Sample records for assisted circulation

  1. Minimal-Entanglement Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Error Correction Codes from Modified Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Manh Nguyen


    Full Text Available In this paper, new construction methods of entanglement-assisted quantum error correction code (EAQECC from circulant matrices are proposed. We first construct the matrices from two vectors of constraint size, and determine the isotropic subgroup. Then, we also propose a method for calculation of the entanglement subgroup based on standard forms of binary matrices to satisfy the constraint conditions of EAQECC. With isotropic and entanglement subgroups, we determine all the parameters and the minimum distance of the EAQECC. The proposed EAQECC with small lengths are presented to explain the practicality of this construction of EAQECC. Comparison with some earlier constructions of EAQECC shows that the proposed EAQECC is better.

  2. A novel approach in extracorporeal circulation: individual, integrated, and interactive heart-lung assist (I3-Assist). (United States)

    Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Fiehe, Sandra; Kaufmann, Tim; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta


    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a well-established technique for the treatment of different cardiac and pulmonary diseases, e.g., congenital heart disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, severely ill patients who cannot be weaned from the heart-lung machine directly after surgery have to be put on ECLS for further therapy. Although both systems include identical components, a seamless transition is not possible yet. The adaption of the circuit to the patients' size and demand is limited owing to the components available. The project I³-Assist aims at a novel concept for extracorporeal circulation. To better match the patient's therapeutic demand of support, an individual number of one-size oxygenators and heat exchangers will be combined. A seamless transition between cardiopulmonary bypass and ECLS will be possible as well as the exchange of components during therapy to enhance circuit maintenance throughout long-term support. Until today, a novel oxygenator and heat exchanger along with a simplified manufacturing protocol have been established. The first layouts of the unit to allow the spill- and bubble-free connection and disconnection of modules as well as improved cannulas and a rotational pump are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Tests were performed according to current guidelines in vitro and in vivo. The test results show the feasibility and potential of the concept.

  3. The effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation versus miniaturized extracorporeal circulation on microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (United States)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bezemer, Rick; Euser, Mariska; Milstein, Dan M J; de Geus, Hilde H R; Scholten, Evert W; de Mol, Bas A J M; Ince, Can


    OBJECTIVES To reduce the complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, many modifications have been made to conventional extracorporeal circulation systems. This trend has led to the development of miniaturized extracorporeal circulation systems. Cardiac surgery using conventional extracorporeal circulation systems has been associated with significantly reduced microcirculatory perfusion, but it remains unknown whether this could be prevented by an mECC system. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that microcirculatory perfusion decreases with the use of a conventional extracorporeal circulation system and would be preserved with the use of an miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system. METHODS Microcirculatory density and perfusion were assessed using sublingual side stream dark-field imaging in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before, during and after the use of either a conventional extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10) or a miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10). In addition, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were assessed up to 5 days post-surgery to monitor renal function. RESULTS At the end of the CPB, one patient in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated group and five patients in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group received one bag of packed red blood cells (300 ml). During the CPB, the haematocrit and haemoglobin levels were slightly higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated patients compared with the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated patients (27.7 ± 3.3 vs 24.7 ± 2.0%; P = 0.03; and 6.42 ± 0.75 vs 5.41 ± 0.64 mmol/l; P circulation-treated group from 16.4 ± 3.8 to 12.8 ± 3.3 mm/mm(2) (P circulation-treated group (16.3 ± 2.7 and 15.2 ± 2.9 mm/mm(2) before and during the pump, respectively). Plasma neutrophil

  4. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils in a small scale circulation process. (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi


    Biodiesel production from canola oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst by a circulation process at room temperature. In this process, the transesterification was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation of low frequency (20 kHz) with an input capacity of 1 kW. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time, were investigated. The objective of this work was to produce biodiesel satisfying the biodiesel-fuel standards of low energy consumption and material savings. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 5:1 and 0.7 wt.% catalyst in oil. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was greater than 99% within the reaction time of 50 min. Crude biodiesel was purified by washing with tap water and drying at 70 degrees C under reduced pressure.

  5. Design of a right ventricular mock circulation loop as a test bench for right ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Mueller, Indra; Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Abel, Dirk; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Rossaint, Rolf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Sonntag, Simon Johannes


    Right heart failure (RHF), e.g. due to pulmonary hypertension (PH), is a serious health issue with growing occurrence and high mortality rate. Limited efficacy of medication in advanced stages of the disease constitutes the need for mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle (RV). An essential contribution to the process of developing right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) is the in vitro test bench, which simulates the hemodynamic behavior of the native circulatory system. To model healthy and diseased arterial-pulmonary hemodynamics in adults (mild and severe PH and RHF), a right heart mock circulation loop (MCL) was developed. Incorporating an anatomically shaped silicone RV and a silicone atrium, it not only enables investigations of hemodynamic values but also suction events or the handling of minimal invasive RVADs in an anatomical test environment. Ventricular pressure-volume loops of all simulated conditions as well as pressure and volume waveforms were recorded and compared to literature data. In an exemplary test, an RVAD was connected to the apex to further test the feasibility of studying such devices with the developed MCL. In conclusion, the hemodynamic behavior of the native system was well reproduced by the developed MCL, which is a useful basis for future RVAD tests.

  6. Superior performance of continuous over pulsatile flow ventricular assist devices in the single ventricle circulation: A computational study. (United States)

    Schmidt, Tyler; Rosenthal, David; Reinhartz, Olaf; Riemer, Kirk; He, Fei; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison; Kung, Ethan


    This study compares the physiological responses of systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients to pulsatile and continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VADs). Performance differences between pulsatile and continuous flow VADs have been clinically observed, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Six systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients (mean BSA=0.30m(2)) were computationally simulated using a lumped-parameter network tuned to match patient specific clinical data. A first set of simulations compared current clinical implementation of VADs in single ventricle patients. A second set modified pulsatile flow VAD settings with the goal to optimize cardiac output (CO). For all patients, the best-case continuous flow VAD CO was at least 0.99L/min greater than the optimized pulsatile flow VAD CO (p=0.001). The 25 and 50mL pulsatile flow VADs exhibited incomplete filling at higher heart rates that reduced CO as much as 9.7% and 37.3% below expectations respectively. Optimization of pulsatile flow VAD settings did not achieve statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement to CO. Results corroborate clinical experience that continuous flow VADs produce higher CO and superior ventricular unloading in single ventricle patients. Impaired filling leads to performance degradation of pulsatile flow VADs in the single ventricle circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Clinical application of a microfluidic chip for immunocapture and quantification of circulating exosomes to assist breast cancer diagnosis and molecular classification. (United States)

    Fang, Shimeng; Tian, Hongzhu; Li, Xiancheng; Jin, Dong; Li, Xiaojie; Kong, Jing; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xuesong; Lu, Yao; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Niu, Weidong; Liu, Tingjiao


    Increasing attention has been attracted by exosomes in blood-based diagnosis because cancer cells release more exosomes in serum than normal cells and these exosomes overexpress a certain number of cancer-related biomarkers. However, capture and biomarker analysis of exosomes for clinical application are technically challenging. In this study, we developed a microfluidic chip for immunocapture and quantification of circulating exosomes from small sample volume and applied this device in clinical study. Circulating EpCAM-positive exosomes were measured in 6 cases breast cancer patients and 3 healthy controls to assist diagnosis. A significant increase in the EpCAM-positive exosome level in these patients was detected, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we quantified circulating HER2-positive exosomes in 19 cases of breast cancer patients for molecular classification. We demonstrated that the exosomal HER2 expression levels were almost consistent with that in tumor tissues assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The microfluidic chip might provide a new platform to assist breast cancer diagnosis and molecular classification.

  8. Uso de bomba centrífuga no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca Assisted circulation in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Pêgo-Fernandes


    .In patients with cardiogenic shock following cardiopulmonary bypass, not responsive to intraortic balloon pump and drugs, the centrifugal pumps are the first option in many centers. These centers that use modern vortex pumps cite their simplicity, availability, relatively low cost, and low amount of blood trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the experience of InCór with 8 patients submitted to assisted circulation with biopump from May 1990 to December 1991 . Intraortic balloon counterpulsation was used in these 8 patients with conventional medical therapy. Their ages ranged from 54 to 66 . Three patients were submitted to coronary bypass, 2 to mitral valve replacement, 2 to left ventricular aneurysm correction and 1 to heart transplantation. Left atrial to aortic bypass was done in 7 patients and in 1 , right atrial to pulmonary bypass. The patients were assisted from 18 to 12 6 hours. Three patients died during assisted circulation: 2 were in bridge to transplantation and didn't achieve donor organ, and 1 died due to bleeding and acute renal failure. Five (62.5% patients were weaned from the device, but 2 died at hospital, 1 due to respiratory failure and 1 due to neurologic and renal failure. When we compared the clinical evaluation with CKMB, we noted that 3 patients with CKMB greater than 80 died, 2 during assisted circulation. In 5 patients with CKMB less than 80 , 4 were weaned from the device and 3 were discharged from the hospital. Two patients discharged from the hospital are in NYHA functional class II and 1 in class I. The early utilization of assisted circulation will lead to better results in this group of high risk patients.

