water resource management is to transform variable, uncertain hydrology into dependable services (e.g. water supply, flood risk reduction, ecosystem benefits, hydropower production, etc…). Traditional approaches to climate adaptation require the generation of predicted future climate states but do little guide decision makers how this information should impact decision making. In

  1. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities (United States)

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.


    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  2. Relationships among Career and Life Stress, Negative Career thoughts, and Career Decision State: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Leierer, Stephen J.; Reed, Corey A.


    According to cognitive information processing theory, career thoughts mediate the relationship between career and life stress and the ensuing career decision state. Using a sample of 232 college students and structural equation modeling, this study found that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative career…

  3. The Role of Information in the Decision-Making Process Concerning the Development of Education in Poland. (United States)

    Kluczynski, Jan; Kwiatkowski, Stefan

    This paper, one in a series of Unesco technical information reports, discusses education in Poland and examines decision making. The Polish school system consists of primary schools, general secondary schools, vocational secondary schools, vocational schools not giving the right to enter third-level schools, higher post secondary schools, and…

  4. Principals Value-Informed Decision Making, Intrapersonal Moral Discord, and Pathways to Resolution: The Complexities of Moral Leadership Praxis (United States)

    Frick, William C.


    Purpose: This research seeks to explore the inevitable internal struggle experienced by school leaders when making ethically-informed judgments. The study acquired principals' intimate reflections about professional decision making in response to personal versus organizational and/or professional value discrepancy as identified in the ethic of the…

  5. Advancing the Direction of Health Information Management in Greek Public Hospitals: Theoretical Directions and Methodological Implications for Sharing Information in order to Obtain Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evagelia Lappa


    Full Text Available Although consultants have long placed the use of research information at the centre of their activity, the extent that physicians use this information tends to vary widely. Despite this study and its recommendations, there is still a gap between the functions of a manager and the use of the associated information, while the decision-making procedures vary according to the organization in which they work. The cost of IT remains the largest barrier, while some current IT solutions are not user friendly and out-of-date, particularly for public hospitals in Greece. The knowledge management is concerned not only with the facts and figures of production, but also with the know-how of staff. The information needs protocol should not be referred only to those who comply with formal computer-based information systems, but also to those who take into account other informal information and its flow within the organization. In a field such as medicine, where out-of-date information may be positively dangerous, doctors make heavy use of journals and several texts from the web. The decision-making process is a complex approach, particularly in human diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Therefore, it is very important to set priorities in the sector of health information management and promote education and training on information and communication technology (ICT.

  6. Dynamic Team Theory of Stochastic Differential Decision Systems with Decentralized Noisy Information Structures via Girsanov's Measure Transformation


    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; Ahmed, Nasir U.


    In this paper, we present two methods which generalize static team theory to dynamic team theory, in the context of continuous-time stochastic nonlinear differential decentralized decision systems, with relaxed strategies, which are measurable to different noisy information structures. For both methods we apply Girsanov's measure transformation to obtain an equivalent dynamic team problem under a reference probability measure, so that the observations and information structures available for ...

  7. 77 FR 49004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Rental Assistance Demonstration... (United States)


    ...), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP) and Mod Rehab properties upon contract expiration or termination, to convert Tenant Protection Vouchers (TPVs) to Project Based Vouchers (PBVs). Participation in the... Supplement (Rent Supp), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP), and Mod Rehab properties, upon contract...

  8. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan (United States)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.


    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  9. Information needs and preferences of low and high literacy consumers for decisions about colorectal cancer screening: utilizing a linguistic model (United States)

    Smith, Sian K; Trevena, Lyndal; Nutbeam, Don; Barratt, Alexandra; McCaffery, Kirsten J


    Abstract Context  The use of written decision aids (DAs) in clinical practice has proliferated. However, few DAs have been developed for low literacy users, despite this group having low knowledge about healthcare and lacking involvement in health decisions. Objective  To explore the information needs and understanding of adults with varying literacy in relation to colorectal cancer screening, and to consider their responses to two versions of a decision aid. Participants  Thirty‐three men and women aged 45–74 years were recruited from Adult Basic Education classes (n = 17) and University Continuing Education programs (n = 16). Methods  We used qualitative methods (in‐depth, semi‐structured interviews) to compare and contrast the views of adults with lower and higher literacy levels, to gain a better understanding of how people with lower literacy value and interpret specific DA content and components; and determine whether needs and preferences are specific to lower literacy groups or generic across the broad literacy spectrum. Results  Regardless of literacy perspective, participants’ interpretations of the DA were shaped by their prior knowledge and expectations, as well as their values and preferences. This influenced perceptions of the DAs role in supporting informed decision making. A linguistic theoretical model was applied to interpret the findings. This facilitated considerations beyond the traditional focus on the readability of materials. Conclusion  Decision aids developers may find it useful to apply alternative approaches (linguistic) when creating DAs for consumers of varying literacy. PMID:18494957

  10. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.


    In June 2006, the US Supreme Court issued decisions in two cases concerning the Clean Water Act (CWA). The decisions discuss factors potentially relevant to CWA jurisdiction, including the hydrological permanence of non-navigable streams and adjacent wetlands (NNSAWs) and their ...

  12. Use of quality information in decision-making about health and social care services--a systematic review. (United States)

    Turnpenny, Agnes; Beadle-Brown, Julie


    User choice and personalisation have been at the centre of health and social care policies in many countries. Exercising choice can be especially challenging for people with long-term conditions (LTC) or disabilities. Information about the quality, cost and availability of services is central to user choice. This study used systematic review methods to synthesise evidence in three main areas: (i) how people with LTC or disabilities and their family carers find and access information about the quality of services; (ii) how quality information is used in decision-making; and (iii) what type of quality information is most useful. Quality information was defined broadly and could include formal quality reports (e.g. inspection reports, report cards, etc.), information about the characteristics of a service or provider (e.g. number and qualifications of staff, facilities, etc.) and informal reports about quality (e.g. personal experience, etc.). Literature searches were carried out using electronic databases in January 2012. Thirteen papers reporting findings from empirical studies published between 2001 and 2012 were included in the review. The majority of papers (n = 9) had a qualitative design. The analysis highlighted the use of multiple sources of information in decision-making about services and in particular the importance of informal sources and extended social networks in accessing information. There is limited awareness and use of 'official' and online information sources. Service users or family carers place greater emphasis on general information and structural indicators. Clinical or quality-of-life outcomes are often difficult to interpret and apply. Trust emerged a key issue in relation to quality information. Experiential and subjective information is highly valued and trusted. Various barriers to the effective use of quality information in making choices about services are identified. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

  13. Computational modelling and analysis of hippocampal-prefrontal information coding during a spatial decision-making task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eJahans-Price


    Full Text Available We introduce a computational model describing rat behaviour and the interactions of neural populations processing spatial and mnemonic information during a maze-based, decision-making task. The model integrates sensory input and implements a working memory to inform decisions at a choice point, reproducing rat behavioural data and predicting the occurrence of turn- and memory-dependent activity in neuronal networks supporting task performance. We tested these model predictions using a new software toolbox (Maze Query Language, MQL to analyse activity of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC and dorsal hippocampal (dCA1 neurons recorded from 6 adult rats during task performance. The firing rates of dCA1 neurons discriminated context (i.e. the direction of the previous turn, whilst a subset of mPFC neurons was selective for current turn direction or context, with some conjunctively encoding both. mPFC turn-selective neurons displayed a ramping of activity on approach to the decision turn and turn-selectivity in mPFC was significantly reduced during error trials. These analyses complement data from neurophysiological recordings in non-human primates indicating that firing rates of cortical neurons correlate with integration of sensory evidence used to inform decision-making.

