WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisting informed decision

  1. Recruiter Perceptions of Information that Employment References Should Provide to Assist in Making Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuleocha, Stevina U.; Ugbah, Steve D.; Law, Sweety

    2009-01-01

    Authors investigated perceptions of campus recruiters (N = 168) in the San Francisco Bay Area regarding the importance of 15 types of information they solicit from job applicants' references in making selection decisions. Results suggest campus recruiters should consider 10 types of information to assist them in making selection decisions. Results…

  2. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information

  3. The General Architecture of the Integrated Information System of Assisting the Group Decisions for the Organizational Performance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Balan Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The decision assistance systems are based upon the evolutional and predictive models, which have the largest successful rate. In this way, mainly a hybrid model of the informational system is created, and as the user interacts with the system, the information area based upon competitive intelligence increases and the information system evolves in time using upgrade operations.

  4. The Architecture of the Business Intelligence Component in the Context of the Information System for Assisting the Decisions within the Wood Exploitation and Processing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Balan Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The decision assistance systems are based upon the evolutional and predictive models, which have the largest successful rate. In this way, mainly a hybrid model of the informational system is created, and as the user interacts with the system, the information area based upon competitive intelligence increases and the information system evolves in time using upgrade operations.

  5. Assisting informed decision making for labour analgesia: a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for labour analgesia versus a pamphlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvaldsen Siranda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women use some method of pain relief during labour. There is extensive research evidence available of pharmacological pain relief during labour; however this evidence is not readily available to pregnant women. Decision aids are tools that present evidence based information and allow preference elicitation. Methods We developed a labour analgesia decision aid. Using a RCT design women either received a decision aid or a pamphlet. Eligible women were primiparous, ≥ 37 weeks, planning a vaginal birth of a single infant and had sufficient English to complete the trial materials. We used a combination of affective (anxiety, satisfaction and participation in decision-making and behavioural outcomes (intention and analgesia use to assess the impact of the decision aid, which were assessed before labour. Results 596 women were randomised (395 decision aid group, 201 pamphlet group. There were significant differences in knowledge scores between the decision aid group and the pamphlet group (mean difference 8.6, 95% CI 3.70, 13.40. There were no differences between decisional conflict scores (mean difference -0.99 (95% CI -3.07, 1.07, or anxiety (mean difference 0.3, 95% CI -2.15, 1.50. The decision aid group were significantly more likely to consider their care providers opinion (RR 1.28 95%CI 0.64, 0.95. There were no differences in analgesia use and poor follow through between antenatal analgesia intentions and use. Conclusions This decision aid improves women's labour analgesia knowledge without increasing anxiety. Significantly, the decision aid group were more informed of labour analgesia options, and considered the opinion of their care providers more often when making their analgesia decisions, thus improving informed decision making. Trial Registration Trial registration no: ISRCTN52287533

  6. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  7. Decision-Making: Qualitative Information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukovin, V.; Chkhikvadze, N.; Alimbarashvili, Z.

    2010-01-01

    From this set of procedures for given clause we shall choose only interrogation of experts on pairs decisions. It is widely widespread method. It makes the whole chapter in the theory of the decision-making, well investigated with the formal point of view. In the modern theory of decision-making at gathering the initial information for mathematical model it practically does not have alternative.

  8. Design of a Framework to Facilitate Decisions Using Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer M. Abo Neama; Ismail A. Ismail; Tarek S. Sobh; Zaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Information fusion is an advanced research area which can assist decision makers in enhancing their decisions. This paper aims at designing a new multi-layer framework that can support the process of performing decisions from the obtained beliefs using information fusion. Since it is not an easy task to cross the gap between computed beliefs of certain hypothesis and decisions, the proposed framework consists of the following layers in order to provide a suitable architecture (ordered bottom ...

  9. Analytical and Decision Support Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Vikas K; Hickey, John M; Xun, Xu; Marshall, David F.; Wang, Jun; Edwards, David; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel

    2016-01-01

    To successfully implement genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) in crop improvement programs, efficient and effective analytical and decision support tools (ADSTs) are 'must haves' to evaluate and select plants for developing next-generation crops. Here we review the applications and deployment of appropriate ADSTs for GAB, in the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS), an emerging source of massive genomic information. We discuss suitable software tools and pipelines for marker-based approac...

  10. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep;

    2015-01-01

    guidance producing programmes and at all stages of development. CE could range from information from experts and patient/carers, grey literature (including evidence from websites and policy reports) and testimony from stakeholders through consultation. Six tools for critical appraisal of CE were available......OBJECTIVES: Colloquial evidence (CE) has been described as the informal evidence that helps provide context to other forms of evidence in guidance development. Despite challenges around quality, and the potential biases, the use of CE is becoming increasingly important in assessments where...... extracted from all NICE technical and process manuals by two reviewers and quality assured and analyzed by a third reviewer. This was considered in light of the results of a focused literature review and a combined checklist for quality assessment was developed. RESULTS: At NICE, CE is utilised across all...

  11. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  12. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Ada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  13. Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention interference. The self-consistent procedure of decision making, in the frame of the quantum decision theory, takes into account both the available objective information as well as subjective contextual effects. This quantum approach avoids any paradox typical of classical decision theory. Conditional maximization of entropy, equivalent to the minimization of an information functional, makes it possible to connect the quantum and classical decision theories, showing that the latter is the limit of the former under vanishing interference terms.

  14. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative importanc

  15. Mexican Information Policy: A Scattered Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    1993-01-01

    Mexico lacks a written national information policy. Nonetheless, information policy is set up by several government bodies. The decision model resembles a scattered decision model, where several agencies take action on whatever they consider to be the best for the public and the information-handling communities. A description of "de facto" policies set up by leading information agencies and legal framework is provided. The absence of an information blueprint is regarded as a lack of coord...

  16. Processing Information in Quantum Decision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Didier Sornette

    2008-01-01

    A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention int...

  17. FOOD DECISION, INFORMATION AND PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Loheac, Youenn; Combris, Pierre; Issancou, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This study introduce measures of personality traits in an experiment which associate willingness to pay for food and sensory analysis tools in order to explore potential links between personality and food decisions. Measure of personality traits comes from experimental economics (risk aversion and time preference) and from psychology (sensation seeking and impulsivity). We introduce them in the analysis of behaviours of participants in their food decisions (purchase intent, willingness to pay...

  18. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  19. [The role of information in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Public health, prevention, health education and health promotion are inseparable from the concepts of information and communication. Information should respond as much as possible to the needs of professionals, decision-makers, and consumers who are more and more concerned and conscious of its importance in light of "information overload", various dissemination channels and the multiplicity of its sources. There are numerous issues at stake ranging from comprehension, to the validation of health information, health education, health promotion, prevention, decision-making, as well as issues related to knowledge and power. Irrespective of the type of choice to be made, the need for information, knowledge, and know-how is inseparable from that of other tools or regulatory measures required for decision-making. Information is the same as competence, epidemiological and population data, health data, scientific opinion, and expert conferences--all are needed to assist in decision-making. Based on the principle of precaution, information must increasingly take into account the rejection of a society which often reasons on the basis of a presumption of zero-risk, in an idealistic manner, and which also excludes the possibility of new risks. The consumer positions himself as the regulator of decisions, specifically those with regard to the notion of acceptable level of risk. All of the actors involved in the health system are or become at one moment or another public health decision-makers. Their decision might be based either on an analytical approach, or on an intuitive approach. Although the act of decision-making is the least visible part of public health policy, it is certainly the driving force. This process should integrate the perspective of all of the relevant players, including consumers, who are currently situated more and more frequently at the heart of the health system. Public health decision-making is conducted as a function of political, strategic and

  20. Information theory models for clinical decision support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajda, Igor

    Praha : Ústav informatiky AV ČR, v.v.i, 2009 - (Z. Valenta). s. 117-117 [Výroční konference Mezinárodní společnosti pro klinickou biostatistiku /30./. 23.08.2009-27.08.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06014; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Information * decision error * decision risk * ROC curve * information bounds Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/vajda-information theory models for clinical decision support.doc

  1. Informational system to assist decision making at spent nuclear fuel transportation from VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developed informational system provides an automated estimations of nuclear and radiation safety parameters during spent nuclear fuel transportation from WWER-440 and WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and allows us to determine the optimum cask loading from the dose rates distribution outside of protection point of view

  2. Using Information Aggregation Markets for Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Aggregation Markets, often referred to as prediction markets, are markets that are designed to aggregate information from a disparate pool of human individuals to make predictions about the likely outcome of future uncertain events. This paper looks at how Information Aggregation Markets can be incorporated into the standard body of decision making theory. It examines how Information Aggregation Markets can be used as decision support systems, and provides empirical evidence from a wide variety of sources as to the effectiveness and practicality of Information Aggregation Markets. Finally, this paper details some future research questions to be addressed in the area of Information Aggregation Markets.

  3. Optimal Decisions with Limited Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gattami, Ather

    2007-01-01

    This thesis considers static and dynamic team decision problems in both stochastic and deterministic settings. The team problem is a cooperative game, where a number of players make up a team that tries to optimize a given cost induced by the uncertainty of nature. The uncertainty is modeled as either stochastic, which gives the stochastic team problem, or modelled as deterministic where the team tries to optimize the worst case scenario. Both the stochastic and deterministic static team prob...

  4. Motivated information processing and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.; Oltmanns, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Group decision making has attracted much scientific interest, but few studies have investigated group decisions that do not get made. Based on the Motivated Information Processing in Groups model, this study analysed the effect of epistemic motivation (low vs. high) and social motivation (proself vs

  5. A Decision Support Model and Tool to Assist Financial Decision-Making in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, Imtiaz; Manuguerra, Maurizio; Baldock, Clive

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a model and tool is proposed to assist universities and other mission-based organisations to ascertain systematically the optimal portfolio of projects, in any year, meeting the organisations risk tolerances and available funds. The model and tool presented build on previous work on university operations and decision support systems…

  6. Sources of Information on Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Walter; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A directory of projects dealing with computer-assisted instruction, primarily at the college level, based on a survey intended to uncover fugitive sources of information in this field (e.g., unpublished project progress reports). (LS)

  7. Attention as a decision in information space

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Balan, Puiu

    2010-01-01

    Decision formation and attention are two fundamental processes through which we select, respectively, appropriate actions or sources of information. While both functions have been studied in the oculomotor system, we lack a unified view explaining both forms of selection. We review evidence showing that parietal neurons encoding saccade motor decisions also carry signals of attention (perceptual selection) that are independent of the metrics, modality and even reward of an action. We propose ...

  8. Intelligent Information System to support decision making.

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Rodríguez Llanes

    2010-01-01

    Making decisions is complicated in a generalized way, the materials and humans resources of the entity we belong to depends on it, such as the fulfillment of its goals. But when the situations are complex, making decisions turns into a very difficult work, due to the great amount of aspects to consider when making the right choice. To make this efficiently the administration must to consult an important volume of information, which generally, is scattered and in any different formats. That’...

  9. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  10. Information visualization to support management decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jasser Al-Kassab; Zied M. Ouertani; Giovanni Schiuma; Andy Neely

    2014-01-01

    Information visualization can accelerate perception, provide insight and control, and harness this flood of valuable data to gain a competitive advantage in making business decisions. Although such a statement seems to be obvious, there is a lack in the literature of practical evidence of the benefit of information visualization. The main contribution of this paper is to illustrate how, for a major European apparel retailer, the visualization of performance information plays a critical role i...

  11. Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Moran, Rani; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Donner, Tobias; Usher, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed novel psychophysical protocols that enable us to dissect quantitatively how choices affect the way decision-makers accumulate additional noisy evidence. We find robust choice-induced biases in the accumulation of abstract numerical (experiment 1) and low-level perceptual (experiment 2) evidence. These biases deteriorate estimations of the mean value of the numerical sequence (experiment 1) and reduce the likelihood to revise decisions (experiment 2). Computational modelling reveals that choices trigger a reduction of sensitivity to subsequent evidence via multiplicative gain modulation, rather than shifting the decision variable towards the chosen alternative in an additive fashion. Our results thus show that categorical choices alter the evidence accumulation mechanism itself, rather than just its outcome, rendering the decision-maker less sensitive to new information. PMID:26108628

  12. NASA Risk-Informed Decision Making Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Stamatelatos, Michael; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher; Youngblood, Robert; Rutledge, Peter; Benjamin, Allan; Williams, Rodney; Smith, Curtis; Guarro, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance for conducting risk-informed decision making in the context of NASA risk management (RM), with a focus on the types of direction-setting key decisions that are characteristic of the NASA program and project life cycles, and which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant to be prescriptive. Instead, it is meant to be general enough, and contain a sufficient diversity of examples, to enable the reader to adapt the methods as needed to the particular decision problems that he or she faces. The handbook highlights major issues to consider when making decisions in the presence of potentially significant uncertainty, so that the user is better able to recognize and avoid pitfalls that might otherwise be experienced.

  13. Enabling joined-up decision making with geotemporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Ahmed, S. E.; Purves, D. W.; Emmott, S.; Joppa, L. N.; Caldararu, S.; Visconti, P.; Newbold, T.; Formica, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    While the use of geospatial data to assist in decision making is becoming increasingly common, the use of geotemporal information: information that can be indexed by geographical space AND time, is much rarer. I will describe our scientific research and software development efforts intended to advance the availability and use of geotemporal information in general. I will show two recent examples of "stacking" geotemporal information to support land use decision making in the Brazilian Amazon and Kenya, involving data-constrained predictive models and empirically derived datasets of road development, deforestation, carbon, agricultural yields, water purification and poverty alleviation services and will show how we use trade-off analyses and constraint reasoning algorithms to explore the costs and benefits of different decisions. For the Brazilian Amazon we explore tradeoffs involved in different deforestation scenarios, while for Kenya we explore the impacts of conserving forest to support international carbon conservation initiatives (REDD+). I will also illustrate the cloud-based software tools we have developed to enable anyone to access geotemporal information, gridded (e.g. climate) or non-gridded (e.g. protected areas), for the past, present or future and incorporate such information into their analyses (e.g. www.fetchclimate.org), including how we train new predictive models to such data using Bayesian techniques: on this latter point I will show how we combine satellite and ground measured data with predictive models to forecast how crops might respond to climate change.

  14. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  15. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  16. How Nurses Assist Parents Regarding Life Support Decisions for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Moro, Teresa T.; Savage, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe nurse behaviors that assisted parents to make life support decisions for an extremely premature infant before and after the infant’s birth. Design Qualitative, longitudinal, collective case study where interviews were done pre- and postnatally and medical chart data were collected. Setting Interviews were conducted face-to-face in a private room in the hospital, in the mother’s home, or over the telephone. Participants A sample of 40 cases (40 mothers, 14 fathers, 42 physicians, 17 obstetric nurses, 6 neonatal nurses, and 6 neonatal nurse practitioners) was recruited from three hospitals that provided high risk perinatal care. Parents were at least 18 years of age, English speaking, and had participated in a prenatal discussion with a physician regarding treatment decisions for their infant due to threatened preterm delivery. Physicians and nurses were those identified by parents who had spoken to them about life support treatment decisions for the infant. Methods Using a semi-structured interview guide, a total of 203 interviews were conducted (137 prenatal, 51 postnatal, and 15 end-of-life). For this analysis, all coded data related to the nurse’s role were analyzed and summarized. Results Parents and nurses both described several nurse behaviors: providing emotional support; giving information, and meeting the physical care needs of mothers, infants, and fathers. Physicians’ description of the nurse behaviors focused on the way nurses provided emotional support and gave information. Conclusions Nurses play a critical role in assisting parents surrounding life support decisions. PMID:20409115

  17. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  18. Intelligent Information System to support decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rodríguez Llanes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Making decisions is complicated in a generalized way, the materials and humans resources of the entity we belong to depends on it, such as the fulfillment of its goals. But when the situations are complex, making decisions turns into a very difficult work, due to the great amount of aspects to consider when making the right choice. To make this efficiently the administration must to consult an important volume of information, which generally, is scattered and in any different formats. That’s why appears the need of developing software that crowd together all that information and be capable of, by using powerful search engines and process algorithms improve the good decisions making process. Considering previous explanation, a complete freeware developed product is proposed, this constitutes a generic and multi-platform solution, that using artificial intelligence techniques, specifically the cases based reasoning, gives the possibility to leaders of any institution or organism of making the right choice in any situation.With client-server architecture, this system is consumed from web as a service and it can be perfectly integrated with a management system or the geographic information system to facilitate the business process.

  19. Establishment of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program to Teach Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    1981-01-01

    The rapid growth of the health care industry demands that nurse managers be competent in decision making. The development of a computer assisted instructional package designed to meet this demand is described. Utilizing a branching technique, a decision model, written in FORTRAN, presents a user with decision junctures in selected scenarios. The model aids in teaching as well as evaluating managerial decision making.

  20. Client Oriented Approach for Assisting Business Improvement Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pitic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the corporate responsibility towards the customers is to ensure the correct value transfer, through the quality and price of the product/service. By using customer satisfaction in order to measure value and the quality provided to customers, this paper proposes a methodology of assisting management decisions in improving business processes. The proposed techniques and tools, specific to quality management, are used for determining the processes which need to be improved or innovated in order to increase customer satisfaction. Thus, the methodology contributes to the creation of a decision-making framework for an efficient orientation of the resources for maximising the generated value and minimising the costs. In order to illustrate its application, we present a study based on the responses regarding satisfaction elements of 679 companies, the customers of a distribution chain in the field of interior fittings. The research highlights the practical method of determining the priority processes for increasing customer satisfaction, taking into account the satisfaction targets and the nature of the necessary actions in order to maximize the created value and to minimize the costs of these processes.

  1. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  2. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-05-31

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object`s geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object`s orientation

  3. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object's geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object's orientation

  4. An Informationally Structured Room for Robotic Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuo Tsuji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot.

  5. Risk - Informed decision making at Loviisa NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA has been used in many ways for risk-informed decision making at Loviisa power station. The most fruitful areas so far include: 1) Identification of dominating risk contributors and possible means for reducing risk by plant modification and improved procedures. 2) Providing risk perspective and economic criteria for assessing backfitting proposals. 3) Assessing the significance of ageing and needs for renewals. 4) Limiting, prioritising and optimising plant modifications. 5) Reducing testing requirements. 6) Justification of temporary as well as permanent configurations and extended outage times. 7) Planning and prioritisation of training programs. (au)

  6. Informal Online Decision Making: Current Practices and Support System Design

    OpenAIRE

    André, Paul; Drucker, Steven; schraefel, m.c.

    2007-01-01

    Existing group decision support systems are too complex to support lightweight, informal decision making made popular by the amount of information available on the Web. From an examination of related work, an online survey and a formative study to examine how people currently use the Web for decision support, we present a set of design recommendations towards the development of an informal Web decision support tool.

  7. An information assistant system for the prevention of tunnel vision in crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yujia

    2008-01-01

    In the crisis management environment, tunnel vision is a set of bias in decision makers’ cognitive process which often leads to incorrect understanding of the real crisis situation, biased perception of information, and improper decisions. The tunnel vision phenomenon is a consequence of both the challenges in the task and the natural limitation in a human being’s cognitive process. An information assistant system is proposed with the purpose of preventing tunnel vision. The system serves as ...

  8. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.

  9. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  10. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"), student…

  11. FINANCIAL INFORMATION, EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION ON ECONOMIC DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAK ISA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.

  12. Assistive Technologies for Communication and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Simsik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT affect all aspects of life, in the time of technical progress there are also special assistive devices developed that makes the daily life easier. The use of the ICT is rapidly becoming an essential part of social, educational and economic of sphere of European citizens’ life. There is a concern whether the products and services, that are available nowadays, are fully accessible to the public area, but also to elderly people and people with disabilities. The aim of this article is to acquire an outline about recent programmes of information society (Slovakia and EU, to revue the basic knowledge about the accessible ICT related to the equal opportunities for people with disabilities and to the social inclusion and describes the principles of accessible technologies (design for all, accessible webpages, electronic services. ICTs offer the enormous potential to maintain, improve quality of life, integration and independence.

  13. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... improve the provision of knowledge and information required in the early phases of technology decisions. This article reports on the first part of this project, and provides a descriptive model for understanding the complexity in the early phase intuitive decision-making process, answering the specific...... research question: How are decisions regarding technologies informed in the early phases of innovation, when dealing with paradigmatic “new to the company” knowledge fields? To explore the question, a case study; investigating the decisions made for radical new innovations, and the knowledge needed for...

  14. Ethical decision making process in euthanasia and physician assisted suicide from nurses' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hopia, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review describing nurses’ role and factors affecting nurses’ involvement in ethical decision making process in euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. The aim was to illustrate the decision making process of nurses in terms of euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. The objective was to provide a synthesis of a research results to benefit the nurses who are taking care of dying patients. The research questions were: 1) How are nurses ...

  15. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  16. Information visualization in a distributed virtual decision support environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Timothy W.

    2002-07-01

    The visualization of and interaction with decision quality information is critical for effective decision makers in today's data rich environments. The generation and presentation of intuitively meaningful decision support information is the challenge. In order to investigate various visualization approaches to improve the timeliness and quality of Commander decisions, a robust, distributed virtual simulation environment, based on AFRL's Global Awareness Virtual Testbed (GAVTB), is being developed to represent an Air Operations Center (AOC) environment. The powerful Jview visualization technology is employed to efficiently and effectively utilize the simulation products to experiment with various decision quality representations and interactions required by military commanders.

  17. Unconscious information changes decision accuracy but not confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    One of the more intriguing but controversial ideas in psychology is that unconscious information can influence our decisions without us even knowing it. Here, we explicitly tested these controversial ideas with a novel behavioral task and computational models of decision-making. We report that unconscious information can be accumulated in a similar manner but less effectively than conscious information. However, unlike conscious information, unconscious information does not seem to boost deci...

  18. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION – BASIC SUPORT FOR DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Paul Virag; Gheorghe Claudiu Feieş; Dorel Mateş

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is shown how the information provided by financial accounting information system used in the decision making process of the entities management. It also presents the implications of their use in planning and investments. Financial information are built in order to respond to the management for decision making, but also to meet the information needs of other external or internal users. In this respect it is presented the accounting information system and the qual...

  19. Fuzzy Privacy Decision for Context-Aware Access Personal Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingsheng; QI Yong; ZHAO Jizhong; HOU Di; NIU Yujie

    2007-01-01

    A context-aware privacy protection framework was designed for context-aware services and privacy control methods about access personal information in pervasive environment. In the process of user's privacy decision, it can produce fuzzy privacy decision as the change of personal information sensitivity and personal information receiver trust. The uncertain privacy decision model was proposed about personal information disclosure based on the change of personal information receiver trust and personal information sensitivity. A fuzzy privacy decision information system was designed according to this model. Personal privacy control policies can be extracted from this information system by using rough set theory. It also solves the problem about learning privacy control policies of personal information disclosure.

  20. A decision support system for technology R&D planning: connecting the dots from information to innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Wertz, Julie; Weisbin, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an information technology innovation developed to assist decision makers faced with complex R&D tasks. The decision support system (DSS) was developed and applied to the analysis of a 10-year, 700 million dollar technology program for the exploration of Mars. The technologies were to enable a 4.8 billion dollar portfolio of exploration flight missions to Mars.

  1. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  2. The role of market research information in corporate decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Csilla Máthé

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the role of market research information in the corporate decision making process concerning marketing decisions (4Ps). Information is an asset and resource that is essential for decision-makers so that they can define the company’s short and long term goals, execute and evaluate them. The whole process can be supported by customized research and retail measurement results.

  3. CURRENT RESEARCH TREND: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND DECISION MAKING IN 2008

    OpenAIRE

    YONG SHI

    2009-01-01

    On behalf of the editorial advisory board of the International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making (IT&DM), the Editor-in-Chief reviews the current research trend of this journal based on all the papers published in 2008. They are web-based decision analysis, credit scoring techniques and new data mining methods which combine both decision-making techniques and information technology tools. In addition, the Editor-in-Chief summarizes the key ideas of contributions in this ne...

  4. Accounting information system and management’s decision making process

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Hanifi; Asgar Taleei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the management’s decision making process and examine the effect of accounting information system (AIS) in PARS GARMA holding organization in making sound and effective decisions and inform the reader on how AIS influences on the management decisions in 6 major perspectives including quality, accuracy, economic, validity, speed and on time concepts. The major source of data to this research is primary data through the administration of questionnaires. Regression and c...

  5. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION – BASIC SUPORT FOR DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Paul Virag

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is shown how the information provided by financial accounting information system used in the decision making process of the entities management. It also presents the implications of their use in planning and investments. Financial information are built in order to respond to the management for decision making, but also to meet the information needs of other external or internal users. In this respect it is presented the accounting information system and the qualitative features and the manner in which is built to have real value for planning, control and decision making.

  6. Meta-Information, and Time: Factors in Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Reports results of experiments examining credibility of meta-information. Information provided by organizations of varying levels of credibility was used in decision making tasks. Effects were examined when there (1) was ample time and (2) were severe time constraints. Results confirmed that both source credibility and time influenced decisions,…

  7. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. PMID:25829290

  8. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from....../exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...... different Scandinavian companies. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression models across decision criteria dimensions and NPD stages as well as analyzing the combination of selected information sources. Rather than forwarding one optimal search behavior for the entire NPD process, we find optimal...

  9. Risk informed decision making - a pre-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of risk-informed decisions are establishing maintenance programmes, optimising inspection policies and justifying plant modifications, and revising technical specifications. Applications in daily situations can be such as accepting or rejecting exemptions from technical specifications. The aim of this pre-study was to identify the status of risk-informed decision making at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants and nuclear safety authorities. Responses to a questionnaire were obtained either by interviews or by e-mail from two Swedish and two Finnish NPPs, SKI and STUK. The development of a risk-informed decision procedure based on decision analytic ideas is worth recommending. A clear documentation format is a part of such procedure. In order to serve as a basis for final decision, the documentation should include clearly defined decision criteria, qualification of PSA model for the issue under analysis, description of most important uncertainties and assumptions. (au)

  10. Montgomery on informed consent: an inexpert decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan; Montgomery, Elsa

    2016-02-01

    Montgomery v Lanarkshire HB is a deeply troubling decision when read closely. Paradoxically, its ruling supporting the principle of autonomy could be justified only by disregarding the individual patient's actual choices and characteristics in favour of a stereotype. The decision demonstrates a lack of expertise in dealing with specific clinical issues and misrepresents professional guidance. More fundamentally, it fails to appreciate the nature of professional expertise. This calls into question the competence of the courts to adjudicate on matters of clinical judgement and makes an attractive formulation of the test for disclosure obligations inherently unpredictable. PMID:26811487

  11. CHOQUET AGGREGATION BASED DECISION MAKING UNDER Z-INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lala M. Zeinalova

    2014-01-01

    The concept of decision making under uncertainty is usually associated with information that may be incomplete, not reliable or imprecise, so there are several types of uncertainty. A partial absence of beliefs and fuzziness are some of the aspects of uncertainty. In this paper we consider a somewhat different framework for representing our knowledge. Zadeh suggested a Z-number notion, based on a reliability of the given information. In this study we apply Z- information to decision making in...

  12. Trends of Accounting Information Use for Managerial Decisions Making

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Cristina Elena

    2010-01-01

    This writing is proposing to study the way and degree the accounting information is understood, analysed and used by managers of the companies located in Constantza County in their decisions-making. Presently due to the latest years economic development cumulated with the globalisation phenomena it is noticed a conspicuous growth of information necessities. Managers are using a large volume of accounting data and information in order to substantiate their decisions-making.

  13. The structure of decision support systems administrator next information network

    OpenAIRE

    І.Ю. Субач; П.В. Хусаінов; Міщенко, В.О.; Д.Е. Прусов

    2009-01-01

     Tasks of execute orderly administrator of special purpose information network are analyzed, and the structure and functions of the system are proved that support taking decisions in real time. Key words: information networks, information services, methods of increasing the efficiency, information evaluation, intellectual data analysis.

  14. Role of information in decision making of social agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2015-01-01

    The influence of additional information on the decision making of agents, who are interacting members of a society, is analyzed within the mathematical framework based on the use of quantum probabilities. The introduction of social interactions, which influence the decisions of individual agents, leads to a generalization of the quantum decision theory developed earlier by the authors for separate individuals. The generalized approach is free of the standard paradoxes of classical decision theory. This approach also explains the error-attenuation effects observed for the paradoxes occurring when decision makers, who are members of a society, consult with each other, increasing in this way the available mutual information. A precise correspondence between quantum decision theory and classical utility theory is formulated via the introduction of an intermediate probabilistic version of utility theory of a novel form, which obeys the requirement that zero-utility prospects should have zero probability weights.

  15. Acquisition and integration of low vision assistive devices: understanding the decision-making process of older adults with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolillo, Al; Teitelman, Jodi L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how older adults with low vision make decisions to use low vision assistive devices (LVADs). Analysis of participants' narratives, from both group and individual interviews, revealed three topic areas affecting device use. Two are discussed in this paper: Experiences and Characteristics Leading to Successful LVAD Use Decision Making and Challenges to Successful LVAD Use Decision Making. The third, Adjustment to Low Vision Disability, is briefly discussed. Of particular importance to occupational therapy practitioners in the growing field of low vision rehabilitation was the value placed on low vision rehabilitation services to assist with acquiring devices and integrating them into daily routines. Occupational therapy services were highly regarded. Participants demonstrated the importance of becoming a part of a supportive network of people with low vision to gain access to information about resources. They emphasized the need for systems and policy changes to reduce barriers to making informed decisions about LVAD use. Results indicate that occupational therapists working in low vision can support clients by facilitating development of a support network, acting as liaisons between clients and other health practitioners, especially ophthalmologists, and encouraging policy development that supports barrier-free LVAD acquisition and use. These topics should be incorporated into continuing and entry-level education to prepare practitioners for leadership in the field of low vision rehabilitation. PMID:15969278

  16. Strategic Drivers of Location Decisions for Information-Age Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Martha A. O’Mara

    1999-01-01

    The location decision-making process of forty companies with high quality "information-age" jobs is examined. A typology of location decisions is presented based on the magnitude of the relocation and the impact on the workforce. The strategic business drivers of the location decisions are identified and examined. Overall, economic development incentives are less important than the "ease of living" and labor market support found in the community. High quality infrastructure is critical. Futur...

  17. Assisting decision-making in Queensland barley production through chance constrained programming

    OpenAIRE

    Gali, Jyothi; Brown, Colin G.

    2000-01-01

    A chance constrained programming model is developed to assist Queensland barley growers make varietal and agronomic decisions in the face of changing product demands and volatile production conditions. Unsuitable or overlooked in many risk programming applications, the chance constrained programming approach nonetheless aptly captures the single‐stage decision problem faced by barley growers of whether to plant lower‐yielding but potentially higher‐priced malting varieties, given a particular...

  18. Building a fuzzy logic information network and a decision-support system for olive cultivation in Andalusia

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Calvo-Flores, Gabriel; Aranda Sanju??n, V??ctor; Calero Gonz??lez, Julio; S??nchez-Mara????n, Manuel; Serrano Chica, Jos?? Mar??a; S??nchez Fern??ndez, Daniel; Vila Miranda, Mar??a Amparo

    2008-01-01

    In Southern Spain, olive (Olea europaea L.) growing is an important part of the economy, especially in the provinces of Ja??n, C??rdoba and Granada. This work proposes the first stages of an Information and Decision-Support System (IDSS) for providing different types of users (farmers, agricultural engineers, public services, etc.) with information on olive growing and the environment, and also assisting in decision-making. The main purposes of the project reported in this paper are to proces...

  19. ACCOUNTING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION USED FOR STRATEGIC DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Miko, Ladislav

    1998-01-01

    Accounting information is becoming ever more important with in the contemporary conditions of business and free market activities. In order to facilitate company development and its survival in the market environment, high-quality accounting information is needed. Company management is interested in the information contained in the essential financial reports. These reports describe and explain the fundamental characteristics of a company's financial position and business success. Accounting ...