  9. [Effect of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on respiration and circulation functions in patients undergoing open heart surgery under acupuncture-assisted general anesthesia]. (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Wang, Jian; Fu, Guo-Qiang; Yuan, Lan


    To evaluate the effect of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam on respiratory and circulation in patients experiencing open heart surgery under acupuncture-assisted general anesthesia. Sixty patients undergoing open heart surgery (cardiac valve replacement surgery and aortic valve replacement surgery) were randomly and equally divided into Dexmedetomidine (D) and Midazolam (M) groups. Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied to bilateral Yunmen (LU 2), Zhongfu (LU1), Lieque (LU7) and Neiguan (PC6). For patients of group D, Dexmedetomidine (i.v., loading dose: 1 microg/kg, and succedent dose: 0.2-1 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was given. For patients of group M, Midazolam (i.v., loading dose: 0.05 mg/kg, succedent dose: 0.01-0.03 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was given. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), arterial carbondioxide tension (PaCO2), O2 saturation (SPO2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), anesthetic effect, time of spontaneous breathing recovery, and time of resuscitation were recorded before operation (T0), immediately after skin incision (T1), immediately after sternotomy (T2), before suspension of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, T3), immediately after cardiac re-beating (T4), immediately after CPB cessation (T5), and at the end of surgery (T6). Before operation, no significant differences were found between the group D and M in the levels of PaO2, PaCO2 and SPO2 (P > 0.05). The PaO2 and SPO2 levels after skin incision, sternotomy, before suspension of CPB and at the end of surgery were significantly lower in group M than in group D (P surgery, and HR after skin incision, sternotomy, before suspension of CPB, after heart re-beating,after CPB cessation and at the end of surgery in group M were considerably higher than those in group D (P surgery, in the PaO2, PaCO2 and SPO2 levels at the time-points of post-cardiac re-beating, and after CPB cessation (P > 0.05). It suggested that the respiration and circulation states in group D were more smoothly than those in group M

  10. Intrapulpal Temperature Increases Caused by 445-nm Diode Laser-Assisted Debonding of Self-Ligating Ceramic Brackets During Simulated Pulpal Fluid Circulation. (United States)

    Stein, Steffen; Wenzler, Johannes; Hellak, Andreas; Schauseil, Michael; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike; Braun, Andreas


    This study investigated temperature increases in dental pulp resulting from laser-assisted debonding of ceramic brackets using a 445-nm diode laser. Eighteen ceramic brackets were bonded in standardized manner to 18 caries-free human third molars. Pulpal fluid circulation was simulated by pumping distilled water at 37°C through the pulp chamber. The brackets were irradiated with a 445-nm diode laser. Temperatures were measured using a thermal camera at points P1 (center of the pulp) and P2 (in the hard dental tissue) at the baseline (T0), at the start and end of laser application (T1 and T2), and the maximum during the sequence (Tmax). Significant differences in the temperatures measured at P1 and P2 were observed among T0, T1, T2, and Tmax. Significant increases in temperature were noted at points P1 and P2, between T1 and T2, T1 and Tmax, and T2 and Tmax. The maximum P2 values were significantly higher than at P1. The maximum temperature increase measured in the pulp was 2.23°C, lower than the critical threshold of 5.5°C. On the basis of the laser settings used, there is no risk to the vitality of dental pulp during laser-assisted debonding of ceramic brackets with a 445-nm diode laser.

  11. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction, countercurrent chromatography, and liquid chromatography for the simultaneous extraction, isolation, and analysis of the constituents of Uncaria tomentosa. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming; Qi, Yanjuan; Li, Sainan; Pan, Yan; Li, Yuchun


    A hyphenated automated technique for the online extraction, isolation, analysis, and identification of natural organic compounds was established. Circulating ultrasound-assisted extraction (CUAE) was coupled with countercurrent chromatography (CCC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a diode array detector (DAD). This approach was applied to the fractionation and purification of alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa. A biphasic solvent system of chloroform-methanol-water (6:4:5, v:v:v) was used for the CUAE and CCC separation of compounds from 500 g of U. tomentosa. Two CUAE/CCC/HPLC/DAD modes were established. Either the upper aqueous phase or the lower organic phase of the solvent system could be used as the extraction solvent. The target compounds were extracted by CUAE, and the extract was pumped into a sample loop before being directly injected into the CCC column, or pre-purified using a flash chromatography column before injection. The target compounds were eluted using either the organic or aqueous phase of the solvent system and the fractions were monitored using a UV detector. The target fractions were collected by a sample loop via a six-port valve, and analyzed by HPLC/DAD for purity and structural identification. This system isolated of 8.2mg, 7.4 mg, and 12.9 mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with HPLC purities of 96.15%, 95.34%, and 95.49%, respectively via the first mode; and isolated 26.6 mg, 24.6 mg, and 45.3mg of rhynchophylline, corynoxine, and corynoxine B with a HPLC purities of 98.22%, 97.18%, and 97.93% via the second mode. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells assist in the survival and growth of primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through interleukin 10 pathway

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    Cha, Zhanshan [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Guangfang [Department of Endocrinology, Zhangqiu Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhangqiu, Shandong 250200 (China); Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Haihan [Emergency Center, East Hospital, Shanghai 200120 (China); Qian, Baohua, E-mail: [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5{sup +} compartment compared to the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5{sup +} compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4{sup +} T cells than the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4{sup +} T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10. - Highlights: • We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh in DLBCL. • Tfh were effective at promoting the proliferation of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • Tfh were effective at inhibiting the apoptosis of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • IL-10 secretion in Tfh was significant elevated in DLBCL. • Neutralization of IL-10 compromised Tfh-mediated pro-tumor effects.

  13. Peripheral circulation. (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Davis, Michael J; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Simmons, Grant H; Bender, Shawn B; Padilla, Jaume; Bache, Robert J; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J


    Blood flow (BF) increases with increasing exercise intensity in skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle. In humans during maximal exercise intensities, 85% to 90% of total cardiac output is distributed to skeletal and cardiac muscle. During exercise BF increases modestly and heterogeneously to brain and decreases in gastrointestinal, reproductive, and renal tissues and shows little to no change in skin. If the duration of exercise is sufficient to increase body/core temperature, skin BF is also increased in humans. Because blood pressure changes little during exercise, changes in distribution of BF with incremental exercise result from changes in vascular conductance. These changes in distribution of BF throughout the body contribute to decreases in mixed venous oxygen content, serve to supply adequate oxygen to the active skeletal muscles, and support metabolism of other tissues while maintaining homeostasis. This review discusses the response of the peripheral circulation of humans to acute and chronic dynamic exercise and mechanisms responsible for these responses. This is accomplished in the context of leading the reader on a tour through the peripheral circulation during dynamic exercise. During this tour, we consider what is known about how each vascular bed controls BF during exercise and how these control mechanisms are modified by chronic physical activity/exercise training. The tour ends by comparing responses of the systemic circulation to those of the pulmonary circulation relative to the effects of exercise on the regional distribution of BF and mechanisms responsible for control of resistance/conductance in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  14. Biological treatment of fracturing waste liquid in a membrane-coupled internal circulation aerobic biological fluidized bed with the assistance of coagulation. (United States)

    Tu, Yizhou; Liu, Xing-Peng; Li, Hui-Qiang; Yang, Ping


    Fracturing waste liquid (FWL) is generated during shale gas extraction and contains high concentrations of suspended solid, salinity and organic compounds, which needs proper management to prevent excessive environmental disruption. Biological treatment of the FWL was attempted in this study using a membrane-coupled internal circulation aerobic biological fluidized bed (MC-ICABFB) after being treated by coagulation. The results showed that poly aluminum chloride (PAC) of 30 g/L, polyacrylamide (PAM) of 20 mg/L and pH of 7.0 were suitable choices for coagulation. The pretreated FWL mixed with synthetic wastewater at different ratios were used as the influent wastewater for the reactor. The MC-ICABFB had relatively good performance on COD and NH4+-N removal and the main residual organic compound in the effluent was phthalates according to the analysis of GC-MC profiles. In addition, a suitable pretreatment process for the FWL to facilitate biological treatment of the wastewater needs further research.