  14. Impact of effectiveness information format on patient choice of therapy and satisfaction with decisions about chronic disease medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Nexøe, Jørgen


    BACKGROUND: Risk communication is an integral part of shared decision-making in health care. In the context of interventions for chronic diseases it represents a particular challenge for all health practitioners. By using two different quantitative formats to communicate risk level and effectiven......BACKGROUND: Risk communication is an integral part of shared decision-making in health care. In the context of interventions for chronic diseases it represents a particular challenge for all health practitioners. By using two different quantitative formats to communicate risk level...... and effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering drug, we posed the research question: how does the format of risk information influence patients' decisions concerning therapy, patients' satisfaction with the communication as well as confidence in the decision. We hypothesise that patients are less prone to accept......-randomised to inform patients about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the effectiveness of statin therapy using either POL or ARR. The GPs attended a training session before informing their patients. Before training and after the trial period they received a questionnaire about their attitudes to risk...

  15. EVFDT: An Enhanced Very Fast Decision Tree Algorithm for Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attack in Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif


    Full Text Available Due to the scattered nature of DDoS attacks and advancement of new technologies such as cloud-assisted WBAN, it becomes challenging to detect malicious activities by relying on conventional security mechanisms. The detection of such attacks demands an adaptive and incremental learning classifier capable of accurate decision making with less computation. Hence, the DDoS attack detection using existing machine learning techniques requires full data set to be stored in the memory and are not appropriate for real-time network traffic. To overcome these shortcomings, Very Fast Decision Tree (VFDT algorithm has been proposed in the past that can handle high speed streaming data efficiently. Whilst considering the data generated by WBAN sensors, noise is an obvious aspect that severely affects the accuracy and increases false alarms. In this paper, an enhanced VFDT (EVFDT is proposed to efficiently detect the occurrence of DDoS attack in cloud-assisted WBAN. EVFDT uses an adaptive tie-breaking threshold for node splitting. To resolve the tree size expansion under extreme noise, a lightweight iterative pruning technique is proposed. To analyze the performance of EVFDT, four metrics are evaluated: classification accuracy, tree size, time, and memory. Simulation results show that EVFDT attains significantly high detection accuracy with fewer false alarms.

  16. Transceiver Pair Designs for Multiple Access Channels under Fixed Sum Mutual Information using MMSE Decision Feedback Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Wenwen; Wong, Kon Max


    In this paper, we consider the joint design of the transceivers for a multiple access Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) system having Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) channels. The system we consider is equipped with the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) Decision-Feedback (DF) detector. Traditionally, transmitter designs for this system have been based on constraints of either the transmission power or the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) for each user. Here, we explore a novel perspective and examine a transceiver design which is based on a fixed sum mutual information constraint and minimizes the arithmetic average of mean square error of MMSE-decision feedback detection. For this optimization problem, a closed-form solution is obtained and is achieved if and only if the averaged sum mutual information is uniformly distributed over each active subchannel. Meanwhile, the mutual information of the currently detected user is uniformly distributed over each individual symbol within the block ...

  17. Macro-logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form...... operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need to contend with. With this background, the purpose of this paper is to report on the most important macro logistics decision factors that describe environmental complexity for global....../cross border logistics operations. The study applies a decision-making oriented approach in order to develop a set of macrologistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant...

  18. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem


    reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form of a decision hierarchy. The findings suggest the importance of 17 generic decision factors at the macro-economic (country) level......value chains and supply chain management. This scope is usually accompanied by uncertainty to organisations, especially for the cross-border value chain with geographically dispersed operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need......-logistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature...

  19. Conducting discrete choice experiments to inform healthcare decision making: a user's guide. (United States)

    Lancsar, Emily; Louviere, Jordan


    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are regularly used in health economics to elicit preferences for healthcare products and programmes. There is growing recognition that DCEs can provide more than information on preferences and, in particular, they have the potential to contribute more directly to outcome measurement for use in economic evaluation. Almost uniquely, DCEs could potentially contribute to outcome measurement for use in both cost-benefit and cost-utility analysis. Within this expanding remit, our intention is to provide a resource for current practitioners as well as those considering undertaking a DCE, using DCE results in a policy/commercial context, or reviewing a DCE. We present the fundamental principles and theory underlying DCEs. To aid in undertaking and assessing the quality of DCEs, we discuss the process of carrying out a choice study and have developed a checklist covering conceptualizing the choice process, selecting attributes and levels, experimental design, questionnaire design, pilot testing, sampling and sample size, data collection, coding of data, econometric analysis, validity, interpretation and welfare and policy analysis. In this fast-moving area, a number of issues remain on the research frontier. We therefore outline potentially fruitful areas for future research associated both with DCEs in general, and with health applications specifically, paying attention to how the results of DCEs can be used in economic evaluation. We also discuss emerging research trends. We conclude that if appropriately designed, implemented, analysed and interpreted, DCEs offer several advantages in the health sector, the most important of which is that they provide rich data sources for economic evaluation and decision making, allowing investigation of many types of questions, some of which otherwise would be intractable analytically. Thus, they offer viable alternatives and complements to existing methods of valuation and preference elicitation.

  20. Setting the most robust effluent level under severe uncertainty: application of information-gap decision theory to chemical management. (United States)

    Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Naito, Wataru; Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kamo, Masashi


    Decisions in ecological risk management for chemical substances must be made based on incomplete information due to uncertainties. To protect the ecosystems from the adverse effect of chemicals, a precautionary approach is often taken. The precautionary approach, which is based on conservative assumptions about the risks of chemical substances, can be applied selecting management models and data. This approach can lead to an adequate margin of safety for ecosystems by reducing exposure to harmful substances, either by reducing the use of target chemicals or putting in place strict water quality criteria. However, the reduction of chemical use or effluent concentrations typically entails a financial burden. The cost effectiveness of the precautionary approach may be small. Hence, we need to develop a formulaic methodology in chemical risk management that can sufficiently protect ecosystems in a cost-effective way, even when we do not have sufficient information for chemical management. Information-gap decision theory can provide the formulaic methodology. Information-gap decision theory determines which action is the most robust to uncertainty by guaranteeing an acceptable outcome under the largest degree of uncertainty without requiring information about the extent of parameter uncertainty at the outset. In this paper, we illustrate the application of information-gap decision theory to derive a framework for setting effluent limits of pollutants for point sources under uncertainty. Our application incorporates a cost for reduction in pollutant emission and a cost to wildlife species affected by the pollutant. Our framework enables us to settle upon actions to deal with severe uncertainty in ecological risk management of chemicals.

  1. 30 CFR 285.611 - What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other... (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I submit with my SAP to... Assessment Plan § 285.611 What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other relevant laws? (a) You must submit with your SAP detailed information to assist MMS in...

  2. An approach for using risk assessment in risk-informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Mark A.; Cheok, Michael C.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Holahan, Gary M.; King, Thomas L.; Parry, Gareth W.; Ramey-Smith, Ann M.; Rubin, Mark P.; Thadani, Ashok C


    This paper discusses an acceptable approach that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has proposed for using Probabilistic Risk Assessment in making decisions on changes to the licensing basis of a nuclear power plant. First, the overall philosophy of risk-informed decision-making, and the process framework are described. The philosophy is encapsulated in five principles, one of which states that, if the proposed change leads to an increase in core damage frequency or risk, the increases must be small and consistent with the intent of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Safety Goal Policy Statement. The second part of the paper discusses the use of PRA to demonstrate that this principle has been met. The discussion focuses on the acceptance guidelines, and on comparison of the PRA results with those guidelines. The difficulties that arise because of limitations in scope and analytical uncertainties are discussed and approaches to accommodate these difficulties in the decision-making are described.

  3. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  4. Strategic Implications of Information Technology for Resource and Capability Outsourcing Decisions



    Outsourcing generally involves non-strategic resources and/or non-asset specific capabilities. However, in this paper, the authors examine the non-traditional, but increasingly more common, use of IT to facilitate theoretically inconsistent outsourcing decisions involving core resources and capabilities. The authors reconcile theory with practice by developing propositions to explain how IT can enable such outsourcing decisions and how performance advantages may ensue. The authors develop a f...