  20. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    OpenAIRE

    M.W. Haas; L.M. Hirshfield; P.V. Ponangi; P. Kidambi; Rao, D.; N. Edala; Armbrust, E; M. Fendley; Narayanan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enab...

  1. THE COST INFORMATION RELEVANCE IN THE DECISION FOUNDATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Simona Bumbescu; Liliana Paschia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper is realized an overview of the existing interdependence between thedecision efficiency and the cost information quality who are provided to the organizationmanagement. Based on the previous studies regarding the costs and managerial decisions, in thisarticle is developed an lapidary theoretical framework regarding the cost- general framework, thecosts needed for the decisions making, the usefulness and importance of cost information system fordecision process, and ultimately is ...

  2. An expert system to assist with diagnosis and decision making in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear facilities now have sophisticated radiation monitoring systems providing information which can be used directly for radiation protection purposes and which is usually managed by a computer. However, a radiation protection expert is still needed at the facility to make a diagnosis of any incidents that occur on the basis of the signals given by the system. In the event of an accident, this expert, if physically present, has to act in an emergency situation, i.e. under conditions which are not ideal from the point of view of calmness and safety. As radiation protection experts at a research reactor, we thought that it would be useful to develop a computerized intelligent system which would use the data provided by the monitoring system to make an automatic diagnosis of the situation, without being affected by the state of emergency, and to assist officers in deciding on the actions to be taken to ensure the safety of personnel and the protection of the environment. The technical solution adopted is an expert system, an artificial intelligence solution based on a separation between the programming part, the control system simulating human reasoning, and the knowledge base containing the expert knowledge, largely in the form of ''if ..., then ...'' rules. The development of such a system has improved knowledge about radiation protection aspects of the facility and has permitted a sort of dynamic storage of this knowledge. The system will be used as a means of transmitting expert information to future radiation protection officers at the facility. A similar system is also planned for the entire Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, to control incidents at the Centre and to assist those responsible in taking decisions to ensure the safety of personnel at the Centre and the protection of its environment. (author)

  3. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  4. Impact of Health Information Exchange on Emergency Medicine Clinical Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to understand the immediate utility of health information exchange (HIE on emergency department (ED providers by interviewing them shortly after the information was retrieved. Prior studies of physician perceptions regarding HIE have only been performed outside of the care environment. Methods: Trained research assistants interviewed resident physicians, physician assistants and attending physicians using a semi-structured questionnaire within two hours of making a HIE request. The responses were recorded, then transcribed for qualitative analysis. The transcribed interviews were analyzed for emerging qualitative themes. Results: We analyzed 40 interviews obtained from 29 providers. Primary qualitative themes discovered included the following: drivers for requests for outside information; the importance of unexpected information; historical lab values as reference points; providing context when determining whether to admit or discharge a patient; the importance of information in refining disposition; improved confidence of provider; and changes in decisions for diagnostic imaging. Conclusion: ED providers are driven to use HIE when they’re missing a known piece of information. This study finds two additional impacts not previously reported. First, providers sometimes find additional unanticipated useful information, supporting a workflow that lowers the threshold to request external information. Second, providers sometimes report utility when no changes to their existing plan are made as their confidence is increased based on external records. Our findings are concordant with previous studies in finding exchanged information is useful to provide context for interpreting lab results, making admission decisions, and prevents repeat diagnostic imaging.

  5. Measuring Information Loss in Managerial Decision

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 26-32. ISSN 2414-6498 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization * Gini index * newsvendor problem * information loss Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/volf-0456860.pdf

  6. Unconscious information changes decision accuracy but not confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2014-11-11

    The controversial idea that information can be processed and evaluated unconsciously to change behavior has had a particularly impactful history. Here, we extend a simple model of conscious decision-making to explain both conscious and unconscious accumulation of decisional evidence. Using a novel dichoptic suppression paradigm to titrate conscious and unconscious evidence, we show that unconscious information can be accumulated over time and integrated with conscious elements presented either before or after to boost or diminish decision accuracy. The unconscious information could only be used when some conscious decision-relevant information was also present. These data are fit well by a simple diffusion model in which the rate and variability of evidence accumulation is reduced but not eliminated by the removal of conscious awareness. Surprisingly, the unconscious boost in accuracy was not accompanied by corresponding increases in confidence, suggesting that we have poor metacognition for unconscious decisional evidence. PMID:25349435

  7. Information Asymmetry and Financing Decisions: Evidence from Iran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Elhaei Sahar; Seyed Ali Vaez

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relations of information asymmetry and financing decisions in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during 2009 to 2011. Our statistical simple consist 170 firms and stepwise regression method has been used. We found that the relationship between information asymmetry and stock issuing is negative. Other results refer to positive relation between financing deficit and stock issuing.

  8. Improving Information Products for System 2 Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The creation, maintenance, and management of Information Product (IP) systems that are used by organizations for complex decisions represent a unique set of challenges. These challenges are compounded when the purpose of such a systems is also for knowledge creation and dissemination. Information quality research to date has focused mainly upon…

  9. Decision Assistance in Risk Assessment – Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High security must be a primary and permanent concern of the leadership of an organization and it must be ensured at any time. For this, a risk analysis is compulsory and imperative to be done during the risk management cycle. Security risk analysis and security risk management components mostly use estimative data during the whole extensive process. The further evolution of the events might not be reflected in the obtained results. If we were to think about the fact that hazard must be modeled, this concern is absolutely normal. Though, we must find a way to model the events that a company is exposed to, events that damage the informational security. In the following lines of this paper we will use the Monte-Carlo method in order to model a set of security parameters that are used in security risk analysis. The frequency of unwanted events, damages and their impact will represent our main focus and will be applied to both the quantitative and qualitative security risk analysis approach. The obtained results will act as a guide for experts to better allocation of resources for decreasing or eliminating the risk and will also represent a warning for the leadership about certain absolutely necessary investments.

  10. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  11. How Social Cognition Can Inform Social Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social versus nonsocial contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g. mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.

  12. Artificial Intelligence at Advanced Information and Decision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McCune, Brian P.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced Information and Decision Systems (AI-DS) is a relatively new, employee-owned company that does basic and applied research, product development, and consulting in the fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, decision analysis, operations research, control theory, estimation theory, and signal processing. AI&DS performs studies, analyses, systems design and evaluation, and software development for a variety of industrial clients and government agencies, including the Depart...

  13. E-decisions - mobile information system to support the decision process

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, Risto; Temjanovski, Riste; Gorgev, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The construction of an electronic information system means the process of building the information system within the enterprise. This process differs from company to company, because before each company sets specific requirements. However, the stages that make up this process are the same for all companies, but the processes within each stage are different. Following the decision, the next step is the Foundation building electronic information system. Development planning means to set goals, ...

  14. Quantifying the Value of Downscaled Climate Model Information for Adaptation Decisions: When is Downscaling a Smart Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Wootten, A.; Eaton, M. J.; Runge, M. C.; Littell, J. S.; Bryan, A. M.; Carter, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Two types of decisions face society with respect to anthropogenic climate change: (1) whether to enact a global greenhouse gas abatement policy, and (2) how to adapt to the local consequences of current and future climatic changes. The practice of downscaling global climate models (GCMs) is often used to address (2) because GCMs do not resolve key features that will mediate global climate change at the local scale. In response, the development of downscaling techniques and models has accelerated to aid decision makers seeking adaptation guidance. However, quantifiable estimates of the value of information are difficult to obtain, particularly in decision contexts characterized by deep uncertainty and low system-controllability. Here we demonstrate a method to quantify the additional value that decision makers could expect if research investments are directed towards developing new downscaled climate projections. As a proof of concept we focus on a real-world management problem: whether to undertake assisted migration for an endangered tropical avian species. We also take advantage of recently published multivariate methods that account for three vexing issues in climate impacts modeling: maximizing climate model quality information, accounting for model dependence in ensembles of opportunity, and deriving probabilistic projections. We expand on these global methods by including regional (Caribbean Basin) and local (Puerto Rico) domains. In the local domain, we test whether a high resolution (2km) dynamically downscaled GCM reduces the multivariate error estimate compared to the original coarse-scale GCM. Initial tests show little difference between the downscaled and original GCM multivariate error. When propagated through to a species population model, the Value of Information analysis indicates that the expected utility that would accrue to the manager (and species) if this downscaling were completed may not justify the cost compared to alternative actions.

  15. Progress of the European Assistive Technology Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Valerio; Andrich, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    The European Assistive Technology Information Network (EASTIN), launched in 2005 as the result of a collaborative EU project, provides information on Assistive Technology products and related material through the website www.eastin.eu. In the past few years several advancements have been implemented on the EASTIN website thanks to the contribution of EU funded projects, including a multilingual query processing component for supporting non expert users, a user rating and comment facility, and a detailed taxonomy for the description of ICT based assistive products. Recently, within the framework of the EU funded project Cloud4All, the EASTIN information system has also been federated with the Unified Listing of assistive products, one of the building blocks of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure initiative. PMID:26294498

  16. Superintendents and Principals Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    District superintendents or school principals need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Although public reporting in a few states is designed to serve information needs, states'…

  17. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  18. An Information Theoretic Analysis of Decision in Computer Chess

    CERN Document Server

    Godescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    The basis of the method proposed in this article is the idea that information is one of the most important factors in strategic decisions, including decisions in computer chess and other strategy games. The model proposed in this article and the algorithm described are based on the idea of a information theoretic basis of decision in strategy games . The model generalizes and provides a mathematical justification for one of the most popular search algorithms used in leading computer chess programs, the fractional ply scheme. However, despite its success in leading computer chess applications, until now few has been published about this method. The article creates a fundamental basis for this method in the axioms of information theory, then derives the principles used in programming the search and describes mathematically the form of the coefficients. One of the most important parameters of the fractional ply search is derived from fundamental principles. Until now this coefficient has been usually handcrafted...

  19. CHOQUET AGGREGATION BASED DECISION MAKING UNDER Z-INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala M. Zeinalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decision making under uncertainty is usually associated with information that may be incomplete, not reliable or imprecise, so there are several types of uncertainty. A partial absence of beliefs and fuzziness are some of the aspects of uncertainty. In this paper we consider a somewhat different framework for representing our knowledge. Zadeh suggested a Z-number notion, based on a reliability of the given information. In this study we apply Z- information to decision making in business problem and suggest the framework for decision making on a base of Z-numbers. The method associates with the construction of a non-additive measure as a lower prevision and uses this capacity in Choquet integral for constructing a utility function. An example of real-world business problem is used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  20. Implication of PSA uncertainties on risk-informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants risk-informed policy is introduced in order to improve safety decision making and regulatory efficiency. The corresponding regulatory guides define the acceptable risk measures and their changes resulting from the modifications in the licensed design of the nuclear power plant. The risk measures used in the acceptance guidelines are the core damage frequency and large early release frequency. The risk measures and their corresponding changes are assessed by the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The uncertainties of Probabilistic Safety Assessment should be appropriately addressed in the context of the decision making, considering their implication on the obtained results. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment uncertainties include epistemic uncertainties resulting from parameter, model, and completeness uncertainties. The paper presents the obtained results from the uncertainty analysis of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the reference nuclear power plant and their implication on risk-informed decision making. The paper focuses particularly on parameter and model uncertainties. The analysed modification is extension of the test interval of the emergency diesel generators. The core damage frequency is the used risk measure in the analysis. The need for the appropriate consideration of the uncertainties in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment in order to adequately support the risk-informed decision making is identified. The deficiency of usage of percentile measures is identified and acknowledged. The need for the adaptation of the risk-informed decision-making principles considering new nuclear power plants is recognized.

  1. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISIONS UNDER ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION: A MODIFIED RATIONAL EXPECTATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    JINLAN NI; DEEPAK KHAZANCHI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that information technology (IT) managers make investment decisions about new IT initiatives based on a modified rational expectation model. Unlike traditional rational expectation models, we emphasize the relevance of market uncertainty and its impact on the return of new IT investment. This results in information acquisition decisions by managers that can cause information asymmetry. This information asymmetry is endogenous and so the IT manager can become well inf...

  2. Computer-assisted information graphics from the graphic design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1983-11-01

    Computer-assisted information graphics can benefit by adopting some of the working processes, principles, and areas of concern typical of information-oriented graphic designers. A review of some basic design considerations is followed by a discussion of the creation and design of a prototype nonverbal narrative which combines symbols, charts, maps, and diagrams.

  3. Log Analysis as a way to assist Opera mini cluster management decisions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers ways that analysis of Opera mini logs can assist decisions related to global and local load balancing of Opera mini clusters. The analy- sis is aimed to determine the distribution of traffic with respect to country of origin and server within the cluster over the period of 2 weeks by creating a system for extraction and analysis of log data. Findings show that a large part of traffic originates in Russia with India and Indonesia being second and third. ...

  4. Intrinsic Valuation of Information in Decision Making under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Brydevall, Maja; Murawski, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In a dynamic world, an accurate model of the environment is vital for survival, and agents ought regularly to seek out new information with which to update their world models. This aspect of behaviour is not captured well by classical theories of decision making, and the cognitive mechanisms of information seeking are poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether information is valued only for its instrumental use, or whether humans also assign it a non-instrumental intrinsic value. To address this question, the present study assessed preference for non-instrumental information among 80 healthy participants in two experiments. Participants performed a novel information preference task in which they could choose to pay a monetary cost to receive advance information about the outcome of a monetary lottery. Importantly, acquiring information did not alter lottery outcome probabilities. We found that participants were willing to incur considerable monetary costs to acquire payoff-irrelevant information about the lottery outcome. This behaviour was well explained by a computational cognitive model in which information preference resulted from aversion to temporally prolonged uncertainty. These results strongly suggest that humans assign an intrinsic value to information in a manner inconsistent with normative accounts of decision making under uncertainty. This intrinsic value may be associated with adaptive behaviour in real-world environments by producing a bias towards exploratory and information-seeking behaviour. PMID:27416034

  5. Regulatory approach to risk informed decision making in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), the authority for licensing and monitoring safety in Indian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), makes use of insights gained from PSA together with the results of the other deterministic analyses in taking decisions regarding the acceptability of the safety of the NPPs. PSA provides an estimation of risks; it also gives information on a balanced design by revealing interaction between engineered features and weak areas in a design. For regulatory use, PSA needs to be carried out using standardized methodology and state of the art technology. PSA helps regulators in taking faster and consistent decisions. Keeping in mind the limitations associated with PSA study, AERB has decided to adopt risk-informed decision making in regulatory licensing process. This paper describes the AERB policy regarding PSA and gives an overview of the experience in this area. (author)

  6. Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameling Jessica M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients’ treatment and support patients’ decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function. Methods We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in “stages.” For the video, stages included (1 directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2 video production, and (3 screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1 preliminary content design, (2 a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3 screening the handbook with patients and their families. Results The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals’ testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients’ and families

  7. QUALITY EVALUATION LEVEL DECISION IN OUTSOURCING UNDER ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuihua ZHANG; Haibin YU; Guangshu CHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the issue of quality evaluation level decision problem in outsourcing is studied under different information backgrounds. Based on the quality contracting optimization models of Stanley and others, a principal agent model concerned with quality prevention level and evaluation level is set up with regards to buyer as principal and supplier as agent. In the models, quality prevention level is a variable decided by the supplier, quality evaluation level and transfer payment are variables decided by the buyer. We focus on the study of quality evaluation level and transfer payment decision in outsourcing under asymmetric information. Maximal principle is used to get the solution to quality evaluation level when supplier quality prevention level information is hidden. At last simulation calculation is performed concerned with tractor production outsourcing business of an agricultural machine company. Simulation results under different information backgrounds are analyzed and compared.

  8. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts and...

  9. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Jared M Hotaling; Cohen, Andrew L.; Richard M Shiffrin; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that l...

  10. Environmental Cost Accounting Information and Strategic Business Decision in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha; Confidence Joel Ihenyen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at examining environmental cost accounting information and strategic business decision in Nigeria. The general assumption that conventional cost accounting does not have the ability to provide absolute information for evaluating the environmental behaviour of an organization and its economic consequences has motivated this study. Towards achieving this, secondary data was employed and a linear model was specified. Findings indicated that environmental cost accounting informat...

  11. Managerial Decision-making and Management Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Considering the pace of business changes and significant amounts of information available to businesses using modern technology, one prime challenge has become to filter out the valuable information and present it in a manner that makes it useful for managers to take on business decisions. These changed requirements have led management accounting to adapt alongside. This Master’s Thesis is a case study of Tecnotree Group, a global provider of telecom IT solutions, the purpose of which was to ...

  12. The self-regulation of information processing and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Bieleke, Maik

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigates whether people can strategically regulate their information processing (Research Papers I and II), and the effects of strategic information processing on decision making (Research Paper III). These topics are addressed from the perspective of the self-regulation strategy of if-then planning (also referred to as implementation intentions).The first research paper tested the hypothesis that if-then planning enhances perceptual processing. Two experiments were bas...

  13. Communication Between Patients and Providers and Informed Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Elmore, Joann G.; Ganschow, Pamela S; Geller, Berta M.

    2010-01-01

    Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) need to comprehend the meaning of the diagnosis and the potential benefits and harms of treatment options. Full and understandable information is a requirement, not an option. However, with DCIS, as with many areas of medicine, a high level of uncertainty about the disease remains. In this article, we define informed medical decision making, review challenges to its implementation, and provide suggestions on how to improve communication with women ab...

  14. Decision making algorithm for development strategy of information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Galyna Y.; Nikitenko, Olena D.; Kotyra, Andrzej; Bazarova, Madina; Kassymkhanova, Dana

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents algorithm of decision making for development strategy of information systems. The process of development is planned taking into account the internal and external factors of the enterprise which affect the prospects of development of both the information system and the whole enterprise. The initial state of the system must be taken into account. The total risk is the criterion for selecting the strategy. The risk is calculated using statistical and fuzzy data of system's parameters. These data are summarized by means of the function of uncertainty. The software for the realization of the algorithm of decision making on choosing the development strategy of information system is developed and created in this paper.

  15. Measuring Intuition: Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Decision Accuracy and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufityanto, Galang; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The long-held popular notion of intuition has garnered much attention both academically and popularly. Although most people agree that there is such a phenomenon as intuition, involving emotionally charged, rapid, unconscious processes, little compelling evidence supports this notion. Here, we introduce a technique in which subliminal emotional information is presented to subjects while they make fully conscious sensory decisions. Our behavioral and physiological data, along with evidence-accumulator models, show that nonconscious emotional information can boost accuracy and confidence in a concurrent emotion-free decision task, while also speeding up response times. Moreover, these effects were contingent on the specific predictive arrangement of the nonconscious emotional valence and motion direction in the decisional stimulus. A model that simultaneously accumulates evidence from both physiological skin conductance and conscious decisional information provides an accurate description of the data. These findings support the notion that nonconscious emotions can bias concurrent nonemotional behavior-a process of intuition. PMID:27052557

  16. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  17. Financial information, effects of financial information on economic decision

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Ioan UŞURELU; Alina Elena (Andrei) DANAILĂ; Mihai, Gabriela; Cristian Ionel VĂTĂŞOIU

    2010-01-01

    The studied field has suffered continuous transformation, both in interaction with other scientific fields and in constituent sub-classes, for discovering and understanding more deeply the contemporary economic realities under the impact of major trends of world development. This paper aims to analyze the location and the effects of information and communication technologies within the public accounting in order to evaluate the effects of this element on accounting research, teaching and prof...

  18. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  19. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  20. Risk-informed decision making during Bohunice NPP safety upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes some facts of risk-informed regulation developments within UJD regulatory environment. Based on national as well as international operating experience and indications resulted from PSA, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) since its constituting in 1993 has devoted an effort to use PSA technology to support the regulatory policy in Slovakia. The PSA is considered a complement, not a substitute, to the deterministic approach. Suchlike integrated approach is used in decision making processes and the final decision on scope and priorities is based on it. The paper outlines risk insights used in the decision making process concerning Bohunice NPP safety upgrading and focuses on the role of PSA results in Gradual Reconstruction of Bohunice VI NPP. Besides, two other examples of the PSA results application to the decision making process are provided: the assessment of proposal of modifications to the main power supply diagram (incorporation of generator switches) and the assessment of licensee request for motor generator AOT (Allowable Outage Time) extension. As an example of improving support of Bohunice V-2 risk-informed operations, concept of AOT calculations and Bohunice V-2 Risk Monitor Project are briefly described. (author)

  1. Can neuroimaging inform economic theories of decision making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farb NA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Norman AS FarbRotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Neuroimaging has grown in prominence with the popularization of relatively inexpensive and noninvasive techniques. The popular conception of neuroimaging is that it can finely describe a person's internal states and proclivities, providing veridical evidence in real-world situations, such as criminal trials, or in predicting consumer behavior. However, the scientific reality is far from this ideal; current neuroimaging techniques lack the precision to predict specific behaviors or preferences. Nonetheless, these techniques still possess considerable utility in describing forms of cognition that are recruited during decision making, such as an individual's tendency to focus on risk or reward. Such investigations can inform economic theory by characterizing contextual influences in decision making, revealing sources of bias in how value is appraised, generating new research hypotheses, and eventually leading to a more complete theory of human behavior. This review paper summarizes recent research that advances our understanding of the neural networks underlying decision making and outlines the strengths and limitations of current neuroimaging analysis techniques for informing neuroeconomic theory.Keywords: neuroimaging, fMRI, decision making, neuroeconomics, systems neuroscience

  2. Closed-loop and decision-assist resuscitation of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose; Drew, Guy; Gallagher, James; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Wolf, Steven E; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Herndon, David N; Kramer, George C

    2008-04-01

    Effective resuscitation is critical in reducing mortality and morbidity rates of patients with acute burns. To this end, guidelines and formulas have been developed to define infusion rates and volume requirements during the first 48 hours postburn. Even with these standardized resuscitation guidelines, however, over- and under-resuscitation are not uncommon. Two approaches to adjust infusion rate are decision-assist and closed-loop algorithms based on levels of urinary output. Specific decision assist guidelines or a closed-loop system using computer-controlled feedback technology that supplies automatic control of infusion rates can potentially achieve better control of urinary output. In a properly designed system, closed-loop control has the potential to provide more accurate titration rates, while lowering the incidence of over- and under-resuscitation. Because the system can self-adjust based on monitoring inputs, the technology can be pushed to environments such as combat zones where burn resuscitation expertise is limited. A closed-loop system can also assist in the management of mass casualties, another scenario in which medical expertise is often in short supply. This article reviews the record of fluid balance of contemporary burn resuscitation and approaches, as well as the engineering efforts, animal studies, and algorithm development of our most recent autonomous systems for burn resuscitation. PMID:18385584

  3. Performance of online drug information databases as clinical decision support tools in infectious disease medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Hyla H; Zapantis, Antonia; Clauson, Kevin A; Clauson, Kevin Alan; Jebrock, Jennifer; Paris, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Infectious disease (ID) medication management is complex and clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) can provide valuable assistance. This study evaluated scope and completeness of ID drug information found in online databases by evaluating their ability to answer 147 question/answer pairs. Scope scores produced highest rankings (%) for: Micromedex (82.3), Lexi-Comp/American Hospital Formulary Service (81.0), and Medscape Drug Reference (81.0); lowest includes: Epocrates Online Premium (47.0), Johns Hopkins ABX Guide (45.6), and PEPID PDC (40.8). PMID:18999059

  4. 75 FR 58374 - 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... AGENCY 2010 Release of CADDIS (Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System) AGENCY... Decision Information System (CADDIS). This Web site was developed to help scientists find, develop, organize, and use environmental information to improve causal assessments of biological impairment....

  5. The role of behavioral decision theory for cockpit information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jon E.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this report is the consideration of one form of cognition, judgment and decision making, while examining some information management issues associated with the implementation of new forms of automation. As technology matures and more tasks become suitable to automation, human factors researchers will have to consider the effect that increasing automation will have on operator performance. Current technology allows flight deck designers the opportunity to automate activities involving substantially more cognitive processing.

  6. Fuzzy Logic, Informativeness and Bayesian Decision-Making Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Golubtsov, P. V.; Moskaliuk, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a category-theoretic approach to uncertainty, informativeness and decision-making problems. It is based on appropriate first order fuzzy logic in which not only logical connectives but also quantifiers have fuzzy interpretation. It is shown that all fundamental concepts of probability and statistics such as joint distribution, conditional distribution, etc., have meaningful analogs in new context. This approach makes it possible to utilize rich conceptual experience of sta...

  7. Decision-making models for evaluating investments in information technology

    OpenAIRE

    Setnikar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays only few firms and other formal social units (further on: firms) can do business without using modern information technologies (IT). Computer equipment has become an important working tool or even a basic tool, which enables firms to develop and survive in an increasingly competitive environment. The decisions on acquiring or modernising IT are therefore gaining importance as they enable (or hinder!) the uninterrupted functioning of firms. This master's degree thesis considers t...

  8. Informed shared decision making: An exploratory study in pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam R; Volume-Smith C; Albon SP

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using the physician-based Informed Shared Decision Making (ISDM) framework for teaching pharmacy students competencies to effectively develop therapeutic relationships with patients. Objectives: To: (1) assess the relevance and importance of the physician-developed ISDM competencies for pharmacy practice, (2) determine which competencies would be easiest and hardest to practice, (3) identify barriers to implementing ISDM in p...

  9. Decision tools for coral reef managers: Using participatory decision support to integrate potential climate impacts and informed decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The decline in coral reef health presents a complex management issue. While several causes of decline have been identified and are under continued study, it is often difficult to discern management actions necessary to address multiple near- and far-field stressors to these ecosystems. As a result, resource managers seek tools to improve the understanding of ecosystem condition and to develop management responses to reduce local and regional pressures in the wake of larger, global impacts. A research study conducted from 2010 to 2014 in southeast Florida, USA consisted of two objectives: (1 conduct a needs assessment survey with coral reef and marine resource managers to identify data needs and the preferred design and delivery of climate information; and (2 develop and evaluate prototype decision support tools. The needs assessment process was helpful for identifying the types of climate information managers would like to obtain to inform decision making and to specify the preferred format for the delivery of that information. Three prototype tools were evaluated by managers using pre/post surveys that included hands-on tutorials to explore the functionality of each. Manager responses were recorded using a five-point scale with 1 being No or Not Useful to 5 being Absolutely or Very Useful. The median responses rated the usefulness of the tools (4, if they would consider using the tool (4, and if they would recommend using the tool to other managers (4 or 5. The median response for increasing manager’s knowledge about climate impacts after completing a tutorial of each of the climate tools was a 3 (moderately useful. Of the managers surveyed in the pre/post-survey, all but one stated they believed they would use the decision support tools in the future with the single response due to wealth of data availability in their institution.

  10. Information and shared decision-making are top patients' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronstein Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profound changes in medical care and the recent stress on a patient-centered approach mandate evaluation of current patient priorities. Methods Hospitalized and ambulatory patients at an academic medical center in central Israel were investigated. Consecutive patients (n = 274 indicated their first and second priority for a change or improvement in their medical care out of a mixed shortlist of 6 issues, 3 related to patient-physician relationship (being better informed and taking part in decisions; being seen by the same doctor each time; a longer consultation time and 3 issues related to the organizational aspect of care (easier access to specialists/hospital; shorter queue for tests; less charges for drugs. Results Getting more information from the physician and taking part in decisions was the most desirable patient choice, selected by 27.4% as their first priority. The next choices – access and queue – also relate to more patient autonomy and control over that of managed care regulations. Patients studied were least interested in continuity of care, consultation time or cost of drugs. Demographic or clinical variables were not significantly related to patients' choices. Conclusion Beyond its many benefits, being informed by their doctor and shared decision making is a top patient priority.

  11. Development of criteria for risk-informed decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for development of risk criteria, which would support risk informed decisionmaking, is expressed worldwide. One of the ways of determining quantitative risk criteria considering probabilistic safety assessment is presented and is based on review of situation in selected countries and on consideration of the situation in Slovenia. Development of risk criteria is considered separately for permanent and separately for temporary changes in the plant. This paper presents the risk criteria for permanent changes in a nuclear power plant. Quantitative criteria present only one of the inputs for decision-making about the changes in a plant in addition to qualitative risk analysis and in addition to four issues: the change is in accordance with the legislation, the change is consistent with defence in depth, the change maintains sufficient safety margins, and allows performance measurement strategies to monitor the changes. Risk-informed decision-making is based on a spectrum of analyses, which are being expanded with quantitative risk analyses. The permanent changes in the plant are sorted in four groups according to risk measures: core damage frequency and large early release frequency and their changes due to implementation of the proposed change. While decreases or small increases of risk measures should not prevent acceptability of proposed changes, larger increases of any of both risk measures can be acceptable only under other strong arguments otherwise they cannot be acceptable. The results of the paper identify the quantitative risk criteria, which may represent the standpoint for Risk-Informed Decision-Making. (author)

  12. Application of Adaptive Decision Aiding Systems to Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report, January-December 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Donald M.; And Others

    The minicomputer-based Computerized Diagnostic and Decision Training (CDDT) system described combines the principles of artificial intelligence, decision theory, and adaptive computer assisted instruction for training in electronic troubleshooting. The system incorporates an adaptive computer program which learns the student's diagnostic and…

  13. The Predictive Validity of a Computer-Assisted Career Decision-Making System: A Six-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Gadassi, Reuma; Shemesh, Naama

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested the predictive validity of "Making Better Career Decisions" ("MBCD"), a computer-assisted career decision-making system. Seventy clients who had used "MBCD" six years earlier were interviewed by telephone about their present field of study or occupation and the degree of their satisfaction with their occupational choice.…

  14. Communicating climate information: travelling through the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change forces society to adapt. Adaptation strategies are preferably based on the best available climate information. Climate projections, however, often inform adaptation strategies after being interpreted once or several times. This process affects the original message put forward by climate scientists when presenting the basic climate projections, in particular regarding uncertainties. The nature of this effect and its implications for decision-making are as yet poorly understood. This paper explores the nature and consequences of a) the communication tools used by scientists and experts, and b)changes in the communicated information as it travels through the decision-making process. It does so by analysing the interpretative steps taken in a sample of 25 documents, pertaining to the field of public policies for climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies. Five phases in the provisioning of climate information are distinguished: pre-existing knowledge (i.e. climate models and data), climate- change projection, impact assessment, adaptation strategy, and adaptation plan. Between the phases, climate information is summarized and synthesised in order to be passed on. The results show that in the sample information on uncertainty is under-represented: e.g. studies focus on only one scenario, and/or disregard probability distributions. In addition, visualization tools are often used ineffectively, leading to confusion and unintended interpretations. Several recommendations are presented. A better training of climatologists to communication issues, but also a training to climatology for decision makers are required, as well as more cautious and robust adaptation strategies, accounting for the uncertainty inherent to climate projections. (authors)

  15. The ASSIST: Bringing Information and Software Together for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    1997-01-01

    The ASSIST was developed as a step toward overcoming the problems faced by researchers when trying to utilize complex and often conflicting astronomical data analysis systems. It implements a uniform graphical interface to analysis systems, documentation, data, and organizational memory. It is layered on top of the Answer Garden Substrate (AGS), a system specially designed to facilitate the collection and dissemination of organizational memory. Under the AISRP program, we further developed the ASSIST to make it even easier for researchers to overcome the difficulties of accessing software and information in a complex computer environment.

  16. Transferability and data access issues. [decision information display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreros, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution and current operational mode of the domestic information display system (DIDS) now known as the decision information display system are described. This minicomputer based system, developed from a NASA-generated image processing system, was designed to display federal statistical data for a variety of geographic areas in the form of choropleth maps. The application of DIDS in South Carolina is discussed as well as the progress made and issues that emerged in using the data base on a state and county level. The hardware base for the system, how this user friendly system works, and the possibility of transferring data to remote systems are examined.