  15. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove


    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  16. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility]. (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S


    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K


    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  18. Experimental circulation loss study


    Lund, Sigurd


    Circulation losses could occur during any operation that involves pumping into a well. As of today, it is recognized as one of the most costly drilling problems. In some situation it might be hard to stop, and usually takes precious rig time to deal with the problem. In order to mitigate the risk of circulation loss solid pa...

  19. Boiler circulation calculations

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    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)


    Natural circulation water tube and fire tube boilers are widely used in the chemical process industry. These are preferred to forced-circulation boilers where a circulation pump ensures flow of a steam/water mixture through the tubes. In addition to being an operating expense, a pump failure can have serious consequences in such systems. The motive force driving the steam/water mixture through the tubes (water tube boilers) or over tubes (fire tube boilers) in natural-circulation systems is the difference in density between cooler water in the downcomer circuits and the steam/water mixture in the riser tubes. This flow must be adequate to cool the tubes and prevent overheating. This article explains how circulation ratio or the ratio of steam/water mixture to steam flow may be evaluated.

  20. Experimental circulation loss study


    Lund, Sigurd


    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Circulation losses could occur during any operation that involves pumping into a well. As of today, it is recognized as one of the most costly drilling problems. In some situation it might be hard to stop, and usually takes precious rig time to deal with the problem. In order to mitigate the risk...

  1. Arctic circulation regimes. (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L


    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Fontan Circulation over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Ridderbos, Floris-Jan S.; Eshuis, Graziella; van Stratum, Elisabeth B. H. J.; Recinos, Salvador J.; Willemse, Brigitte W. M.; Hillege, Hans; Willems, Tineke P.; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M. F.


    The unique, unphysiological Fontan circulation is associated with an impaired functional status of the patients that is suggested to deteriorate over time. Unfortunately, previous studies did not integrate both pulmonary and cardiac determinants of functional status. In addition, a comparison with

  3. Computer-assisted diagnostic procedure for multislice computed tomography for assessment of the pulmonary arterial circulation. Clinical relevance; Computerassistiertes Diagnoseverfahren fuer die Mehrschichtcomputertomographie zur Beurteilung der pulmonalarteriellen Strombahn. Klinische Bedeutung

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    Malich, A. [Suedharz-Krankenhaus Nordhausen, Institut fuer Radiologie, Nordhausen (Germany); Hentrich, D. [Radiologisches Zentrum Seesen, Seesen (Germany); Hansch, A.; Teichgraeber, U. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, J. [Waldklinikum Gera, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Gera (Germany)


    A recently developed CAD software which highlights intravascular thrombotic structures from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) data was tested regarding feasibility, interobserver reliability and effect on radiology reports. The CAD system ImageChecker {sup registered} CT-Lung was tested in a randomized double-blinded study on 160 MSCT datasets (standardized technical conditions) performed for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The CAD data and images were analyzed by three radiologists in an independent and blinded fashion. The data from all 160 cases could be analyzed and 604 CAD prompts were set. Using the CAD analysis significantly more PEs were found in the peripheral pulmonary arterial circulation than described in the initial report. In 38 cases the 3 radiologists in consensus scored the images with the CAD adjunct as PE positive in peripheral vessels, which were initially reported as negative. Despite differences in the evaluation between two radiologists the amended assessment of the imaging data using the CAD softwear was reliable. There was a significant correlation between D-dimer values and the number of embolic structures detected by the CAD analysis. The recently developed CAD system is a useful adjunct as second reader to detect subtle emboli in peripheral vessels of MSCT datasets. (orig.) [German] Zur Detektion intravasaler Kontrastmittel(KM)-Aussparungen der Pulmonalarterien in der Mehrschichtcomputertomographie (MSCT) wurde ein CAD-System entwickelt, das bzgl. der Anwendbarkeit, des Vergleichs zur radiologischen Beurteilung und der Ermittlung eines moeglichen Effekts auf den befundenen Radiologen getestet wurde. Das CAD-System ImageChecker {sup registered} CT-Lung wurde in einer randomisierten, doppelblinden Studie zur Nachverarbeitung von 160 technisch einheitlichen CT-Angiographien (MSCT unter dem klinischen Verdacht einer Lungenembolie) genutzt und die CAD-Daten durch 3 Radiologen zueinander, und bzgl. des initialen Befundes geblindet


    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office


    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  5. A Look at Circulation Statistics (United States)

    Luzius, Jeff


    Nearly all academic libraries keep circulation statistics which are often shared with their parent university, library consortia, and national organizations. This study attempted to discover what goes into circulation statistics by surveying Southeastern research libraries. Libraries were asked what they count in their circulation statistics and…

  6. Survey report for fiscal 2000 on project for assisting introduction of environment harmonizing type coal utilization system. Green Helmet Project related to circulating fluidized bed boilers in Thailand (Operation guidance); 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyochowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo - Junkan ryudosho boira (Tai) ni kakawaru green herumetto jigyo (Unten shido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With an objective to proliferate the achievements in the 'project for assisting introduction of environment harmonizing type coal utilization system for the circulating fluidized bed boilers (Thailand)' which has been completed in fiscal 2001, technical guidance, advices and items of information have been provided. At IndoRama Chemicals (Thailand) Ltd., the state of operation of the model project facilities were surveyed, and guidance and advices were given on the operation and maintenance thereof. The education and guidance on the boiler operation included the burner operation method, the method for adjusting the operation of electric dust collectors, prevention of troubles caused by sand deposited with CCR ash, the method of treatment at abnormal in-furnace pressures, prevention of maloperation of furnace pressure detection pipes, the method for adjusting excess and insufficiency of oxygen concentration, and the method for setting the ratio of lignite/CCR mixed combustion. The education and guidance on the maintenance method were given on the items of checks internal to the burners and electric dust collectors, deposits in the combustion chamber, dust condition, furnace material condition and the methods for verification and check on nozzles. Furthermore, education was given to personnel dispatched from the Thai Industry Ministry on the operation, maintenance and checks. (NEDO)

  7. Circulation of Stars (United States)

    Boitani, P.


    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  8. Efficient quantum circuits for dense circulant and circulant like operators. (United States)

    Zhou, S S; Wang, J B


    Circulant matrices are an important family of operators, which have a wide range of applications in science and engineering-related fields. They are, in general, non-sparse and non-unitary. In this paper, we present efficient quantum circuits to implement circulant operators using fewer resources and with lower complexity than existing methods. Moreover, our quantum circuits can be readily extended to the implementation of Toeplitz, Hankel and block circulant matrices. Efficient quantum algorithms to implement the inverses and products of circulant operators are also provided, and an example application in solving the equation of motion for cyclic systems is discussed.

  9. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun


    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  10. Lost Circulation Technology Development Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, David A.; Schafer, Diane M.; Loeppke, Glen E.; Scott, Douglas D.; Wernig, Marcus D.; Wright, Elton K.


    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30-50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1991-March, 1992.

  11. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.


    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  12. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.


    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  13. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco


    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  14. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets (United States)

    Showman, A. P.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Menou, K.


    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from solar system studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and simple scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics are given particular attention, as these close-in planets have been the subject of most of the concrete developments in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. We then turn to the basic elements of circulation on terrestrial planets as inferred from solar system studies, including Hadley cells, jet streams, processes that govern the large-scale horizontal temperature contrasts, and climate, and we discuss how these insights may apply to terrestrial exoplanets. Although exoplanets surely possess a greater diversity of circulation regimes than seen on the planets in our solar system, our guiding philosophy is that the multidecade study of solar system planets reviewed here provides a foundation upon which our understanding of more exotic exoplanetary meteorology must build.

  15. Circulating tumor cells (United States)

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola


    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  16. Dental Assistants (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for dental assistants. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of dental assistants with ...

  17. Assistive Technology (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  18. Assistive Technologies (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.


    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  19. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker


    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  20. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe


    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  1. Preload Sensitivity in Cardiac Assist Devices (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Shiose, Akira; Massiello, Alex; Horvath, David J.; Golding, Leonard A. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Starling, Randall C.