  5. An information filtering and control system to improve the decision making process within future command information centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.L.M.M.; Wynia, S.J.; Soerensen, M.H.; Houtsma, M.A.W.


    This paper describes the achieved research results within several national and international C2 and information management projects to develop concepts for balancing the information push with an operator’s information need in order to meet the requirement to avoid / suppress information overload sit

  6. An Advanced Information Management Support System to Improve the Decision Making Process within Future Command Information Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.L.M.M.; Wynia, S.J.


    This paper describes the achieved research results within several national and international C2 and information-management projects for developing concepts for balancing the information push with the operator's information need to meet the requirement to avoid / suppress information overload situati

  7. Design and Implementation of Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Supporting Decision Making (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari


    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFS-DMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic decision as fast as possible

  8. Decision making at different levels of the organization and the impact of new information technology - Two cases from the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, NM; van den Ende, J; de Wit, O


    This article focuses on the impact of information technologies on the upstream and downstream flows of information. The authors distinguish between two types of decisions and two types of decision-making criteria and propose a four-part framework in which the essential messages of systematic managem

  9. Right Technology, Right Now: An Evaluation Methodology for Rapidly Deployable Information and Communications Technologies in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (United States)


    Humanitarian Assistance HFN Hastily Formed Network ICT Information and Communications Technologies IEC International Electrotechnical Commission...a Pelican 1400 Case. 2. Environmental Durability The primary measure of environmental durability is the International Electrotechnical ...Communications. Inmarsat. Retrieved from papers /6.1.doc Frassl, M., Lichtenstern, M., Khider, M

  10. Solar Technical Assistance Team (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a team of solar technology and deployment experts who ensure that the best information on policies, regulations, financing, and other issues is getting into the hands of state government decision makers whey they need it. This fact sheet provides information about STAT and the STAT webinar series for the summer of 2012.

  11. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care (United States)

    Kazanzides, Peter


    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  12. On the Use of Time-Limited Information for Maintenance Decision Support: A Predictive Approach under Maintenance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khoury


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a gradually deteriorating system operating under an uncertain environment whose state is only known on a finite rolling horizon. As such, the system is subject to constraints. Maintenance actions can only be planned at imposed times called maintenance opportunities that are available on a limited visibility horizon. This system can, for example, be a commercial vehicle with a monitored critical component that can be maintained only in some specific workshops. Based on the considered system, we aim to use the monitoring data and the time-limited information for maintenance decision support in order to reduce its costs. We propose two predictive maintenance policies based, respectively, on cost and reliability criteria. Classical age-based and condition-based policies are considered as benchmarks. The performance assessment shows the value of the different types of information and the best way to use them in maintenance decision making.

  13. Exploring sensitivity of a multistate occupancy model to inform management decisions (United States)

    Green, A.W.; Bailey, L.L.; Nichols, J.D.


    Dynamic occupancy models are often used to investigate questions regarding the processes that influence patch occupancy and are prominent in the fields of population and community ecology and conservation biology. Recently, multistate occupancy models have been developed to investigate dynamic systems involving more than one occupied state, including reproductive states, relative abundance states and joint habitat-occupancy states. Here we investigate the sensitivities of the equilibrium-state distribution of multistate occupancy models to changes in transition rates. We develop equilibrium occupancy expressions and their associated sensitivity metrics for dynamic multistate occupancy models. To illustrate our approach, we use two examples that represent common multistate occupancy systems. The first example involves a three-state dynamic model involving occupied states with and without successful reproduction (California spotted owl Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and the second involves a novel way of using a multistate occupancy approach to accommodate second-order Markov processes (wood frog Lithobates sylvatica breeding and metamorphosis). In many ways, multistate sensitivity metrics behave in similar ways as standard occupancy sensitivities. When equilibrium occupancy rates are low, sensitivity to parameters related to colonisation is high, while sensitivity to persistence parameters is greater when equilibrium occupancy rates are high. Sensitivities can also provide guidance for managers when estimates of transition probabilities are not available. Synthesis and applications. Multistate models provide practitioners a flexible framework to define multiple, distinct occupied states and the ability to choose which state, or combination of states, is most relevant to questions and decisions about their own systems. In addition to standard multistate occupancy models, we provide an example of how a second-order Markov process can be modified to fit a multistate

  14. ProCKSI: a decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażewicz Jacek


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce the decision support system for Protein (Structure Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information (ProCKSI. ProCKSI integrates various protein similarity measures through an easy to use interface that allows the comparison of multiple proteins simultaneously. It employs the Universal Similarity Metric (USM, the Maximum Contact Map Overlap (MaxCMO of protein structures and other external methods such as the DaliLite and the TM-align methods, the Combinatorial Extension (CE of the optimal path, and the FAST Align and Search Tool (FAST. Additionally, ProCKSI allows the user to upload a user-defined similarity matrix supplementing the methods mentioned, and computes a similarity consensus in order to provide a rich, integrated, multicriteria view of large datasets of protein structures. Results We present ProCKSI's architecture and workflow describing its intuitive user interface, and show its potential on three distinct test-cases. In the first case, ProCKSI is used to evaluate the results of a previous CASP competition, assessing the similarity of proposed models for given targets where the structures could have a large deviation from one another. To perform this type of comparison reliably, we introduce a new consensus method. The second study deals with the verification of a classification scheme for protein kinases, originally derived by sequence comparison by Hanks and Hunter, but here we use a consensus similarity measure based on structures. In the third experiment using the Rost and Sander dataset (RS126, we investigate how a combination of different sets of similarity measures influences the quality and performance of ProCKSI's new consensus measure. ProCKSI performs well with all three datasets, showing its potential for complex, simultaneous multi-method assessment of structural similarity in large protein datasets. Furthermore, combining different similarity measures is usually more robust than


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Bashina


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the actual economic problem of decision-making for management. Decision support systems (DSS belong to a class of information systems which are set of toolkits for supporting such processes as creating choices and making (selecting a decision. These systems contain tools for combining management both on strategic and operative levels with advanced analytics. Such information systems based on different tools for supporting all stages of decision making and implementation are of current importance and in demand. In the article there is a result of analyses of current methods and computer tools used for decision support. DSS are of particular importance in the network economy as an integral part of information society development where the speed of decision making is a key success factor.

  16. Extension of Axiomatic Design Method for Fuzzy Linguistic Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making with Incomplete Weight Information


    Ming Li


    Axiomatic design (AD) provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM) with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation...

  17. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program... (United States)


    .... ADDRESSES: Interest persons are invited to submit comments regarding this proposal. Comments should refer to... proposed use: To assist households displaced by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Disaster Housing Assistance... displaced families from September 1, 2007, through February 28, 2009. DHAP was implemented in phases,...

  18. 77 FR 64822 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Rental Assistance Demonstration... (United States)


    ... Section 8 rental assistance contracts; and Rent Supplement (Rent Supp), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP... vouchers (TPVs) to project-based vouchers (PBVs). Participation in the initiative will be voluntary. Public... payments under that project. This requirement is for all applicants in the Public Housing, Mod Rehab,...

  19. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods: a cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making. (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb


    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner.

  20. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...

  1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers (United States)

    Wheelock, Michael D.