  17. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  18. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  19. Assisted Reproduction: What factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlatzis Basil C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of medical technology, many countries around the world have been implementing ethical guidelines and laws regarding Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR. A physician's reproductive decisions are not solely based on technical criteria but are also influenced by society values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors prioritized by MAR professionals when deciding on whether to accept to perform assisted reproduction and to show any existing cultural differences. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 224 healthcare professionals working with assisted reproduction in Brazil, Italy, Germany and Greece. Instrument used for data collection: a questionnaire, followed by the description of four special MAR cases (a single woman, a lesbian couple, an HIV discordant couple and gender selection which included case-specific questions regarding the professionals' decision on whether to perform the requested procedure as well as the following factors: socio-demographic variables, moral and legal values as well as the technical aspects which influence decision-making. Results Only the case involving a single woman who wishes to have a child (without the intention of having a partner in the future demonstrated significant differences. Therefore, the study was driven towards the results of this case specifically. The analyses we performed demonstrated that professionals holding a Master's Degree, those younger in age, female professionals, those having worked for less time in reproduction, those in private clinics and Brazilian health professionals all had a greater tendency to perform the procedure in that case. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the reasons for the professional's decision to perform the procedure were the woman's right to gestate and the duty of MAR professionals to help her. The professionals who decided not to perform the procedure identified the woman's marital status and

  20. Optimizing perioperative decision making: improved information for clinical workflow planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbeling, Bradley N; Burton, Matthew M; Wiebke, Eric A; Miller, Spencer; Baxter, Laurence; Miller, Donald; Alvarez, Jorge; Pekny, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative care is complex and involves multiple interconnected subsystems. Delayed starts, prolonged cases and overtime are common. Surgical procedures account for 40-70% of hospital revenues and 30-40% of total costs. Most planning and scheduling in healthcare is done without modern planning tools, which have potential for improving access by assisting in operations planning support. We identified key planning scenarios of interest to perioperative leaders, in order to examine the feasibility of applying combinatorial optimization software solving some of those planning issues in the operative setting. Perioperative leaders desire a broad range of tools for planning and assessing alternate solutions. Our modeled solutions generated feasible solutions that varied as expected, based on resource and policy assumptions and found better utilization of scarce resources. Combinatorial optimization modeling can effectively evaluate alternatives to support key decisions for planning clinical workflow and improving care efficiency and satisfaction. PMID:23304284

  1. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy. PMID:27479165

  2. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Toan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation, and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for

  3. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... proposed use: To assist households displaced by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Disaster Housing Assistance... Disaster Housing Assistance Program (DHAP) Incremental Rent Transition (IRT) Study. This study represents... in a post-disaster housing program. The results of this study will feed into decisions about how...

  4. Informing the Romanian decision makers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the 'pro-nuclear' sector of the Romanian civil society activity to better inform the Romanian Decision Makers on nuclear power issues. The 'Romanian Nuclear Energy Association' - AREN and the Romanian Radioprotection Society - SRRp, having the support of the 'Romanian General Association of Engineers' - AGIR, started on December 1996 a strong campaign to form a correct opinion among the new elected bodies and the new Government of the country, related to the future development of the Romanian Nuclear Program as a national priority and to expedite the restart of the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 2 completion. The paper describes the strategy of this lobby campaign, the objectives assumed and the results. The authors have taken advantage of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency information exchange about the Decision Makers informing process about nuclear energy and have the intention to share their experience with other sister societies dealing with similar conditions. This could be also a good experience for other areas of activity. (authors)

  5. Keeping Signals Straight: How Cells Process Information and Make Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    As we become increasingly dependent on electronic information-processing systems at home and work, it's easy to lose sight of the fact that our very survival depends on highly complex biological information-processing systems. Each of the trillions of cells that form the human body has the ability to detect and respond to a wide range of stimuli and inputs, using an extraordinary set of signaling proteins to process this information and make decisions accordingly. Indeed, cells in all organisms rely on these signaling proteins to survive and proliferate in unpredictable and sometimes rapidly changing environments. But how exactly do these proteins relay information within cells, and how do they keep a multitude of incoming signals straight? Here, I describe recent efforts to understand the fidelity of information flow inside cells. This work is providing fundamental insight into how cells function. Additionally, it may lead to the design of novel antibiotics that disrupt the signaling of pathogenic bacteria or it could help to guide the treatment of cancer, which often involves information-processing gone awry inside human cells. PMID:27427909

  6. Computer-assisted decision making in portal verification--optimization of the neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Conventional portal verification requires that a qualified radiation oncologist make decisions as to the set-up acceptability. This scheme is no longer sustainable with the large numbers of images available on-line and stringent time constraints. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop, optimize, and evaluate on clinical data an artificial intelligence decision-making tool for portal verification. The tool, based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach, should approximate, as closely as possible, portal verification assessments made by a radiation oncologist expert. Methods and Materials: A total of 328 electronic portal images of tangential breast irradiations were included in the study. A radiation oncologist expert evaluated these images and rated the treatment set-up acceptability on a scale from 0 to 10. Translational and rotational errors in the placement of the radiation field boundaries formed seven-dimensional feature vectors that represented each of the 328 portal images/treatments. The feature vectors were used as inputs to a three-layer, feedforward ANN. The neural network was trained on the oncologist's ratings. Results: The rms discrepancy between the ANN and the expert's ratings was 1.05 rating points. Using the decision threshold equal to 5 for both sets of ratings, the ANN classifier was capable of detecting 100% of the portals classified as 'unacceptable' by the expert. Only 6.5% of portals acceptable to the oncologist were misclassified as 'unacceptable' by the ANN. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the feasibility of using the ANN portal image classifier as an automated assistant to the radiation oncologist. Its role would be to recommend an appropriate decision as to the acceptability or otherwise of a given treatment set-up depicted in a portal image

  7. The Importance of Management Information Systems in Decision-Making Process in Najran University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Sultan Mahasneh

    2015-01-01

    Management information systems is very important for organizations especially decision-making process. This study is to answer the question related to the Importance of Management Information Systems on Decision-Making Process in Najran University, by exploring the role of management information systems in providing the necessary information to make decisions, the role of management information systems in decisionmaking, exploring the relationship of management information systems with deci...

  8. Robustness of maintenance decisions: Uncertainty modelling and value of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we show how sensitivity analysis for a maintenance optimisation problem can be undertaken by using the concept of expected value of perfect information (EVPI). This concept is important in a decision-theoretic context such as the maintenance problem, as it allows us to explore the effect of parameter uncertainty on the cost and the resulting recommendations. To reduce the computational effort required for the calculation of EVPIs, we have used Gaussian process (GP) emulators to approximate the cost rate model. Results from the analysis allow us to identify the most important parameters in terms of the benefit of ’learning’ by focussing on the partial expected value of perfect information for a parameter. The analysis determines the optimal solution and the expected related cost when the parameters are unknown and partially known. This type of analysis can be used to ensure that both maintenance calculations and resulting recommendations are sufficiently robust

  9. Risk-informed decision-making in Canadian nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of concepts pertaining to risk management and risk-informed decision-making, in order to promote the understanding of their application in the Canadian nuclear regulatory climate. As stated in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), the CNSC is required to protect the Canadian public against 'unreasonable risk' posed by activities it regulates. Additionally, the CNSC is expected to respect findings given in reports from the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), and to follow directives issued by the Government of Canada through Cabinet, hence, the Cabinet Directive on Streamlining Regulation (CDSR). The CNSC applies an approach that strives to be easily understandable, adaptable to many situations, supported by tools to gather information, is defensible, respects stakeholder consultations and is founded on open communication. The CNSC's conformance to the NSCA is broken into categories depending on the nature of the regulated facility: Class I power reactor facilities, non-power-reactor Class I facilities and Class II facilities. Internationally, different countries have different perspectives on risk. The paper argues that the CNSC's approach is consistent with practices of other nuclear regulatory bodies, which factor risk into their decision-making process. (author)

  10. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households...

  11. 77 FR 60412 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions Annual Fire Safety Report. OMB...

  12. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions-- Readmission for Servicemembers....

  13. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF APPLICANTS’ GENDER AND RELIGION ON PRINCIPALS’ SCREENING DECISIONS FOR ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL APPLICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN C. BON

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, a national random sample of high school principals (stratified by gender were asked to evaluate hypothetical applicants whose resumes varied by religion (Jewish, Catholic, nondenominational and gender (male, female for employment as assistant principals. Results reveal that male principals rate all applicants higher than female principals and that the gender and religion of applicants failed to negatively or positively affect principals’ evaluations. These results suggest that discrimination based on an applicant’s gender and religion failed to be manifested during the pre-interview stage of the selection process. The paper concludes with a theoretical discussion of the distinction between explicit and implicit prejudice, and encourages future researchers to investigate the potential impact of prejudice on employment selection decisions and to consider whether schools should promote diversity in leadership positions.

  14. Social Networks as Information Source for the Purchase Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leoni Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision

  15. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies.Objective To explore Bruce’s framework of informed decision making (IDM for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders.Method The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis.Results Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension.Conclusion This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  16. Design of a decision support system, trained on GPU, for assisting melanoma diagnosis in dermatoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotsos, Dimitris; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Lalissidou, Stella; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Asvestas, Pantelis; Konstandinou, Christos; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Konstantina Nikolatou, Eirini; Perakis, Konstantinos; Bouras, Thanassis; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a decision support system for assisting the diagnosis of melanoma in dermatoscopy images. Clinical material comprised images of 44 dysplastic (clark's nevi) and 44 malignant melanoma lesions, obtained from the dermatology database Dermnet. Initially, images were processed for hair removal and background correction using the Dull Razor algorithm. Processed images were segmented to isolate moles from surrounding background, using a combination of level sets and an automated thresholding approach. Morphological (area, size, shape) and textural features (first and second order) were calculated from each one of the segmented moles. Extracted features were fed to a pattern recognition system assembled with the Probabilistic Neural Network Classifier, which was trained to distinguish between benign and malignant cases, using the exhaustive search and the leave one out method. The system was designed on the GPU card (GeForce 580GTX) using CUDA programming framework and C++ programming language. Results showed that the designed system discriminated benign from malignant moles with 88.6% accuracy employing morphological and textural features. The proposed system could be used for analysing moles depicted on smart phone images after appropriate training with smartphone images cases. This could assist towards early detection of melanoma cases, if suspicious moles were to be captured on smartphone by patients and be transferred to the physician together with an assessment of the mole's nature.

  17. NOAA Climate Information and Tools for Decision Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Higgins, W.; Strager, C.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA is an active participant of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) contributing data, information, analytical capabilities, forecasts, and decision support services to the Climate Services Partnership (CSP). These contributions emerge from NOAA's own climate services, which have evolved to respond to the urgent and growing need for reliable, trusted, transparent, and timely climate information across all sectors of the U.S. economy. Climate services not only enhance development opportunities in many regions, but also reduce vulnerability to climate change around the world. The NOAA contribution lies within the NOAA Climate Goal mission, which is focusing its efforts on four key climate priority areas: water, extremes, coastal inundation, and marine ecosystems. In order to make progress in these areas, NOAA is exploiting its fundamental capabilities, including foundational research to advance understanding of the Earth system, observations to preserve and build the climate data record and monitor changes in climate conditions, climate models to predict and project future climate across space and time scales, and the development and delivery of decision support services focused on risk management. NOAA's National Weather Services (NWS) is moving toward provision of Decision Support Services (DSS) as a part of the Roadmap on the way to achieving a Weather Ready National (WRN) strategy. Both short-term and long-term weather, water, and climate information are critical for DSS and emergency services and have been integrated into NWS in the form of pilot projects run by National and Regional Operations Centers (NOC and ROCs respectively) as well as several local offices. Local offices with pilot projects have been focusing their efforts on provision of timely and actionable guidance for specific tasks such as DSS in support of Coastal Environments and Integrated Environmental Studies. Climate information in DSS extends the concept of climate services to

  18. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  19. Evaluating participatory decision processes: which methods inform reflective practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters." PMID:24121657

  20. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  1. Risk informed decision making. Topical issues paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been performed for more than 200 nuclear power plants (NPPs) worldwide and are under various stages of development for most of the remaining NPPs. The state-of-the-art is to have a full scope Level 2 PSA (including external events and low power and shutdown) which is maintained as a 'living PSA' with regular updating. Modern computer technology allows frequent recalculations of the PSA to evaluate the impact of changes in operation or design and allows use of the PSA in the form of safety or risk monitors. There is a general agreement, as documented in various IAEA Safety Standards, that the deterministic approach to nuclear safety should be complemented by a probabilistic approach. Though PSAs have been used extensively in the past, it was usually limited to a variety of applications on a case by case basis as deemed necessary or useful. There is now a recent development led by the USA, and followed by several other countries, to move to a much expanded use of PSA in what is termed 'risk informed decision making'. The main driving force behind this movement is the expectation that the use of risk insights can result in both improved safety and a reduction in unnecessary regulatory requirements, hence leading to a more efficient use of resources for NPP operators and the regulatory authority. One of the key challenges in truly risk informed decision making is the reconciliation of PSA results and insights with traditional deterministic analysis. This is particularly true when it comes to defence in depth and safety margins. PSA results often conflict with deterministic insights. If a method of reconciling these conflicts is not defined, then risk informed can become deterministic plus PSA. This results in PSA being an additional layer of requirements rather than a tool for optimized decision making. Alternatively, if PSA information is always used to override deterministic considerations, then that is a 'risk

  2. Risk Engineering, Sciences, Computation, and Informed Decisions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wrong decisions during the missions can lead to an unsafe condition or immediate failure, while correct decisions can help continue the missions even from faulty...

  3. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may inf...

  4. How Social Cognition Can Inform Social Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria eLee; Lasana eHarris

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may inf...

  5. 77 FR 60413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Privacy, Information and Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information collection requests at...

  6. Decision making and information flows in precision agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laiô; Blackmore, B.S.;

    to decision". Illustrative examples of the model in the form of DFDs are presented for a strategic and an operational decision. The model was validated for a range of decisions related to operations by three university farm managers and by five commercial farmers practicing PA for cereal, corn and...

  7. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS) and group DSS (GDSS), emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria in...

  8. Clinical decision support for perioperative information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2013-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems are being used to optimize the increasingly complex care that our health care system delivers. These systems have become increasingly important in the delivery of perioperative care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular procedures. The adoption of perioperative information management systems (PIMS) has allowed these technologies to enter the operating room and support the clinical work flow of anesthesiologists and operational processes. Constructing effective CDS systems necessitates an understanding of operative work flow and technical considerations as well as achieving integration with existing information systems. In this review, we describe published examples of CDS for PIMS, including support for cardiopulmonary bypass separation physiological alarms, β-blocker guideline adherence, enhanced revenue capture for arterial line placement, and detection of hemodynamic monitoring gaps. Although these and other areas are amenable to CDS systems, the challenges of latency and data reliability represent fundamental limitations on the potential application of these tools to specific types of clinical issues. Ultimately, we expect that CDS will remain an important tool in our efforts to optimize the quality of care delivered. PMID:23690340

  9. Application of Information Technology in Management Accounting Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krishna Moorthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of Information Technology (IT in management accounting and also the potentials and drawbacks of adopting IT in management accounting. IT changes frequently and accounting standards remain for many years without any major change. IT and management accounting are vital to both small and large organizations. Accounting bodies and communities have instantly stressed the need for a shift in accountants’ education by increasing the knowledge of information systems and IT knowledge. This paper examines the relationship between IT and management accounting. The past literature also indicates the potential of IT in management accounting that will simplify the calculation process and better presentable options of the business data for effective decision making. The literature findings also indicate that IT has major impact on the costs, as implementing IT will result in big spending on the technology hardware, software and IT personnel. The study also shows that IT can improve accounting department efficiency and produce result effortlessly, timely and accurately. Accountants are recommended special attention to this issue.

  10. 77 FR 74825 - Information Collection: Federal and Non-Federal Financial Assistant Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Federal and Non-Federal Financial Assistant Instruments AGENCY...-Federal Financial Assistant Instruments. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before February... holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal and Non-Federal Financial Assistant Instruments....

  11. Risk informed decisions and regulations - STUK's policy and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of severe accidents beyond the traditional design basis, including full core melt accidents, has become an important ingredient of regulatory process in Finland. Accordingly, plant-specific level-1 and level-2 PSA studies are a regulatory requirement. These studies are being used in a living fashion both at the utilities and STUK. Plant specific living PSAs have been completed for all operating Finnish plants, including internal initiators, fires, flooding, harsh weather conditions seismic events for operation mode and internal events for low power mode. Many specific applications of the Living PSA have already been introduced but some are still waiting for further development such as Risk Informed ISI, IST and Tech Specs. Examples of safety issues, for which the PSA insights give an improved basis for decisions, are approvals of plant modifications and resolution of testing, inspection and maintenance strategies. PSA insights are also of value in assessing meaningfulness of requirements which are based on traditional engineering judgement but do not form an essential part of defence-in-depth concept. Examples of such requirements are details of safety classification and many Technical Specification requirements. STUK has recently conducted a pilot study on risk-informed ISI. The aim of the study was to explore how the plant specific PSAs could best be used for assessment of the ISI programmes. This paper discusses the findings obtained during the pilot study on risk-informed ISI of pipings. The study produced essential insights of the applied method. Furthermore, the study gave guidance to extract items for further development. Based on these results and overall experience the general suitability of the method for further application is evaluated. (author)

  12. 78 FR 48660 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management AGENCY: Federal Student Aid (FSA), Department of Education (ED). ACTION: Notice... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General...

  13. 75 FR 9193 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Assistive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Assistive Technology Act... Special Education and Rehabilitative Services may change the maximum amount through a notice published in... period exceeding 60 months. The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  14. Informing Urban Decision Making with an Array of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R. L.; Catlett, C.; Beckman, P. H.; Sankaran, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next several decades, the population of the world's cities is projected to nearly double, increasing by 2.6 billion people and requiring massive urban expansion globally. This massive growth in urban density and scale will compound ongoing city challenges related to climate change, energy, infrastructure, public health, and more. Cities are using data they already collect such as 311 calls, bus and train operations, street repair orders, census data and building permits to help understand the complex interactions between the human, built and natural systems within a city and inform their decision making. Helping to guide urban decision-making is The Array of Things (AoT): a new tool for measuring many aspects of the physical environment of urban areas at the city block scale with continuous, reliable, integrated data from a variety of sensors. An AoT node includes multiple sensors to measure basic meteorological quantities such as pressure, temperature and humidity as well as light and trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. The sensors operate 24/7 with ingest frequencies as high as 1Hz. The nodes are modular and allow new sensors to be added or swapped out. The hardware/software backbone of an AoT node is provided by the Waggle architecture. Each AoT node includes, via Waggle, compute power from a single board computer running Linux that allows data to be processed in-situ and, if needed, command and control of components of the node. Data is communicated in near real-time typically through WiFi, 3G or wired ethernet to a designated host and resilience is built-in to prevent data loss if communication is disrupted. The AoT includes a software stack with a programmable API and cloud-based infrastructure for performing data ingest and further analysis. The first full instance of AoT will comprise 500 nodes deployed in the City of Chicago, each with power, Internet, and a base set of sensing and embedded information

  15. Risk informed safety and regulatory decision making: An NRC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To accomplish its mission in the coming years, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a set of four strategic objectives or performance measures by which it can plan, budget, perform and manage its activities: to maintain safety, to increase regulatory effectiveness and efficiency, to reduce unnecessary regulatory burden, and to increase public confidence. Measures are now being developed to assess the NRC's performance in these areas to communicate with stakeholders and demonstrate accountability for its resources. One of the key strategies for accomplishing the NRC's goals is to risk inform its regulations through the use of probabilistic risk analyses, or PRAs. In making risk informed decisions on changing its regulatory framework, the NRC relies on five key principles, as discussed in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.174: (1) does the change continue to meet current regulations? (2) has defence in depth been appropriately considered? (3) is a sufficient safety margin maintained? (4) are the changes in core damage frequency and large early release frequency small? and (5) how are the impacts of the changes monitored? The NRC has undertaken a number of risk informed initiatives based on the general guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.174. The NRC has risk informed initiatives in technical specifications, inservice inspection and testing, the reactor oversight process, relaxation of special treatment requirements, and revisions to technical requirements. As the NRC moves forward with increased use of risk informed techniques, it must also undertake the effort to communicate with stakeholders to receive input and explain its activities. That is why the NRC is conducting mandatory PRA training for staff, holding workshops with industry and the public, and generally reaching out to ensure that its efforts in this area are both visible and understandable. The vision for the final product of this complex process is a regulatory structure or

  16. Risk-Informed Decisions Optimization in Inspection and Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Risk-Informed Approach (RIA) used to support decisions related to inspection and maintenance program is considered. The use of risk-informed methods can help focus the adequate in-service inspections and control on the more important locations of complex dynamic systems. The focus is set on the highest risk measured as conditional core damage frequency, which is produced by the frequencies of degradation and final failure at different locations combined with the conditional failure consequence probability. The probabilities of different degradation states per year and consequences are estimated quantitatively. The investigation of inspection and maintenance process is presented as the combination of deterministic and probabilistic analysis based on general risk-informed model, which includes the inspection and maintenance program features. Such RIA allows an optimization of inspection program while maintaining probabilistic and fundamental deterministic safety requirements. The failure statistics analysis is used as well as the evaluation of reliability of inspections. The assumptions regarding the effectiveness of the inspection methods are based on a classification of the accessibility of the welds during the inspection and on the different techniques used for inspection. The probability of defect detection is assumed to depend on the parameters either through logarithmic or logit transformation. As example the modeling of the pipe systems inspection process is analyzed. The means to reduce a number of inspection sites and the cumulative radiation exposure to the NPP inspection personnel with a reduction of overall risk is presented together with used and developed software. The developed software can perform and administrate all the risk evaluations and ensure the possibilities to compare different options and perform sensitivity analysis. The approaches to define an acceptable level of risk are discussed. These approaches with appropriate software in

  17. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING ACCOUNTING INFORMATIONS AND ACCOUNTING DECISIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Paula DUMITRU

    2012-01-01

    The accountants need to make choices to recognize, evaluate and classify business transactions for assuring true and fair value of informations. In this paper, we try to classify these choises so that called accounting decisions. Also we try to view them in an informational perspective knowing the importance that accounting informations has in the process of making business decisions.

  18. Informed shared decision making: An exploratory study in pharmacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using the physician-based Informed Shared Decision Making (ISDM framework for teaching pharmacy students competencies to effectively develop therapeutic relationships with patients. Objectives: To: (1 assess the relevance and importance of the physician-developed ISDM competencies for pharmacy practice, (2 determine which competencies would be easiest and hardest to practice, (3 identify barriers to implementing ISDM in pharmacy practice, and (4 identify typical situations in which ISDM is or could be practiced. Methods: Twenty pharmacists representing 4 different practices were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. Results: Pharmacists acknowledged that majority of the physician-based competencies were relevant to pharmacy practice; although not all competencies were considered to be most important. Competency #1 (Develop a partnership with the patient was found to be the most relevant, the most important and the easiest to practice of all the competencies. While no one competency was identified as being hard to practice, there were several barriers identified to practicing ISDM. Finally, pharmacists expressed that patients with chronic conditions would be the most ideal for engaging in ISDM.Conclusion: While pharmacists believed that the ISDM model could provide a framework for pharmacists to develop therapeutic relationships with their patients, the group also identified obstacles to engaging successfully in this relationship.

  19. A new importance measure for risk-informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, several authors pointed out that the traditional importance measures had limitations. In this study, the problem through an analysis at the parameter level was investigated and a new measure was introduced. The measure was based on small parameter variations and is capable of accounting for the importance of a group of components/parameters. The definition, computational steps, and an application of a new importance measure for risk-informed decision making were presented here. Unlike traditional importance measures, differential importance measure (DIM) deals with changes in the various parameters that determine the unavailability/unreliability of a component, e.g., failure rates, common-cause failure rates, individual human errors. The importance of the component unavailability/unreliability can be calculated from the importance of the parameters. DIM can be calculated for the frequency of initiating events, while risk achievement worth (RAW) is limited to binary events, e.g., component unavailability. The changes in parameters are 'small'. This is more realistic than the drastic assumption in RAW that the component is always down. DIM is additive. This allows the evaluation of the impact of changes, such as the relaxation of quality assurance requirements, which affect groups of parameters, e.g., the failure rates of a group of pumps. (M.N.)

  20. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  1. THE MANAGERIAL DECISION IN TOURISM RELATED TO THE TAX INFORMATION AND THE ACCOUNTING REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUS BOIŢĂ; BOBY COSTI; ANDREI ANGHELINA

    2014-01-01

    This paper refers to accounting reports, and information provided by the accounting process by which accounting information is produced and disseminated. It emphasizes and underlines the role and importance of accounting reports and information provided by them in the analysis and management decisions in tourism. Management decisions on the quantity, quality and timing of information provision depends on the cost and benefits of accounting information production and dissem...

  2. The strategic decision processes and information needs of nuclear government-oversight-agency managers

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R. Martin

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear govemment-oversight-agency (GOA) managers face increasing numbers of strategic decisions with fewer people to support their strategic decision processes. There is an increasing need to find new means of strategic decision support for nuclear GOA managers. This exploratory research contributes toward meeting this need by: (1) developing a set of contextual models of strategic decision making that link mental activities with information needs; (2) deriving a methodology to s...

  3. Application of geographical information system technology to epidemiological surveillance and prevention and cure decision-making for SARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-hui; QU Jing-hui; XU De-zhong; YAN Yong-ping; ZHANG Heng; ZHANG Zhi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To expound geographical information system (GIS) technology is a very important tool when it was employed to assist to present the distribution by time and place and the model of transmission of infectious disease. Methods: We illustrated the assistant decision-making support function of GIS with an example of the spatial decision support system for SARS controlling in Shaanxi province of China which was developed by us. Results: The spatial decision support system established by applying GIS technology fulfilled the needs of real-time collection and management and dissemination SARS information and of surveillance and analysis the epidemic situation of SARS. Conclusion: Occurrence and epidemic of diseases, implement prevention and intervention measures and collocation hygienic resources are all with the characteristic of the variation of time and space, therefore, GIS technology has become a powerful tool for identifying risk factors of diseases, providing clues of causation of diseases, evaluating the effects of intervention measures and drawing a health management plan.

  4. Department of Veterans Affairs' Implementation of Information Security Education Assistance Program. GAO-10-170R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshusen, Gregory C.; Melvin, Valerie C.

    2009-01-01

    The Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006 authorizes the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to establish an educational assistance program for information security. The Information Security Education Assistance Program is envisioned as a means for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to attract and retain individuals…

  5. Model decision support system for university of information resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva Marina Olegovna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the quality of service in the libraries of the university. We propose a model system of quality management services, consisting of three complexes, allowing to simulate the process of care, foresee the results of management decisions taken and choose the best of them. Proposed economic and mathematical models for assessing the quality of decisions. Models developed on the basis of the theory of mass service. Showing the application of each of the types of models. A draft staffing to optimize the distribution process management decisions at different times.

  6. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  7. THE ROLE OF COST INFORMATION IN DECISION-MAKING. CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Topor; Ioana Dorin; Alina Putan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how information derived frommanagement accounting has an impact on development and foundation of new decisions andtherefore to better understand the relationship between management accounting andinformation. Using as an example a case study from the mining industry we will show theefficiency of information provided by management accounting in decision making and theoperational control of the production process.

  8. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals. PMID:23440218

  9. 75 FR 35457 - Draft of the 2010 Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY Draft of the 2010 Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS) AGENCY... ``anonymous access'' system, which means that EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless... period for the draft Web site, ``2010 release of the Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision...

  10. The Purpose of the Information Accounting System for the Process of Taking Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcu Niculina

    2011-01-01

    Extremely useful in decisions making, real, clear, complete, credible and relevant accounting information are essential to the management. Financial accounting provides financial - accounting information publishing the financial statements useful for all those interested in adopting decisions on investments, profitability analysis, quality management evaluation, entity diagnosis, assessement at its fair value of the financial position and performance, etc. At the same time, management account...

  11. Health literacy and informed decision making regarding colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Schuit, J.; Rademakers, J.; Fransen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Making an informed decision about participation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening may be challenging for invitees with lower health literacy skills. The aim of this systematic review is to explore to what extent the level of a person’s health literacy is related to their informed decision making

  12. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  13. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behaviour with the computerbased information display matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, U.

    2011-01-01

    The former judgement that the process-tracing method information-display-matrix (IDM) lacks external validity should be questioned in the light of technical advances and changing consumer behaviour. The new research environment offers possibilities for a close-to-realistic refinement and further...... development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  14. The role of management accounting in providing Information for making decision within an entity

    OpenAIRE

    Topor, Dan Ioan; Puţan, Alina; Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this research paper is to obtain information through management accounting and cost calculation, information that helps on developing the best decisions at the level of an organization. We used as an example a case study from the manufacturing industry which helped us to better understand the efficiency with which information about the conduct of production process reach management or the leadership skills that exploit information in decision-making and in operational control of ...

  15. Deriving a Method for Evaluating the Use of Geographic Information in Decision Making (90-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Holly J., editor

    1990-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation involves establishing the value of geographic information and its analysis in decision making. The discussion is focussed on the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in a decision-making organization. A literature search was performed to discover methods used in Economics, Management Science, and Information Science to establish the value of information. It is concluded that prior to establishing value, it is first necessary to impr...

  16. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  17. Thermodynamics as a theory of decision-making with information processing costs

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2012-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we propose an information-theoretic formalization of bounded rational decision-making where decision-makers trade off expected utility and information processing costs. As a result, the decision-making problem can be rephrased in terms of well-known concepts from thermodynamics and statistical physics, such that the same exponential family distributions that govern statistical ensembles can be used to describe the stochastic choice behavior of bounded decision-makers. This framework does not only explain some well-known experimental deviations from expected utility theory, but also reproduces psychophysical choice pattern captured by diffusion-to-bound models. Furthermore, this framework allows rederiving a number of decision-making schemes including risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) decision-making as well as more recent approximately optimal schemes that are...

  18. 78 FR 48411 - Information Collection; Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    .... Additionally, NAP provides assistance for losses of floriculture, ornamental nursery, Christmas tree crops, turfgrass sod, seed crops, aquaculture (including ornamental fish), sea oats and sea grass, and...

  19. The relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Danelon Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Includes a documentary research on the relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization. Objective: The goal is to check the influence of information, considering the organizational culture, decision making in an organization. Methodology: The literature review include authors specialized in the areas of information (Belkin; Borko; Capurro; Choo; Tarapanoff; among others; culture (Fleury et al.; Moraes and Fadel; Nassar and Schein, decision making (Angeloni; Hoppen; Leitão and Nassif; Lousada and Valentim and Oliveira and organization (Bernardes and Marcondes and Maximiano. Results: That there may be a strong interdependency between information, culture and decision making in an organization. Conclusions: The information can facilitate understanding of the culture of an organization, how the processes of change occur and what alternatives can be raised so that she can achieve success in their decision-making process in order to ensure its perpetuation over time.