    With implantable cardiac assist devices increasingly proving their effectiveness as therapeutic options for end-stage heart failure, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique physiology of device-assisted circulation. Preload sensitivity as it relates to cardiac assist devices is derived from the Frank-Starling relationship between human ventricular filling pressures and ventricular stroke volume. In this review, we stratify the preload sensitivity of 17 implantable cardiac assist devices relative to the native heart and discuss the effect of preload sensitivity on left ventricular volume unloading, levels of cardiac support, and the future development of continuous-flow total artificial heart technology. PMID:23272869

  2. Advantages of separating the circulation model and trajectory model : GNOME Trajectory Model used with outside circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beegle-Krause, C.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States)


    In December 2002, following the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the coast of Spain, the Spanish government asked the Hazardous Materials Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for trajectory modeling assistance. This paper describes the modeling success of setting up a trajectory model with new circulation models during the response. Separating trajectory and circulation models has the advantage that the trajectory model is able to leverage outside the circulation models with rectangular, curvilinear and finite element grids. By January 2003, the spill from the vessel had covered a large area off western and northern Spain, and over flight information was not sufficient to track a particular portion of the spill on successive days. The General NOAA Oil Modelling Environment (GNOME) trajectory model made it possible for responders in Spain to leverage additional trajectory tools within several hours. Local circulation models and expertise from Spanish university and weather forecast systems were used in the GNOME model to quickly make an additional trajectory model during the response. Time series of currents and winds were created by recording the first 24 hours from daily forecast simulations. Wind and circulation model time series were used to run hindcast simulations of several months. Atmospheric and oceanic forecast models were used in all instances. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao


    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A Conceptual Model for Circulation Control Systems (United States)

    Miller, G.; Coleridge, F.


    A semimathematical model for library circulation control. The application is intended to contribute to a more structured yet flexible approach to library circulation management. It includes provisions for circulation policy analysis and management, recording, and controlling of circulation transactions. (Author/KP)

  5. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang


    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  6. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au


    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  7. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik


    of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  8. Invertibility of some circulant matrices (United States)

    Bustomi; Barra, A.


    We consider several cases of circulant matrices and determine the invertibility of these matrices. We give a criterion of the invertibility of matrices of the form circ(a, b, c, …, c) and circ(a, b, c, …, c, a) where a; b and c are real numbers. By using a different approach, we are able to generalize the result of Carmona.

  9. Neural Control of the Circulation (United States)

    Thomas, Gail D.


    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  10. Circulating Lymphangiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lely, A. Titia; Salahuddin, Saira; Holwerda, Kim M.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Rana, Sarosh


    Background. Preeclampsia (PE), a human pregnancy-specific disorder is characterized by an anti-angiogenic state due to high levels of circulating soluble vascular endothelial growth factor 1 (sVEGFR-1). However, the role of lymphangiogenesis in PE has not been investigated. Recently, impaired

  11. Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers (United States)

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José Manuel


    Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies. Currently, electrochemical genosensors are considered very promising analytical tools for this purpose due to their fast response, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology and simple operation mode which makes them compatible with point-of-care (POC) testing. In this review, the relevance and current challenges of the determination of circulating biomarkers related to relevant diseases (cancer, bacterial and viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases) are briefly discussed. An overview of the electrochemical nucleic acid–based strategies developed in the last five years for this purpose is given to show to both familiar and non-expert readers the great potential of these methodologies for circulating biomarker determination. After highlighting the main features of the reported electrochemical genosensing strategies through the critical discussion of selected examples, a conclusions section points out the still existing challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:28420103

  12. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan


    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  13. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho


    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  14. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen


    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  15. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.


    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  16. Circulation of immigrants to Hungary


    Sándor Illés


    We measure the demographic patterns associated with international circular migration. Firstly, we define the circulation within the conceptual framework of transnationalism. Secondly, we create macro-scale data bank on long-term international circular migrants based on an original statistical method. Thirdly, we seek to gain further insight into the composition of international circular immigrants by gender, age, and family status. Conclusions indicate the need for future research.

  17. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Viola


    Full Text Available The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  18. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  19. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  20. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Lianke Alinda te


    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is

  1. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  2. Year of Expanding into Circulating Biomarkers (United States)

    Jia, Shidong; Kuo, Winston Patrick


    This editorial article summarizes the achievements and current challenges for the Journal of Circulating Biomarkers (JCB) regarding a more strategic approach to branding and attracting a high quality variety of articles. More emphasis is placed on fostering engagement with academic and industry sources operating at the cutting-edge of translational technologies applied to the field of circulating biomarkers (interface between extracellular vesicles including exosomes and microvesicles, circulating tumour cells, cell-free circulating DNA and circulating protein markers) and with those in the investment arena seeking and providing private funding for this area of research. PMID:28936237

  3. Year of Expanding into Circulating Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Jia


    Full Text Available This editorial article summarizes the achievements and current challenges for the Journal of Circulating Biomarkers (JCB regarding a more strategic approach to branding and attracting a high quality variety of articles. More emphasis is placed on fostering engagement with academic and industry sources operating at the cutting-edge of transla‐ tional technologies applied to the field of circulating biomarkers (interface between extracellular vesicles including exosomes and microvesicles, circulating tumour cells, cell-free circulating DNA and circulating protein markers and with those in the investment arena seeking and providing private funding for this area of research.

  4. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser


    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  5. The Okhotsk-Japan Circulation Pattern and the Heavy Rainfall in Beijing in 2012 Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Wang


    Full Text Available Using station precipitation and reanalysis data, we examined the evolution of the large-scale circulations associated with the heavy rainfall event that occurred around July 21, 2012 (721 heavy rainfall. This study focuses on a role that the large-scale circulations named “the Okhotsk-Japan (OKJ circulation pattern” played in causing the heavy rainfall case. We found that the 721 heavy rainfall occurred under a background of the OKJ circulation that persisted for about 10 days. However, the pattern was different from the normal OKJ circulation, for this circulation pattern accompanied a blocking high between the Ural Mountains and the Baikal Lake. This difference resulted from the seasonal change of the basic flow. The related Rossby wave propagated eastward during the persisting period of the dominated OKJ pattern. This caused the development of a low-pressure system around the Baikal Lake and the weakening of a ridge around the Okhotsk Sea. The slow evolution of the OKJ circulation created a favorable environment for the moisture transport to northern China, assisting in the generation of the 721 heavy rainfall.

  6. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.


    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  7. Control of the Fluid Viscosity in a Mock Circulation. (United States)

    Boës, Stefan; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Petrou, Anastasios; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne


    A mock circulation allows the in vitro investigation, development, and testing of ventricular assist devices. An aqueous-glycerol solution is commonly used to mimic the viscosity of blood. Due to evaporation and temperature changes, the viscosity of the solution drifts from its initial value and therefore, deviates substantially from the targeted viscosity of blood. Additionally, the solution needs to be exchanged to account for changing viscosities when mimicking different hematocrits. This article presents a method to control the viscosity in a mock circulation. This method makes use of the relationship between temperature and viscosity of aqueous-glycerol solutions and employs the automatic control of the viscosity of the fluid. To that end, an existing mock circulation was extended with an industrial viscometer, temperature probes, and a heating nozzle band. The results obtained with different fluid viscosities show that a viscosity controller is vital for repeatable experimental conditions on mock circulations. With a mixture ratio of 49 mass percent of aqueous-glycerol solution, the controller can mimic a viscosity range corresponding to a hematocrit between 29 and 42% in a temperature range of 30-42°C. The control response has no overshoot and the settling time is 8.4 min for a viscosity step of 0.3 cP, equivalent to a hematocrit step of 3.6%. Two rotary blood pumps that are in clinical use are tested at different viscosities. At a flow rate of 5 L/min, both show a deviation of roughly 15 and 10% in motor current for high rotor speeds. The influence of different viscosities on the measured head pressure is negligible. Viscosity control for a mock circulation thus plays an important role for assessing the required motor current of ventricular assist devices. For the investigation of the power consumption of rotary blood pumps and the development of flow estimators where the motor current is a model input, an integrated viscosity controller is a valuable

  8. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences


    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  9. Planning Joint Vietnam Ocean Circulation Studies (United States)


    We intend to make new Lagrangian and Eulerian observations to measure the seasonal circulation 1) in the coastal waters of Vietnam and 2) in the SCS...circulation models of the SCS and its coastal waters . Raise interest amongst Vietnamese scientists on Lagrangian circulation studies through inexpensive micro-controller unit (MCU) was designed with support circuitry for onboard GPS, 5 SST, drogue detection, external barometer

  10. Circulating follistatin in relation to energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Plomgaard, Peter


    a relation to energy metabolism. In this narrative review, we attempt to reconcile the existing findings on circulating follistatin with the novel concept that circulating follistatin is a liver-derived molecule regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. The picture emerging is that conditions associated...... with elevated levels of circulating follistatin have a metabolic denominator with decreased insulin sensitivity and/or hyperglucagoneimia....