    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  2. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo


    Foundation species are structurally dominant members of ecological communities that can stabilize ecological processes and influence resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Being common, they are often overlooked for conservation but are increasingly threatened from land use change, biological invasions, and over-exploitation. The pattern of foundation species abundances over space and time may be used to guide decision-making, particularly in protected areas for which they are iconic. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify the important environmental influences on the abundance patterns of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in protected-area sagebrush steppe. We then predicted bunchgrass abundances along gradients of topography, disturbance, and invasive annual grass abundance. We used model predictions to prioritize the landscape for implementation of a management and restoration decision-support tool. Models were fit to categorical estimates of grass cover obtained from an extensive ground-based monitoring dataset. We found that remnant stands of abundant wheatgrass and bluegrass were associated with steep north-facing slopes in higher and more remote portions of the landscape outside of recently burned areas where invasive annual grasses were less abundant. These areas represented only 25% of the landscape and were prioritized for protection efforts. Needlegrass was associated with south-facing slopes, but in low abundance and in association with invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Abundances of all three species were strongly negatively correlated with occurrence of another invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae). The rarity of priority bunchgrass stands underscored the extent of degradation and the need for prioritization. We found no evidence that insularity reduced invasibility; annual grass invasion represents

  3. Managers’ Information Overload the impact of coping strategies on decision-making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.V. Iastrebova (Ksenia)


    textabstractAt the beginning of the 20th century, information was a scarce resource. The expansion of information and communication technologies, however, brought dramatic changes in terms of volume of information, driving society into the information age with new economic, social, and ethical rules

  4. Prior and present evidence: how prior experience interacts with present information in a perceptual decision making task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Karim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrotactile discrimination tasks have been used to examine decision making processes in the presence of perceptual uncertainty, induced by barely discernible frequency differences between paired stimuli or by the presence of embedded noise. One lesser known property of such tasks is that decisions made on a single trial may be biased by information from prior trials. An example is the time-order effect whereby the presentation order of paired stimuli may introduce differences in accuracy. Subjects perform better when the first stimulus lies between the second stimulus and the global mean of all stimuli on the judged dimension ("preferred" time-orders compared to the alternative presentation order ("nonpreferred" time-orders. This has been conceptualised as a "drift" of the first stimulus representation towards the global mean of the stimulus-set (an internal standard. We describe the influence of prior information in relation to the more traditionally studied factors of interest in a classic discrimination task. METHODOLOGY: Sixty subjects performed a vibrotactile discrimination task with different levels of uncertainty parametrically induced by increasing task difficulty, aperiodic stimulus noise, and changing the task instructions whilst maintaining identical stimulus properties (the "context". PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time-order effect had a greater influence on task performance than two of the explicit factors-task difficulty and noise-but not context. The influence of prior information increased with the distance of the first stimulus from the global mean, suggesting that the "drift" velocity of the first stimulus towards the global mean representation was greater for these trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Awareness of the time-order effect and prior information in general is essential when studying perceptual decision making tasks. Implicit mechanisms may have a greater influence than the explicit factors under study. It also

  5. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers. (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene


    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care.

  6. A hybrid decision support model to discover informative knowledge in diagnosing acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Chang Sik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable hybrid decision support model by combining statistical analysis and decision tree algorithms to ensure high accuracy of early diagnosis in patients with suspected acute appendicitis and to identify useful decision rules. Methods We enrolled 326 patients who attended an emergency medical center complaining mainly of acute abdominal pain. Statistical analysis approaches were used as a feature selection process in the design of decision support models, including the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test (p Results Of 55 variables, two subsets were found to be indispensable for early diagnostic knowledge discovery in acute appendicitis. The two subsets were as follows: (1 lymphocytes, urine glucose, total bilirubin, total amylase, chloride, red blood cell, neutrophils, eosinophils, white blood cell, complaints, basophils, glucose, monocytes, activated partial thromboplastin time, urine ketone, and direct bilirubin in the univariate analysis-based model; and (2 neutrophils, complaints, total bilirubin, urine glucose, and lipase in the multivariate analysis-based model. The experimental results showed that the model with univariate analysis (80.2%, 82.4%, 78.3%, 76.8%, 83.5%, and 80.3% outperformed models using multivariate analysis (71.6%, 69.3%, 73.7%, 69.7%, 73.3%, and 71.5% with entry and removal criteria of 0.01 and 0.05; 73.5%, 66.0%, 80.0%, 74.3%, 72.9%, and 73.0% with entry and removal criteria of 0.05 and 0.10 in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under ROC curve, during a 10-fold cross validation. A statistically significant difference was detected in the pairwise comparison of ROC curves (p p Conclusions The decision model developed in this study can be applied as an aid in the initial decision making of clinicians to increase vigilance in cases of suspected acute

  7. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina


    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  8. Individual differences in the components of children's and adults' information processing for simple symbolic and non-symbolic numeric decisions. (United States)

    Thompson, Clarissa A; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail


    How do speed and accuracy trade off, and what components of information processing develop as children and adults make simple numeric comparisons? Data from symbolic and non-symbolic number tasks were collected from 19 first graders (Mage=7.12 years), 26 second/third graders (Mage=8.20 years), 27 fourth/fifth graders (Mage=10.46 years), and 19 seventh/eighth graders (Mage=13.22 years). The non-symbolic task asked children to decide whether an array of asterisks had a larger or smaller number than 50, and the symbolic task asked whether a two-digit number was greater than or less than 50. We used a diffusion model analysis to estimate components of processing in tasks from accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time (RT) distributions. Participants who were accurate on one task were accurate on the other task, and participants who made fast decisions on one task made fast decisions on the other task. Older participants extracted a higher quality of information from the stimulus arrays, were more willing to make a decision, and were faster at encoding, transforming the stimulus representation, and executing their responses. Individual participants' accuracy and RTs were uncorrelated. Drift rate and boundary settings were significantly related across tasks, but they were unrelated to each other. Accuracy was mainly determined by drift rate, and RT was mainly determined by boundary separation. We concluded that RT and accuracy operate largely independently.

  9. Decision peptide-driven: a free software tool for accurate protein quantification using gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Santos, Hugo M; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Nunes-Miranda, J D; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Carvallo, R; Capelo, J L


    The decision peptide-driven tool implements a software application for assisting the user in a protocol for accurate protein quantification based on the following steps: (1) protein separation through gel electrophoresis; (2) in-gel protein digestion; (3) direct and inverse (18)O-labeling and (4) matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI analysis. The DPD software compares the MALDI results of the direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments and quickly identifies those peptides with paralleled loses in different sets of a typical proteomic workflow. Those peptides are used for subsequent accurate protein quantification. The interpretation of the MALDI data from direct and inverse labeling experiments is time-consuming requiring a significant amount of time to do all comparisons manually. The DPD software shortens and simplifies the searching of the peptides that must be used for quantification from a week to just some minutes. To do so, it takes as input several MALDI spectra and aids the researcher in an automatic mode (i) to compare data from direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments, calculating the corresponding ratios to determine those peptides with paralleled losses throughout different sets of experiments; and (ii) allow to use those peptides as internal standards for subsequent accurate protein quantification using (18)O-labeling. In this work the DPD software is presented and explained with the quantification of protein carbonic anhydrase.

  10. Older Adults' Use of Online and Offline Sources of Health Information and Constructs of Reliance and Self-Efficacy for Medical Decision Making. (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia


    We know little about older adults' use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient-provider communication and medical decision making. Therefore we investigated older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision making. Survey research was conducted using random digit dialing of Florida residents' landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 119) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision making.

  11. A Simulation of Information Load and Its Affect on Tactical Decision Making (United States)


    6, Perceptions of Leadership Style: SuDerior and Subordinate Descriptions of Decision-Making Behavior, Arthur G. Jago and Victor H . Vroom , November...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 17. OISTRIUUTION STATEMENT (oi the eboaeut ioftereE In Sle& h 20. It ditfI•Zeent from Rei~) 60...authored by H . Wallace Sinaiko. Mr. Sinaiko consolidated numerous findings by a variety of firms under contract with the ONR (Office of Naval Research

  12. Multi-attribute decision-making approach dealing with uncertain linguistic assessment information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An approach is presented to deal with a multi-attribute decision-making problem in which the attribute weights are unknown and the attribute values take the form of uncertain linguistic variables. First, a linguistic assessment standard is set up to deal with the uncertain linguistic attributes, and the operation laws of uncertain linguistic variables and the uncertain linguistic weighting average(ULWA)operator are introduced. Then a ranking formula of uncertain linguistic variables based on expectation-var...