  20. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  1. Digital Decisions: Educators, Caregivers and Parents Must Be well Informed When Making Decisions about Children's Use of Technology and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Stephanie Puckett

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, technology plays an important role in the daily lives of children, both at home and at school. Making informed decisions about the wise application and frequency of technology and media use can be both challenging and overwhelming for parents, caregivers and educators. Many issues surround the unwise use of technology and media by…

  2. Classification decision tree algorithm assisting in diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodule by SPECT/CT fusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Yongqian; Guo Youmin; Jin Chenwang; Liu Min; Yang Aimin; Wang Qiuping; Niu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a classification tree algorithm to improve diagnostic performances of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT fusion imaging in differentiating solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods Forty-four SPNs, including 30 malignant cases and 14 benign ones that were eventually pathologically identified, were included in this prospective study. All patients received 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT scanning at an early stage and a delayed stage before operation. Thirty predictor variables, including 11 clinical variables, 4 variables of emission and 15 variables of transmission information from SPECT/CT scanning, were analyzed independently by the classification tree algorithm and radiological residents. Diagnostic rules were demonstrated in tree-topology, and diagnostic performances were compared with Area under Curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). Results A classification decision tree with lowest relative cost of 0.340 was developed for 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT/CT scanning in which the value of Target/Normal region of 99Tcm-MIBI uptake in the delayed stage and in the early stage, age, cough and specula sign were five most important contributors. The sensitivity and specificity were 93.33% and 78. 57e, respectively, a little higher than those of the expert. The sensitivity and specificity by residents of Grade one were 76.67% and 28.57%, respectively, and AUC of CART and expert was 0.886±0.055 and 0.829±0.062, respectively, and the corresponding AUC of residents was 0.566±0.092. Comparisons of AUCs suggest that performance of CART was similar to that of expert (P=0.204), but greater than that of residents (P<0.001). Conclusion Our data mining technique using classification decision tree has a much higher accuracy than residents. It suggests that the application of this algorithm will significantly improve the diagnostic performance of residents.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING BY MANAGERS WITH FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality conditioning of an accountant's job corresponds thus with the competitive level in the company. The operationalization of the used specialty language, on the one hand and on the other hand the efficient management of the financial situation acquire a significant role regarding a strategic partnership at the micro and macroeconomic level in business as long as the managerial structures of understanding the economic reality are put in correlation with the accountant's socio-professional training in the firm/concern. Even if the professional accountant is paid by a determined client, which is the final beneficiary of the development service or audit financial statements, the information drawn from these financial statements are used by those who form the public. In this way, the accounting profession is distinguished from the other profession by accepting its responsibility to the public. There are numerous studies on an international level, dealing with various methods of improving the decision making process. The most competitive multinational companies have already considered the opportunities favored by financial adjustments, directed at streamlining the accounting functions and they have also trained professionals in the field of accounting that would successfully perform as business partners, thus assisting the decision making process within the organization. The financial adjustments have become essential for many companies that have thus gained a significant competitive advantage. The plan for improving the efficiency of the financial function is very clear, but the training of the business partners who would provide assistance in making decisions still remains a challenge. The economic perspective on the account reality highlights a pragmatic materialization, at the company’s level, of some specific skills designed to support the important role that the financial situations have. So, the individual significations of the

  4. Assessing ecosystem services for informing land-use decisions: a problem-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Förster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services (ES, that aim at informing decisions on land management, are increasing in number around the globe. Despite selected success stories, evidence for ES information being used in decision making is weak, partly because ES assessments are found to fall short in targeting information needs by decision makers. To improve their applicability in practice, we compared existing concepts of ES assessments with focus on informing land use decisions and identified opportunities for enhancing the relevance of ES assessments for decision making. In a process of codesign, building on experience of four projects in Brazil, China, Madagascar, and Vietnam, we developed a step-wise approach for better targeting ES assessments toward information needs in land use decisions. Our problem-oriented approach aims at (1 structuring ES information according to land use problems identified by stakeholders, (2 targeting context-specific ES information needs by decision makers, and (3 assessing relevant management options. We demonstrate how our approach contributes to making ES assessments more policy relevant and enhances the application of ES assessments as a tool for decision support.

  5. Impact of Accounting Information Systems on Decision Making Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvisa Buljubašić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy, the way in which company is managed and developed is extremly important, because every wrong or misleading decision comes at a high price. Therefore each decision that management brings should be based on precise, qualitative, timely and unambiguous information. In order to serve its purpose, after information are collected they are processed, classified and stored within the company. For effective and efficient information processingit is necessary to have an integrated set of components, called an information system. Undoubtedly, significant role in information processing for effective decision making, belongs to accounting information system. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to the use and adoption of accounting information system and it's impact on decision making process. Questionnaire distributed to the business organizations and interviews with the managers, as a data collection method, will be used. Statistical and graphical methods will be used to demonstrate findings.

  6. Local School Board Members Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…

  7. Information gathering and integration as sources of error in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, L D; Wolf, F M; Billi, J E

    1991-01-01

    This research examined the relative importance of information gathering versus information utilization in accounting for errors in diagnostic decision making. Two experiments compared physicians' performances under two conditions: one in which they gathered a limited amount of diagnostic information and then integrated it before making a decision, and the other in which they were given all the diagnostic information and needed only to integrate it. The physicians: 1) frequently failed to select normatively optimal information in both experimental conditions; 2) were more confident about the correctness of their information selection when their task was limited to information integration than when it also included information gathering; and 3) made diagnoses in substantial agreement with those indicated by applying normative procedures to the same data. Physicians appear to have difficulties recognizing the diagnosticity of information, which often results in decisions that are pseudodiagnostic or based on diagnostically worthless information. PMID:1766327

  8. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are: PMID:18434256

  9. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: gerhard.ersdal@ptil.no; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  10. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle

  11. A Methodological model to assist the optimization and risk management of mining investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Botin Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Guzman, R.R.; Smith, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying, quantifying, and minimizing technical risks associated with investment decisions is a key challenge for mineral industry decision makers and investors. However, risk analysis in most bankable mine feasibility studies are based on the stochastic modelling of project “Net Present Value” (NPV)which, in most cases, fails to provide decision makers with a truly comprehensive analysis of risks associated with technical and management uncertainty and, as a result, are of little use for ...

  12. Legality, legitimacy and formal and informal decision-making processes: when does a decision become legitimate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few words on the purpose of this paper are given by way of introduction. A brief analysis will be made of the relationship between legality and legitimacy in relation to decision-making processes and within the context of the policies concerning the public management of technological risks. The aim is to raise questions and outline some reflections based on the theory of the state, from the perspective of the conditions of the institutionalization of power. I shall first clarify a few conceptual points. The notion of legality refers to the notion of compliance with legal standards, that is to say, with the law. Is the decision made by a person empowered by law so do to (legal competence)? Is it taken in compliance with legal procedure? And are the effects implicitly in keeping with the spirit of the law? The legitimacy of the power of those who govern, or the legitimacy of their decisions, is not determined solely by legal standards but rather, is a matter of individual and social representation or view. As Hobbes says, in essence, to govern is to convince: to convince people of the rightfulness of the source of the power of those who govern and of the action or public policies that they formulate. The paper is organised around three propositions: 1. The role of the legitimacy or social acceptability of public policies has always been an element of the way all political systems function. This role, however, occupies an increasingly important place on the political agenda in a societal decision-making context that has undergone irreversible changes. 2. Although the essence of the social legitimacy of public policies remains the same, the conditions, mechanisms and criteria evolve. 3. The critical centrality of social legitimacy, together with the evolution of the criteria for legitimate decision, today modify the decision-making mechanisms that were established in response to the requirements of classical democracy. We observe a political organisation i n the

  13. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Information system (IS) project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). All these evaluation pieces of information...

  14. Impact of Accounting Information Systems on Decision Making Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Elvisa Buljubašić; Erkan Ilgȕn

    2015-01-01

    In the market economy, the way in which company is managed and developed is extremly important, because every wrong or misleading decision comes at a high price. Therefore each decision that management brings should be based on precise, qualitative, timely and unambiguous information. In order to serve its purpose, after information are collected they are processed, classified and stored within the company. For effective and efficient information processingit is necessary to have an integrate...

  15. The relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Danelon Lopes; Valmira Perucchi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Includes a documentary research on the relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization. Objective: The goal is to check the influence of information, considering the organizational culture, decision making in an organization. Methodology: The literature review include authors specialized in the areas of information (Belkin; Borko; Capurro; Choo; Tarapanoff; among others); culture (Fleury et al.; Moraes and Fadel; Nassar and S...

  16. Balancing the presentation of information and options in patient decision aids: an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, P.; Volk, R.J.; Blumenthal-Barby, J.; Bravo, P.; A. Buchholz; Ozanne, E.; Vidal, D.C.; Col, N.; Stalmeier, P F M

    2013-01-01

    Background Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals’ knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what const...

  17. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION - A BASIS FOR ACHIEVING THE DECISION FOR THE REALIZATION OF PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Sarac Ionut Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Accounting information plays a key role in the foundation process of public sector decisions. Financing budget deficits, treasury risk identification (availability risk), formation of tax claims, foundation of financial sustainability for public investment projects are just some examples of using accounting information in decision-making process of credit accountant. How can we use and process accounting information in the foundation of public investment projects? We will try to answer this q...

  18. Combining Global and Local Information for Knowledge-Assisted Image Analysis and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezaris V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning approach to knowledge-assisted image analysis and classification is proposed that combines global and local information with explicitly defined knowledge in the form of an ontology. The ontology specifies the domain of interest, its subdomains, the concepts related to each subdomain as well as contextual information. Support vector machines (SVMs are employed in order to provide image classification to the ontology subdomains based on global image descriptions. In parallel, a segmentation algorithm is applied to segment the image into regions and SVMs are again employed, this time for performing an initial mapping between region low-level visual features and the concepts in the ontology. Then, a decision function, that receives as input the computed region-concept associations together with contextual information in the form of concept frequency of appearance, realizes image classification based on local information. A fusion mechanism subsequently combines the intermediate classification results, provided by the local- and global-level information processing, to decide on the final image classification. Once the image subdomain is selected, final region-concept association is performed using again SVMs and a genetic algorithm (GA for optimizing the mapping between the image regions and the selected subdomain concepts taking into account contextual information in the form of spatial relations. Application of the proposed approach to images of the selected domain results in their classification (i.e., their assignment to one of the defined subdomains and the generation of a fine granularity semantic representation of them (i.e., a segmentation map with semantic concepts attached to each segment. Experiments with images from the personal collection domain, as well as comparative evaluation with other approaches of the literature, demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  19. Research and Design of Watercraft Anti-sinking Assistant Decision System%船舶抗沉辅助决策系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓春

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance anti-sinking assistant decision system serves as a pivot for watercraft commander to make exact decisions and carry out effective measures as quickly as possible when adjustments are need. Assistant decision systems nowadays can help to supervise the basic navigation information and control the floating states, but most of these systems suffer the following limitations: System architectures are too simple to implement a large-scale process control; Inefficient system' s algorithm decreases the rapidity and precision of decisions generating; System' s HMI (human machine interface) is always ivory-towered that greatly reduces the practicability of system. The innovative anti-sinking assistant decision system implements a rapid iterative algorithm which takes the equilibrium parameter as the optimization target-value. This paper develops the system on an object-oriented SCADA platform with Windows component object module (COM) which offers high performance and practicability. It has been improved very efficient by a series of given examples of simulation of ship floating.%抗沉辅助决策系统是船舶常规和紧急状态下进行损管行动的关键性依据.目前抗沉计算分析系统,可对船舶基础状态、浮稳性等信息进行管理,并进行仿真和辅助决策,但大多存在算法效率低,决策生成速度和精度不足、人机交互接口脱离实际等问题.本文从船舶抗沉操作的实际执行过程出发,制定抗沉算法,根据实时装载和破损情况,时液舱采用注入水或排水的损管操作,生成调整措施,使船舶恢复良好的浮态与稳性.系统基于面向对象过程控制平台设计和实现,仿真结果验证了系统的有效性和高效性.

  20. Can intuitive and analytical decision styles explain managers' evaluation of information technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Selart, Marcus; Johansen, Svein Tvedt; Holmesland, Tore; Grønhaug, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how IT managers' decision styles affect their evaluation of information technology. Design/methodology/approach – Four different decision styles were assessed in a leadership test directed towards IT managers. Each style included two dimensions: confidence judgment ability and decision heuristic usage. Participants belonging to each style were interviewed and their answers analysed with regard to their reasoning about central areas of IT manag...

  1. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of ...

  2. Optimizing Perioperative Decision Making: Improved Information for Clinical Workflow Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Doebbeling, Bradley N.; Burton, Matthew M.; Eric A. Wiebke; Miller, Spencer; Baxter, Laurence; Miller, Donald; Alvarez, Jorge; Pekny, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative care is complex and involves multiple interconnected subsystems. Delayed starts, prolonged cases and overtime are common. Surgical procedures account for 40–70% of hospital revenues and 30–40% of total costs. Most planning and scheduling in healthcare is done without modern planning tools, which have potential for improving access by assisting in operations planning support. We identified key planning scenarios of interest to perioperative leaders, in order to examine the feasib...

  3. Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

  4. An expert panel approach to support risk-informed decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The report describes the expert panel methodology developed for supporting risk-informed decision making. The aim of an expert panel is to achieve a balanced utilisation of information and expertise from several disciplines in decision-making including probabilistic safety assessment as one decision criterion. We also summarise the application of the methodology in the STUK's RI-ISI (Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection) pilot study, where the expert panel approach was used to combine the deterministic information on degradation mechanisms and probabilistic information on pipe break consequences. The expert panel served both as a critical review of the preliminary results and as a decision support for the final definition of risk categories of piping. (orig.)

  5. An expert panel approach to support risk-informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the expert panel methodology developed for supporting risk-informed decision making. The aim of an expert panel is to achieve a balanced utilisation of information and expertise from several disciplines in decision-making including probabilistic safety assessment as one decision criterion. We also summarise the application of the methodology in the STUK's RI-ISI (Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection) pilot study, where the expert panel approach was used to combine the deterministic information on degradation mechanisms and probabilistic information on pipe break consequences. The expert panel served both as a critical review of the preliminary results and as a decision support for the final definition of risk categories of piping. (orig.)

  6. Pricing and collecting decisions in a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jie; Govindan, Kannan; Li, Yongjian;

    2015-01-01

    optimal strategies in closed form are given under the decision scenarios with symmetric information; moreover, the first order conditions that the optimal retail price, optimal wholesale price, and optimal collection rate satisfy are given under the decision scenarios with asymmetric information. The......The optimal decision problem of a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information structures is considered using game theory in this paper. The paper aims to explore how the manufacturer and the retailer make their own decisions about wholesale price, retail price, and collection...... rate under symmetric and asymmetric information conditions. Four game models are established, which allow one to examine the strategies of each firm and explore the role of the manufacturer and the retailer in four different game scenarios under symmetric and asymmetric information structures. The...

  7. Harnessing software development contexts to inform software process selection decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeners, Simona; O'Connor, Rory V.; Clake, Paul; Lichter, Horst; Lepmets, Marion; Buglione, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Software development is a complex process for which numerous approaches have been suggested. However, no single approach to software development has been met with universal acceptance, which is not surprising, as there are many different software development concerns. In addition, there are a multitude of other contextual factors that influence the choice of software development process and process management decisions. The authors believe it is important to de...

  8. Decision from Models: Generalizing Probability Information to Novel Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HANG; Paily, Jacienta T.; Laurence T Maloney

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new type of decision under risk where—to succeed—participants must generalize their experience in one set of tasks to a novel set of tasks. We asked participants to trade distance for reward in a virtual minefield where each successive step incurred the same fixed probability of failure (referred to as hazard). With constant hazard, the probability of success (the survival function) decreases exponentially with path length. On each trial, participants chose between a shorter ...

  9. Informal Financial Assistance for Patients With a Hematological Malignancy: Implications for Oncology Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam

    2015-01-01

    The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored. PMID:26671243

  10. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-01-01

    In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managin...

  11. The Impact of Information Technology Integrated Into Decision Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Codreanu Diana Elena; Rãduþ Carmen; Parpandel Denisa-Elena

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, all studies have shown that information, based on modern information technologies, have gained particular importance is seen as a strategic resource necessary for the development of the resource, which is sometimes considered more important than raw materials or energy. The impact of information technology on various areas of human and economic life is so great that it speaks of a new phase in the evolution of society, namely: information society. Field studies show that in...

  12. Fuzzy Decision-Making in Enterprise Information Management

    CERN Document Server

    Kahraman, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    Information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense for many organizations. Intelligent information management is a set of processes and underlying technology solutions that enable organizations to understand, organize and manage all sorts of data types. This e-book provides a useful source of ideas, techniques, and methods for further research in intelligent information management.

  13. Models in animal collective decision-making: information uncertainty and conflicting preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2012-04-01

    Collective decision-making plays a central part in the lives of many social animals. Two important factors that influence collective decision-making are information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. Here, I bring together, and briefly review, basic models relating to animal collective decision-making in situations with information uncertainty and in situations with conflicting preferences between group members. The intention is to give an overview about the different types of modelling approaches that have been employed and the questions that they address and raise. Despite the use of a wide range of different modelling techniques, results show a coherent picture, as follows. Relatively simple cognitive mechanisms can lead to effective information pooling. Groups often face a trade-off between decision accuracy and speed, but appropriate fine-tuning of behavioural parameters could achieve high accuracy while maintaining reasonable speed. The right balance of interdependence and independence between animals is crucial for maintaining group cohesion and achieving high decision accuracy. In conflict situations, a high degree of decision-sharing between individuals is predicted, as well as transient leadership and leadership according to needs and physiological status. Animals often face crucial trade-offs between maintaining group cohesion and influencing the decision outcome in their own favour. Despite the great progress that has been made, there remains one big gap in our knowledge: how do animals make collective decisions in situations when information uncertainty and conflict of interest operate simultaneously? PMID:23565335

  14. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

  15. The Interplay between Information and Control Theory within Interactive Decision-Making Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantla, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The context for this work is two-agent team decision systems. An "agent" is an intelligent entity that can measure some aspect of its environment, process information and possibly influence the environment through its action. In a collaborative two-agent team decision system, the agents can be coupled by noisy or noiseless interactions…

  16. Expected Utility Based Decision Making under Z-Information and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad R. Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-world decision relevant information is often partially reliable. The reasons are partial reliability of the source of information, misperceptions, psychological biases, incompetence, and so forth. Z-numbers based formalization of information (Z-information represents a natural language (NL based value of a variable of interest in line with the related NL based reliability. What is important is that Z-information not only is the most general representation of real-world imperfect information but also has the highest descriptive power from human perception point of view as compared to fuzzy number. In this study, we present an approach to decision making under Z-information based on direct computation over Z-numbers. This approach utilizes expected utility paradigm and is applied to a benchmark decision problem in the field of economics.

  17. Context aware decision system in a smart home : knowledge representation and decision making using uncertain contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Chahuara, Pedro; Portet, François; Vacher, Michel

    2012-01-01

    International audience This research addresses the issue of building home automation systems reactive to voice for improved comfort and autonomy at home. The paper presents a complete framework that acquires data from sensors and interprets them, by means of IA techniques, to provide contextual information for decision making. The system uses a two-level ontology to represent the different concepts handled during the processing which also contains SWRL instances to automatise some of the r...

  18. The informed decisions toolbox: tools for knowledge transfer and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundall, Thomas G; Martelli, Peter F; Arroyo, Laura; McCurdy, Rodney; Graetz, Ilana; Neuwirth, Esther B; Curtis, Pam; Schmittdiel, Julie; Gibson, Mark; Hsu, John

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, spurred by developments in evidence-informed medicine, a movement to strengthen evidence-informed managerial decision making in healthcare organizations has emerged in the United States and in other countries. The drivers of this movement include demands by payers and consumer groups for improved quality of care, increased operational efficiency, and greater accountability from healthcare organizations. But numerous barriers to managers' use of evidence in decision making exist, including time pressures, perceived threats to autonomy, preference for colloquial knowledge based on individual experiences, difficulty accessing the relevant evidence base, reliance on external consultants (and others) to determine the quality of the information, and lack of resources. To help managers overcome these barriers, we developed the Informed Decisions Toolbox. It provides tools to help managers efficiently perform the six key steps in the evidence-informed approach to decision making: (1) framing the management question, (2) finding sources of information, (3) assessing the accuracy of the information, (4) assessing the applicability of the information, (5) assessing the actionability of the evidence, and (6) determining if the information is adequate. To build an organizational environment conducive to evidence-informed decision making, we suggest four leadership-driven strategies: (1) recognize and respond to the growing demand for accountability as a strategic issue, (2) establish organizational structures and processes for knowledge transfer, (3) build a questioning organizational culture, and (4) build organizational research capabilities. With organizational support, managers who use the tools presented in the Informed Decisions Toolbox will be able to take control of the decision-making process, will be less reliant on colloquial evidence and consultants, and will be better able to improve the performance of their organizations. PMID:17933188

  19. Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DeCIDE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness Network is a network of research centers that the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality created to conduct practical studies about health care items and services.

  20. Fuzzy logics acquisition and simulation modules for expert systems to assist operator's decision for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator's decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator's way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system

  1. Quark: a method to assist software architects in architectural decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Ameller, David; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Quality attributes (QAs) and constraints are among the principal drivers of architectural decision-making. QAs are improved or dam- aged by architectural decisions (ADs), while constraints directly include or exclude parts of the architecture (e.g., logical components or technologies). We may determine the impact of a AD, or which parts of the architecture are a ected by a constraint, but at the end it is hard to know if we are respecting the quality requirements (requirements over the ...

  2. Assisting Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Policy Planning with the Sim4Tree Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Dalemans; Paul Jacxsens; Jos Van Orshoven; Vincent Kint; Pieter Moonen; Bart Muys

    2015-01-01

    As European forest policy increasingly focuses on multiple ecosystem services and participatory decision making, forest managers and policy planners have a need for integrated, user-friendly, broad spectrum decision support systems (DSS) that address risks and uncertainties, such as climate change, in a robust way and that provide credible advice in a transparent manner, enabling effective stakeholder involvement. The Sim4Tree DSS has been accordingly developed as a user-oriented, modular and...

  3. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous...

  4. Utilisation of Cost Type Information in Decision Making Process Approaches on Public Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai (Andreescu) Gabriela; Ionescu (Eftene) Nicoleta; Uta Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Managerial decisions and decision making process stand for the key issues of each entity around which all activities of financial information collection, processing, review, construing, summarizing, and not only, gravitate within every organisation. Moreover, costs (calculation, review and optimization of such) are important as the whole activity of an organisation reflects itself in costs, respectively based on information concerning costs based on which managers may decide on purchasing, pr...

  5. Risk assessment in risk-informed decision-making: Foundations, challenges, and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis clarifies foundational concepts and challenges in risk assessment and provides practical guidance for its performance and use in riskinformed decision-making (RIDM). The scope is delimited to engineering risk assessments of sociotechnical systems for informing strategic decisionmaking involving major accident risk to human, environmental, or material assets. Such decisions involve multiple objectives that must be balanced in light of information about the uncertainties and pot...

  6. MANAGERIAL DECISION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION THE FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Neculina CHEBAC; Carmen Mihaela CRETU

    2006-01-01

    The activity of each entity, materialised in the actual administration of a business, stands for using accounting information and techniques, i.e. it practically participate in making decisions. The calculation of costs is liable to provide decision – making information such as: setting up prices;planning of production programs; the choice between the firm output and the purchasing of commodities from third parties; special orders;structure of sales a.s.o. decommissioning .

  7. Relation: Information-Management Accounting-Decision, in the Framework of the Managerial Process

    OpenAIRE

    Motoniu Ioan Dumitru; Vlãdaia (Vlad) Madalina Lucia; Nistor Ion

    2011-01-01

    The permanent progress of the human society and that one of our present days particularly, have propelled the information as an indispensable need for the decision making process. More and more, the economic entities management is based on dynanism, flexibility and forecast, all these enjoining the use of operative and complexe data for the decision making process. The volume diversification and growth of the information/data which are related to the in-house processes of the economic entitie...

  8. The Interaction of Formal and Informal Contracts in the Decision of Cooperation of the Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Iwai

    2016-01-01

    Given the existent risk of opportunism in transactions, formal and informal contracts play a central role in the decision of cooperation of the agents. The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of formal and informal contracts in the decision of cooperation of the agent and also to investigate their joint effects of substitution or complement on the cooperation of the agents. For that, an experiment was performed to test in a laboratorial environment the behavior of agents under the pressu...

  9. Information Needs of Logistics Service Providers in Strategic Decisions : An Outside-In Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To resist global competition, the strategy of logistics service providers (LSP) becomes more and more important. Strategic decisions concerning offered services or industries / markets operating in cannot be made without the appropriate financial or non-financial information regarding markets, customers or competitors of LSPs. This research aims at identifying the most important information categories required by LSPs in four different strategic decision situations based on Ansoff'...

  10. A qualitative study of professional and client perspectives on information flows and decision aid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Christine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the meanings given by a diverse range of stakeholders to a decision aid aimed at helping carers of people in early to moderate stages of dementia (PWD to select community based respite services. Decision aids aim to empower clients to share decision making with health professionals. However, the match between health professionals' perspectives on decision support needs and their clients' perspective is an important and often unstudied aspect of decision aid use. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of qualitative data collected as part of a larger study. The data included twelve interviews with carers of people with dementia, three interviews with expert advisors, and three focus groups with health professionals. A theoretical analysis was conducted, drawing on theories of 'positioning' and professional identity. Results Health professionals are seen to hold varying attitudes and beliefs about carers' decision support needs, and these appeared to be grounded in the professional identity of each group. These attitudes and beliefs shaped their attitudes towards decision aids, the information they believed should be offered to dementia carers, and the timing of its offering. Some groups understood carers as needing to be protected from realistic information and consequently saw a need to filter information to carer clients. Conclusion Health professionals' beliefs may cause them to restrict information flows, which can limit carers' ability to make decisions, and limit health services' ability to improve partnering and shared decision making. In an era where information is freely available to those with the resources to access it, we question whether health professionals should filter information.

  11. Improving Decision Making by Means of a Marketing Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit H. van Bruggen; Ale Smidts; Berend Wierenga

    1998-01-01

    Marketing decision makers are confronted with an increasing amount of information. This leads to a complex decision environment that may cause decision makers to lapse into using mental-effort-reducing heuristics such as anchoring and adjustment. In an experimental study, we find that the use of a marketing decision support system (MDSS) increases the effectiveness of marketing decision makers. An MDSS is effective because it assists its users in identifying the important decision variables a...

  12. Characterization and collection of information from heterogeneous multimedia sources with users' parameters for decision support

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Charles A B

    2008-01-01

    No single information source can be good enough to satisfy the divergent and dynamic needs of users all the time. Integrating information from divergent sources can be a solution to deficiencies in information content. We present how Information from multimedia document can be collected based on associating a generic database to a federated database. Information collected in this way is brought into relevance by integrating the parameters of usage and user's parameter for decision making. We identified seven different classifications of multimedia document.

  13. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...... & gas, production & trade of electricity and sales & distribution to end-costumers. Their agenda is to shift from 15% sustainable energy and 85% fossil energy to 85% sustainable within 25 years. At the same time, their business model has changed from energy planning to business development, thus...... industry has been initiated, with the purpose of generating an extensive understanding of the decision-making process related to assessing new technologies when designing radically new products and services for the market. It is expected that this understanding will enable further development of methods to...

  14. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J. Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  15. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J.Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  16. Application of Information Technology in Management Accounting Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    M. Krishna Moorthy; Ong Oi Voon; Cik Azni Suhaily Binti Samsuri; M. Gopalan; King-Tak Yew

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the use of Information Technology (IT) in management accounting and also the potentials and drawbacks of adopting IT in management accounting. IT changes frequently and accounting standards remain for many years without any major change. IT and management accounting are vital to both small and large organizations. Accounting bodies and communities have instantly stressed the need for a shift in accountants’ education by increasing the knowledge of information systems and I...

  17. A methodological model to assist in the optimization and risk management of mining investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying, quantifying, and minimizing technical risks associated with investment decisions is a key challenge for mineral industry decision makers and investors. However, risk analysis in most bankable mine feasibility studies are based on the stochastic modeling of project Net Present Value (NPV)which, in most cases, fails to provide decision makers with a truly comprehensive analysis of risks associated with technical and management uncertainty and, as a result, are of little use for risk management and project optimization. This paper presents a value-chain risk management approach where project risk is evaluated for each step of the project life cycle, from exploration to mine closure, and risk management is performed as a part of a stepwise value-added optimization process.

  18. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  19. Hesitant fuzzy information measures and their applications in multi-criteria decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Zhang, Xiaolong; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) is a powerful decision tool to express uncertain information more flexibly and comprehensively. The aim of this paper is to propose more reasonable information measures for HFSs in comparison with the existing ones. First, a series of distance measures is suggested for hesitant fuzzy element and hesitant fuzzy sets. These measures are directly calculated from hesitant fuzzy elements without judging the decision-makers' risk preference and adding any values into the hesitant fuzzy element with the smaller number of elements. Then, some similarity and entropy measures are proposed based on the transforming relationship among the information measures. Additionally, based on the proposed information measures, a TOPSIS method for hesitant fuzzy information is provided. Finally, some numerical examples are used in order to illustrate the proposed decision method and a comparative analysis is made to demonstrate that the suggested measures are more objective and feasible in certain cases.

  20. An information assistant system for the prevention of tunnel vision in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yujia

    2008-01-01

    In the crisis management environment, tunnel vision is a set of bias in decision makers’ cognitive process which often leads to incorrect understanding of the real crisis situation, biased perception of information, and improper decisions. The tunnel vision phenomenon is a consequence of both the ch

  1. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-01-01

    It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work ef...

  2. Technology and information trust for supporting risky decisions based on social-media content

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, JRC; Goldsmith, M.; Creese, S; Lamberts, K.

    2015-01-01

    As the availability of open-source information online increases, there are growing concerns regarding its reliability. This has led to renewed emphasis in quality- and trust-metrics research within the social computing space, to assist individuals in determining how reliable pieces of information actually might be. In this article, we take a step back to rigorously investigate the utility of trustworthiness information support provided via computer and information technologies. Our research a...

  3. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality...

  4. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  5. The building of strategic information service in nuclear field facing to decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the structure of strategic information service system in nuclear field for decision making supporting. Methods: Investigating and studying the strategic information systems at different levels-domestic and overseas, regional and national, governmental and industrial as well as information departmental, putting forward the envisioning of strategic information service system in nuclear field. Results: The system is consisted of three parts: data part, data operating part using IT technology and service function part. The system can produce varied information outputs automatically based on rich information resources and IT technology under mathematical models. The information workers can analyze and study special strategic information needed based on this system. Conclusions: The envisioning for the system structure is feasible and it can be realized at present technology level. The service effect will be visible and the supporting to decision making will be weighty. (authors)

  6. Information search and decision making: effects of age and complexity on strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Tara L; Hess, Thomas M; Ennis, Gilda E; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults' performance. Participants utilized 2 decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using process tracing software and an algorithm developed to assess decision strategy, we recorded search behavior, strategy selection, and final decision. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not more likely than the younger age groups to engage in information-minimizing search behaviors in response to increases in task complexity. Similarly, adults of all ages used comparable decision strategies and adapted their strategies to the demands of the task. We also examined decision outcomes in relation to participants' preferences. Overall, it seems that older adults utilize simpler sets of information primarily reflecting the most valued attributes in making their choice. The results of this study suggest that older adults are adaptive in their approach to decision making and that this ability may benefit from accrued knowledge and experience. PMID:22663157

  7. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-19

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents' attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals' demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several "upstream" climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  8. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada. ?? 2010.

  9. Effects of ignorance and information on judgments and decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ayton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared Turkish and English students' soccer forecasting for English soccer matches. Although the Turkish students knew very little about English soccer, they selected teams on the basis of familiarity with the team (or its identified city; their prediction success was surprisingly similar to knowledgeable English students---consistent with Goldstein and Gigerenzer's (1999; 2002 characterization of the recognition heuristic. The Turkish students made forecasts for some of the matches with additional information---the half-time scores. In this and a further study, where British students predicting matches for foreign teams could choose whether or not to use half-time information, we found that predictions that could be made by recognition alone were influenced by the half-time information. We consider the implications of these findings in the context of Goldstein and Gigerenzer's (2002, p. 82 suggestion that ``... no other information can reverse the choice determined by recognition'' and a recent more qualified statement (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 2011 indicating that two processes, recognition and evaluation guide the adaptive selection of the recognition heuristic.