  11. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation. (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael


    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  13. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences


    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86.

  14. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model. (United States)

    Safaei, Soroush; Bradley, Christopher P; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R; Omholt, Stig W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O; Watanabe, Sansuke M; Blanco, Pablo J; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J


    Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well-established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo-skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real-time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  15. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K


    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  16. Automated Circulation Systems in Public Libraries. (United States)

    Simpson, George A.

    Data analysis of a questionnaire completed by 38 public libraries in the United States and Canada who possess "turnkey" automated circulation systems is presented. Results show that libraries are enthusiastic about benefits to staff and patrons. For libraries with increasing circulation, the computer allows more time to handle additional work load…

  17. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University (United States)

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth


    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  18. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children immunized with oral polio vaccine in Abidjan. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 ...

  19. Effects of anesthetics on the coronary circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, S.; Vermeyen, K.; Adriaensen, H.


    The coronary circulation holds a unique position among the different vascular beds because it perfuses the organ that generates the perfusion pressure for the entire circulation. Therefore the maintenance of an adequate perioperative coronary flow is one of the primary goals of good anesthetic

  20. On the residual circulation in Tampa Bay (United States)

    Petersen, O.; Hearn, C.


    Residual circulation in estuaries usually display a characteristic estuarine circulation pattern with inflowing deep waters and outflowing surface waters. The strength being dependend on the tidal prism and the fresh water inflow to the estuary. In estuaries with a strong circulation this leads to formation of distinct water masses. However, in estuaries where vertical mixing is significant, at least part of the time, the importance of the residual circulation for transport of dissolved substances may be seriously reduced. The talk will draw upon recent work using the MIKE 3 unstructured mesh circulation models, set up as part of the USGS Tampa Integrated Science Project. The significance of the residual transport, the quantification of it in a typical Gulf Coast estuary and the relevance for estuarine management strategies will be discussed.

  1. Homelessness Assistance and Resources (United States)

    ... Email Updates Need Housing Assistance? Home Homelessness Assistance Homelessness Assistance Programs CoC CoC Program Page NOFAs Laws, ... VI UT VT VA WA WV WI WY Homelessness Declines in Most Communities of the U.S. with ...

  2. De la circulation des nourritures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lestage


    Full Text Available Tout en provoquant une rupture avec le réseau social d’origine et un isolement plus ou moins conséquent et plus ou moins temporaire, la migration produit une intense activité sociale compensatoire(i.e. les échanges de services et de biens. Dans ce texte, je m’intéresse à l’échange de nourritures entre les migrants mixtèques originaires de l’État de Oaxaca, dans le sud du Mexique, qui vivent et/ou se déplacent en Basse Californie (Mexique et en Californie (États-Unis. Je me propose d’interroger les modalités de maintien et d’extension des réseaux sociaux à travers les dons et le commerce alimentaire, avec pour objectif l’analyse de la reproduction sociale et identitaire dans un contexte de migration.The circulation of food. How Mexican migrants perpetuate and extend social links through the acquisition of food productsOn the one hand, migration tears apart the original social network, creating a somewhat effective and temporary isolation. On the other hand, migration produces an intense social activity (e.g. exchanges of services and goods which makes up for the loneliness of isolation. This text shows how Mixtec migrants from the state of Oaxaca in the South of Mexico, who live in and/or move between Baja California (Mexico and California (United States, perpetuate and extend their social networks through food gifts and trade. Basically, social reproduction in a context of migration is analyzed here.

  3. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro


    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  4. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A.


    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management....

  5. Dynamics of large scale 3-dimensional circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swapna, P.

    other members of POD, NIO, Goa, for their kind help and co-operation during the entire course of my work. iv I greatly acknowledge the assistance rendered by Dr. Diansky, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russia, who... provided me the sigma coordinate ocean model which has been used for all the numerical experiments. The sigma co- ordinate 3-dimensional circulation model has been provided to NIO, Goa, as part of the Indo-Russian bilateral program...

  6. Aseptic practice recommendations for circulating operating theatre nurses. (United States)

    Aholaakko, Teija-Kaisa; Metsälä, Eija

    Aseptic practices prevent exposure of a surgical wound to microbes, operating theatre environment and personnel. The circulating nurse assists the operating theatre personnel and supervises aseptic practices preventing surgical site infections. In the absence of analytical tools, few studies exist on intraoperative nursing-related aseptic practices. This study introduces recommendations to assess the role of the circulating nurse in aseptic practices. The authors used international recommendations and research findings to construct a 20-item self-report instrument with a demonstrated reliability across the scale. The authors structured the scale based on three phases: establishment; maintenance; and disestablishment of a sterile operating field. The tool was tested among operating theatre and day surgery nurses, and compared the differences in the mean acceptance rates of aseptic practice recommendations based on background characteristics. College-level nurses and nurses with 15 or more years' work experience accepted the recommendations at higher levels than bachelor-level nurses and nurses with less work experience. Continual assessment of the evidence base and comprehensive evaluation represent important components in further developing the tool. A reasonable number of items covering clinical practice are necessary for assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of aseptic practices, and a larger response rate is needed to validate the tool in future.

  7. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence (United States)

    Mellor, George


    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  8. Head positioning for anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Chaddad-Neto


    Full Text Available Objective To study the ideal patient's head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. Method We divided the study in two parts. Firstly, 10 fresh cadaveric heads were positioned and dissected in order to ideally expose the anterior circulation aneurysm sites. Afterwards, 110 patients were submitted to anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. During the surgery, the patient's head was positioned accordingly to the aneurysm location and the results from the cadaveric study. The effectiveness of the position was noted. Results We could determine mainly two patterns for head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusion The best surgical exposure is related to specific head positions. The proper angle of microscopic view may minimize neurovascular injury and brain retraction.

  9. Seawater circulating system in an aquaculture laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The note gives an account, for the first time in India, of an Aquaculture Laboratory with open type seawater circulating system developed at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Besides describing the details of the system...

  10. EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...

  11. Appraisal of circulation routine duties in academic libraries | Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the circulation services in the circulation department of academic libraries. It defines circulation services and identifies types of circulation routine duties. Specific mention was made of shelving of consulted books, shelving arrangement, shelf reading, registration of library users, charging system, brown ...

  12. Donation after brain circulation determination of death. (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Bernat, James L


    The fundamental determinant of death in donation after circulatory determination of death is the cessation of brain circulation and function. We therefore propose the term donation after brain circulation determination of death [DBCDD]. In DBCDD, death is determined when the cessation of circulatory function is permanent but before it is irreversible, consistent with medical standards of death determination outside the context of organ donation. Safeguards to prevent error include that: 1] the possibility of auto-resuscitation has elapsed; 2] no brain circulation may resume after the determination of death; 3] complete circulatory cessation is verified; and 4] the cessation of brain function is permanent and complete. Death should be determined by the confirmation of the cessation of systemic circulation; the use of brain death tests is invalid and unnecessary. Because this concept differs from current standards, consensus should be sought among stakeholders. The patient or surrogate should provide informed consent for organ donation by understanding the basis of the declaration of death. In cases of circulatory cessation, such as occurs in DBCDD, death can be defined as the permanent cessation of brain functions, determined by the permanent cessation of brain circulation.

  13. NAO-ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, S.; Navarra, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Scoccimarro, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)


    The interplay between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the large scale ocean circulation is inspected in a twentieth century simulation conducted with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model. Significant lead-lag covariance between oceanic and tropospheric variables suggests that the system supports a damped oscillatory mode involving an active ocean-atmosphere coupling, with a typical NAO-like space structure and a 5 years timescale, qualitatively consistent with a mid-latitude delayed oscillator paradigm. The two essential processes governing the oscillation are (1) a negative feedback between ocean gyre circulation and the high latitude SST meridional gradient and (2) a positive feedback between SST and the NAO. The atmospheric NAO pattern appears to have a weaker projection on the ocean meridional overturning, compared to the gyre circulation, which leads to a secondary role for the thermohaline circulation in driving the meridional heat transport, and thus the oscillatory mode. (orig.)