  13. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Khanna


    Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

  14. Coupling Direct Collection of Health Risk Information from Patients through Kiosks with Decision Support for Proactive Care Management (United States)

    Lobach, David F.; Silvey, Garry M.; Willis, Janese M.; Kooy, Kevin R.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Johnson, Frederick


    Data collection from patients for use in clinical decision making is foundational for medical practice. Increasingly, kiosks are being used to facilitate direct data collection from patients. However, kiosk-collected data are generally not integrated into the care process. In this project, 4,014 people initiated a kiosk-administered health risk assessment questionnaire using a free-standing public-access kiosk. For 201 of these initiated sessions, kiosk users supplied a Medicaid identification number which allowed their data to be integrated into a regional health information exchange and reviewed by a standards-based clinical decision support system. This system identified 479 survey responses which had been predetermined to warrant follow-up. Notices about these sentinel responses were emailed to care managers and sent to clinical sites. While this study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting and acting on patient-entered health data, it also identifies key challenges to providing proactive care management in this manner. PMID:18999181

  15. Application of Multi-agent Technology to Information Systems: An Agent-based Design Architecture for Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lan Zhang


    Full Text Available One of the most difficult issues in building efficient Information Systems (IS is the integration of these systems with the organization’s other systems. This issue is particularly acute for Decision Support Systems (DSSs. To become more effective and efficient, a DSS must have an open structure to adapt to the dynamic environment. However, current IS, especially DSSs, tend to rely excessively on traditional System Development Life Cycle (SDLC and this places limitations on current systems’ infrastructures. The emergence of multi-agent technology addresses this issue and its applications to IS are becoming highly efficient. In this paper, we introduce a Matrix-Agent connection design, called Agent based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD, which balances the manageability and flexibility in a system and maximizes system performance.

  16. Shared Decision-Making Models Acknowledging an Interprofessional Approach: A Theory Analysis to Inform Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Lewis, Krystina B; Stacey, Dawn; Squires, Janet E; Carroll, Sandra


    Patient engagement in collaboration with health professionals is essential to deliver quality health care. A shared decision-making (SDM) approach requires that patients are involved in decisions regarding their health. SDM is expanding from the patient-physician dyad to incorporate an interprofessional perspective. Conceptual models can be used to better understand theoretical underpinnings for application in clinical practice. The aim of this article was to conduct a theory analysis of conceptual models using an interprofessional approach to SDM and discuss each model's relevance to nursing practice. Walker and Avant's theory analysis approach was used. Three conceptual models were eligible. For all models, the decision-making process was considered iterative. The development process was described for 1 model. All models were logical, parsimonious, and generalizable. One was supported by empirical testing. No model described how partnerships are enacted to achieve interprofessional SDM. Also, there was limited articulation as to how nurses' roles and contributions differ from other team members. This theory analysis highlights the need for a model that explains how partnerships among interprofessional team members are enacted to better understand the operationalization of interprofessional SDM. Implications for nursing practice at all system levels are offered and supported by the 3 models.

  17. NASA Earth Observations Informing Renewable Energy Management and Policy Decision Making (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.


    The NASA Applied Sciences Program partners with domestic and international governmental organizations, universities, and private entities to improve their decisions and assessments. These improvements are enabled by using the knowledge generated from research resulting from spacecraft observations and model predictions conducted by NASA and providing these as inputs to the decision support and scenario assessment tools used by partner organizations. The Program is divided into eight societal benefit areas, aligned in general with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) themes. The Climate Application of the Applied Sciences Program has as one of its focuses, efforts to provide for improved decisions and assessments in the areas of renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, and climate change impacts. The goals of the Applied Sciences Program are aligned with national initiatives such as the U.S. Climate Change Science and Technology Programs and with those of international organizations including the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). Activities within the Program are funded principally through proposals submitted in response to annual solicitations and reviewed by peers.

  18. An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process (United States)

    Weinert, Andrew J.

    Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.

  19. Does Fiscal Austerity Affect Political Decision-Makers’ Use and Perception of Performance Information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Bækgaard, Martin; Houlberg, Kurt


    This article investigates whether the fiscal environment that politicians face influences their use of performance information. It poses two competing hypotheses, suggesting that fiscal austerity either increases politicians’ use of performance information, because they are more concerned about k...

  20. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred


    ) methodology to assess the shifting and alteration of the flow regime within the river and streams of the study area. 2) Evaluate the effect of measurable land use changes related to gas development (well-pad placement, access road completion, etc.) on surface water flow in the region (Task/Section 3.7). Results showed that since the upsurge in shale-gas related activities in the Fayetteville Shale Play (between 2006 and 2010), shale-gas related infrastructure in the region have increase by 78%. This change in land-cover in comparison with other land-cover classes such as forest, urban, pasture, agricultural and water indicates the highest rate of change in any land-cover category for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. A forecast scenario based on the assumption that 2010 land-cover does not see any significant change over the forecast period (2010 to 2020) also showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. Further analyses showed that this change in the stream-flow regime for the forecast period is attributable to the increase in land-cover as introduced by the shale-gas infrastructure. 3) Upgrade the Fayetteville Shale Information System to include information on watershed status. (Tasks/Sections 2.1 and 2.2). This development occurred early in the project period, and technological improvements in web-map API’s have made it possible to further improve the map. The current sites ( is available but is currently being upgraded to a more modern interface and robust mapping engine using funds outside this project. 4) Incorporate the methodologies developed in Tasks/Sections 3.5 and 3.7 into a Spatial Decision Support System for use by regulatory agencies and producers in the play. The resulting system is available at and is under review the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Petru Ovidiu


    Full Text Available Keeping information is a hard thing to do nowadays, mostly because of the development of communication and informational technology. An individual can hardly administer the huge amount of information he’s being bombarded with and that exceed his capacity

  2. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk


    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the

  3. 78 FR 65303 - Request for Information To Inform the Title III Technical Assistance Agenda and the Future... (United States)


    ... paragraph numbers. This Request for Information (RFI) is issued solely for information and planning purposes... needs of State educational agencies (SEAs), local educational agencies (LEAs), administrators, and... English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational programs (NCELA) in support of the...

  4. The Information Decision Support System in Enterprise Management%企业管理中的信息决策支持系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With a discussion on the two major activities in enterprise management,this paper points out that information management is a true management control activity of enterprise management,and that Decision Support System (DSS) is the most valuable decision aid in the complex management environment.It gives a detailed description of the conceptual structure and implementation method of DSS.

  5. Assisted Living Facilities, This file contains the name, address, contact and some licensing information for the Assisted Living Facilites for the State of Maryland., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  6. On the Law of Demand for Decision-Making to Push Forward the Development of Information Industry%论推动信息产业发展的决策需求律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The motive force of the development of information industry is bred in information demand and is in a contradictory movement between information demand and information supply,whereas information demand focuses on the demand for decision-making for competitive dominance.Thus,the demand of information industry is actually driven hy decision-making demand.The paper points out that the key for the development of China's information industry is the cultivation of the decision-making people.

  7. Decisions on foot-and-mouth disease control informed by model prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, Preben; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;


    The predictive capability of the first fortnight incidence (FFI), which is the number of detected herds within the first 14 days following detection of the disease, of the course of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic and its outcomes were investigated. Epidemic outcomes included the number...... correlations with the epidemic outcomes. The predictive capability of the FFI was high. This indicates that the FFI may take a part in the decision of whether or not to boost FMD control, which might prevent occurrence of a large epidemic in the face of an FMD incursion. The prediction power was improved...