  10. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to…

  11. Canadian Policy and Aging in Place: The Importance of Assistive Technology and Information and Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldoch, Catherine Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This capstone project critically analyzes Canadian policy initiatives and aging in place in relation to the enhancement of home and community services through the implementation of assistive technology and information and communication technology. A review of the literature reveals that policy and funding arrangements may be impeding the delivery of health and community care services and the accessibility of assistive technology and information and communication technology that support aging ...

  12. The consequences of endogenizing information for the performance of a sequential decision procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Bauke; Swank, Otto

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe analyse the implications of endogenizing information collection and reputational concerns for the performance of a sequential decision structure. In this model, two agents decide in a sequence whether to implement a public project. The cost of gathering information is private. We derive two results. First, endogenizing information replaces the herding problem with a free-rider problem. Second, endogenizing information aggravates the distortionary effect of reputational concerns.

  13. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...... activities and applying information resulting from these activities to go/no-go decision-making. Based on the information behavior of 42 development managers collected through a virtual role-play simulation of new product development, this research finds two information paradoxes of new product development...

  14. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information c

  15. The consequences of endogenizing information for the performance of a sequential decision procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe analyse the implications of endogenizing information collection and reputational concerns for the performance of a sequential decision structure. In this model, two agents decide in a sequence whether to implement a public project. The cost of gathering information is private. We deri

  16. Crop Management Decision Making: Information Used and Required By Manitoba Crop Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Zbeetnoff, Darrell M.; Scott R. Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    As part of the project entitled "Management Options for Grain Production in the 1980s and 1990s", a farmer survey was conducted during the fall and winter of 1988-89. A total of 234 Manitoba crop producers were interviewed, and asked questions concerning the information used and required in making specific crop management decisions. The survey respondents were asked questions pertaining to the following management decisions: 1. fertilizer rates, and method/timing of nitrogen application, ii. ...

  17. A Hybrid Approach to Information and Decision Support Systems: Hazardous Substances and Industrial Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fedra; Weigkricht, E.; Winkelbauer, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale, model-based decision support system with embedded Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, and a largely symbolic color graphics user interface. Designed for industrial risk assessment and the management of hazardous substances, its primary purpose is to allow the efficient use of methods of systems analysis and information management and to provide a powerful tool in the hands of planners, managers, policy and decision makers. This new generation of model-...

  18. Ethnic differences in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, M. P.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Vogel, I.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Wildschut, H.I.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess ethnic variations in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome and to examine the contribution of background and decision-making variables. METHODS: Pregnant women of Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese origin were recruited between 2006 and 2008 from community midwifery or obstetrical practices in The Netherlands. Each woman was personally interviewed 3 weeks (mean) after booking for prenatal care. Knowledge, attitude and ...

  19. Does group cohesion matter to decision quality in information systems development teams?

    OpenAIRE

    Lohan, Garry; Acton, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Newer information systems development approaches such as agile methods, which emphasize a sense-and-respond approach, increase the number of operating decisions made regularly within the development team. These methods are being used by an increasing number of organizations as a means of improving the agility of the development process. Development teams are required to make regular group decisions and team members work closely with each other to develop software in time-boxe...

  20. Accounting Information in a Business Decision-Making Process – Evidence from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ježovita Ana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the conducted research includes examining importance of financial statements and financial statements analysis in business decision-making process. Conducted empirical research is focused on analysis of determining and evaluating the frequency of using accounting data and annual financial statements within the business decision-making process. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that more than 60% of examines frequently use accounting information and informatio...

  1. Place of Accounting Information in Business Decision Making Within Tuzla Canton Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sado Puskarevic; Amra Gadzo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the primary research regarding management relations towards accounting information that is used in the business decision making process applied in manufacturing companies of the Tuzla Canton (here on: “TC”). The research commences from the fact that the interaction between accounting function organization quality and business decision making is important, because it has direct effect on applied practice when managing operating performances of a company. Taki...

  2. Using outcomes to inform social decision-making in schizophrenia: Implications for motivation and functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Campellone, Timothy Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of decisions we make are integral for guiding our behavior. In this study, we investigated if and how people with and without schizophrenia use positive and negative social outcomes and social partners’ emotional displays to inform decisions to trust as well as whether they could detect reversals in behavior even as emotion displays remained unchanged. Thirty-two people with schizophrenia and 29 control participants completed a task where they decided how much trust to place in s...

  3. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims’ Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Joo Shin; Ryo Nakakido; Shinya Horie; Shunsuke Managi

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victi...

  4. Towards an interoperable information infrastructure providing decision support for genomic medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Samwald, Matthias; Dumontier, Michel; Marshall, M Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; 10.3233/978-1-60750-806-9-165

    2011-01-01

    Genetic dispositions play a major role in individual disease risk and treatment response. Genomic medicine, in which medical decisions are refined by genetic information of particular patients, is becoming increasingly important. Here we describe our work and future visions around the creation of a distributed infrastructure for pharmacogenetic data and medical decision support, based on industry standards such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and the Arden Syntax.

  5. Information Search and Decision Making: The Effects of Age and Complexity on Strategy Use

    OpenAIRE

    Queen, Tara L.; Hess, Thomas M.; Ennis, Gilda E.; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults’ performance. Participants utilized two decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using p...

  6. The Decision Makers' Perception Toward The Adoption of Information Technology By Government Institutions In jordan and Its Affect on InformationAccessibility, and Decision Making Quality

    OpenAIRE

    TBAISHAT, Rami Mohd; Saleh KHASAWNEH

    2015-01-01

    In this age of rapidly advancing technology, many governments around the world have spent a great deal of money on these tools, in order to increase the performance of their work. Therefore, the Jordanian government decided to implement information technology in public institutions. However, the picture is not clear about the perceptions of users towards this technology. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of decision-makers towards the use of this technology and its impa...

  7. 12 CFR 792.56 - Notice of existence of records, access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., access decisions and disclosure of requested information; time limits. (a) The system manager identified... decisions and disclosure of requested information; time limits. 792.56 Section 792.56 Banks and Banking... ADMINISTRATION REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY...

  8. Information decision making support system RECASS-NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The primary purpose of the DSS RECASS-NT is analysis and prediction of the situation in case of emergency at nuclear facilities (in early phases of an accident) including dose estimation and working out recommendations with regard to countermeasures to protect the public affected by the accident. The system was created to satisfy the following requirements: the system should be ale to operate in two modes: automatic and interactive; the system is based an the 'client-server' principle. Clients can interact with the system both locally and remotely; all calculations in the system are carried out on the server. The client part is responsible for interaction with the system user (including data presentation). Results of model calculations can be displayed during modeling (dynamically) and on completion of calculations; the information base of the system is the operational database, the systemic database and the database with calculation results; the system should enable parallel calculations, among them calculations by different scenarios for the same accident. The automatic mode involves running a specified chain of modules using appropriate scenarios, with a final result generated. The primary purpose of the automatic mode is conducting express-calculations when detailed information about emergency is unavailable. In the interactive mode selection and start-up of a chain of calculation modules, setting parameters for used models, their correction and other actions key for the system operations are performed by a system user (expert). There are no differences between the automatic and interactive modes in terms of storage of calculation results in the system and method of data transmission between the modules within the chain. The telecommunication subsystem (TCS) is designed to provide linkage between programs occurring an different computers and connected both in the local network and the telecommunication system EGASKRO and, possibly, commercial

  9. Social information from immigrants: multiple immigrant-based sources of information for dispersal decisions in a ciliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Staffan; Chaine, Alexis S; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Huet, Michèle; Clobert, Jean

    2015-09-01

    1. Dispersal is increasingly recognized as being an informed process, based on information organisms obtain about the landscape. While local conditions are often found to drive dispersal decisions, local context is not always a reliable predictor of conditions in neighbouring patches, making the use of local information potentially useless or even maladaptive. In this case, using social information gathered by immigrants might allow adjusting dispersal decisions without paying the costs of prospecting. However, this hypothesis has been largely neglected despite its major importance for ecological and evolutionary processes. 2. We investigated three fundamental questions about immigrant-informed dispersal: Do immigrants convey information that influences dispersal, do organisms use multiple cues from immigrants, and is immigrant-informed dispersal genotype dependent? 33. Using Tetrahymena thermophila ciliates in microcosms, we manipulated the number of immigrants arriving, the density of congeners, the resource quality in neighbouring patches, matrix characteristics and the level of cooperation of individuals in the neighbouring populations. 4. We provide the first experimental evidence that immigrants convey a number of different cues about neighbouring patches and matrix (patch quality, matrix characteristics and cooperation in neighbouring populations) in this relatively simple organism. Furthermore, we demonstrate genotype-dependent immigrant-informed dispersal decisions about patch quality and matrix characteristics. 5. Multiple cues from immigrants and genotype-dependent use of cues have major implications for theoretical metapopulation dynamics and the potential for local adaptation. PMID:25902764

  10. Skill Acquisition in the Informal Economy and Schooling Decisions: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Tumen

    2015-01-01

    Informal jobs offer skill acquisition opportunities that may facilitate a future switch to formal employment for young workers. In this sense, informal training on the job may be a viable alternative to formal schooling in an economy with a large and diverse informal sector. In this paper, I investigate if these considerations are relevant for the schooling decisions of young individuals using panel data for 17 Latin American countries and micro-level data for Turkey. Specifically, I ask if t...

  11. Skill Acquisition in the Informal Economy and Schooling Decisions: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Tumen, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Informal jobs offer skill acquisition opportunities that may facilitate a future switch to formal employment for young workers. In this sense, informal training on the job may be a viable alternative to formal schooling in an economy with a large and diverse informal sector. In this paper, I investigate if these considerations are relevant for the schooling decisions of young individuals using panel data on 17 Latin American countries as well as micro-level data for Turkey. Specifically, I as...

  12. Accounting Information in Analisys of Economic Activity and Decision Making System

    OpenAIRE

    ªerban Claudiu; Simion Dalia; Pãtruþescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    The role of accounting information in the decision making is essential, especially thanks to its dual, the circuit processes information in a financial accounting and management accounting cycle. In this way, management uses the information to determine business strategy on the one hand, and to provide operational management on the other. Accounting area is not isolated but is covered by a complex system of links inside (productive and functional segments, their makers), and the outside (cust...

  13. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  14. Randomised cluster trial to support informed parental decision-making for the MMR vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekker Hilary

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK public concern about the safety of the combined measles, mumps and rubella [MMR] vaccine continues to impact on MMR coverage. Whilst the sharp decline in uptake has begun to level out, first and second dose uptake rates remain short of that required for population immunity. Furthermore, international research consistently shows that some parents lack confidence in making a decision about MMR vaccination for their children. Together, this work suggests that effective interventions are required to support parents to make informed decisions about MMR. This trial assessed the impact of a parent-centred, multi-component intervention (balanced information, group discussion, coaching exercise on informed parental decision-making for MMR. Methods This was a two arm, cluster randomised trial. One hundred and forty two UK parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from six primary healthcare centres and six childcare organisations. The intervention arm received an MMR information leaflet and participated in the intervention (parent meeting. The control arm received the leaflet only. The primary outcome was decisional conflict. Secondary outcomes were actual and intended MMR choice, knowledge, attitude, concern and necessity beliefs about MMR and anxiety. Results Decisional conflict decreased for both arms to a level where an 'effective' MMR decision could be made one-week (effect estimate = -0.54, p Conclusions Whilst both the leaflet and the parent meeting reduced parents' decisional conflict, the parent meeting appeared to enable parents to act upon their decision leading to vaccination uptake.

  15. The Research of Spatial-Temporal Analysis and Decision-Making Assistant System for Disabled Person Affairs Based on Mapworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Yang, J.; Sun, Y. S.

    2015-06-01

    This system combines the Mapworld platform and informationization of disabled person affairs, uses the basic information of disabled person as center frame. Based on the disabled person population database, the affairs management system and the statistical account system, the data were effectively integrated and the united information resource database was built. Though the data analysis and mining, the system provides powerful data support to the decision making, the affairs managing and the public serving. It finally realizes the rationalization, normalization and scientization of disabled person affairs management. It also makes significant contributions to the great-leap-forward development of the informationization of China Disabled Person's Federation.

  16. Decision Support System Based on Computational Collective Intelligence in Campus Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshihito; Matsuo, Tokuro

    Education institutions such as universities have a lot of information including book information, equipment administrative information, student information, and several others. The institutions also have multiple information in time series. As collective intelligence in campus, integrating and reusing these preserved information regarding career and taking a class, university can effectively support students' decision making of their getting jobs and subjects choice. Our purpose of support is to increase student's motivation. In this paper, we focus on course record and job information included in students' information, and propose the method to analyze correlation between a pattern of taking class and job lined up. Afterwards, we propose a support system regarding getting a job and taking class by using our proposed method. For a student who has his/her favorite job to get, the system supports his/her decision making of lecture choice by recommending a set of appropriate lecture groups. On another hand, for a student who does not have favorite job to get, the system supports his/her decision making of getting job by presenting appropriate job families related with lecture group in which he/she has ever taken. The contribution of this paper is showing a concrete method to reuse the campus collective information, implementing a system, and user perspectives.

  17. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah

    2016-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public. PMID:26574936

  18. Socioeconomic Differences in Informed Decisions About Down Syndrome Screening: A Systematic Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sian K; Sousa, Mariana S; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Halliday, Jane; Peate, Michelle; Fransen, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Supporting pregnant women to make informed choices about Down syndrome screening is widely endorsed. We reviewed the literature on: (a) the association between socioeconomic position and informed choices and decision-making about Down syndrome screening, and (b) the possible mediating variables (e.g., health literacy, numeracy skills, behavioral and communication variables) that might explain the relationship. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from January 1999 to September 2014. The methodological quality of studies was determined by predefined criteria regarding the research aims, study design, study population and setting, measurement tools, and statistical analysis. A total of 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. Women from lower socioeconomic groups experience greater difficulties making informed choices about Down syndrome screening compared to women from higher socioeconomic groups. Most studies focus on individual dimensions of informed decision-making rather than assessing elements in conjunction with one another. Few studies have explored why there are socioeconomic differences in women's ability to make informed screening decisions. Future work is needed to identify mediating variables in this pathway. Systematic evidence-based intervention development to improve communication, understanding, and decision-making about Down syndrome screening is needed to ensure that women have an equal opportunity to make an informed choice about screening regardless of their socioeconomic position. PMID:27410478

  19. Assisting Public Organizations in Their Outsourcing Endeavors: A Decision Support Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, TIbor; Tukel, Oya

    2006-01-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in outsourcing practices in recent years. The public organizations in the United States have outsourced some functions and are now being compelled to outsource additional ones. While there are numerous studies that document and analyze outsourcing practices, there is limited research to guide public or governmental organizations in determining what functions to outsource. This study fills this gap by developing a decision support model for a typical public organization in determining what to outsource and how. A set of outsourcing decision factors is identified that can be used as parameters in the three integer programming formulations developed. These formulations are used as solution engines in the model. The first formulation identifies which functions are the best candidates for outsourcing given the organization's priorities. The other formulations place the functions into recommended contracts and re-assign displaced employees. Data from NASA Glenn Research Center in Ohio is used to test and analyze the model. Analysis indicates that cost and skills-related factors are the most sensitive parameters for the data tested. The model and the formulations are a relatively comprehensive package and may help guide outsourcing decisionmakers and policymakers in public organizations.

  20. Information management to enable personalized medicine: stakeholder roles in building clinical decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinner Kristin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology and the scientific understanding of disease processes are presenting new opportunities to improve health through individualized approaches to patient management referred to as personalized medicine. Future health care strategies that deploy genomic technologies and molecular therapies will bring opportunities to prevent, predict, and pre-empt disease processes but will be dependent on knowledge management capabilities for health care providers that are not currently available. A key cornerstone to the potential application of this knowledge will be effective use of electronic health records. In particular, appropriate clinical use of genomic test results and molecularly-targeted therapies present important challenges in patient management that can be effectively addressed using electronic clinical decision support technologies. Discussion Approaches to shaping future health information needs for personalized medicine were undertaken by a work group of the American Health Information Community. A needs assessment for clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to support personalized medical practices was conducted to guide health future development activities. Further, a suggested action plan was developed for government, researchers and research institutions, developers of electronic information tools (including clinical guidelines, and quality measures, and standards development organizations to meet the needs for personalized approaches to medical practice. In this article, we focus these activities on stakeholder organizations as an operational framework to help identify and coordinate needs and opportunities for clinical decision support tools to enable personalized medicine. Summary This perspective addresses conceptual approaches that can be undertaken to develop and apply clinical decision support in electronic health record systems to achieve personalized medical care. In

  1. 49 CFR 700.3 - Availability of documents, assistance, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR 701.4. (b) The National Train Timetables described in § 700.2(f) are widely distributed in the...) NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONING AND AVAILABLE INFORMATION § 700... information dealing with the availability of assistance to handicapped travellers, red cap service,...

  2. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  3. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David

    2013-05-01

    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  4. Joint Approximation of Information and Distributed Link-Scheduling Decisions in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Sung-eok

    2012-01-01

    For a large multi-hop wireless network, nodes are preferable to make distributed and localized link-scheduling decisions with only interactions among a small number of neighbors. However, for a slowly decaying channel and densely populated interferers, a small size neighborhood often results in nontrivial link outages and is thus insufficient for making optimal scheduling decisions. A question arises how to deal with the information outside a neighborhood in distributed link-scheduling. In this work, we develop joint approximation of information and distributed link scheduling. We first apply machine learning approaches to model distributed link-scheduling with complete information. We then characterize the information outside a neighborhood in form of residual interference as a random loss variable. The loss variable is further characterized by either a Mean Field approximation or a normal distribution based on the Lyapunov central limit theorem. The approximated information outside a neighborhood is incorpo...

  5. Robust CO2 Injection: Application of Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasinger, M.; O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Karra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration has the potential to reduce greenhouse gasemissions. However, care must be taken when choosing a site for CO2 seques-tration to ensure that the CO2 remains sequestered for many years, and thatthe environment is not harmed in any way. Making a rational decision be-tween potential sites for sequestration is not without its challenges because, asin the case of many environmental and subsurface problems, there is a lot ofuncertainty that exists. A method for making decisions under various typesand severities of uncertainty, Bayesian-Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIGDT), is presented. BIG DT was coupled with a numerical model for CO2 wellinjection and the resulting framework was then applied to a problem of selectingbetween two potential sites for CO2 sequestration. The results of the analysisare presented, followed by a discussion of the decision process.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF ECG DATA FOR PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS TO ASSIST IN MEDICAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. A. R. Chitupe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years due to physical and mental stress in the working environments the cases of medicaldiagnosis using ECG are increasing up-bounds. The critical decisions in diagnosis referring to the normal ECG or indicative dysfunctions of the heart results into overlapped data values causing ambiguities. This research paper performs analytical processing and related mining to classify normal and abnormalities of the ECG. The ECG is agraphical representation generated due to polarities of the weak electrical signals generated in certain defined timely manner. With reference to time an ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as some special behaviour of the patient. ECG can be used to investigate heart abnormalities.

  7. STATISTICAL MODELS DECISION SUPPORT FOR INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov V. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with mathematical models of management decision-making to select the option to protect the AU, based on sufficient statistical information about attacks on the AU. The amount of a priori uncertainty about the choice of protection option in GIS was described with Boltzmann's entropy. Introduction of the value within Shannon’s definition of mutual information is called the context random variables, it allows removing the uncertainty regarding the actions of the enemy, and it enables decisionmakers to choose protection options. The model of decision for choosing the type of protection of the AIS presented in the article is based on sufficient statistical information about the attacks to the system components. In the ideal case, for decision-making, we use large sample statistical data that provides high accuracy control system for protection of information. Based on the available amount of information available to the IPA, against the acts of SIN, it is possible to choose a decision on the choices you make

  8. Sensitivity study of modeling uncertainty on risk-informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of nuclear regulation, risk-informed decision making regarding licensing basis (LB) changes is being employed. Within risk-informed decision making a consideration of uncertainty propagation caused by parameters, models and such is a key issue. This paper describes a methodology for the risk-informed decision making considering both parameter uncertainty and modeling uncertainty that may have a significant impact on the decision. For this purpose, we classify modeling uncertainties of PRAs into three types in terms of mathematical form. Then a sensitivity analysis is performed using a simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model developed by RISKMAN computer software and a hypothetical License Amendment Request to revise the Technical Specification Allowed Outage Time (AOT) for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). This sensitivity analysis uses two risk metrics, which are core damage frequency (CDF) and the change in core damage frequency (ΔCDF). To both of them, we evaluate parameter uncertainty propagation by using Monte Carlo method and take confidential intervals for the metrics into account instead of point estimation. The modeling uncertainty has a huge impact on ΔCDF, and therefore, the decision is sensitive to the uncertainty related to structural change of the model. (author)

  9. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  10. Proposal for an integrated risk informed decision making process for German regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory decisions for German nuclear power plants (NPP) have traditionally been based on deterministic safety analyses. However, the IRRS-Mission of IAEA in 2008 proposed, among others, in 'Suggestion 25' to develop a national policy 'on the use of risk insights in the regulatory framework and decision making'. Consequently, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) launched a project with the goal of developing a proposal for a uniform federal approach on using risk information in decision making. To this end, the state of the application of probabilistic and risk informed methods has been investigated both on an international and a national level. On the international level, the concept of Integrated Risk Informed Decision Making (IRIDM) has been defined in INSAG-25. It is a structured process, in which all knowledge and requirements relevant to the issue in question are to be considered in a decision. Such knowledge and other requirements are e.g. deterministic and probabilistic safety analyses, regulatory requirements and other applicable findings (including cost-benefit analyses). The IRIDM concept according to INSAG-25 is the cornerstone of the proposal for a uniform federal German approach for IRIDM in the regulatory framework for nuclear installations in Germany. (orig.)

  11. Information Security Management: ANP Based Approach for Risk Analysis and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brožová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In information systems security, the objectives of risk analysis process are to help to identify new threats and vulnerabilities, to estimate their business impact and to provide a dynamic set of tools to control the security level of the information system. The identification of risk factors as well as the estimation of their business impact require tools for assessment of risk with multi-value scales according to different stakeholders’ point of view. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to model risk analysis decision making problem using semantic network to develop the decision network and the Analytical Network Process (ANP that allows solving complex problems taking into consideration quantitative and qualitative data. As a decision support technique ANP also measures the dependency among risk factors related to the elicitation of individual judgement. An empirical study involving the Forestry Company is used to illustrate the relevance of ANP.

  12. Place of Accounting Information in Business Decision Making Within Tuzla Canton Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Puskarevic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the primary research regarding management relations towards accounting information that is used in the business decision making process applied in manufacturing companies of the Tuzla Canton (here on: “TC”. The research commences from the fact that the interaction between accounting function organization quality and business decision making is important, because it has direct effect on applied practice when managing operating performances of a company. Taking into consideration management relations towards accounting information in the decision making process, dysfunctional areas within accounting function organization segments are identified. This opens up possibilities to affect modernization of the performance management through the process of redesign of those dysfunctional areas. According to our knowledge, similar research has not been conducted on the area of B&H manufacturing companies' operations.

  13. Assessing the value of risk: Perspectives on the role of risk information in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors of this paper profess no formal ethical or philosophical training from which to develop their position on Values in Decisions on Risk. However, as scientists with practical experience in carrying out a range of quantitative studies, we consider that we have some understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in environmental risk assessment. Moreover, in attempting to use the results of such assessments, we have observed some of the ways in which quantitative risk information is used and abused. In this paper, therefore, we offer a practitioner's perspective that underlines the essential role of risk as a tool to inform and guide decisions, while at the same time emphasising the need for its proportionate use in a complex arena. We draw on experience that includes assessments for radioactive waste management and disposal, but also incorporates a range of assignments where assessment of the scale of potential environmental liabilities was a critical factor in decision making. We do not pretend to offer a resolution to the challenges laid before this Symposium, but seek to explore common themes and lessons learned regarding the role of risk information in goal-setting, performance monitoring and the overall decision process. Policy makers and regulators must act responsibly to protect confidence, not just the health of people and the environment. In doing this, to ignore risk information as a key component of strategic thinking is equally as disproportionate as making it the sole basis for decision making. There is a clear need to explain better the basis of, and motives behind, decisions - not only in terms of transparency in risk assessment but also to distinguish between the scientific and the socio-political component of the argument

  14. A platform independent prototype for data and information exchange between decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A survey amongst participants in the Decision Support System network (DSSNET) community showed that the organization dealing with the Information exchange between participants and stakeholders in nuclear emergency is too disparate to be defined in one well defined procedure or analysis. Looking at the organization of the national emergency response organizations, and especially when modelling the information flow, diversity is the most striking finding: originators of the information are different, decision making organisation can be different, the approval and publishing of information to press and wider public is dealt with in different ways and the responsibilities for the information flow to other authorities differ as well. Moreover, the place of decision support systems (DSS) in the emergency response organization varies for the different countries. This variation can be found in the way one of the 'big three' (RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS) systems is implemented, and even more in the way other, often country-specific systems, are in use and function more integrated with the particular emergency response organization of the country. Hence we can conclude that there is a need to structure the information exchange system, but this has to be flexible enough to work with the above described variety of existing organizations and procedures. Though it may not be feasible to agree on all specifications of information to be exchanged, we can define at least a minimal set. A prototype for data and information exchange is being developed under the EC project MODEM (Monitoring data and Information exchange among decision support systems). It establishes links between the decision support systems RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS. For setting up this data exchange, the use of xml-based data specifications allows a flexible integration with existing applications. The power to include metadata in a structured way allows the use of automated transformation tools and limits the

  15. Interventions to Assist Health Consumers to Find Reliable Online Health Information: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery D; Lynne M Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Background Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. Purpose To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. Data Sources PubMed, PsycINFO...

  16. Methodology of selecting the most informative variables for decision-making problems of classification type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr; Střítecký, R.

    Lhasa, Tibet, China : California Polytechnic State University, USA, 2007 - (Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X.), s. 1-18 ISSN 1539-2023. - (Series of Information & Management Sciences). [6th Int. Conf. on Information and Management Sciences. Lhasa, Tibet (CN), 01.07.2007-06.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/03/1310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * decision making * pattern recognition Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2007/ro/pudil-methodology of selecting the most informative variables for decision - making .pdf

  17. For Third Enrollment Period, Marketplaces Expand Decision Support Tools To Assist Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Polsky, Daniel E; Jones, Arthur T; Weiner, Janet; Town, Robert J; Baker, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The design of the Affordable Care Act's online health insurance Marketplaces can improve how consumers make complex health plan choices. We examined the choice environment on the state-based Marketplaces and HealthCare.gov in the third open enrollment period. Compared to previous enrollment periods, we found greater adoption of some decision support tools, such as total cost estimators and integrated provider lookups. Total cost estimators differed in how they generated estimates: In some Marketplaces, consumers categorized their own utilization, while in others, consumers answered detailed questions and were assigned a utilization profile. The tools available before creating an account (in the window-shopping period) and afterward (in the real-shopping period) differed in several Marketplaces. For example, five Marketplaces provided total cost estimators to window shoppers, but only two provided them to real shoppers. Further research is needed on the impact of different choice environments and on which tools are most effective in helping consumers pick optimal plans. PMID:27044969

  18. Exploring the Influence of Information Overload on Middle Management Decision-Making in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlevale, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study was an exploration of information overload and how it influenced middle management decision-making in a single organization. In-depth interviews were used to gather lived experiences of 22 middle managers at XYZ Defense Company in California. Data were analyzed using both HyperRESEARCH TM 2.8 software and a manual…

  19. Sex, Attribution, and Severity Influence Intervention Decisions of Informal Helpers in Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…

  20. Personalised risk communication for informed decision making about taking screening tests (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.G.; Evans, R.; Dundon, J.; Haigh, S.; Hood, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a trend towards greater patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Adequate discussion of the risks and benefits associated with different choices is often required if involvement is to be genuine and effective. Achieving both the adequate involvement of consumers and informed

  1. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate informatio

  2. Probabilistic Flood Maps to support decision-making: Mapping the Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and disruptive natural hazards that affect man. Annually, significant flood damage is documented worldwide. Flood mapping is a common preimpact flood hazard mitigation measure, for which advanced methods and tools (such as flood inundation models) are used to estimate potential flood extent maps that are used in spatial planning. However, these tools are affected, largely to an unknown degree, by both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. Over the past few years, advances in uncertainty analysis with respect to flood inundation modeling show that it is appropriate to adopt Probabilistic Flood Maps (PFM) to account for uncertainty. However, the following question arises; how can probabilistic flood hazard information be incorporated into spatial planning? Thus, a consistent framework to incorporate PFMs into the decision-making is required. In this paper, a novel methodology based on Decision-Making under Uncertainty theories, in particular Value of Information (VOI) is proposed. Specifically, the methodology entails the use of a PFM to generate a VOI map, which highlights floodplain locations where additional information is valuable with respect to available floodplain management actions and their potential consequences. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified example and also applied to a real case study in the South of France, where a VOI map is analyzed on the basis of historical land use change decisions over a period of 26 years. Results show that uncertain flood hazard information encapsulated in PFMs can aid decision-making in floodplain planning.

  3. Selecting Relevant Information for Medical Decision Support with Application in Cardiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-6. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Kalina_en.pdf

  4. Cost Recovery in Pricing and Capacity Decisions for Automated Information Systems. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Rossi, James A.

    This paper examines the cost-benefit implications of alternative pricing and capacity investment decisions for automated scientific and technical information retrieval systems. Two typical systems are examined and numerical examples presented. In the first system, search requests are entered on-site. The show how setting price to maximize net…

  5. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  6. Rethinking Informed Consent in Research on Heroin-Assisted Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Susanne; Broers, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Can heroin addicts give consent to research on trials in which heroin is prescribed to them? Analyses of addicts and informed consent have been objects of debate in several articles. Informed consent requires the agent not only to be competent but also to give consent voluntarily. This has been questioned because of alleged features of heroin addiction. Until recently the discussion has focused on heroin addicts' desires for heroin, whether these are irresistible and thus pose a problem for giving consent. Still, in light of empirical evidence, there seems to be a consensus more or less that the problem is not whether the addicts can resist their desire for heroin. A recent article concentrates specifically on heroin addicts' false assumptions of options and voluntariness. We argue that the prevailing framing of the options in this discussion in terms of heroin and access to it is problematic. The way in which the options are typically laid out suggests an assumption that participation in the research is allegedly based on the addicts' views on using the drug. We argue that this way of presenting the options is, first, a mismatch to the studies carried out and, second, symptomatic of potential misconceptions about heroin addiction and addicts. Furthermore, we also suggest that the account of voluntariness needs to be realistic in order for subjects to be able to give consent voluntarily in actual situations, and for medical research to carry out studies on improving outcomes in addiction treatment in an ethical way. PMID:25425507

  7. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  8. The control gap : the role of budgets, accounting information and (non-) decisions in hospital settings

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between budgets, accounting information and the decisionmaking processes at both strategic and operational levels in a large Norwegian hospital, as this hospital now is facing the New Public Management reforms which are introduced in Norway. The study has examined the use of budget and accounting information in the management control process. The empirical data are based on interviews with key actors in the decision-making process at all management levels in t...

  9. Negotiating Decisions during Informed Consent for Pediatric Phase I Oncology Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Patricia A.; Magtanong, Ruth V; Leek, Angela C.; Hizlan, Sabahat; Yamokoski, Amy D.; Kodish, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    During informed consent conferences (ICCs) for Phase I trials, oncologists must present complex information while addressing concerns. Research on communication that evolves during ICCs remains largely unexplored. We examined communication during ICCs for pediatric Phase I cancer trials using a stratified random sample from six pediatric cancer centers. A grounded theory approach identified key communication steps and factors influencing the negotiation of decisions for trial participation. A...