  14. (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) (United States)

    ... Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  16. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation. (United States)

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J


    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Physiopathology of superficial venous circulation in athletes]. (United States)

    Venerando, A; Pelliccia, A


    The venous circulation in athletes doing sports involving medium or heavy cardiac strain means that considerable physiological modifications may occur, notably vascular expansion. This phenomenon may be observed in the superficial venous circulation of both the upper and lower members, as well as in pulmonary circulation. Varices of the lower members are common in about 5% of practising athletes, notably in weight-lifters and wrestlers who are particularly prone to this risk, and precisely because venous return is impeded by the predominantly static effort which characterizes these sports. Karate, judo, canoeing, football, high jump and long jump are similar: mechanical blocks or sudden increases of venous pressure following the rapid changes in body-position or particular posture. Nevertheless, these phenomena can only be explained by the supposition that the valvular mechanism of certain subjects is particularly vulnerable. There are other sports, on the other hand, which have a beneficial effect on venous return, especially swimming and long-distance running.

  18. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano


    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  19. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental


    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  20. [Coronary collateral circulation in infarction-related artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction with rise and without rise of ST segment]. (United States)

    Iaitskiĭ, N A; Zverev, O G; Volkov, A B; Voĭnov, A V; Abdulragimov, R I


    The authors analyzed a condition of coronary collateral circulation in infarction-related artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction with rise and without rise of ST segment. The assessment of collateral circulation was made by coronary angiography using Rentop scale. Results of the research showed, that collateral circulation wasn't visualized by angiography in the first hours after acute myocardial infarction with the rise of ST segment. Apparently, this circulation didn't significantly assisted in maintenance of vital capacity of the myocardium in the pool of infarction-related occlusive coronary artery. Visualization of collateral circulation was noted in majority of patients with acute myocardial infarction without the rise of ST segment. Collateral flow was an important alternative source of blood supply of the heart in patients without rise of ST segment in the period of critical reduction of the antegrade blood flow.

  1. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  2. Natural circulation in fusion reactor blankets (United States)

    Gierszewski, P. J.; Mikic, B.; Todreas, N. E.


    The relative importance of natural circulation and heat conduction as heat transfer mechanisms in lithium, sodium and flibe is investigated for a range of magnetic field strengths of interest in fusion reactor blankets. The calculations are based on an order-of-magnitude simplification of the fluid equations, and a modified version of the fission reactor thermal-hydraulic code THERMIT. The results show that conduction is dominant for lithium (and sodium) for typical magnetic field strengths, but that natural circulation is most important in flibe. In fact, preliminary calculations suggest the possibility of a simple flibe blanket module with cooling only along the module boundaries.

  3. Circulating Gastrin is Increased in Hemochromatosis. (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A.; Kovac, Suzana; Anderson, Gregory J.; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S.


    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively. Since non-amidated gastrins require ferric ions for biological activity in vitro, this study investigated the connection between iron status and gastrin by measurement of circulating gastrin concentrations in mice and humans with hemochromatosis. Gastrin concentrations are increased in the plasma and gastric mucosa of Hfe-/- mice, and in the sera of humans with HFE-related hemochromatosis. The discovery of a relationship between iron status and circulating gastrin concentrations opens a new perspective on the mechanisms of iron homeostasis. PMID:17064691

  4. The stripline circulator theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Helszajn, J


    Stripline circulator theory and applications from the world's foremost authority. The stripline junction circulator is a unique three-port non-reciprocal microwave junction used to connect a single antenna to both a transmitter and a receiver. Its operation relies on the interaction between an electron spin in a suitably magnetized insulator with an alternating radio frequency magnetic field. In its simplest form, it consists of a microwave planar gyromagnetic resonator symmetrically coupled by three transmission lines. This book explores the magnetic interaction involved in the stripline circ.

  5. Portion of Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment completed (United States)

    La Violette, Paul E.

    At a meeting in Palma (on the Mediterranean island of Majorca), on October 20, 1986, ocean scientists affiliated with the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE) met to discuss the completion of their 1-year field experiment. The convenors represented a consortium of 60 scientists from laboratories and institutions in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The consortium members pooled their talents, instruments, and resources to achieve their common goal: the derivation of the spatial and temporal variability of the circulation of the western Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction ...

  7. Circulation pattern classification for climate change studies (United States)

    Stehlik, J.; Bardossy, A.


    Several circulation pattern classifications developed for different European regions were compared regarding their mutual dependence. Circulation pattern (CP) classifications, both subjective and objective, for the British Isles, Germany and Greece were taken into account. Statistical tests were applied in order to investigate the relationships between each pair of CP classifications. It was found that each pair of classifications can not be considered to be independent. Time dependence of the relationship between CP classifications shows anomaleous behavior only when one of the classifications is subjective. This can be due to a gradual change in the methodology. Thus, one should use these classifications for climate evolution studies with care. Results showing the inter-dependence of different CP classifications were motivation for developing one classification which would be valid in every European region. For this purpose an objective and automated classification was applied. By means of daily 700 hPa data, 13 CPs were defined which explain the variability of local precipitation in 27 stations spread over the whole of Europe. The validation of this classification proved that there is almost no information lost when comparing this classification with local classifications. Based on this classification method the air pressure outputs from Global Circulation Models will be classified. Subsequently the classified circulation patterns will be used for climate change studies. For this purpose statistical downscaling of precipitation will be applied.

  8. Opportunities in CARICOM Migration : Brain Circulation, Diasporic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opportunities in CARICOM Migration : Brain Circulation, Diasporic Tourism, and Investment. Between 1965 and 2000, about 12% of the Caribbean labour force moved to Canada and other developed countries, making the Caribbean the largest per capita source of emigrants in the world. Remittances from these emigrants ...

  9. Carriage rates, circulating serotypes and antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circulating serotypes and antibiotic sensitivities are shown in (Table 1). Our method was not able to serotype three isolates (infants 1, 8 and 23) as these isolates tested positive for the internal control for a universal. Infant no. Age in months serotype penicillin*. (mIC). Cotrimox- azole erythro- mycin tetracy- cline. Cefachlor ...

  10. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkan, A.; Amin, A.; Isaacs, A.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; Whitfield, J.B.; Wichmann, H.-E.; Ohm Kyvik, K.; Rudan, I.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Smith, J.J.; Wild, S.H.; Pedersen, N.L.; Willemsen, G.; Mangino, M.; Hayward, C.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.; Montgomery, GW; Pietilainen, K.H.; Rantanen, T.; Kaprio, J.; Döring, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Gyllensten, U.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wilson, J.F.; Rivadeneira, F.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Spector, T.D.; Campbell, H.; Hoehne, B.; Martin, N.G.; Oostra, B.A.; McCarthy, M.; Peltonen, L.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Visscher, P.M.; Ripatti, S.; Janssens, A.C.J.W.; van Duijn, C.M.


    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid

  11. Leucocyte phagocytosis and circulating immune complexes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucocyte phagocytosis and level of circulating immune complexes (CICs) were measured in pregnant women at the three trimesters of pregnancy and in mothers 24 - 48 hours after child birth to evaluate the influence of pregnancy on leucocyte functions. The mothers were divided into gestation groups depending on the ...

  12. Groundwater circulation and hydrogeochemical evolution in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Groundwater circulation ... Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopes in groundwater samples indicate that the recharge of groundwater is happened by meteoric water andglacier melt-water in the Kunlun Mountains, and in three different recharge conditions.

  13. Improving Circulation Services through Staff Involvement (United States)

    Kisby, Cynthia M.; Kilman, Marcus D.


    The Circulation Services Department at the University of Central Florida Libraries reports on leadership and training initiatives that resulted in a number of service-enhancing projects implemented by a highly motivated and involved staff. Key elements in reinvigorating the department included a change in leadership philosophy, increased…

  14. A Classroom Demonstration of Thermohaline Circulation. (United States)

    Dudley, Walter C.


    Density-driven deep circulation is important in influencing geologic processes ranging from the dissolution of biogenic siliceous and calcareous sediments to the formation of erosional unconformities. A technique for dynamically demonstrating this process using an aquarium to enhance student understanding is described. (BC)

  15. Detecting holocene changes in thermohaline circulation. (United States)

    Keigwin, L D; Boyle, E A


    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous.