  8. An Approach to Multicriteria Group Decision-Making with Unknown Weight Information Based on Pythagorean Fuzzy Uncertain Linguistic Aggregation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu


    Full Text Available With respect to multicriteria group decision-making (MCGDM problems in which the experts have different priority levels, the criteria values are in the form of Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic variables (PFULVs, and the information about weights of experts and criteria is completely unknown, a novel decision-making method is developed. Firstly, the concept of PFULV is defined, and some operational laws, score function, accuracy function, and normalized Hamming distance of PFULVs are presented. Then, to aggregate information given by all experts, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted averaging aggregation (PFULPWAA operator and the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted geometric aggregation (PFULPWGA operator are proposed. Furthermore, in order to get a comprehensive evaluation value for each alternative, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic Maclaurin symmetric mean aggregation (PFULMSMA operator and the weighted PFULMSMA (WPFULMSMA operator are proposed. Moreover, to obtain the information about the weights of criteria, the model based on grey relational analysis (GRA method is established. Finally, a method of MCGDM with PFULVs is developed, and an application example is given to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the provided procedure.

  9. Informed Consent in Medical Decision-Making in Commercial Gestational Surrogacy: A Mixed Methods Study in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. DESIGN: Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Fertility clinics and agenc......OBJECTIVE: To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. DESIGN: Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Fertility clinics...... were carried out among 20 doctors in 18 fertility clinics, five agents from four agencies and 14 surrogate mothers. Surrogate mothers were interviewed both individually and in the presence of doctors and agents. Data on socio-economic context and experiences among and between various actors...... in the surrogacy process were coded to identify categories of ethical concern. Numerical and grounded theory-oriented analyses were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Informed consent, number of embryos transferred, fetal reduction, conflict of interest among the involved parties. RESULTS: None of the 14 surrogate...

  10. Integrated information visualization to support decision making for use of antibiotics in intensive care: design and usability evaluation. (United States)

    Forsman, Johanna; Anani, Nadim; Eghdam, Aboozar; Falkenhav, Magnus; Koch, Sabine


    Overuse of antibiotics is a critical problem in intensive care today. The situation is further complicated by the extremely data-intensive environment with clinical data presented in distributed, often stand-alone information systems. To access and interpret all data is a complex and time-consuming technical and cognitive challenge. We propose a holistic integrated visualization in the form of a patient overview to support physicians in decision making for use of antibiotics at intensive care units. Special emphasis is put on analysis of work processes to identify information needs, the development of a visualization tool based on an integrated data model, and usability testing of the tool in combination with an eye-tracking technology. The visualization tool was highly rated in terms of user performance and preferences, and the analysis of users' visual patterns showed that different types of data visualization may benefit specialist and resident intensive care physicians depending on the task to be performed. A highly interactive tool for integrated information visualization could potentially increase the understanding of a patient's infection status and ultimately enhance decision making for the use of antibiotics.

  11. The impact of information cascade on consumer’s decision making in the frame of brand image within social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nourani


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a deeper relationship between effects of information cascades on customers action and influence of brand image. Information cascades on the social media occurs when an individual observes behaviors of others and then make the same decision that other individuals have already made. According to, information cascades on a social media could lead to that many users have a strong effect on each other like determining the most influential individuals preference within a network. Theinformation cascade can be used forone of twoeffectson consumers in brand image: itcould cause the brand to seem higher or lower in Consumers' Buying Intentions and also could affect consumers' brand trust. The purpose of this study is research of the primary behaviors of those customers who engage with brand image. They affect and make the same decision by ideas that others have already shared in social media. The methodology of the study was a depth interview with Facebook. At the end, 160 college students at Eastern Mediterranean University offered their answers who concerning their motivation of buying and influencing of brands within social media.

  12. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine. (United States)

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas


    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a

  13. The Effects of Management Information System toward Decision Making in Food and Beverage Service Department in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Gita Subakti


    Full Text Available In an organization, decision making hold an important role. That is why a decision made by managers should be a final decision that should be done by their subordinates or those who are related with the organization. In the effort to increase the quality of management information system, a research was held in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung to analyze management information system in the relation to decision making especially in Food and Beverage Service Department and recommendation of how to handle the problem occurred. From the questioner with data analyzing technique of spearman rank gained correlation result 0,84, with determination coefficient 71% which means the management information system has 71% level of influence to decision making, meanwhile the rest of the result (29% shows other factors, which also were related with the decision making other than management information system. To solve with the problem, it is recommended that X Resorts and Hotels decrease the level of information product error in management information used and fasten the delivery of provided information.

  14. The Effects of Management Information System toward Decision Making in Food and Beverage Service Department in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Gita Subakti


    Full Text Available In an organization, decision making hold an important role. That is why a decision made by managers should be a final decision that should be done by their subordinates or those who are related with the organization. In the effort to increase the quality of management information system, a research was held in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung to analyze management information system in the relation to decision making especially in Food and Beverage Service Department and recommendation of how to handle the problem occurred. From the questioner with data analyzing technique of spearman rank gained correlation result 0,84, with determination coefficient 71% which means the management information system has 71% level of influence to decision making, meanwhile the rest of the result (29% shows other factors, which also were related with the decision making other than management information system. To solve with the problem, it is recommended that X Resorts and Hotels decrease the level of information product error in management information used and fasten the delivery of provided information.

  15. A collaborative framework for contributing DICOM RT PHI (Protected Health Information) to augment data mining in clinical decision support (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi; Thuptimdang, Wanwara; DeMarco, John; Liu, Brent J.


    We have built a decision support system that provides recommendations for customizing radiation therapy treatment plans, based on patient models generated from a database of retrospective planning data. This database consists of relevant metadata and information derived from the following DICOM objects - CT images, RT Structure Set, RT Dose and RT Plan. The usefulness and accuracy of such patient models partly depends on the sample size of the learning data set. Our current goal is to increase this sample size by expanding our decision support system into a collaborative framework to include contributions from multiple collaborators. Potential collaborators are often reluctant to upload even anonymized patient files to repositories outside their local organizational network in order to avoid any conflicts with HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules. We have circumvented this problem by developing a tool that can parse DICOM files on the client's side and extract de-identified numeric and text data from DICOM RT headers for uploading to a centralized system. As a result, the DICOM files containing PHI remain local to the client side. This is a novel workflow that results in adding only relevant yet valuable data from DICOM files to the centralized decision support knowledge base in such a way that the DICOM files never leave the contributor's local workstation in a cloud-based environment. Such a workflow serves to encourage clinicians to contribute data for research endeavors by ensuring protection of electronic patient data.

  16. Early Building Design: Informed decision-making by exploring multidimensional design space using sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen


    This paper describes a novel approach to explore a multidimensional design space and guide multi-actor decision making in the design of sustainable buildings. The aim is to provide proactive and holistic guidance of the design team. We propose to perform exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations in an i...... to remedy unwanted output changes. The proposed methodology has been developed and tested through real building cases using a normative model to assess energy demand, thermal comfort, and daylight.......This paper describes a novel approach to explore a multidimensional design space and guide multi-actor decision making in the design of sustainable buildings. The aim is to provide proactive and holistic guidance of the design team. We propose to perform exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations...... in an iterative design approach that consists of two steps: 1) preparation by modeler, and 2) multi-collaborator meeting. In the preparation phase, the simulation modeler performs Morris sensitivity analysis to fixate insignificant model inputs and to identify non-linearity and interaction effects. Next...

  17. Informatics Perspectives on Decision Taking

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A


    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider to lead to certain decision effects, by way of their being put into effect. The availability of a model or of a theory of the causal chain leading from a decision outcome to one or more decision effects is assumed for the decision taker, otherwise the decision outcome is merely an utterance. Decision effectiveness measures the decision effects against objectives meant to be served with the decision. Decision taking is positioned amidst many similar notions including: decision making, decision process, decision making proce...