  10. Strategic Commitments for an Optimal Capacity Decision Under Asymmetric Forecast Information

    OpenAIRE

    Özalp Özer; Wei Wei

    2006-01-01

    We study the important problem of how to assure credible forecast information sharing between a supplier and a manufacturer. The supplier is responsible for acquiring the necessary capacity before receiving an order from the manufacturer who possesses private forecast information for her end product. We address how different contracts affect the supplier's capacity decision and, hence, the profitability of the supplier and the manufacturer. We fully develop two contracts (and provide explicit...

  11. STATISTICAL MODELS DECISION SUPPORT FOR INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov V. V.; Kucher V. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with mathematical models of management decision-making to select the option to protect the AU, based on sufficient statistical information about attacks on the AU. The amount of a priori uncertainty about the choice of protection option in GIS was described with Boltzmann's entropy. Introduction of the value within Shannon’s definition of mutual information is called the context random variables, it allows removing the uncertainty regarding the actions of the enemy, and it e...

  12. Factors Influencing Cotton Farmers’ Perceptions about the Importance of Information Sources in Precision Farming Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia, Margarita M.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Mendieta, Maria P.; Roberts, Roland K.; Larson, James A.; Burton C. English; Roderick M. Rejesus; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Information generated by precision farming technologies is of particular importance to producers. Precision farming technologies implies the ability to improve the management of production factors using site-specific information. This study examines factors influencing cotton farmers’ perceptions about the importance of crop consultants, farm input dealerships, Extension, other farmers, trade shows, the Internet and printed news/media for making precision farming decisions using a rank ordere...

  13. The Value Information of Financing Decisions and Corporate Governance during and after the Japanese Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xueping Wu; Lily Li Xu

    2005-01-01

    Using Fama and French's (1998) framework, we investigate how financing decisions and corporate governance affect firm value, during and after the Japanese deregulation of 1974-97. We find that the value information is especially strong in the case of adverse keiretsu effects on bank financing in the 1980s, suggesting that keiretsu hands-on corporate governance and finance caused more costs than benefits. There is also strong evidence that Japan's deregulation changed the value information of ...

  14. Delegating Pricing Decisions in Competitive Markets with Symmetric and Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra K. Mishra; Ashutosh Prasad

    2005-01-01

    Delegating pricing decisions to the salesforce has been a salient issue for marketing academics and practitioners. We examine this issue in a competitive market using standard agency theory with symmetric and asymmetric information. Under symmetric information we find that the optimal contracts have a nice property that allows managers to reach the upper bound on firms’ profit by using either centralized or delegated pricing, and hence there are no incentive-based reasons to prefer centralize...

  15. Confidence and Information Access in Clinical Decision-Making: An Examination of the Cognitive Processes that affect the Information-seeking Behavior of Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Uy, Raymonde Charles; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Gavino, Alex; Fontelo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision-making involves the interplay between cognitive processes and physicians’ perceptions of confidence in the context of their information-seeking behavior. The objectives of the study are: to examine how these concepts interact, to determine whether physician confidence, defined in relation to information need, affects clinical decision-making, and if information access improves decision accuracy. We analyzed previously collected data about resident physicians’ perceptions of ...

  16. A PROPOSAL FOR AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR ASSISTING TOURIST DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin MAICAN; Radu LIXĂNDROIU

    2013-01-01

    Travel planning and booking on the web has become one of the important issues of this activity. With the rise of the user-generated content the travelers' experiences have had an increasingly significant role as source of information. This paper proposes a portal that could automatically analyses content from various tourism-related sources and presenting a score to the user. The first part of the paper makes an introduction in electronic tourism while the second part presents our proposal.

  17. A DICOM-RT Based ePR radiation therapy information system for decision-support of brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. J.; Law, M.; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, L.

    2006-03-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. Various treatment options are available to the patient from Radiation Therapy to Stereotactic Radiosurgery and utilize different RT modalities. The disparate and complex data generated by the RT modalities along with related data scattered throughout the RT department in RT Information/Management systems, Record & Verify systems, and Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) compromise an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. By combining our past experience in medical imaging informatics research, DICOM-RT expertise, and system integration, our research involves using a brain tumor case model to show proof-of-concept that a DICOM-Standard electronic patient record (ePR) system can be developed as a foundation to perform medical imaging informatics research in developing decision-support tools and knowledge

  18. The Credit-Risk Decision Mechanism on Fixed Loan Interest Rate with Imperfect Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, decision mechanism of credit-risk for banks is studied when the loan interest rate is fixed with asymmetry information in credit market. We give out the designs of rationing and non-rationing on credit risky decision mechanism when collateral value provided by an entrepreneur is not less than the minimum demands of the bank. It shows that under the action of the mechanism, banks could efficiently identify the risk size of the project. Finally, the condition of the project investigation of bank is given over again.

  19. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims' solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later. PMID:27007117

  20. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims’ Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims’ attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims’ information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims’ solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later. PMID:27007117

  1. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims' Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Joo Shin

    Full Text Available This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims' solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later.

  2. Assigned experts with competitive goals withhold information in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudia; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Expertise assignment has been proposed to improve unshared information pooling in group decision making. The current research revises this view by hypothesizing that expertise assignment is beneficial when group members have cooperative goals, but is detrimental when group members have competitive goals. Three-person groups were confronted with a hidden-profile task. Members were either assigned experts or not and were instructed to either cooperate or compete with other members. The results confirmed that expertise decreased unshared information pooling and repetitions in competition, while the reverse was found in cooperation. This interaction effect was mediated by self-other difference in perceived competence. Thus, expertise favours or hinders information sharing in group decision making as a function of members' cooperative or competitive goals. PMID:22577834

  3. Preference-driven biases in decision makers' information search and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Chaxel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is well established that the search for information after a decision is biased toward supporting that decision, the case of preference-supporting search before the decision remains open. Three studies of consumer choices consistently found a complete absence of a pre-choice bias toward searching for preference-supporting information. The absence of this confirming search bias occurred for products that were both hedonic and utilitarian, both expensive and inexpensive, and both high and low in expected brand loyalty. Experiment 3 also verified the presence of the expected post-choice search bias to support the chosen alternative. Therefore the absence of a pre-choice search bias in all three studies was not likely to be due to our using a method that was so insensitive that a search bias would not be observed under any circumstances. In addition to the absence of an effect of prior preferences on information selection, subjects' self-reported search strategies exhibited a clear tendency toward a balance of positive and negative information. Across the three studies, we also tested for the presence of a preference-supporting bias in the evaluation of the information acquired in the search process. This evaluation bias was found both pre- and post-choice.

  4. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirson Leslea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM. However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. Methods This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27 with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. Results The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services, fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. Conclusion With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  5. Management Accounting Information System based on Decision Support and Business Intelligence on ROI and ROE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Rahnamay Roodposhti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analysis the effect of management accounting information system (MAIS based on decision support (DS and business intelligence (BI in return on investment (ROI and return on equity (ROE of Tehran stock exchange companies. We used analytical hierarchical process (AHP through the weighting of MAIS based on DS and BI elements Then, questionnaires based on DS and BI distributed in Tehran stock Exchange manufactured companies applying the managerial accounting information system. According to the answers here and weighting above, enterprises is divided into three categories as followed; the first categories with 25, second 20 and third categories 21 organizations. in the next, Samples were measured in three groups of companies with management accounting information system based decision support and business intelligence in Strong, Average and Weak categories. We examined each of the variables and significant correlation between management accounting Includes sales, cost of goods sold, inventory, operating profits, net profit, rate of goods waste, Percent of actual production to capacity and portion of market sale with Return on investment and return on equity were examined. Companies categorized in three groups were assessed and the results show a significant relationship between management accounting information system based on decision support and business intelligence with ROI and ROE are meaningful in strong and average companies than weak in their management accounting information system.

  6. Designing a Decision Making Support Information System for the Operational Control of Industrial Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Faradian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic is a new and innovative technology that was used in order to develop a realization of engineering control. In recent years, fuzzy logic proved its great potential especially applied to automatization of industrial process control, where it enables the control design to be formed based on experience of experts and results of experiments. The projects that have been realized reveal that the application of fuzzy logic in the technological process control has already provided us with better decisions compared to that of standard control technique. Fuzzy logic provides an opportunity to design an advisory system for decision-making based on operator experience and results of experiments not taking a mathematical model as a basis. The present work deals with a specific technological process ─ designing a support decision making information system for the operational control of the lime kiln with the use of fuzzy logic based on creation of the relevant expert-objective knowledge base.

  7. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  8. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad

    2016-04-01

    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  9. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA): A novel practical guidance for Climate Resilient Investments and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Ad; Mendoza, Guillermo; Matthews, John; Ray, Patrick; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Gilroy, Kristin; Olsen, Rolf; Kucharski, John; Stakhiv, Gene; Cushing, Janet; Brown, Casey

    2016-04-01

    over time. They are part of the Dutch adaptive planning approach Adaptive Delta Management, executed and develop by the Dutch Delta program. Both decision scaling and adaptation pathways have been piloted in studies worldwide. The objective of CRIDA is to mainstream effective climate adaptation for professional water managers. The CRIDA publication, due in april 2016, follows the generic water design planning design cycle. At each step, CRIDA describes stepwise guidance for incorporating climate robustness: problem definition, stress test, alternatives formulation and recommendation, evaluation and selection. In the presentation the origin, goal, steps and practical tools available at each step of CRIDA will be explained. In two other abstracts ("Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region" by Gilroy et al., "The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia, by Kucharski et al.), the application of CRIDA to cases is explained

  10. Patient sources of information and decision factors in selecting cosmetic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, L I; Washburn, J H

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study designed to examine influential information sources and decision factors in the selection of plastic surgeons for cosmetic versus medical procedures. Physician referrals were found to be the most influential sources of information for both groups. Word-of-mouth and magazine and newspaper articles were also important information sources for cosmetic patients. Primary selection factors were significantly different between groups, with board certification the most influential for cosmetic patients and recommendation by physician most influential for medical patients. PMID:10185452

  11. Internet-based information and foreign direct investment (FDI) location decision making: An information cost perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kachwamba, Muhajir; Sæbø, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is considered to play an important role to reduce information cost for potential foreign investors. While a growing body of literature has suggested such connections, conceptual clarity is yet to be achieved. This study introduces a conceptual framework based on the Information-theoretic approach and transaction cost perspective to explore how ICT may reduce information cost. To illustrate our proposed framework, we apply it to examine the role o...

  12. Group Decision-Making Information Security Risk Assessment Based on AHP and Information Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuowen Tan; Pengyu Li

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of over-reliance on subjective assignment is a challenging task in the information security risk assessment process. This study deals with this problem. We have presented a group decisionmaking information security risk assessment method by combining Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with Information entropy. When AHP is used to assess the security risk of information systems, the elements of the Criteria level are the risk probability, impact and uncontrollability. The prioriti...

  13. The GrEAT pack: generic electronic assistive technology environmental control system - information booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonck, Michèle Claire

    2009-01-01

    This is a user manual for your electronic assistive technology environmental control system trial pack or in simple words – a few bits of technology that can let you control some household appliances. This information is intended for you, your family and carers.

  14. Workplace Environments That Assist and Hinder the Career Progression of Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the workplace environment characteristics that hinder and assist the career progression of women in information technology (IT). The study examined the satisfaction with the career progression of the women in IT as well as why the women in IT like and dislike their careers. The major…

  15. Enhancing the Delivery of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education through Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Network for a Healthy California (Network) employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the target audience and plan program activities because GIS is a powerful tool for assisting in data integration and planning. This paper describes common uses of GIS by Network contractors as well as demonstrating the possibilities of GIS as a…

  16. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (In)formed Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Laura; McEvoy, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children's rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of…

  17. 75 FR 73050 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; College Assistance Migrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; College Assistance Migrant Program... complete their first year of college and continue in postsecondary education. Priorities: This competition... accordance with the changes enacted by the HEOA in the Federal Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR...

  18. 75 FR 9189 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Assistive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... intelligent agent interactive information dissemination systems; (ii) Managing libraries of assistive... Package: You can obtain an application package via the Internet or from the Education Publications Center... application package in an accessible format (e.g., braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette)...

  19. 76 FR 7870 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cybersecurity and Communications Technical Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... published this ICR in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010, at 75 FR 9608-9609, for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Cybersecurity and Communications Technical Assistance... Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity...

  20. Resources to Inform Technical Assistance on Formative Assessment. CEELO FastFacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, L.; Schilder, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this "FastFacts," a state requested recommendations about research and practical resources to inform technical assistance conducted with state education staff on formative assessment. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) responds by describing what is currently known on this topic. Formative assessment is one key…

  1. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  2. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  3. Personal digital assistants: Essential tools for preparing dietetics professionals to use new generation information technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Miyoung; Won O. Song

    2007-01-01

    Rapid integration of information technology into health care systems has included the use of highly portable systems-in particular, personal digital assistants (PDAs). With their large built-in memories, fast processors, wireless connectivity, multimedia capacity, and large library of applications, PDAs have been widely adopted by physicians and nurses for patient tracking, disease management, medical references and drug information, enhancing a quality of health care. Many health-related PDA...

  4. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  5. Implementation of the Community Health Assistant (CHA) Cadre in Zambia: A Process Evaluation to Guide Future Scale-Up Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Katharine D; Belete, Yekoyesew W; Phiri, Sydney Chauwa; Musonda, Mutinta; Kawesha, Elizabeth Chizema; Muleya, Evelyn Mutinta; Chibawe, Caroline Phiri; van den Broek, Jan Willem; Vosburg, Kathryn Bradford

    2016-04-01

    Universal health coverage requires an adequate health workforce, including community health workers (CHWs) to reach rural communities. To improve healthcare access in rural areas, in 2010 the Government of Zambia implemented a national CHW strategy that introduced a new cadre of healthcare workers called community health assistants (CHAs). After 1 year of training the pilot class of 307 CHAs deployed in September 2012. This paper presents findings from a process evaluation of the barriers and facilitators of implementation of the CHA pilot, along with how evidence was used to guide ongoing implementation and scale-up decisions. Qualitative inquiry was used to assess implementation during the first 6 months of the program rollout, with 43 in-depth individual and 32 small group interviews across five respondent types: CHAs, supervisors, volunteer CHWs, community members, and district leadership. Potential 'implementation moderators' were explored using deductive coding and thematic analysis of participant perspectives on community acceptance of CHAs, supervision support mechanisms, and coordination with volunteer CHWs, and health system integration of a new cadre. Community acceptance of CHAs was generally high, but coordination between CHAs and existing volunteer CHWs presented some challenges. The supervision support system was found to be inconsistent, limiting assurance of consistent quality care delivered by CHAs. Underlying health system weaknesses regarding drug supply and salary payments furthermore hindered incorporation of a new cadre within the national health system. Recommendations for implementation and future scale based on the process evaluation findings are discussed. PMID:26547550

  6. Opportunities and Examples for Integration of Socio-environmental Approaches to Support Climate-informed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate and environmental decisions require science that couples human and natural systems to quantify or articulate the observed physical, natural, and societal changes or likely consequences of different decision options. Despite the need for such policy-relevant research, multidisciplinary collaborations can be wrought with challenges of data integration, model interoperability, and communication across disciplinary divides. In this talk, I will present several examples where I have collaborated with colleagues from the physical, natural, and social sciences to develop novel, actionable science to inform decision-making. Specifically, I will discuss a cost analysis of water and sediment diversions to optimize land building in the Mississippi River delta (winner of American Geophysical Union Water Resources Research Editor's Choice Award 2014) and the development of a National Climate Indicator System that uses knowledge across the physical, natural, and social sciences to establish an end-to-end indicator system of climate changes, impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses. The latter project is in the process of moving from research to operations, an additional challenge and opportunity, as we work with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and their affiliated Federal agencies to establish it beyond the research prototype. Using these examples, I will provide some lessons learned that would have general applicability to socio-environmental research collaborations and integration of data, models, and information systems to support climate and environmental decision-making.

  7. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities.Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa.Method: In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens.Results: Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information.Conclusion: Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  8. Decision-Making in Flight with Different Convective Weather Information Sources: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary and partial results of a flight experiment to address how General Aviation (GA) pilots use weather cues to make flight decisions. This research presents pilots with weather cue conditions typically available to GA pilots in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) today, as well as in IMC with a Graphical Weather Information System (GWIS). These preliminary data indicate that both VMC and GWIS-augmented IMC conditions result in better confidence, information sufficiency and perceived performance than the current IMC condition. For all these measures, the VMC and GWIS-augmented conditions seemed to provide similar pilot support. These preliminary results are interpreted for their implications on GWIS display design, training, and operational use guidelines. Final experimental results will compare these subjective data with objective data of situation awareness and decision quality.

  9. Model design for sequential decisions based upon evaluation of exploration information by capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure if an exploration model reflects a number of design considerations, one of which is the question or issue to be investigated by the model. Thus, a model designed to evaluate the magnitude of risk and its economic implications to optimal decision making at each decision juncture of a multistage exploration architecture differs considerably from one designed to evaluate, say, the long run average cost of discovery, in which the architecture of exploration is suppressed and risk is simply an element of average cost.The perspective of the model examined in this paper is that exploration is investment in information and that the next stage of an exploration program is undertaken only when the expected value of information to be acquired in that stage exceeds its cost. It is concluded that the degree to which this perspective is honored influences considerably model design

  10. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  11. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  12. Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer decision tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lauren A Fleishman; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions from the electricity sector will likely require policies that encourage the widespread deployment of a diverse mix of low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Public discourse informs such policies. To make informed decisions and to productively engage in public discourse, citizens need to understand the trade-offs between electricity technologies proposed for widespread deployment. Building on previous paper-and-pencil studies, we developed a computer tool that aimed to help nonexperts make informed decisions about the challenges faced in achieving a low-carbon energy future. We report on an initial usability study of this interactive computer tool. After providing participants with comparative and balanced information about 10 electricity technologies, we asked them to design a low-carbon electricity portfolio. Participants used the interactive computer tool, which constrained portfolio designs to be realistic and yield low CO2 emissions. As they changed their portfolios, the tool updated information about projected CO2 emissions, electricity costs, and specific environmental impacts. As in the previous paper-and-pencil studies, most participants designed diverse portfolios that included energy efficiency, nuclear, coal with carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas, and wind. Our results suggest that participants understood the tool and used it consistently. The tool may be downloaded from http://cedmcenter.org/tools-for-cedm/informing-the-public-about-low-carbon-technologies/ . PMID:24564708

  13. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Zander; Sven Kralisch

    2016-01-01

    An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored inf...

  14. PRISM: a consumer information processing model for housewife decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn-Wilson, Eleanor Jane

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes a test of the applicability of a model developed from a qualitative study of a market for consumer nondurables to two other markets for consumer non-durables. The model was developed to explain the effect of public relations information on housewives 1 buying decisions. The results of two questionnaire surveys of fifty housewives each were analysed. Results from the first market study were to be confirmed by the second study before acceptance. The relationships s...

  15. Exact Methods for Multi-echelon Inventory Control: Incorporating Shipment Decisions and Detailed Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Stenius, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in information technologies and an increased environmental awareness have altered the prerequisites for successful logistics. For companies operating on a global market, inventory control of distribution systems is often an essential part of their logistics planning. In this context, the research objective of this thesis is: To develop exact methods for stochastic inventory control of multi-echelon distribution systems incorporating shipment decisions and/or detailed d...

  16. Incorporating INTERACT II Clinical Decision Support Tools into Nursing Home Health Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Handler, Steven M.; Sharkey, Siobhan S.; Hudak, Sandra; Ouslander, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial reduction in hospitalization rates has been associated with the implementation of the Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT) quality improvement intervention using the accompanying paper-based clinical practice tools (INTERACT II). There is significant potential to further increase the impact of INTERACT by integrating INTERACT II tools into nursing home (NH) health information technology (HIT) via standalone or integrated clinical decision support (CDS) systems...

  17. INFORMATION ON THE COST AND MANAGERIAL DECISIONS IN THE COMPANIES IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Taicu

    2012-01-01

    Management accounting has evolved in recent decades from a supplier of financial information to a tool system used by the company management to make decisions both at strategic as well as at operational level, to relate with the external environment and to make economic forecasts. Companies in the baking industry operate nowadays on a competitive market in which prices are set by the market and cost control is one of the factors that can make sure that the proposed performance is reached. The...

  18. Enhancing stakeholder involvement in environmental decision making: Active Response Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, B.G.; Thomas, V.L. [CIESIN, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Thomas, M.R.; Olsenholler, J.A. [CIESIN, University Center, MI (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a spatial decision support system that facilitates land-related negotiations and resolving conflicts. This system, called Active Response Geographic Information System (AR/GIS), uses a geographic information system to examine land resource management issues which involve multiple stakeholder groups. In this process, participants are given the opportunity and tools needed to share ideas in a facilitated land resource allocation negotiation session. Participants are able to assess current land status, develop objectives, propose alternative planning scenarios, and evaluate the effects or impacts of each alternative. AR/GIS is a unique tool that puts geographic information directly at the fingertips of non-technical policy analysts, decision makers, and representatives of stakeholder groups during the negotiation process. AR/GIS enhances individual comprehension and ownership of the decision making process and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of group debate. It is most beneficial to planning tasks which are inherently geographic in nature, which require consideration of a large number of physical constraints and economic implications, and which involve publicly sensitive tradeoffs.

  19. Can end-users' flood management decision making be improved by information about forecast uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Hegg, C.

    2011-05-01

    In the course of the D-PHASE project, a visualisation platform was created, which provided a large amount of meteorological and hydrological information that was used not only by scientists, but also by scientifically aware laypeople in the field of flood prevention. This paper investigates the benefits of the platform for its end-users' situation analysis and decision making, and in particular, its usefulness in providing an ensemble of models instead of already interpreted forecasts. To evaluate the platform's impact on users in Switzerland, a panel approach was used. Twenty-four semi-standardized questionnaires were completed at the beginning of the demonstration phase and 27 questionnaires were completed five months later. The results suggest that the platform was perceived as adding value to both situation analysis and decision making, and helped users to feel more confident about both. Interestingly, users' preference for receiving complex, primary information and forming their own impressions over receiving interpreted information and recommendations increased during the demonstration phase. However, no actual improvement in the quality of decisions was reported.

  20. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  1. Application of risk-informed decision-making in maintenance of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation technical specifications used in many nuclear power plants are developed based on the deterministic method of accident study. Analyzing the limitation of these specifications on the nuclear safety management when implementing maintenance, the principle of risk-informed nuclear safety management is introduced, which was brought forward in the countries with well developed nuclear power plants late in 1990's. At last, the applicable scope of risk-informed decision-making principle and suggestion when managing maintenance of a nuclear power plant are raised

  2. Risk communication: Translating technically complex information to facilitate informed decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a review of risk communication and related literature, including policy material, this paper describes the newly revamped risk management program of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and some of the risk-related issues being confronted as the high-level waste management program moves forward. It also describes preliminary activities underway in which the OCRWM is developing strategies for risk communication. The authors offer a definition of risk management as comprised by the components of risk assessment and risk communication. The paper explores the discrepant views that experts and nonexperts have with respect to what constitutes a valid risk assessment model. By illustrating differences in the assessment of risk by experts and lay people, the paper demonstrates how these differences can create challenges in communicating risk and making decisions about risk. Finally, the paper discusses ways in which risk communication could be enhance, and elaborates on the OCRWM's commitment to improve its overall risk management efforts

  3. Toward a comprehensive information system to assist invasive species management in Hawaii and Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornwall, M.; Loope, L.

    2004-01-01

    The need for coordinated regional and global electronic databases to assist prevention, early detection, rapid response, and control of biological invasions is well accepted. The Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN), a node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure, has been increasingly engaged in the invasive species enterprise since its establishment in 2001. Since this time, PBIN has sought to support frontline efforts at combating invasions, through working with stakeholders in conservation, agriculture, forestry, health, and commerce to support joint information needs. Although initial emphasis has been on Hawaii, cooperative work with other Pacific islands and countries of the Pacific Rim is already underway and planned.

  4. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  5. Business Intelligence : The impact on decision support and decision making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Daniel; Fries, Hannes; Johansson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Historically, decision support systems have been used in organizations to facilitate better decisions. Business Intelligence has become important in recent years because the business environment is more complex and changes faster than ever before. Organizations have started to realize the value of existing information in operational, managerial, and strategic decision making. By using analytical methods and data warehousing, decision support can now be used in a flexible way and assist decisi...

  6. Bootstrap Methods for the Empirical Study of Decision-Making and Information Flows in Social Systems

    CERN Document Server

    DeDeo, Simon; Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the statistical bootstrap for the estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, with particular reference to its use in the study of large-scale social phenomena. Our methods allow one to preserve, approximately, the underlying axiomatic relationships of information theory---in particular, consistency under arbitrary coarse-graining---that motivate use of these quantities in the first place, while providing reliability comparable to the state of the art for Bayesian estimators. We show how information-theoretic quantities allow for rigorous empirical study of the decision-making capacities of rational agents, and the time-asymmetric flows of information in distributed systems. We provide illustrative examples by reference to ongoing collaborative work on the semantic structure of the British Criminal Court system and the conflict dynamics of the contemporary Afghanistan insurgency.

  7. Clinical decision support for whole genome sequence information leveraging a service-oriented architecture: a prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M; Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information could soon be routinely available to clinicians to support the personalized care of their patients. At such time, clinical decision support (CDS) integrated into the clinical workflow will likely be necessary to support genome-guided clinical care. Nevertheless, developing CDS capabilities for WGS information presents many unique challenges that need to be overcome for such approaches to be effective. In this manuscript, we describe the development of a prototype CDS system that is capable of providing genome-guided CDS at the point of care and within the clinical workflow. To demonstrate the functionality of this prototype, we implemented a clinical scenario of a hypothetical patient at high risk for Lynch Syndrome based on his genomic information. We demonstrate that this system can effectively use service-oriented architecture principles and standards-based components to deliver point of care CDS for WGS information in real-time. PMID:25954430

  8. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making: The individual desired level of confidence can explain the extent of information acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Hausmann; Damian Läge

    2008-01-01

    Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence''...

  9. Informing Adaptation Decisions: What Do We Need to Know and What Do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such

  10. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  11. A multiple decision support metrics method for effective risk-informed asset management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide electric utilities with a concept for developing and applying effective decision support metrics via integrated risk-informed asset management (RIAM) programs for power stations and generating companies. RIAM is a process by which analysts review historical performance and develop predictive logic models and data analyses to predict critical decision support figures-of-merit (or metrics) for generating station managers and electric utility company executives. These metrics include, but are not limited to, the following: profitability, net benefit, benefit-to-cost ratio, projected return on investment, projected revenue, projected costs, asset value, safety (catastrophic facility damage frequency and consequences, etc.), power production availability (capacity factor, etc.), efficiency (heat rate), and others. RIAM applies probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques and generates predictions in a probabilistic way so that metrics information can be supplied to managers in terms of probability distributions as well as point estimates. This enables the managers to apply the concept of 'confidence levels' in their critical decision-making processes. (authors)

  12. Practical application of decision support metrics for power plant risk-informed asset management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide electric utilities with a concept for developing and applying effective decision support metrics via integrated risk-informed asset management (RIAM) programs for power stations and generating companies. RIAM is a process by which analysts review historical performance and develop predictive logic models and data analyses to predict critical decision support figures-of-merit (or metrics) for generating station managers and electric utility company executives. These metrics include, but are not limited to, the following; profitability, net benefit, benefit-to-cost ratio, projected return on investment, projected revenue, projected costs, asset value, safety (catastrophic facility damage frequency and consequences, etc.), power production availability (capacity factor, etc.), efficiency (heat rate), and others. RIAM applies probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques and generates predictions probabilistically so that metrics information can be supplied to managers in terms of probability distributions as well as point estimates. This enables the managers to apply the concept of 'confidence levels' in their critical decision-making processes. (author)

  13. EVFDT: An Enhanced Very Fast Decision Tree Algorithm for Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attack in Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Latif; Haider Abbas; Seemab Latif; Ashraf Masood

    2015-01-01

    Due to the scattered nature of DDoS attacks and advancement of new technologies such as cloud-assisted WBAN, it becomes challenging to detect malicious activities by relying on conventional security mechanisms. The detection of such attacks demands an adaptive and incremental learning classifier capable of accurate decision making with less computation. Hence, the DDoS attack detection using existing machine learning techniques requires full data set to be stored in the memory and are not app...

  14. An Electronic Clinical Decision Support Tool to Assist Primary Care Providers in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Management: Development and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, David P; Joshi, Rohina; Webster, Ruth J; Groenestein, Patrick; Usherwood, Tim P; Heeley, Emma; Turnbull, Fiona M; Lipman, Alexandra; Patel, Anushka A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Challenges remain in translating the well-established evidence for management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk into clinical practice. Although electronic clinical decision support (CDS) systems are known to improve practitioner performance, their development in Australian primary health care settings is limited. Objectives Study aims were to (1) develop a valid CDS tool that assists Australian general practitioners (GPs) in global CVD risk management, and (2) preliminarily eva...

  15. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29)…

  16. Going the Extra Mile: Making Climate Data and Information Usable for Decision Making (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Actionable science, defined as 'data, analysis, and forecasts that are sufficiently predictive, accepted and understandable to support decision-making,' is the holy grail for climate scientists engaged in working with decision makers, to provide the scientific basis for adaptation planning and decisions. The literature on boundary organizations and science translation offers guidelines and best practices for the generation of climate information that is useful and usable for policy and operational decisions. Guidelines emphasize understanding decision contexts and constraints, trust building, development of a shared vision of usable science, co-production of knowledge, iterative and sustained engagement, and the development and leveraging of knowledge networks and communities of practice. Some studies offer the advice that climate change is fraught with irreducible or slowly reducible uncertainties; hence, the adoption of adaptive risk management approaches is more valuable in the near-term than scientific effort to reduce uncertainty or combine data in novel ways. Nevertheless, many water resource managers still seek science that reduces uncertainties, assurance that the range of projections will not change, evidence of cause and effect (e.g., atmospheric circulation patterns linked to regional precipitation anomalies) and information that is as close to deterministic as possible. So, how does the scientific community move forward on initiatives that integrate paleoclimate, observations, and model projections, to inform water resource management? There are no simple answers, because the uses of climate and hydrological data and information are context dependent. Scientists have products -- data and information -- and they need to research characteristics of the consumers of their product. What is the consumer's operating procedure, and world view? How does the consumer handle uncertainty? What is their tolerance for risk? What social and political factors

  17. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Zander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored information useless once the system stops operating. The River Basin Information System (RBIS presented here is designed to fit not only the requirements of one research project, but focuses on generic functions, extensibility and standards compliance typically found in interdisciplinary environmental research. Developed throughout more than 10 years of research cooperation worldwide, RBIS is designed to manage different types of environmental data with and without spatial context together with a rich set of metadata. Beside data management and storage, RBIS provides functions for the visualization, linking, analysis and processing of different types of data to support research, decision making, result dissemination and information discovery for all kinds of users. The focus of this paper is on the description of the technical implementation and the presentation of functions. This will be complemented by an overview of example applications and experiences during RBIS development and operation.

  18. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. PMID:26362086

  19. Information Management Software: Guidelines for Decision-Making and Information Management Software--A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Edward John; Ingebretsen, Dorothy L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the categories of available information management software, and provides guidelines for needs assessment, software selection, testing, and evaluation. The annotated bibliography cites general discussions and program reviews for the following types of software: file management, general database management, bibliographic management,…

  20. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  1. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  2. From Interoperability to Integration: Making Data and Information Accessible and Usable for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Balstad, R.

    2005-12-01

    Recent natural disasters in both the developed and developing world have illustrated the many barriers that still exist in accessing needed environmental and socioeconomic data and in integrating such data to provide timely and appropriate inputs for decision making. Although there has been much focus to date on issues of data interoperability, much more work is needed to address basic data access and integration problems. We will report on recent efforts to improve data access across the so-called "digital divide", to establish an "information commons" for science, and to improve the extent and quality of integrated databases to support decision making in the areas of disaster management and environmental sustainability. The Earth science community needs to work proactively to ensure that its own scientific data resources are accessible and usable in conjunction with other types of data needed for both research and applications.