  16. Introduction : Religious Circulation in Transatlantic Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, L.


    This special issue explores and analyzes the ways in which African or African-derived religions travel in the contemporary transatlantic space. By accounting for the recreation of African religions in culturally diverse contexts, this issue aims to discuss different forms of religious circulation

  17. [Pulmonary complications after extracorporeal circulation. ECC lung syndrome]. (United States)

    Foliguet, B


    Pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation remain frequent and sometimes grave, in spite of the great progress which has been made over the past 20 years in the methods of cardiorespiratory assistance. The authors analyse the clinical and radiological repercussions of perfusion on the lung, in 40 patients operated under ECC for coronary revascularisation. The simutaneous study of the arterial, and mixed venous blood gasses and of the alveolar gases, in 20 of these patients showed the constant occurrence of a shunt syndrome, without alveolar hypoventilation or disorders in peripheral circulatory flow. Ventilatory alcalosis, hypocapnia, hypoxemia and the rise in the alveolar arterial oxygen gradient is increased during the second post-operative day. Among the variables studied (duration of ECC, degree of hypothermia, duration of the intervention, duration of anesthesia, pleurotomy) only the latter intervened in a statistically significant manner in this study, in the increase in hypoxemia. 46 pulmonary biopsies carried out before and after ECC in 23 coronary patients were examined with the electron microscope. The initial alveolar involvement affects the septal microcirculation with signs of an increase in capillary permeability leading to an interstitial and epithelial destruction. The use of a membrane oxygenator prevents some of the alveolar lesions, as has been proved by the study of five pulmonary biopsies carried out in dogs submitted to ECC of long duration. Catherterization of the pulmonary artery carried out in 35 patients by means of a SWAN-GANZ catheter, before the intervention enabled supervision of the degree of importance and speed of the hemodynamic variations in the pulmonary circulation during the different phases of ECC (during the phase of ventricular fibrillation). The rise in the flow of left output can lead to the occurrence of negative pulmonary intravascular pressures which can be prejudicial for capillary

  18. Mechanical circulatory support of a univentricular Fontan circulation with a continuous axial-flow pump in a piglet model. (United States)

    Wei, Xufeng; Sanchez, Pablo G; Liu, Yang; Li, Tieluo; Watkins, A Claire; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P


    Despite the significant contribution of the Fontan procedure to the therapy of complex congenital heart diseases, many patients progress to failure of their Fontan circulation. The use of ventricular assist devices to provide circulatory support to these patients remains challenging. In the current study, a continuous axial-flow pump was used to support a univentricular Fontan circulation. A modified Fontan circulation (atrio-pulmonary connection) was constructed in six Yorkshire piglets (8-14 kg). A Dacron conduit (12 mm) with two branches was constructed to serve as a complete atrio-pulmonary connection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Impella pump was inserted into the conduit through an additional Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft in five animals. Hemodynamic data were collected for 6 hours under the supported Fontan circulation. The control animal died after initiating the Fontan circulation independent of resuscitation. Four pump supported animals remained hemodynamically stable for 6 hours with pump speeds between 18,000 rpm and 22,000 rpm (P1-P3). Oxygen saturation was maintained between 95% and 100%. Normal organ perfusion was illustrated by blood gas analysis and biochemical assays. A continuous axial-flow pump can be used for temporal circulatory support to the failing Fontan circulation as "bridge" to heart transplantation or recovery.

  19. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter


    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Р. Itkin


    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the history of the non-pulsating type blood pumps for ventricular assist circulation and heart-lung machine. Disclosed the main advantages of these pumps before pulsating type, especially for implantable systems development. However, disadvantages of these pumps and the directions of minimize or eliminate ones have shown. Specific examples of our implantable centrifugal and axial pump developments are presented. Declare the ways to further improve the pumps. 

  1. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  2. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots (United States)

    Argall, Brenna D.


    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  3. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T


    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...

  4. Analysis of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Takehiko; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Yang, Guilin


    Fluidized bed combustors are commercialized as a technology to combust solid fuels with higher efficiency and lower emission and have functions of both combustion and simultaneous desulfurization and NOx reduction with dense phase fluidized beds but it is not so easy to realize these problems. The technology of circulating fluidized bed coal combustion is expected to offer potential break-through of various problems. But the details are not reported so far. Quantitative analysis of present situations was conducted and future problems were shown with officially available informations. This analysis includes the circulating rate and loading of solids, heat recovery and heat transfer rate as a function of loading of solids, the design of cyclones related to high solid concentration within the combustor, sulfur retention with reduced Ca/S ratio and problems related to NOx reduction to be developed in future. (51 refs, 23 figs, 8 tabs)

  5. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Mahoney


    Full Text Available Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1/1000th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, “slow-light” response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330  μm diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  6. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  7. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  8. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir


    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  9. Circulating Gastrin is Increased in Hemochromatosis.


    Smith, Kelly A; Kovac, Suzana; ANDERSON, GREGORY J.; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S.


    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively. Since non-amidated gastrins require ferric ions for biological activity in vitro, this study investigated the connection between iron status and gastrin by measurement of circulating gastrin concentrations in mice and humans with hemochromatosis. Gastrin concentrations are increased ...

  10. Retours, Circulations, Installations? Les Reconfigurations du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans cet article – basé sur des données collectées à la fois à Ouagadougou et dans la province de la Comoé, (Burkina Faso) auprès des migrants de retour de Côte d'Ivoire ainsi qu'à bord du train reliant Ouagadougou à Abidjan – sont discutées les notions de retour et de circulation. Non seulement le retour ne débouche ...

  11. Variational Data Assimilation in Shelf Circulation Models (United States)


    circulation over shelf and in the adjacent interior ocean energized by coastal flows (a coastal transition zone, CTZ ). - Testing this data assimilation...2005c, Springer et al., 2009), jets in the CTZ (Koch et al., 2010), and internal tides in combination coastal upwelling (Kurapov et al., 2003, 2010a...the Oregon shelf and CTZ extending between 41-47N and 124-129W (Figure 1). In preparation to assimilation tests, a 3 km resolution ROMS model has

  12. The creation and circulation of public geographies


    Kitchin, Rob; Linehan, Denis; O'Callaghan, Cian; Lawton, Philip


    In response to the commentaries, we discuss further how social media disrupts and remakes the creation and circulation of geographical knowledges and potentially reconfigures the moral economy of the social sciences. In particular, we examine questions of what is meant by public geography, the publics which such geographies serve, alternative and complementary approaches to social media, the politics of authorship within collective blogs, the politics and mechanisms of knowledge c...

  13. Reconfigurable Josephson Circulator/Directional Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sliwa


    Full Text Available Circulators and directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal signal routing and processing components involved in microwave read-out chains for a variety of applications. They are particularly important in the field of superconducting quantum information, where the devices also need to have minimal photon losses to preserve the quantum coherence of signals. Conventional commercial implementations of each device suffer from losses and are built from very different physical principles, which has led to separate strategies for the construction of their quantum-limited versions. However, as recently theoretically, by establishing simultaneous pairwise conversion and/or gain processes between three modes of a Josephson-junction-based superconducting microwave circuit, it is possible to endow the circuit with the functions of either a phase-preserving directional amplifier or a circulator. Here, we experimentally demonstrate these two modes of operation of the same circuit. Furthermore, in the directional amplifier mode, we show that the noise performance is comparable to standard nondirectional superconducting amplifiers, while in the circulator mode, we show that the sense of circulation is fully reversible. Our device is far simpler in both modes of operation than previous proposals and implementations, requiring only three microwave pumps. It offers the advantage of flexibility, as it can dynamically switch between modes of operation as its pump conditions are changed. Moreover, by demonstrating that a single three-wave process yields nonreciprocal devices with reconfigurable functions, our work breaks the ground for the development of future, more complex directional circuits, and has excellent prospects for on-chip integration.

  14. Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation 2003-2014 (United States)

    Armitage, T.; Bacon, S.; Ridout, A.; Tsamados, M.


    We present a 12-year record of geostrophic currents in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from Envisat and CryoSat-2 radar altimetry and examine their seasonal to decadal variability. Geostrophic currents across the Arctic Ocean increased in the late 2000s and, in particular, the Beaufort gyre circulation accelerated significantly in autumn 2007. At this time, the Beaufort Sea saw strong and persistent anticylonic atmospheric circulation anomalies, a record low sea ice extent and an associated dramatic loss of multiyear sea ice, and a consequently thinner and more mobile autumn ice pack. These factors combined to bring about high ocean surface stress, strong Ekman convergence, and anomalously strong geostrophic current speeds in the south-eastern Beaufort Sea in the period 2003 to 2014. Current speeds in the south-eastern Beaufort Sea remained higher until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003-2006. Meanwhile, there was an almost three-fold increase in the westward current at the western periphery of the Beaufort gyre between 2003 and 2014. This likely played a more important role in advecting old ice from the southern Beaufort Sea to the Siberian shelf seas where it is more easily melted in summer compared to ice that is re-circulated in the Beaufort gyre. The southward current through Fram Start increased between 2003 and 2012 before slowing somewhat by the end of the time period. Seasonal fields of eddy kinetic energy reveal high eddy activity congruent with the Chukchi plateau and Northwind Ridge. Both the Beaufort gyre circulation and the southward current through Fram Strait are strongest in autumn and winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the Beaufort Sea high and Icelandic low pressure systems. Our results point to a variable and changing role of ocean currents in the coupled sea ice-ocean momentum balance.