  18. Smartphone-assisted spatial data collection improves geographic information quality: pilot study using a birth records dataset. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Han, Daikwon


    It is well known that the conventional, automated geocoding method based on self-reported residential addresses has many issues. We developed a smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method, which uses the Google Maps application programming interface as a spatial data collection tool during the birth registration process. In this pilot study, we have tested whether the smartphone-assisted method provides more accurate geographic information than the automated geocoding method in the scenario when both methods can get the address geocodes. We randomly selected 100 well-geocoded addresses among women who gave birth in Alachua county, Florida in 2012. We compared geocodes generated from three geocoding methods: i) the smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method; ii) the conventional, automated geocoding method; and iii) the global positioning system (GPS). We used the GPS data as the reference method. The automated geocoding method yielded positional errors larger than 100 m among 29.3% of addresses, while all addresses geocoded by the smartphoneassisted method had errors less than 100 m. The positional errors of the automated geocoding method were greater for apartment/condominiums compared with other dwellings and also for rural addresses compared with urban ones. We conclude that the smartphone-assisted method is a promising method for perspective spatial data collection by improving positional accuracy.

  19. Smartphone-assisted spatial data collection improves geographic information quality: pilot study using a birth records dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu


    Full Text Available It is well known that the conventional, automated geocoding method based on self-reported residential addresses has many issues. We developed a smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method, which uses the Google Maps application programming interface as a spatial data collection tool during the birth registration process. In this pilot study, we have tested whether the smartphone-assisted method provides more accurate geographic information than the automated geocoding method in the scenario when both methods can get the address geocodes. We randomly selected 100 well-geocoded addresses among women who gave birth in Alachua county, Florida in 2012. We compared geocodes generated from three geocoding methods: i the smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method; ii the conventional, automated geocoding method; and iii the global positioning system (GPS. We used the GPS data as the reference method. The automated geocoding method yielded positional errors larger than 100 m among 29.3% of addresses, while all addresses geocoded by the smartphoneassisted method had errors less than 100 m. The positional errors of the automated geocoding method were greater for apartment/condominiums compared with other dwellings and also for rural addresses compared with urban ones. We conclude that the smartphone-assisted method is a promising method for perspective spatial data collection by improving positional accuracy.

  20. The Model of ICT-Based Career Information Services and Decision-Making Ability of Learners (United States)

    Syakir, Muhammad; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Achmad, Arifin


    One of the impacts of information technology in guidance counseling is in the implementation of the support system. Entering the world of globalization and rapid technological breadth of information requires counseling to adjust to the environment in order to meet the needs of learners. Therefore, cyber-counseling is now developing. It is one of…

  1. Informing vaccine decision-making: A strategic multi-attribute ranking tool for vaccines-SMART Vaccines 2.0. (United States)

    Knobler, Stacey; Bok, Karin; Gellin, Bruce


    SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes. A growing body of evidence on emerging vaccine technologies, trends in disease burden, costs associated with vaccine development and deployment, and benefits derived from disease prevention through vaccination and a range of other factors can inform decision-making and investment in new and improved vaccines and targeted utilization of already existing vaccines. Recognizing that an array of inputs influences these decisions, the strategic multi-attribute ranking method for vaccines (SMART Vaccines 2.0) is in development as a web-based tool-modified from a U.S. Institute of Medicine Committee effort (IOM, 2015)-to highlight data needs and create transparency to facilitate dialogue and information-sharing among decision-makers and to optimize the investment of resources leading to improved health outcomes. Current development efforts of the SMART Vaccines 2.0 framework seek to generate a weighted recommendation on vaccine development or vaccination priorities based on population, disease, economic, and vaccine-specific data in combination with individual preference and weights of user-selected attributes incorporating valuations of health, economics, demographics, public concern, scientific and business, programmatic, and political considerations. Further development of the design and utility of the tool is being carried out by the National Vaccine Program Office of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Fogarty International Center of the

  2. Extension of Axiomatic Design Method for Fuzzy Linguistic Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making with Incomplete Weight Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available Axiomatic design (AD provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation model is used to aggregate the linguistic evaluating information. In order to get the weight vector of the criteria, we establish a nonlinear optimization model based on the basic ideal of fuzzy axiomatic design (FAD, by which the criteria weights can be determined. It is based on the concept that the optimal alternative should have the least weighted information content. Then, the weighted information content is derived by summing weighted information content for each criterion. The alternative that has the least total weighted information content is the best. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the availability of the proposed method.

  3. A Review of Shared Decision-Making and Patient Decision Aids in Radiation Oncology. (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Tremont, Katie; Vachani, Anil; Schapira, Marilyn M; Vapiwala, Neha; Simone, Charles B; Berman, Abigail T


    Cancer treatment decisions are complex and may be challenging for patients, as multiple treatment options can often be reasonably considered. As a result, decisional support tools have been developed to assist patients in the decision-making process. A commonly used intervention to facilitate shared decision-making is a decision aid, which provides evidence-based outcomes information and guides patients towards choosing the treatment option that best aligns with their preferences and values. To ensure high quality, systematic frameworks and standards have been proposed for the development of an optimal aid for decision making. Studies have examined the impact of these tools on facilitating treatment decisions and improving decision-related outcomes. In radiation oncology, randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that decision aids have the potential to improve patient outcomes, including increased knowledge about treatment options and decreased decisional conflict with decision-making. This article provides an overview of the shared-decision making process and summarizes the development, validation, and implementation of decision aids as patient educational tools in radiation oncology. Finally, this article reviews the findings from decision aid studies in radiation oncology and offers various strategies to effectively implement shared decision-making into clinical practice.

  4. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management. (United States)

    Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M


    PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes.

  5. 78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant... (United States)


    .... Russell National School Lunch Act or the School Breakfast Program established under the Child Nutrition... / Friday, August 2, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...

  6. Family Information Guide to Assistive Technology and Transition Planning: Planned Transitions Are Smooth Transitions! (United States)

    Hess, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Ana Maria


    The purpose of this guide is to help families prepare for those times during which their child moves from one environment to another and from one developmental stage to another. The focus of the guide is on the role of assistive technology (AT) during those times--how to consider a child's evolving AT needs, how to identify and address the AT…

  7. A feasibility randomised controlled trial of the DECIDE intervention: dementia carers making informed decisions (United States)

    Lord, Kathryn; Livingston, Gill


    Summary Family carers report high levels of decisional conflict when deciding whether their relative with dementia can continue to be cared for in their own home. We tested, in a feasibility randomised controlled trial, the first decision aid (the DECIDE manual) aiming to reduce such conflict. Twenty family carers received the DECIDE intervention, and 21 received usual treatment. The intervention group had reduced decisional conflict compared with controls (mean difference −11.96, 95% confidence interval −20.10 to −3.83, P=0.005). All carers receiving the intervention completed and valued it, despite some still reporting difficulties with family conflict and problems negotiating services. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.


    Semenova, A D; Kirshchina, I A; Soloninina, A V


    The authors substantiate the necessity for information exchange among medical and pharmaceutical specialists in providing health services to elderly people. Mandatory conditions for the implementation of the exchange of information are defined and the conceptual model is proposed for information interaction between the medical and pharmacy organizations. This model reflects the recommended sections, types of information, the sender information (doctor or pharmacist), consumer of information, and the purpose of using the information included in a separate section. Ability to implement the concept is considered by the example of the Perm region.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Making evidence-based decisions when organising information retrieval training for nurses and head nurses. (United States)

    Ovaska, Tuulevi


    Using the PICO (Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework, this feature presents a case study on the information skills strand of a continuing education programme delivered at Kuopio University Hospital in Finland for nurses and head nurses. H.S.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov, S.V.


    Full Text Available The article discusses the technology integration of three-dimensional models of potentially dangerous objects in geoinformation system of executive agencies (on the Republic Bashkortostan example. As one of the approaches to its solution offered on the basis of the integration of service-oriented approach, which introduced the set-theoretic description of the spatial information as part of three-dimensional models. The proposed technology provides for the integration of both the data and the level and the service level. The integration of three-dimensional models of potentially dangerous objects in geoinformation system of executive agencies will reduce the time and increase the accuracy of the decisions taken in the event of an emergency at the expense of the full amount of the required information about its development in a more visual and understandable form by means of a single system.