  3. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  4. ZuiScat : querying and visualizing information spaces on personal digital assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Büring, Thorsten; Reiterer, Harald

    2005-01-01

    ZuiScat is a visualization concept for querying large information spaces on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Retrieval results are presented in a dynamic scatterplot, which is enhanced by geometric and semantic zoom techniques to provide smooth transitions from abstract visual encodings to data content. The same visualization is also used to manage bookmarks and to serve as a powerful query history tool. User feedback suggests that ZuiScat provides intuitive and efficient data access but st...

  5. The impact of geographic information systems on emergency management decision making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven Gray

    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not known. This research examined how GIS affect decision making during natural disasters, and how GIS can be more effectively used to improve decision making for emergency management. Using a qualitative case study methodology, this research examined decision making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) during a large full-scale disaster exercise. This study indicates that GIS provided decision makers at DHS with an outstanding context for information that would otherwise be challenging to understand, especially through the integration of multiple data sources and dynamic three-dimensional interactive maps. Decision making was hampered by outdated information, a reliance on predictive models based on hypothetical data rather than actual event data, and a lack of understanding of the capabilities of GIS beyond cartography. Geospatial analysts, emergency managers, and other decision makers who use GIS should take specific steps to improve decision making based on GIS for disaster response and emergency management.

  6. Evidence for Health III: Making evidence-informed decisions that integrate values and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Anne; Pang, Tikki; Newton, John N; Davis, Adrian; Panisset, Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Making evidence-informed decisions with the aim of improving the health of individuals or populations can be facilitated by using a systematic approach. While a number of algorithms already exist, and while there is no single 'right' way of summarizing or ordering the various elements that should be involved in making such health-related decisions, an algorithm is presented here that lays out many of the key issues that should be considered, and which adds a special emphasis on balancing the values of individual patients and entire populations, as well as the importance of incorporating contextual considerations. Indeed many different types of evidence and value judgements are needed during the decision-making process to answer a wide range of questions, including (1) What is the priority health problem? (2) What causes this health problem? (3) What are the different strategies or interventions that can be used to address this health problem? (4) Which of these options, as compared to the status quo, has an added benefit that outweighs the harms? (5) Which options would be acceptable to the individuals or populations involved? (6) What are the costs and opportunity costs? (7) Would these options be feasible and sustainable in this specific context? (8) What are the ethical, legal and social implications of choosing one option over another? (9) What do different stakeholders stand to gain or lose from each option? and (10) Taking into account the multiple perspectives and considerations involved, which option is most likely to improve health while minimizing harms? This third and final article in the 'Evidence for Health' series will go through each of the steps in the algorithm in greater detail to promote more evidence-informed decisions that aim to improve health and reduce inequities. PMID:26976393

  7. Data policy and availability supporting global change research, development, and decision-making: An information perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bonnie C.; Jack, Robert F.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    An explosion of information has created a crisis for today's information age. It has to be determined how to use the best available information sources, tools, and technology. To do this it is necessary to have leadership at the interagency level to promote a coherent information policy. It is also important to find ways to educate the users of information regarding the tools available to them. Advances in technology resulted in efforts to shift from Disciplinary and Mission-oriented Systems to Decision Support Systems and Personalized Information Systems. One such effort is being made by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IAWGDMGC). Five federal agencies - the Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and Department of Defense (DOD) - have an on-going cooperative information management group, CENDI (Commerce, Energy, NASA, NLM, and Defense Information), that is meeting the challenge of coordinating and integrating their information management systems. Although it is beginning to be technically feasible to have a system with text, bibliographic, and numeric data online for the user to manipulate at the user's own workstation, it will require national recognition that the resource investment in such a system is worthwhile, in order to promote its full development. It also requires close cooperation between the producers and users of the information - that is, the research and policy community, and the information community. National resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move people into the next generation of information support systems.

  8. Memory Bias in the Use of Accounting Information: an Examination of Affective Responses and Retrieval Of information in Accounting Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Freda D. H.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is based on the Kida-Smith (1995) model of "The encoding and retrievability of numerical data." It is concerned with the variable conditions under which a positive affective response (i.e., a decision or opinion that results in a positive valence) on previously viewed accounting information may and may not influence current decision-making. An affective response to accounting numbers may adversely influence decisions made based on those numbers....

  9. The Impact of Geographic Information Systems on Emergency Management Decision Making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven Gray

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not…

  10. 8 CFR 103.9 - Availability of decisions and interpretive material under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of decisions and interpretive material under the Freedom of Information Act. 103.9 Section 103.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.9 Availability of decisions and interpretive...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING AS INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM AND ASSISTANCE OF DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu Brabete; Cristian Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The accreditation of accounting as scientific discipline is far from being achieved. In our attempt to establish the status of accounting as a science, we have used the current understanding of the term, and the contemporary perspectives on know-ledge in general.

  12. Bootstrap Methods for the Empirical Study of Decision-Making and Information Flows in Social Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hitchcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the statistical bootstrap for the estimation of informationtheoretic quantities from data, with particular reference to its use in the study of large-scale social phenomena. Our methods allow one to preserve, approximately, the underlying axiomatic relationships of information theory—in particular, consistency under arbitrary coarse-graining—that motivate use of these quantities in the first place, while providing reliability comparable to the state of the art for Bayesian estimators. We show how information-theoretic quantities allow for rigorous empirical study of the decision-making capacities of rational agents, and the time-asymmetric flows of information in distributed systems. We provide illustrative examples by reference to ongoing collaborative work on the semantic structure of the British Criminal Court system and the conflict dynamics of the contemporary Afghanistan insurgency.

  13. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. PMID:24752758

  14. Information as a tool for management decision making: a case study of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of how Singapore's managers behave as information users and determine if their behavioural patterns are similar to their counterparts in other countries (as disclosed in the literature or if it differs, in what ways. A total of 369 questionnaires were mailed to individual members of Singapore's Institute of Management. Only twenty members responded. The main focus of the survey was the relative uses of the different types of information sources. The survey also touched briefly on the relative importance of domains, and the correlation between hierarchical and functional levels. Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision making included Competitor Trends followed by Regional Economic Trends. Types of information considered important included Business news followed by Political, Social, and Supplier trends, Regulatory information, Use of Information Technology, Demographic Trends and New Management methods. Sources given a very high preference rating were Personal Contact for Competitor Trends and the use of Government Publications for obtaining regulatory information. Respondents also preferred use of Government Publications for Local Economic information and the use of Newspapers for Political Trends and Business News. Internal computer printouts were used for forecasting information and company performance. Subordinate managers were referred to for information on the use of technology, Forecasting, and Company Performance. Because the Company Library provided access to newspapers (very high usage and business news, information about Political Trends, International and Local Economic Information and Competitor Trends were associated with it. However, the Company Library was perceived as a storage facility rather than a dynamic information resource. Local libraries were also used for Regional and International Economic information. Radio

  15. A proposed clinical decision support architecture capable of supporting whole genome sequence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M; Loya, Salvador Rodriguez; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-04-01

    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information may soon be widely available to help clinicians personalize the care and treatment of patients. However, considerable barriers exist, which may hinder the effective utilization of WGS information in a routine clinical care setting. Clinical decision support (CDS) offers a potential solution to overcome such barriers and to facilitate the effective use of WGS information in the clinic. However, genomic information is complex and will require significant considerations when developing CDS capabilities. As such, this manuscript lays out a conceptual framework for a CDS architecture designed to deliver WGS-guided CDS within the clinical workflow. To handle the complexity and breadth of WGS information, the proposed CDS framework leverages service-oriented capabilities and orchestrates the interaction of several independently-managed components. These independently-managed components include the genome variant knowledge base, the genome database, the CDS knowledge base, a CDS controller and the electronic health record (EHR). A key design feature is that genome data can be stored separately from the EHR. This paper describes in detail: (1) each component of the architecture; (2) the interaction of the components; and (3) how the architecture attempts to overcome the challenges associated with WGS information. We believe that service-oriented CDS capabilities will be essential to using WGS information for personalized medicine. PMID:25411644

  16. Risk-informed decision making a keystone in advanced safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has provided extremely valuable complementary insight, perspective, comprehension, and balance to deterministic nuclear reactor safety assessment. This integrated approach of risk-informed management and decision making has been called Risk-Informed Decision Making (RIDM). RIDM provides enhanced safety, reliability, operational flexibility, reduced radiological exposure, and improved fiscal economy. Applications of RIDM continuously increase. Current applications are in the areas of design, construction, licensing, operations, and security. Operational phase safety applications include the following: technical specifications improvement, risk-monitors and configuration control, maintenance planning, outage planning and management, in-service inspection, inservice testing, graded quality assurance, reactor oversight and inspection, inspection finding significance determination, operational events assessment, and rulemaking. Interestingly there is a significant spectrum of approaches, methods, programs, controls, data bases, and standards. The quest of many is to assimilate the full compliment of PSA and RIDM information and to achieve a balanced international harmony. The goal is to focus the best of the best, so to speak, for the benefit of all. Accordingly, this presentation will address the principles, benefits, and applications of RIDM. It will also address some of the challenges and areas to improve. Finally it will highlight efforts by the IAEA and others to capture the international thinking, experience, successes, challenges, and lessons in RIDM. (authors)

  17. The Switching Decision: Are Members of Superannuation Funds Rational and Informed Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Delpachitra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent Cooper Review (Cooper 2010 attempted to address governance, structure, efficiency and operational problems by recommending changes without pinpointing the root causes and systematic design flaws of the Australian Superannuation System. Despite overwhelming evidence that members’ disengagement was a root cause of the problems, little attention was paid to the motivation and background of members to facilitate participation and decision-making. For instance, a very small percentage of members take their role in the superannuation industry seriously. This is evidenced by the fact that a very small percentage of members (2.5% in 2007 actively changed superannuation fund and most new fund members ‘defaulted’ into employer-selected funds (Bateman 2009. This may be that they are serious but lack the ability or time to monitor investments in a way required by a sophisticated system. This paper explores the drivers of switching superannuation funds of those working-age Australians. It also analyses the presentation of fund information to the sample population to examine how members use information in their superannuation decisions. This may add insight to the ways fund information is made available and also to the types of members who may need more protection, support or education.

  18. Real-time sensing of fatigue crack damage for information-based decision and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric Evans

    Information-based decision and control for structures that are subject to failure by fatigue cracking is based on the following notion: Maintenance, usage scheduling, and control parameter tuning can be optimized through real time knowledge of the current state of fatigue crack damage. Additionally, if the material properties of a mechanical structure can be identified within a smaller range, then the remaining life prediction of that structure will be substantially more accurate. Information-based decision systems can rely one physical models, estimation of material properties, exact knowledge of usage history, and sensor data to synthesize an accurate snapshot of the current state of damage and the likely remaining life of a structure under given assumed loading. The work outlined in this thesis is structured to enhance the development of information-based decision and control systems. This is achieved by constructing a test facility for laboratory experiments on real-time damage sensing. This test facility makes use of a methodology that has been formulated for fatigue crack model parameter estimation and significantly improves the quality of predictions of remaining life. Specifically, the thesis focuses on development of an on-line fatigue crack damage sensing and life prediction system that is built upon the disciplines of Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. A major part of the research effort has been expended to design and fabricate a test apparatus which allows: (i) measurement and recording of statistical data for fatigue crack growth in metallic materials via different sensing techniques; and (ii) identification of stochastic model parameters for prediction of fatigue crack damage. To this end, this thesis describes the test apparatus and the associated instrumentation based on four different sensing techniques, namely, traveling optical microscopy, ultrasonic flaw detection, Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD), and fiber

  19. IMIS (Integrated Measurement and Information System) - the German integrated radioactivity information and decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMIS is being set up as part of the German Government's National Response Plan for dealing with the consequences of a large scale radioactive contamination of the environment. The IMIS system has three operational action levels. Level 3 covers the collection of radiological data from state-of-the-art monitoring networks and measurement laboratories. Level 2 involves computerised data processing and quality control, based on standardised procedures for the collection and presentation of measurements. This level also includes the use of transport and dose assessment models. Level 1 includes evaluation of the data, management of the consequences of a given situation, legal enforcement of protective measures and provision of information to the public. In its final form the IMIS system will consist of a total of 75 RISC computers linked together by an efficient packet-switched Wide Area Network. Owing to various demands of the individual users, three different types of RISC computers are used. The system software includes ULTRIX, TCP/IP and X windows. The relational database management system ORACLE is used together with the query language SQL-Plus. Statistical analyses are carried out with the standard product SAS. The geographical information system TERRA provides all the tools necessary for a detailed geographic presentation of the data. (author)

  20. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  1. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support...

  2. Integrating decision support tools and environmental information systems: a case study on the Province of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper demonstrates an application of advanced decision support tools within the framework of the environmental information system of the Province of Milan. These tools include environmental simulation models, multi criteria analysis, risk analysis and environmental accounting for marketable emission permits. After describing the general structure of the system, three demonstrational case studies are introduced concerning: groundwater pollution management; atmospheric pollution management; urban environmental quality perception and management. In the conclusion, potential use of tools like the ones implemented by the province of Milan within the framework of Local Agenda 21 processes is recalled

  3. Integrating risk management and safety culture in a framework for risk informed decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R. [Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.), Inc., Katy, Texas (United States)], E-mail: Bill.Nelson@dnv.com

    2009-07-01

    Operators and regulators of nuclear power plants agree on the importance of maintaining safety and controlling accident risks. Effective safety and risk management requires treatment of both technical and organizational components. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides tools for technical risk management. However, organizational factors are not treated in PRA, but are addressed using different approaches. To bring both components together, a framework of Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is needed. The objective tree structure of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a promising approach to combine both elements. Effective collaboration involving regulatory and industry groups is needed to accomplish the integration. (author)

  4. Transportation Big Data: Unbiased Analysis and Tools to Inform Sustainable Transportation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Today, transportation operation and energy systems data are generated at an unprecedented scale. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the go-to source for expertise in providing data and analysis to inform industry and government transportation decision making. The lab's teams of data experts and engineers are mining and analyzing large sets of complex data -- or 'big data' -- to develop solutions that support the research, development, and deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. [FY 2014 progress report]: Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for the Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a DecisionMaking Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning project covers activities during...

  6. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. PURPOSE: To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. STUDY SELECTION: Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. DATA EXTRACTION: Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. LIMITATIONS: While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for

  7. Towards the Significance of Decision Aid in Building Information Modeling (BIM Software Selection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM has been considered as a solution in construction industry to numerous problems such as delays, increased lead in times and increased costs. This is due to the concept and characteristic of BIM that will reshaped the way construction project teams work together to increase productivity and improve the final project outcomes (cost, time, quality, safety, functionality, maintainability, etc.. As a result, the construction industry has witnesses numerous of BIM software available in market. Each of this software has offers different function, features. Furthermore, the adoption of BIM required high investment on software, hardware and also training expenses. Thus, there is indentified that there is a need of decision aid for appropriated BIM software selection that fulfill the project needs. However, research indicates that there is limited study attempt to guide decision in BIM software selection problem. Thus, this paper highlight the importance of decision making and support for BIM software selection as it is vital to increase productivity, construction project throughout building lifecycle.

  8. Oncologists’ view of informed consent and shared decision making in paediatric radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Cure rates of paediatric malignancies have dramatically improved with therapy intensification, at the cost of late treatment side effects. A survey was developed, centred around medulloblastoma scenarios, in order to explore paediatric oncology physicians’ views on discussing late effects and involving parents in treatment decisions. Materials and methods: Participants were 59 paediatric radiation and medical oncologists or fellows from USA (22), Canada (18), Europe (16), Australia (2), and Asia (1). Results: Ninety-five percent of respondents indicated late effects discussion prior to multimodality treatment was important. Of those who supported it, 100%, 83%, 64%, and 48% thought discussing cognitive impairment, infertility, stroke, and seizures as potential late effects was important, respectively. Only 71% of respondents believed parents should be involved in treatment decisions, which did not significantly vary by respondent age, country, specialty, gender, or years in practice. Conclusions: The majority of oncologists who treat children believe discussing late effects with parents is important. However, there is mixed opinion on which late effects should be discussed and whether parents should be involved in deciding which treatments should be pursued. Research into perceived barriers to shared decision making and effective methods of improving the informed consent process in paediatric malignancies is needed.

  9. Information visualization; assisting low spatial individuals with information access tasks through the use of visual mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanney, K M; Salvendy, G

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the use of visual mediators to facilitate information access by low spatial individuals. Based on theories of adaptive learning and field-dependence, two human-computer interfaces were developed which were intended to compensate for the inability of low spatial individuals to readily construct visual mental models of a menu system's structure. The two compensatory interfaces included: a 2D visual hierarchy and a linear structure. The information search performance of high and low spatial individuals was compared on the two compensatory interfaces and a third challenge match interface, which challenged individuals to construct a mental model of a hierarchical menu system in order to perform efficiently. The visual mediators were successful in accommodating low spatial individuals, as indicated by the lack of any significant performance differences being detected between the high and low spatial groups on the two compensatory interfaces. High spatial individuals outperformed low spatial individuals only when information search tasks required the use of spatial ability in mentally constructing a model of the organization and structure of embedded task information. The key factor in the accommodation process was the elimination of the need to mentally visualize the structure of embedded task information. These results indicate that visualization techniques can be successfully used to enhance the information search performance of low spatial individuals. PMID:7758446

  10. In the Clouds: The Implications of Cloud Computing for Higher Education Information Technology Governance and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaney, Malik H.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies challenge the management of information technology in organizations. Paradigm changing technologies, such as cloud computing, have the ability to reverse the norms in organizational management, decision making, and information technology governance. This study explores the effects of cloud computing on information technology…

  11. Patterns of informal reasoning in the context of socioscientific decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a theoretical knowledge base through research by examining factors salient to science education reform and practice in the context of socioscientific issues. The study explores how individuals negotiate and resolve genetic engineering dilemmas. A qualitative approach was used to examine patterns of informal reasoning and the role of morality in these processes. Thirty college students participated individually in two semistructured interviews designed to explore their informal reasoning in response to six genetic engineering scenarios. Students demonstrated evidence of rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive forms of informal reasoning. Rationalistic informal reasoning described reason-based considerations; emotive informal reasoning described care-based considerations; and intuitive reasoning described considerations based on immediate reactions to the context of a scenario. Participants frequently relied on combinations of these reasoning patterns as they worked to resolve individual socioscientific scenarios. Most of the participants appreciated at least some of the moral implications of their decisions, and these considerations were typically interwoven within an overall pattern of informal reasoning. These results highlight the need to ensure that science classrooms are environments in which intuition and emotion in addition to reason are valued. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  13. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  14. Product Knowledge and Product Involvement as Moderators of the Effects of Information on Purchase Decisions: A Case Study Using the Perfect Information Frontier Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Lien-Ti; Widdows, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Using a 2x2x2 factorial design, data from 282 respondents illustrate that people with more product knowledge ("experts") are more likely to be persuaded by complex than simple product information. "Novices" reacted similarly to simple and complex information. The type of information provided influences purchasing decisions. (SK)

  15. Decisions on Implementing Service-Learning: Perceptions of Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty within a State Technical College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitzke, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Commission on Accreditation of Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) requires that graduates of physical therapist assistant programs demonstrate a commitment to social responsibility. Service-learning, a method of instruction in which students apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to a community need, can assist in the development…

  16. Preface to foundations of information/decision fusion with applications to engineering problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madan, R.N. [Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA (United States); Rao, N.S.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In engineering design, it was shown by von Neumann that a reliable system can be built using unreliable components by employing simple majority rule fusers. If error densities are known for individual pattern recognizers then an optimal fuser was shown to be implementable as a threshold function. Many applications have been developed for distributed sensor systems, sensor-based robotics, face recognition, decision fusion, recognition of handwritten characters, and automatic target recognition. Recently, information/decision fusion has been recognized as an independently growing field with its own principles and methods. While some of the fusion problems in engineering systems could be solved by applying existing results from other domains, many others require original approaches and solutions. In turn, these new approaches would lead to new applications in other areas. There are two paradigms at the extrema of the spectrum of the information/decision methods: (i) Fusion as Problem: In certain applications, fusion is explicitly specified in the problem statement. Particularly in robotics applications, many researchers realized the fundamental limitations of single sensor systems, thereby motivating the deployment of multiple sensors. In more general engineering applications, similar sensors are employed for fault tolerance, while in several others, different sensor modalities are required to achieve the given task. In these scenarios, fusion methods have to be first designed to solve the problem at hand. (ii) Fusion as Solution: In many instances (e.g., DNA analysis), a number of different solutions to a particular problem already exist. Often these solutions can be combined to obtain solutions that outperform any individual one. The area of forecasting is a good example of such paradigm. Although fusion is not explicitly specified in these problems, it is used as an ingredient of the solution.

  17. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  18. The use of condition monitoring information for maintenance planning and decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K.; Rosqvist, T. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Paulsen, J.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    A survey is presented outlining the use of condition monitoring information in three Nordic nuclear power plants. The questions of the survey relate to the role of condition monitoring in strategic, as well as operative, maintenance planning and decision-making. The survey indicates that condition monitoring is increasingly implemented at nuclear power plants, but very selectively and in a rather slow pace for predictive maintenance. A combined strategy of condition based maintenance and predetermined preventive maintenance is applied for important equipment such as main circulation pumps and steam turbines. A realistic aim is to reduce the number of costly or error prone maintenance and disassembling inspection activities by condition monitoring given that the approach enables a good diagnosis and prediction. Systematic follow-up and analysis of such condition monitoring information followed by a case-specific planning and decision making of timely and rightly directed maintenance actions can justify an extension of the intervals of a number of predetermined inspection, maintenance or periodic testing tasks. (au)

  19. The use of condition monitoring information for maintenance planning and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented outlining the use of condition monitoring information in three Nordic nuclear power plants. The questions of the survey relate to the role of condition monitoring in strategic, as well as operative, maintenance planning and decision-making. The survey indicates that condition monitoring is increasingly implemented at nuclear power plants, but very selectively and in a rather slow pace for predictive maintenance. A combined strategy of condition based maintenance and predetermined preventive maintenance is applied for important equipment such as main circulation pumps and steam turbines. A realistic aim is to reduce the number of costly or error prone maintenance and disassembling inspection activities by condition monitoring given that the approach enables a good diagnosis and prediction. Systematic follow-up and analysis of such condition monitoring information followed by a case-specific planning and decision making of timely and rightly directed maintenance actions can justify an extension of the intervals of a number of predetermined inspection, maintenance or periodic testing tasks. (au)

  20. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobek Jr., A.; Zbořilová, B.; Procházka, M.; Šilhánová, E.; Koutná, O.; Klásková, E.; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2015), s. 756-760. ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monozygotic twins * genetics * assisted reproduction techniques * infertility Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 4.590, year: 2014

  1. Just-in-time information improved decision-making in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "Just-in-time Information" (JIT librarian consultation service was designed to provide rapid information to answer primary care clinical questions during patient hours. This study evaluated whether information provided by librarians to answer clinical questions positively impacted time, decision-making, cost savings and satisfaction. METHODS AND FINDING: A randomized controlled trial (RCT was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 1,889 questions were sent to the service by 88 participants. The object of the randomization was a clinical question. Each participant had clinical questions randomly allocated to both intervention (librarian information and control (no librarian information groups. Participants were trained to send clinical questions via a hand-held device. The impact of the information provided by the service (or not provided by the service, additional resources and time required for both groups was assessed using a survey sent 24 hours after a question was submitted. The average time for JIT librarians to respond to all questions was 13.68 minutes/question (95% CI, 13.38 to 13.98. The average time for participants to respond their control questions was 20.29 minutes/question (95% CI, 18.72 to 21.86. Using an impact assessment scale rating cognitive impact, participants rated 62.9% of information provided to intervention group questions as having a highly positive cognitive impact. They rated 14.8% of their own answers to control question as having a highly positive cognitive impact, 44.9% has having a negative cognitive impact, and 24.8% with no cognitive impact at all. In an exit survey measuring satisfaction, 86% (62/72 responses of participants scored the service as having a positive impact on care and 72% (52/72 indicated that they would use the service frequently if it were continued. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, providing timely information to clinical questions had a highly positive impact on

  2. A decision aid to assist decisions on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: protocol for the CORAL exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for employers to ask health questions before making an offer of employment except in certain circumstances. While the majority of employers would prefer applicants to disclose a mental illness at the application stage, many people either wait until they have accepted the job and then disclose to an occupational health professional, or do not do so at all due to the anticipation of discrimination or a wish for privacy. However, non disclosure precludes the ability to request reasonable adjustments in the workplace or to make a claim of direct discrimination. Disclosure to employers is therefore a difficult decision. A recent pilot study by our group of the CORAL decision aid showed that it helped mental health service users clarify their needs and values regarding disclosure and led to reduction in decisional conflict. The present proof of concept trial aims to determine whether a full scale randomised controlled trial (RCT is justifiable and feasible, and to optimise its design. Methods In this single blind exploratory RCT in London, a total of 80 participants (inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, on the caseload of a specialist employment adviser working with people with mental illness; referred to the adviser either from primary care via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies or secondary mental health service; currently seeking or interested in either paid or voluntary employment, and a Decisional Conflict Scale score of 37.5 or greater and stage of decision score 1–5 will be recruited from vocational advice services. After completing a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions (1 Use of the CORAL Decision Aid (DA in addition to treatment as usual or (2 Treatment as usual. Those allocated to the DA condition will be given it to read and complete, and the researcher will be present to record the time taken and any content that

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE SUBJECT´S BEHAVIOR IN THE INTERACTION WITH A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM UNDER TIME PRESSURE AND MISSING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiane Benedetti Corso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to determine how time pressure and missing information in decision-making affect the behavior of decision makers. Data was collected through an experimental task of simulating the purchase of a car, which was structured with the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria method in a Decision Support System. When pressured by time, the experimental subjects focused on the car of their choice; whereas with no time pressure, some of them rationalized more, used the information, and did not agree with the chosen car. Assumptions of the Theory of Image justified some findings, indicating that previously structured images in the mind of the decision maker are a way to cope with time pressure. Given the missing information, the use of background knowledge and individual experience were the most prominent coping strategy.

  4. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to inter/national decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear accidents/incidents cause significant fear in citizens perceived to be (potentially) impacted. Such events challenge national governments and international agencies to quickly and confidently provide assurance and protection advice. Based on the experience of several radiological accidents, e.g., Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Algeciras, etc., it is evident that large areas, frequently transboundary, and numbers of citizens have the potential to be impacted. Additionally, as a consequence of current 'globalization', i.e. governmental, business, education and leisure travel, most nations now daily host numerous international visitors whose national government embassies have a responsibility to advise and project them from hazards. This mixture of large area, transboundary and international mobility presents a significant challenge to the decision maker community in order to deliver the best consistent advice to all those potentially impacted by a nuclear accident (and assure those not impacted). Post-Chernobyl there has been definitive progress and agreement in the determination of dose protection thresholds. In the same time period there has been a proliferation of dispersion models and assessment systems (from the local to the international scale) to support decision makers at all levels of government. Unfortunately, due to the varying parameters of scale, resolution, input data, and physics assumptions, the consequent assessment results can vary substantially enough [Atmes] to potentially cause confusion and even contradiction when presented to decision makers. Such a circumstance potentially leads to wrong decisions, undercuts confidence and negates all the work and benefits of good assessment calculations. From 1996 to 1999 Japan (JAERI) and the USA (LLNL) investigated, developed and tested an initial capability to share basic event information (start time, source/rates, local meteorology, local measurements, etc.) and calculated assessment

  5. Integrated Data & Analysis in Support of Informed and Transparent Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivetchi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The California Water Plan includes a framework for improving water reliability, environmental stewardship, and economic stability through two initiatives - integrated regional water management to make better use of local water sources by integrating multiple aspects of managing water and related resources; and maintaining and improving statewide water management systems. The Water Plan promotes ways to develop a common approach for data standards and for understanding, evaluating, and improving regional and statewide water management systems, and for common ways to evaluate and select from alternative management strategies and projects. The California Water Plan acknowledges that planning for the future is uncertain and that change will continue to occur. It is not possible to know for certain how population growth, land use decisions, water demand patterns, environmental conditions, the climate, and many other factors that affect water use and supply may change by 2050. To anticipate change, our approach to water management and planning for the future needs to consider and quantify uncertainty, risk, and sustainability. There is a critical need for information sharing and information management to support over-arching and long-term water policy decisions that cross-cut multiple programs across many organizations and provide a common and transparent understanding of water problems and solutions. Achieving integrated water management with multiple benefits requires a transparent description of dynamic linkages between water supply, flood management, water quality, land use, environmental water, and many other factors. Water Plan Update 2013 will include an analytical roadmap for improving data, analytical tools, and decision-support to advance integrated water management at statewide and regional scales. It will include recommendations for linking collaborative processes with technical enhancements, providing effective analytical tools, and improving and sharing

  6. Sampling informative/complex a priori probability distributions using Gibbs sampling assisted by sequential simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    2010-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo methods such as the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis algorithm can be used to sample the solutions to non-linear inverse problems. In principle these methods allow incorporation of arbitrarily complex a priori information, but current methods allow only relatively simple...... priors to be used. We demonstrate how sequential simulation can be seen as an application of the Gibbs sampler, and how such a Gibbs sampler assisted by sequential simulation can be used to perform a random walk generating realizations of a relatively complex random function. We propose to combine this...

  7. Effects of stereotypes on decision making and information-processing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenhausen, G V; Wyer, R S

    1985-02-01

    In two experiments we investigated the effects of stereotyping on (a) reactions to a behavioral transgression and (b) the recall of information bearing on it. Subjects read a case file describing a transgression committed by a target (in Experiment 1, a job-related infraction; in Experiment 2, a criminal act). In some cases, the target's transgression was stereotypic of the target's ethnic group (conveyed through his name), and in other cases it was not. After reading the case file, subjects judged the likelihood that the transgression would recur and recommended punishment for the offense. These judgment data supported the hypothesis that stereotypes function as judgmental heuristics. Specifically, subjects used a stereotype of the target to infer the reasons for his transgression, and then based their punishment decisions on the implications of these inferences, considering other relevant information only when a stereotype-based explanation of the behavior was not available. However, recall data suggested that once a stereotype-based impression of the crime and its determinants was formed, subjects reviewed other available information in an attempt to confirm the implications of this impression. This led to differential recall of presented information, depending on whether its implications were consistent with, inconsistent with, or irrelevant to those of the stereotype. PMID:3981396

  8. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly...

  9. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  10. How attitude strength and information influence moral decision making: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, Manuela; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-05-01

    Moral judgments are based on complex processing. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of moral decisions. Participants (N = 32) were asked to express their opinion on various moral issues while ERPs were recorded. After reading texts containing either confirming or contradicting arguments regarding the issues, participants were asked to express their opinion again. A higher N400 amplitude and a higher amplitude of the late positive potential for value-incongruent words compared to value-congruent words could be observed. Furthermore, after participants had read conflicting arguments, slower responses and larger N400 differences (value-incongruent minus value-congruent) were observed. These results showed that language processing for a moral context is influenced by the subjective value system, and it can be assumed that a demanding cognitive elaboration contributed to the observed RT and N400 priming effects. This is the first ERP study comparing moral judgments before and after reading confirming or conflicting information; it revealed that evaluative reasoning can influence neural processing for moral decisions. PMID:26818492

  11. Information-Dispersion-Entropy-Based Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes in Soft Decision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh-an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories-Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries. PMID:27494334

  13. Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital management information systems (HMIS is a key component of national health information systems (HIS, and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making. Design: The survey was a cross-sectional, cluster sample study conducted in 22 hospitals in Kenya. The statistical analysis was descriptive with adjustment for clustering. Results: Most of the HMIS departments complied with formal guidance to develop departmental plans. However, only a few (3/22 had carried out a data quality audit in the 12 months prior to the survey. On average 3% (range 1–8% of the total hospital income was allocated to the HMIS departments. About half of the records officer positions were filled and about half (13/22 of hospitals had implemented some form of electronic health record largely focused on improving patient billing and not linked to the district HIS. Completeness of manual patient registers varied, being 90% (95% CI 80.1–99.3%, 75.8% (95% CI 68.7–82.8%, and 58% (95% CI 50.4–65.1% in maternal child health clinic, maternity, and pediatric wards, respectively. Vital events notification rates were low with 25.7, 42.6, and 71.3% of neonatal deaths, infant deaths, and live births recorded, respectively. Routine hospital reports suggested slight over-reporting of live births and under-reporting of fresh stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the HMIS does not deliver quality data. Significant constraints exist in data quality assurance, supervisory support, data infrastructure in respect to information and communications technology application, human resources, financial

  14. Do as you say - Say as you do: Measuring the actual use of environmental information in investment decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed was based on an experiment where three groups were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts and information material from these...

  15. Communication and Decision-Making Behavior of IEC (Information, Education, and Communication) Administrators in the Philippines and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsworth, Huber W.; Rosario, Florangel Z.

    This report is part of a case study of the organization and administration of family planning in information, education and communication programs in the Philippines and Malaysia. The study focused on the communication behavior and role perceptions of administrators, who must disseminate information and make decisions within their communication…

  16. A Study of Secondary Students' Decision-Making Processes with Respect to Information Use, Particularly Students' Judgements of Relevance and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Curtis L.

    2010-01-01

    This report details an ongoing investigation of the decision-making processes of a group of secondary school students in south-eastern Australia undertaking information search tasks. The study is situated in the field of information seeking and use, and, more broadly, in decision making. Research questions focus on students' decisions about the…

  17. Utilizing Ecosystem Information to Improve Decision Support Systems for Marine Fisheries (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Chai, F.; Chao, Y.; Wells, B.; Safari Team

    2010-12-01

    Successful ecological forecasting of fishery yields has eluded resource managers for decades. However, recent advances in observing systems, computational power and understanding of ecosystem function offer credible evidence that the variability of the ocean ecosystem and its impact on fishery yield can be forecast accurately enough and with enough lead time to be useful to society. Advances in space-based real time sensors, high performance computing, very high-resolution physical models, and robust ecosystem theory make possible operational forecasts of both fish availability and ecosystem health. Accurate and timely forecasts can provide the information needed to maintain the long-term sustainability of fish stocks and protect the ecosystem of which the fish are an integral part, while maximizing social and economic benefits and preventing wasteful overinvestment of economic resources. Here we review progress in improving the decision support systems by forecasting two marine fisheries: 1) the coastal Peru small pelagic fishery and 2) the central California salmon fishery.

  18. Electricity procurement for large consumers based on Information Gap Decision Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the competitive electricity market, consumers seek strategies to meet their electricity needs at minimum cost and risk. This paper provides a technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different procurement strategies for large consumers. Supply sources include bilateral contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is considered that the pool price is uncertain and its volatility around the estimated value is modeled using an IGDT model. The proposed method does not minimize the procurement cost but assesses the risk aversion or risk-taking nature of some procurement strategies with regard to the minimum cost. Using this method, the robustness of experiencing costs higher than the expected one is optimized and the related strategy is determined. The proposed method deals with optimizing the opportunities to take advantage of low procurement costs or low pool prices. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique. (author)

  19. A hybrid method for decision making with dependence & feedback under incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method to tackle multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete weight information in the context of fuzzy soft sets. In order to determine the weights of criteria, we develop a comprehensive two-stage framework. Stage One: We first define the distance between two fuzzy soft numbers. Next, we establish an optimization model based on ideal point of attribute values, by which the attrib-ute weights can be determined. Stage Two: To get the global weights, we use fuzzy cognitive maps to depict the dependent and feedback effect among criteria. Next, we require constructing fuzzy soft set to decide the desirable alternative. Finally, a case study is given to clarify the proposed approach of this paper.

  20. Proceedings of the buying and pricing power in Alberta 2001 conference : making informed decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changing landscape of energy pricing and buying in Alberta provided the impetus for this conference, where a wide range of topics were covered. The presenters reflected on the importance of having comprehensive information in order to make a decision in this field. The eleven speakers represented power distribution companies and discussed: the new challenges in buying and selling power in Alberta; the evolving electricity market managing and energy portfolio; pricing of power in the new market; the impact on industrial/commercial customers; allocation of risk in power purchase agreements; paying for the transmission system; marketing under the changing rules of the game; forward markets in Alberta; new product and service offerings; alternatives to the grid: distributed generation, energy strategies; uncertainty and opportunity in Alberta's deregulated market, load allocation and financial settlement. The conference was an opportunity for all interested parties to exchange views and ideas pertaining to the marketing and the pricing of energy in Alberta. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Making nuclear power plant operational decisions using probabilistic safety assessment information and personal computers. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRISIM described in this case study makes a PSA useful to decision makers like plant managers, operational personnel or safety assessors because it provides a rapid access to specific information and the ability to generate updated PSA results that reflect the plant status at a particular time. From the capabilities of PRISIM one can conclude that the ability of a user friendly update of the system model in the PC or changes in the data files at the computer is not realized to data. Also the calculation of averaged probabilities instead of time dependent instantaneous probabilities is a sort of a restriction and will be changed in the future. 5 refs, 34 figs, 3 tabs

  2. PUBLIC DECISIONS AND CITIZEN SATISFACTION: THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Barbara Floreddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “public participation” is currently of great interest to researchers and policymakers. The major challenge that this concept presents is the development of methods to verify the results of the effects of inclusive participation practices on decision-making processes1. There is also a lack of evaluation methods regarding the participation of the public through Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGISs. To fill this gap, the ongoing research has two objectives: first, to develop an analytical framework through which PPGIS initiatives can be evaluated; second, to apply the above-mentioned framework to a multi-case study to analyze and evaluate the results obtained from different PPGIS projects. In detail, we investigate the level of citizens’ satisfaction regarding their active participation within PPGIS projects. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, we apply cross-case analysis and content analysis methodologies.

  3. Electricity procurement for large consumers based on Information Gap Decision Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the competitive electricity market, consumers seek strategies to meet their electricity needs at minimum cost and risk. This paper provides a technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different procurement strategies for large consumers. Supply sources include bilateral contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is considered that the pool price is uncertain and its volatility around the estimated value is modeled using an IGDT model. The proposed method does not minimize the procurement cost but assesses the risk aversion or risk-taking nature of some procurement strategies with regard to the minimum cost. Using this method, the robustness of experiencing costs higher than the expected one is optimized and the related strategy is determined. The proposed method deals with optimizing the opportunities to take advantage of low procurement costs or low pool prices. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique.

  4. Accident management advisor system (AMAS): A Decision Aid for Interpreting Instrument Information and Managing Accident Conditions in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for the development of models specifically tailored to real-time accident management. While it is almost impossible to develop and utilize exact models of the evolution of all possible accident sequences for each given type of nuclear power plant and containment design (e.g., PWR and BWR designs at various power ratings, large dry containment or ice condenser types, etc.), it appears possible to develop a sound approach to monitor the progression of an accident with respect to the integrity and effectiveness of a set of principal safety functions. The key to doing this is the development of a knowledge base 'housing structure', where uncertain knowledge regarding the predicted plant behavior and real-time, but also uncertain, information compiled from plant instrumentation readings can be compared and matched to produce the best possible identification of plant states and possible accident control actions. In summary: This paper illustrates the concept and the architecture of the Accident Management Advisor System, a decision aid which enables the use of combined instrument information to reduce uncertainty in decision making associated with nuclear plant accident conditions. The principal benefits offered by this concept are the definition of an approach to utilize instrument information under uncertain accident conditions in such a way as to allow the best possible assessment of plant status and the implementation of a formalized accident management decision-making strategy by means of a computer-based operator assistance tool. When fully developed, we expect AMAS to find application in both the commercial and government sections of the U.S. nuclear industry. We currently plan to have a working prototype of the system, ready to demonstrate its functionality for a representative commercial PWR plant, by the end of the next phase of our research, in which both model development and software development activities will have to be carried out. Finally, the AMAS

  5. Decision-making methods in IT-outsourcing for enterprise information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Poluektova

    2015-03-01

    . Feature of this method is the ability to use the criteria estimates, which are presented in the any values that fluctuate (interval, fuzzy, and others and can be evaluated by interval or fuzzy expert assessments. The method uses a Hamming distance to obtain estimates for each criterion. The procedure for alternatives ranking calculation allows to select a solution that takes into the minimal distance from the ideal option both individual and averaged preferences. This article contains an example of selecting provider of IT outsourcing services using the VICOR method. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Suggested models of substantiate decisions regarding transfer of certain information service functions to the outsourcing model in combination with approach to outsourcing services provider selecting based on modified VIKOR method allows to apply the latest technological solutions in development of information system and to improve its general and institutional effectiveness.

  6. An application of the value tree analysis methodology within the integrated risk informed decision making for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new framework of integrated risk informed decision making (IRIDM) has been recently developed in order to improve the risk management of the nuclear facilities. IRIDM is a process in which qualitatively different inputs, corresponding to different types of risk, are jointly taken into account. However, the relative importance of the IRIDM inputs and their influence on the decision to be made is difficult to be determined quantitatively. An improvement of this situation can be achieved by application of the Value Tree Analysis (VTA) methods. The aim of this article is to present the VTA methodology in the context of its potential usage in the decision making on nuclear facilities. The benefits of the VTA application within the IRIDM process were identified while making the decision on fuel conversion of the research reactor MARIA. - Highlights: • New approach to risk informed decision making on nuclear facilities was postulated. • Value tree diagram was developed for decision processes on nuclear installations. • An experiment was performed to compare the new approach with the standard one. • Benefits of the new approach were reached in fuel conversion of a research reactor. • The new approach makes the decision making process more transparent and auditable

  7. A Decision Support Information System for Urban Landscape Management Using Thermal Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Howell, Burgess F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to use remote sensing data within the purview of an information support system, to assess urban thermal landscape characteristics as a means for developing more robust models of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. We also present a rationale on how we have successfully translated the results from the study of urban thermal heating and cooling regimes as identified from remote sensing data, to decision-makers, planners, government officials, and the public at large in several US cities to facilitate better understanding of how the UHI affects air quality. Additionally, through the assessment of the spatial distribution of urban thermal landscape characteristics using remote sensing data, it is possible to develop strategies to mitigate the UHI that hopefully will in turn, drive down ozone levels and improve overall urban air quality. Four US cities have been the foci for intensive analysis as part of our studies: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. The remote sensing data for each of these cities has been used to generate a number of products for use by "stakeholder" working groups to convey information on what the effects are of the UHI and what measures can be taken to mitigate it. In turn, these data products are used to both educate and inform policy-makers, planners, and the general public about what kinds of UHI mitigation strategies are available.

  8. Plant specific risk informed decision making -a vision for Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety is to ensure and demonstrate that the risk from NPP to public and plant personnel is acceptably low. As a supplement to the deterministic approach, use of probabilistic techniques has been gaining grounds. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a popular international practice to calculate plant risk to the public, environment and plant personnel, in the event of an accident taking place in the plant. The risk posed by Nuclear Reactors to the Public at large is a very important issue in the public acceptance of a Nuclear Power Programme in any country. Risk Definition, generally accepted at present as the measure of possibility for an accidental event and severity of its effects to occur, simultaneously comprises both the probability (frequency) of potential damage occurrence and extent of this damage. NPCIL' s vision is to provide safe, reliable and cost effective energy to the nation by ensuring safe operation of the plants, limiting radiation exposure to plant personnel and public within prescribed limits. To achieve this vision our mission is to enhance the technical competency, resources and the awareness towards improved safety culture specific to Probabilistic Safety Assessment for applying PSA Studies to Risk Informed Decision making. This mission translates into the goal of completion of full scope PSA, with the co-operation and synergetic efforts of the Head quarters and Operating Station experts. NPCIL will then be self sufficient in applying Probabilistic Studies in Risk Informed Decision making to minimize risk and back fitting design changes to optimize the existing design and operating practices, thus providing for safe, reliable and cost effective energy to the nation. (author)

  9. Intelligent information extraction to aid science decision making in autonomous space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merényi, Erzsébet; Tasdemir, Kadim; Farrand, William H.

    2008-04-01

    Effective scientific exploration of remote targets such as solar system objects increasingly calls for autonomous data analysis and decision making on-board. Today, robots in space missions are programmed to traverse from one location to another without regard to what they might be passing by. By not processing data as they travel, they can miss important discoveries, or will need to travel back if scientists on Earth find the data warrant backtracking. This is a suboptimal use of resources even on relatively close targets such as the Moon or Mars. The farther mankind ventures into space, the longer the delay in communication, due to which interesting findings from data sent back to Earth are made too late to command a (roving, floating, or orbiting) robot to further examine a given location. However, autonomous commanding of robots in scientific exploration can only be as reliable as the scientific information extracted from the data that is collected and provided for decision making. In this paper, we focus on the discovery scenario, where information extraction is accomplished with unsupervised clustering. For high-dimensional data with complicated structure, detailed segmentation that identifies all significant groups and discovers the small, surprising anomalies in the data, is a challenging task at which conventional algorithms often fail. We approach the problem with precision manifold learning using self-organizing neural maps with non-standard features developed in the course of our research. We demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this approach on multi-spectral imagery from the Mars Exploration Rovers Pancam, and on synthetic hyperspectral imagery.

  10. Beyond informed choice: Prenatal risk assessment, decision-making and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nete Schwennesen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 prenatal risk assessment (PRA was implemented as a routine offer to all pregnant women in Denmark. It was argued that primarily the new programme would give all pregnant women an informed choice about whether to undergo prenatal testing. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork in an ultrasound clinic in Denmark and interviews with pregnant women and their partners, we call into question the assumption underlying the new guidelines that more choice and more objective information is a source of empowerment and control. We focus on one couple's experience of PRA. This case makes it evident how supposed choices in the context of PRA may not be experienced as such. Rather, they are experienced as complicated processes of meaning-making in the relational space between the clinical setting, professional authority and the social life of the couples. PRA users are reluctant to make choices and abandon health professionals as authoritative experts in the face of complex risk knowledge. When assumptions about autonomy and self-determination are inscribed into the social practice of PRA, authority is transferred to the couple undergoing PRA and a new configuration of responsibility evolves between the couple and their relationship to the foetus. It is argued that al-though the new programme of prenatal testing in Denmark presents itself in opposition to quasi-eugenic and paternalistic forms of governing couples' decisions it represents another form of government that works through the notion of choice. An ethics of a shared responsibility of PRA and its outcome would be more in agreement with how decisions are actually made.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i1.1687

  11. Solutions for decision support in university management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei STANCIU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an overview of decision support systems in order to define the role of a system to assist decision in university management. The authors present new technologies and the basic concepts of multidimensional data analysis using models of business processes within the universities. Based on information provided by scientific literature and on the authors’ experience, the study aims to define selection criteria in choosing a development environment for designing a support system dedicated to university management. The contributions consist in designing a data warehouse model and models of OLAP analysis to assist decision in university management.

  12. Sources of information influencing decision-making in orthopaedic surgery - an international online survey of 1147 orthopaedic surgeons

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Arndt P; Jönsson, Anders; Kasch, Richard; Jettoo, Prithee; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    Background Manufacturers of implants and materials in the field of orthopaedics use significant amounts of funding to produce informational material to influence the decision-making process of orthopaedic surgeons with regards to choice between novel implants and techniques. It remains unclear how far orthopaedic surgeons are really influenced by the materials supplied by companies or whether other, evidence-based publications have a higher impact on their decision-making. The objective was t...

  13. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein Richard H; Wachtel Ruth E; Dexter Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems dat...

  14. Triple dissociation of information processing in dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and hippocampus on a learned spatial decision task

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meer, Matthijs A. A.; Johnson, Adam; Schmitzer-Torbert, Neil C.; Redish, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Decision-making studies across different domains suggest that decisions can arise from multiple, parallel systems in the brain: a flexible system utilizing action-outcome expectancies, and a more rigid system based on situation-action associations. The hippocampus, ventral striatum and dorsal striatum make unique contributions to each system, but how information processing in each of these structures supports these systems is unknown. Recent work has shown covert representations of future pat...

  15. Understanding Information Technology Investment Decision-Making in the Context of Hotel Global Distribution Systems: a Multiple-Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOTEL GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY by Daniel J. Connolly Dr. Michael D. Olsen, Chair Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ABSTRACT This study investigates what three large, multinational hospitality companies do in practice when evaluating and making IT investment decisions. This study was launched in an attempt to 1) learn more about ...

  16. Managing resources in NHS dentistry: using health economics to inform commissioning decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exley Catherine E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to develop, apply and evaluate an economics-based framework to assist commissioners in their management of finite resources for local dental services. In April 2006, Primary Care Trusts in England were charged with managing finite dental budgets for the first time, yet several independent reports have since criticised the variability in commissioning skills within these organisations. The study will explore the views of stakeholders (dentists, patients and commissioners regarding priority setting and the criteria used for decision-making and resource allocation. Two inter-related case studies will explore the dental commissioning and resource allocation processes through the application of a pragmatic economics-based framework known as Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis. Methods/Design The study will adopt an action research approach. Qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups, field notes and document analysis will record the views of participants and their involvement in the research process. The first case study will be based within a Primary Care Trust where mixed methods will record the views of dentists, patients and dental commissioners on issues, priorities and processes associated with managing local dental services. A Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis framework will be applied to determine the potential value of economic principles to the decision-making process. A further case study will be conducted in a secondary care dental teaching hospital using the same approach. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and managed using a framework approach. Discussion The recent announcement by government regarding the proposed abolition of Primary Care Trusts may pose challenges for the research team regarding their engagement with the research study. However, whichever commissioning organisations are responsible for resource allocation

  17. Dissemination of assistive technology information to farmers and ranchers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, C W; Field, W E

    2011-07-01

    Since induction of the AgrAbility program through appropriations contained in the 1990 Farm Bill, the national and state/regional AgrAbility projects have used a variety of methods to disseminate information about assistive technology (AT) to farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. To date, no known research has been conducted to assess those delivery methods from the perspectives of either the persons with disabilities in need of information or the education and rehabilitation professionals who work with them. This study's purpose was two-fold: (1) review various dissemination strategies to identify those documented as being more effective, and (2) conduct surveys to ascertain the perspectives of AgrAbility project professionals and a national network of farmers and ranchers with disabilities (called the Barn Builders). Key findings of the study were as follows: (1) the farmers and ranchers most preferred receiving information via printed newsletters (71%) and printed publications (67%); (2) AgrAbility staff most preferred receiving information via internet-based publication access (61%), e-mail (60%), and printed publications (58%); (3) many farmers and ranchers perceived that dissemination strategies were moving toward the internet (53%) and that AT information was generally more available now than in the past (38%); (4) both AgrAbility staff and the Barn Builders tended to agree that farmers still wanted to receive information in printed form; and (5) neither age nor education level appeared to be a strong predictor of internet use by farmers. Key recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of current AT information delivery methods included: (1) implementing effective document management strategies for all information resources, especially for online content; and (2) minimizing language translation efforts, since such a small percentage of the AgrAbility project customer base is primarily non-English speaking. It is believed that

  18. Taming Data to Make Decisions: Using a Spatial Fuzzy Logic Decision Support Framework to Inform Conservation and Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, T.; Baker, B.; Degagne, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    With the abundance of data sources, analytical methods, and computer models, land managers are faced with the overwhelming task of making sense of a profusion of data of wildly different types. Luckily, fuzzy logic provides a method to work with different types of data using language-based propositions such as "the landscape is undisturbed," and a simple set of logic constructs. Just as many surveys allow different levels of agreement with a proposition, fuzzy logic allows values reflecting different levels of truth for a proposition. Truth levels fall within a continuum ranging from Fully True to Fully False. Hence a fuzzy logic model produces continuous results. The Environmental Evaluation Modeling System (EEMS) is a platform-independent, tree-based, fuzzy logic modeling framework. An EEMS model provides a transparent definition of an evaluation model and is commonly developed as a collaborative effort among managers, scientists, and GIS experts. Managers specify a set of evaluative propositions used to characterize the landscape. Scientists, working with managers, formulate functions that convert raw data values into truth values for the propositions and produce a logic tree to combine results into a single metric used to guide decisions. Managers, scientists, and GIS experts then work together to implement and iteratively tune the logic model and produce final results. We present examples of two successful EEMS projects that provided managers with map-based results suitable for guiding decisions: sensitivity and climate change exposure in Utah and the Colorado Plateau modeled for the Bureau of Land Management; and terrestrial ecological intactness in the Mojave and Sonoran region of southern California modeled for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan.

  19. Age-related changes in decision making: comparing informed and noninformed situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.K. van Duijvenvoorde; B.R.J. Jansen; J.C. Bredman; H.M. Huizenga

    2012-01-01

    Advantageous decision making progressively develops into early adulthood, most specifically in complex and motivationally salient decision situations in which direct feedback on gains and losses is provided (Figner & Weber, 2011). However, the factors that underlie this developmental improvement in

  20. Improving Decision Speed, Accuracy and Group Cohesion through Early Information Gathering in House-Hunting Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt; Martin Giurfa; Franks, Nigel R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations...

  1. Computational-Process Modelling of Household Travel Decisions Using a Geographical Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G; Kwan, Mei-Po; Garling, Tommy

    1994-01-01

    Household travel behavior entails interdependent deliberate decisions, as well as the execution of routines not preceded by deliberate decisions. Furthermore, travel decisions are dependent on choices to participate in activities. Because of the complexity of the decision-making process in which individuals are engaged, computational-process models (CPMs) are promising means of implementing behavioral principles which unlike other disaggregate modelling approaches do not rely on a utility-max...

  2. Management Accounting for Movement of Funds as an Element of Current and Strategic Information Provision of Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Matyukha Nikolay N.

    2013-01-01

    The article reveals methodical aspects of construction of the management accounting for movement of monetary funds. It covers the issues of methods and techniques of composition of managerial reports with the use of information technologies. It identifies problematic issues of information provision for decision making on company’s cash flows. It defines specific features of the forms of management accounting on cash flows depending on factors of determination of information provision of the m...

  3. The impact of information cascade on consumer’s decision making in the frame of brand image within social media

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nourani; H. Choubtarash Abarde; Dehghani, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a deeper relationship between effects of information cascades on customers action and influence of brand image. Information cascades on the social media occurs when an individual observes behaviors of others and then make the same decision that other individuals have already made. According to, information cascades on a social media could lead to that many users have a strong effect on each other like determining the most influential individuals preference within a net...

  4. Age-Related Changes in Decision Making: Comparing Informed and Noninformed Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Bredman, Joren C.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Advantageous decision making progressively develops into early adulthood, most specifically in complex and motivationally salient decision situations in which direct feedback on gains and losses is provided (Figner & Weber, 2011). However, the factors that underlie this developmental improvement in decision making are still not well understood.…

  5. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  6. The Effects of Management Information System toward Decision Making in Food and Beverage Service Department in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Gita Subakti; Maria Pia Adiati

    2015-01-01

    In an organization, decision making hold an important role. That is why a decision made by managers should be a final decision that should be done by their subordinates or those who are related with the organization. In the effort to increase the quality of management information system, a research was held in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung to analyze management information system in the relation to decision making especially in Food and Beverage Service Department and recommendation of how to ...

  7. Decision Tool for optimal deployment of radar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A Decision Tool for air defence is presented. This Decision Tool, when provided with information about the radar, the environment, and the expected class of targets, informs the radar operator about detection probabilities. This assists the radar operator to select the optimum radar parameters. n the future, a Decision Tool will be developed that advises the radar operator about the optimum selection of radar parameters.

  8. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Florida and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) have been studied and debated for many years. The issues derive from the complexity of coastal and offshore marine processes and ecosystems, human socio-economic systems, and interactions with OCS oil and gas development activities. On Feb. 9, 1989, President Bush announced his decision to postpone leasing for OCS areas off southwestern Florida (sale 116, part 2), northern California (sale 91), and southern California (sale 95). At the same time, the President created a cabinet-level task force to review the environmental concerns for these three OCS areas, and he also requested independent advice from the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was asked to assess the adequacy of the available scientific and technical information on estimated hydrocarbon resources and potential environmental effects for the three specified areas. The report, by the OCS Committee and its three panels dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics, reviews the adequacy of information bearing upon the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the three sale areas

  9. Making an Informed Decision on Freshwater Management by Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Traditional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyon, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The US National Research Council (NRC) recommended that: "The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth-observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications." in response to the NASA Earth Science Division's request to prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those objectives. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach to connect remote sensing science to decision support applications by establishing a framework to integrate direct measurements, earth system models, inventories, and other information to accurately estimate fresh water resources in global, regional, and local scales. We will discuss our demonstration projects and lessons learned from the experience. Deploying a monitoring system that offers sustained, accurate, transparent and relevant information represents a challenge and opportunity to a broad community spanning earth science, water resource accounting and public policy. An introduction to some of the scientific and technical infrastructure issues associated with monitoring systems is offered here to encourage future treatment of these topics by other contributors as a concluding remark.

  10. Identifying the most informative variables for decision-making problems – a survey of recent approaches and accompanying problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55. ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision-making%20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf

  11. THE STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION FOR THE PROCESS OF STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING: A STUDY BASED ON THE STRATEGY WHILE IN PRACTISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abib

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the informational structure behavior at the strategic decision process of two cooperatives located in the state of Parana, Brazil. For the referenced analysis it was used the social relation practices emerged between the cooperatives and its cooperated staff and the analysis of the process as a competitive resource. The research kind was multicase one with descriptive and exploratory methodology and data analysis triangulation. The findings showed that the informational structure behavior has differences in use and importance when observed at different moments of the strategic decision process and at different hierarquical levels.

  12. Social media's significance on the need recognition and information search, in B2B investment decisions of 3D printers.

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    This study examines what significance social media (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Instagram) may have in regard to clients need recognition and information search, in B2B investment decision making of desktop 3D printers. The study was made on 121 respondents from the 3D printer reseller company 3DVerkstan’s customer base. Need recognition and information search are the two first steps of five, in the consumer behavioral Engel Blackwell Miniard (EBM) model of decision making. To get a bette...

  13. Informing physicians using a situated decision support system: Disease management for the smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat George Saade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We are in the midst of a healthcare paradigm shift driven by the wide adoption of ubiquitous computing and various modes of information communications technologies. As a result, cities worldwide are undergoing a major process of urbanization with ever increasing wealth of sensing capabilities – hence the Internet of Things (IoT. These trends impose great pressure on how healthcare is done. This paper describes the design and implementation of a situated clinical decision support (SCDSS system, most appropriate for smart cities. The SCDSS was prototyped and enhanced in a clinic. The SCDSS was then used in a clinic as well as in a university hospital centre. In this article, the system’s architecture, subcomponents and integrated workflow are described. The systems’ design was the result of a knowledge acquisition process involving interviews with five specialists and testing with 50 patients. The reports (specialist consultation report generated by the SCDSS were shown to general practitioners who were not able to distinguish them from human specialist reports. We propose a context-aware CDSS and assess its effectiveness in managing a wide medical range of patients. Five different patient cases were identified for analysis. The SCDSS was used to produce draft electronic specialist consultations, which were then compared to the original specialists’ consultations. It was found that the SCDSS-generated consults were of better quality for a number of reasons discussed herein. SCDSSs have great promise for their use in the clinical environment of smart cities. Valuable insights into the integration and use of situated clinical decision support systems are highlighted and suggestions for future research are given.

  14. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Jihong Xia; Lihuai Lin; Junqiang Lin; Laounia Nehal

    2014-01-01

    The development of a decision support system (DSS) to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS)-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS). This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers d...

  15. Co-Designing Ambient Assisted Living (AAL Environments: Unravelling the Situated Context of Informal Dementia Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient assisted living (AAL aims to help older persons “age-in-place” and manage everyday activities using intelligent and pervasive computing technology. AAL research, however, has yet to explore how AAL might support or collaborate with informal care partners (ICPs, such as relatives and friends, who play important roles in the lives and care of persons with dementia (PwDs. In a multiphase codesign process with six (6 ICPs, we envisioned how AAL could be situated to complement their care. We used our codesigned “caregiver interface” artefacts as triggers to facilitate envisioning of AAL support and unpack the situated, idiosyncratic context within which AAL aims to assist. Our findings suggest that AAL should be designed to support ICPs in fashioning “do-it-yourself” solutions that complement tacitly improvised care strategies and enable them to try, observe, and adapt to solutions over time. In this way, an ICP could decide which activities to entrust to AAL support, when (i.e., scheduled or spontaneous and how a system should provide support (i.e., using personalized prompts based on care experience, and when adaptations to system support are needed (i.e., based alerting patterns and queried reports. Future longitudinal work employing participatory, design-oriented methods with care dyads is encouraged.

  16. Informed Practice: Students' Clinical Experiences in the Undergraduate Phase of an Accelerated Physician Assistant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereczyk, Amy; DeWitt, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    This qualitative study explored the clinical experiences of students in an accelerated physician assistant (PA) program. The participants were either certified nursing assistants (CNAs) or emergency medical technicians-basic (EMTs-B). The study was designed to elicit (1) how the participants perceived their older patients and (2) how the participants' experiences might affect their own future communications, bedside manner, and clinical preparedness as PAs. This study used a focus group to explore students' clinical experiences before the graduate phase of their accelerated PA program. Five female and 2 male PA students (N = 7) participated in the study. All participants were 23 years old and worked as either a CNA or an EMT-B. Results fell into 2 basic themes: informing practice and forming relationships. Regarding the first theme, participants felt that their experience as entry-level health care providers allowed them to improve their communication skills and bedside manner and to provide greater comfort to patients. Regarding the second theme, participants gained appreciation for older people and began to recognize the knowledge deficits and learning needs of their patients. The results suggested that a student's clinical experience as a CNA or an EMT-B before entering a PA program has a positive effect on the student's personal and professional development. The participants acquired greater appreciation and respect for older patients and members of the health care team. PMID:27123599

  17. Striatal BOLD response reflects the impact of herd information on financial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe N Tobler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Like other species, humans are sensitive to the decisions and actions of conspecifics, which can lead to herd behavior and undesirable outcomes such as stock market bubbles and bank runs. However, how the brain processes this socially derived influence is only poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned participants as they made decisions on whether to buy stocks after observing others’ buying decisions. We demonstrate that activity in the ventral striatum, an area heavily implicated in reward processing, tracked the degree of influence on participants’ decisions arising from the observation of other peoples’ decisions. The signal did not track non-human, non-social control decisions. These findings lend weight to the notion that the ventral striatum is involved in the processing of complex social aspects of decision-making and identify a possible neural basis for herd behavior.

  18. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  19. Application of the CNSC risk-informed decision-making process in nuclear power regulation: an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the CNSC risk-informed decision-making (RIDM) process, as well as an example of its use in a licensing application in power reactor regulation. The CNSC developed the RIDM process as a tool for: 1) Ensuring that all risks are identified and considered for making decisions, 2) Ensuring that interests of affected stakeholders are considered, 3) Enabling the decision-makers to make easier-to-explain, and better justified, decisions, 4) Providing a standardized set of terms to describe risk issues contributing to better communication, and 5) Providing an explicit treatment of uncertainty. The risk management process follows a set of steps, initiated by a decision to be made that could affect a regulatory objective. The problem is identified, a team is established, and risks are determined by identifying and analyzing hazards, evaluating the risks involved to determine the their level and the risk control measures to reduce the levels of risk. The options are then presented to the decision-maker and action is taken; monitoring the impact/effectiveness of the risk control measures concludes the process. The CNSC's approach is consistent with practices of other nuclear regulatory bodies which factor risk into their decision-making process. (author)

  20. Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh

    2014-12-01

    This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China. PMID:25209925