  12. The preliminary study of 16α-[18F]fluoroestradiol PET/CT in assisting the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical value of 16α-[18F]fluoroestradiol (18F-FES PET/CT in assisting the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.Thirty-three breast cancer patients, who underwent both 18F-FES and 18F-FDG PET/CT from July 2010 to March 2013 in our center, were enrolled in this preliminary study. All the patients used 18F-FES PET/CT as a diagnostic tool with a clinical dilemma. We used the maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax to quantify ER expression and a cutoff value of 1.5 to dichotomize results into ER positive and negative lesions. All patients were clinically followed up at least 6 months.In evaluating equivocal lesions on conventional work-up group (n = 4, three lung lesions and another iliac lesion were enrolled. As for three lung lesions, 18F-FES PET/CT showed one lesion with high uptake, which suggested it was an ER positive metastasis. The other two lesions were 18F-FES negative, which meant an ER negative metastasis or secondary primary tumor. Additionally, one iliac lesion was detected by MRI. 18F-FDG uptake was high at the suspected lesion, whereas 18F-FES uptake was absent; In predicting origin of metastasis group (n = 2, two breast cancer patients had secondary primary tumors were collected. They were 18F-FES negative, which showed low possibility of metastasis from breast cancer and they were all confirmed by biopsy. In detecting ER status in metastasis group (n = 27, 18F-FES PET/CT showed increased 18F-FES uptake in all metastatic lesions in 11 patients; absent in all lesions in 13 patients; and the remaining 3 patients had both 18F-FES positive and negative lesions. Totally, on the basis of the 18F-FES PET/CT results, we found changes in the treatment plans in 16 patients (48.5%, 16/33.18F-FES PET/CT could assess the entire tumor volume receptor status; therefore, it may be used to assist the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.

  13. Experiences in Bridging the Gap between Science and Decision Making at NASA's GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) (United States)

    Kempler, Steven; Teng, Bill; Friedl, Lawrence; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Gregory


    Recognizing the significance of NASA remote sensing Earth science data in monitoring and better understanding our planet s natural environment, NASA has implemented the Decision Support Through Earth Science Research Results program (NASA ROSES solicitations). a) This successful program has yielded several monitoring, surveillance, and decision support systems through collaborations with benefiting organizations. b) The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has participated in this program on two projects (one complete, one ongoing), and has had opportune ad hoc collaborations gaining much experience in the formulation, management, development, and implementation of decision support systems utilizing NASA Earth science data. c) In addition, GES DISC s understanding of Earth science missions and resulting data and information, including data structures, data usability and interpretation, data interoperability, and information management systems, enables the GES DISC to identify challenges that come with bringing science data to decision makers. d) The purpose of this presentation is to share GES DISC decision support system project experiences in regards to system sustainability, required data quality (versus timeliness), data provider understanding of how decisions are made, and the data receivers willingness to use new types of information to make decisions, as well as other topics. In addition, defining metrics that really evaluate success will be exemplified.

  14. User Information Fusion Decision Making Analysis with the C-OODA Model (United States)


    Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (C- OODA) model as a method of user and team analysis in the context of the Data Fusion Information Group ( DFIG ) Information...Fusion Model. From the DFIG model [as an update to the Joint Directors of the Lab (JDL) model], we look at Level 5 Fusion of “user refinement” in...OODA comparisons to the DFIG model support systems evaluation and analysis as well as coordinating the time interval of interaction between the machine

  15. DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP) Survey and Decision Tree (United States)


    CVC Compliance and Validation Certification DAA designated accrediting authority DATO denial of authorization to operate DIACAP DoD Information...standard based on implementation of the best practices listed in paragraph 2.3. c. Direct the DSG to rename the Data Protection Committee to the...Information Grid (GIG)- based environment. Figure A-1. DoD IA program management. 1.1.1 DIACAP Background. a. Interim DIACAP signed 6 July 2006

  16. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of two commercially available targeted next-generation sequencing platforms to assist oncology decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss GJ


    , with a median TAT of 9 days earlier than F1 (P<0.0001. Categorization of CA compared to CT and none significantly favored PCDx (P=0.012.Conclusion: In the current analysis, commercially available NGS platforms provided clinically relevant actionable targets (CA or CT in 47%–67% of diverse cancer types. In the samples analyzed, PCDx significantly outperformed F1 in TAT, and had statistically significant higher clinically relevant actionable targets categorized as CA. Keywords: next-generation sequencing, cancer, assay, platform, treatment decision making

  18. Impact of Asymmetric Carbon Information on Supply Chain Decisions under Low-Carbon Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang


    Full Text Available Through the establishment of the leading manufacturer Stackelberg game model under asymmetric carbon information, this paper investigates the misreporting behaviors of the supply chain members and their influences on supply chain performance. Based on “Benchmarking” allocation mechanism, three policies are considered: carbon emission trading, carbon tax, and a new policy which combined carbon quota and carbon tax mechanism. The results show that, in the three models, the leader in the supply chain, even if he has advantages of carbon information, will not lie about his information. That is because the manufacturer’s misreporting behavior has no effect on supply chain members’ performance. But the retailer will lie about the information when he has carbon information advantage. The high-carbon-emission retailers under the carbon trading policy, all the retailers under the carbon tax policy, and the high-carbon-emission retailers under combined quotas and tax policy would like to understate their carbon emissions. Coordination of revenue sharing contract is studied in supply chain to induce the retailer to declare his real carbon information. Optimal contractual parameters are deduced in the three models, under which the profit of the supply chain can be maximized.

  19. Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramany, Arun; Unwin, Stephen D.; Coles, Garill A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Millard, David W.; Yao, Juan; Glantz, Cliff S.; Gourisetti, Sri N. G.


    Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the security and resilience of the electric power grid. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be difficult, as the statistical basis needed to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence does not exist. Because risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact, low-frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insights from such a model indicate where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. A risk-informed realization of designing and maintaining a grid resilient to HILFs will demand consideration of a spectrum of hazards/threats to infrastructure integrity, an understanding of their likelihoods of occurrence, treatment of the fragilities of critical assets to the stressors induced by such events, and through modeling grid network topology, the extent of damage associated with these scenarios. The model resulting from integration of these elements will allow sensitivity assessments based on optional risk management strategies, such as alternative pooling, staging and logistic strategies, and emergency contingency planning. This study is focused on the development of an end-to-end HILF risk-assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision-makers across numerous stakeholder groups in directing resources optimally towards the management of risks to operational continuity.

  20. Optimal global value of information trials: better aligning manufacturer and decision maker interests and enabling feasible risk sharing. (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R


    Risk sharing arrangements relate to adjusting payments for new health technologies given evidence of their performance over time. Such arrangements rely on prospective information regarding the incremental net benefit of the new technology, and its use in practice. However, once the new technology has been adopted in a particular jurisdiction, randomized clinical trials within that jurisdiction are likely to be infeasible and unethical in the cases where they would be most helpful, i.e. with current evidence of positive while uncertain incremental health and net monetary benefit. Informed patients in these cases would likely be reluctant to participate in a trial, preferring instead to receive the new technology with certainty. Consequently, informing risk sharing arrangements within a jurisdiction is problematic given the infeasibility of collecting prospective trial data. To overcome such problems, we demonstrate that global trials facilitate trialling post adoption, leading to more complete and robust risk sharing arrangements that mitigate the impact of costs of reversal on expected value of information in jurisdictions who adopt while a global trial is undertaken. More generally, optimally designed global trials offer distinct advantages over locally optimal solutions for decision makers and manufacturers alike: avoiding opportunity costs of delay in jurisdictions that adopt; overcoming barriers to evidence collection; and improving levels of expected implementation. Further, the greater strength and translatability of evidence across jurisdictions inherent in optimal global trial design reduces barriers to translation across jurisdictions characteristic of local trials. Consequently, efficiently designed global trials better align the interests of decision makers and manufacturers, increasing the feasibility of risk sharing and the expected strength of evidence over local trials, up until the point that current evidence is globally sufficient.