  15. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind forcing


    Gao, Hongjun; Duan, Jinqiao


    The ocean thermohaline circulation, also called meridional overturning circulation, is caused by water density contrasts. This circulation has large capacity of carrying heat around the globe and it thus affects the energy budget and further affects the climate. We consider a thermohaline circulation model in the meridional plane under external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density fluctuation (under appropriate metrics) tend to zero ex...

  16. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes. (United States)

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo


    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis of boundary-layer circulations. (United States)

    Beare, Robert J; Cullen, Michael J P


    Diagnoses of circulations in the vertical plane provide valuable insights into aspects of the dynamics of the climate system. Dynamical theories based on geostrophic balance have proved useful in deriving diagnostic equations for these circulations. For example, semi-geostrophic theory gives rise to the Sawyer-Eliassen equation (SEE) that predicts, among other things, circulations around mid-latitude fronts. A limitation of the SEE is the absence of a realistic boundary layer. However, the coupling provided by the boundary layer between the atmosphere and the surface is fundamental to the climate system. Here, we use a theory based on Ekman momentum balance to derive an SEE that includes a boundary layer (SEEBL). We consider a case study of a baroclinic low-level jet. The SEEBL solution shows significant benefits over Ekman pumping, including accommodating a boundary-layer depth that varies in space and structure, which accounts for buoyancy and momentum advection. The diagnosed low-level jet is stronger than that determined by Ekman balance. This is due to the inclusion of momentum advection. Momentum advection provides an additional mechanism for enhancement of the low-level jet that is distinct from inertial oscillations.

  18. The dynamics of the coronary collateral circulation. (United States)

    Zimarino, Marco; D'Andreamatteo, Mariangela; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen E; De Caterina, Raffaele


    Coronary collaterals are present at birth, with wide interindividual variation in their functional capacity. These vessels protect jeopardized myocardium, and the number of collaterals and the extent of their coverage are associated with improved survival in patients with coronary heart disease. The collateral circulation is not a permanent set of structures, but undergoes dynamic changes with important consequences for cardioprotection. If a severe atherosclerotic lesion develops in an artery supplying tissue downstream of a total occlusion through collateral blood flow, pressure gradients across the collateral bed change. The result is that some of the collateral flow previously supplying the perfusion territory of the totally occluded artery is redirected to the perfusion territory of the donor artery, thus producing a 'collateral steal'. The collateral circulation can regress once antegrade flow in the main dependent artery is re-established, as occurs following the recanalization of a chronic total occlusion. The clinical benefits of coronary revascularization must be cautiously weighed against the risk of reducing the protective support derived from coronary collaterals. Consequently, pharmacological, gene-based, and cell-based therapeutic attempts have been made to enhance collateral function. Although such approaches have so far yielded no, or modest, beneficial results, the rapidly accruing data on coronary collateral circulation will hopefully lead to new effective therapeutic strategies.

  19. Circulation in a Short Cylindrical Couette System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira Kageyama; Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman


    In preparation for an experimental study of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal, we explore Couette flows having height comparable to the gap between cylinders, centrifugally stable rotation, and high Reynolds number. Experiments in water are compared with numerical simulations. The flow is very different from that of an ideal, infinitely long Couette system. Simulations show that endcaps co-rotating with the outer cylinder drive a strong poloidal circulation that redistributes angular momentum. Predicted toroidal flow profiles agree well with experimental measurements. Spin-down times scale with Reynolds number as expected for laminar Ekman circulation; extrapolation from two-dimensional simulations at Re less than or equal to 3200 agrees remarkably well with experiment at Re approximately equal to 106. This suggests that turbulence does not dominate the effective viscosity. Further detailed numerical studies reveal a strong radially inward flow near both endcaps. After turning vertically along the inner cylinder, these flows converge at the midplane and depart the boundary in a radial jet. To minimize this circulation in the MRI experiment, endcaps consisting of multiple, differentially rotating rings are proposed. Simulations predict that an adequate approximation to the ideal Couette profile can be obtained with a few rings.

  20. Assisted suicide and euthanasia. (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes


    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How much of the intraaortic balloon volume is displaced toward the coronary circulation? (United States)

    Kolyva, Christina; Pantalos, George M; Pepper, John R; Khir, Ashraf W


    During intraaortic balloon inflation, blood volume is displaced toward the heart (V(tip)), traveling retrograde in the descending aorta, passing by the arch vessels, reaching the aortic root (V(root)), and eventually perfusing the coronary circulation (V(cor)). V(cor) leads to coronary flow augmentation, one of the main benefits of the intraaortic balloon pump. The aim of this study was to assess V(root) and V(cor) in vivo and in vitro, respectively. During intraaortic balloon inflation, V(root) was obtained by integrating over time the aortic root flow signals measured in 10 patients with intraaortic balloon assistance frequencies of 1:1 and 1:2. In a mock circulation system, flow measurements were recorded simultaneously upstream of the intraaortic balloon tip and at each of the arch and coronary branches of a silicone aorta during 1:1 and 1:2 intraaortic balloon support. Integration over time of the flow signals during inflation yielded V(cor) and the distribution of V(tip). In patients, V(root) was 6.4% +/- 4.8% of the intraaortic balloon volume during 1:1 assistance and 10.0% +/- 5.0% during 1:2 assistance. In vitro and with an artificial heart simulating the native heart, V(cor) was smaller, 3.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The distribution of V(tip) in vitro varied, with less volume displaced toward the arch and coronary branches and more volume stored in the compliant aortic wall when the artificial heart was not operating. The blood volume displaced toward the coronary circulation as the result of intraaortic balloon inflation is a small percentage of the nominal intraaortic balloon volume. Although small, this percentage is still a significant fraction of baseline coronary flow. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transnational circulation: region, nation, identity and the material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... publics come into being. For Warner, it is the limits and pathways of circulation that are critical. A key methodological move in such an equation is to pay close attention to how texts dramatise the limits of their circulation. The article explores these issues in relation to the international circulation of The Pilgrim's Progress.

  3. System model of a natural circulation integral test facility (United States)

    Galvin, Mark R.

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics (NE/RHP) at Oregon State University (OSU) has been developing an innovative modular reactor plant concept since being initiated with a Department of Energy (DoE) grant in 1999. This concept, the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR), is an integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that utilizes natural circulation flow in the primary and employs advanced passive safety features. The OSU MASLWR test facility is an electrically heated integral effects facility, scaled from the MASLWR concept design, that has been previously used to assess the feasibility of the concept design safety approach. To assist in evaluating operational scenarios, a simulation tool that models the test facility and is based on both test facility experimental data and analytical methods has been developed. The tool models both the test facility electric core and a simulated nuclear core, allowing evaluation of a broad spectrum of operational scenarios to identify those scenarios that should be explored experimentally using the test facility or design-quality multi-physics tools. Using the simulation tool, the total cost of experimentation and analysis can be reduced by directing time and resources towards the operational scenarios of interest.

  4. Circulating interleukin-6 and rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    Li, Bing; Xiao, Yu; Xing, Dan; Ma, Xin-long; Liu, Jun


    Abstract Interleukin-6 (IL-6), as a pleiotropic cytokine, has been demonstrated to be closely associated with the pathogenisis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether this association is causal or not remains unclear, because of the multifactorial role of IL-6 and related confounding factors. We aimed to evaluate the causal relevance between circulating IL-6 levels and the risk of RA through meta-analytical Mendelian randomization approach. IL-6 gene -174G/C variant was selected as an instrument in this Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. Article identification and data collection were conducted in duplicate and independently by 2 authors. The STATA software was used for data analysis. In total, 15 and 5 articles on the association of the -174G/C variant with RA risk and circulating IL-6 level, respectively, were included. The overall analysis showed that C allelic and GC+CC genotype were significantly with 1.59-fold (95% CI: 1.19–2.14) and 1.63-fold (95% CI: 1.17–2.26) increased risk of developing RA, respectively. Asian populations showed stronger association with 4.55-fold (95% CI: 1.62–12.75), 1.84-fold (95% CI: 1.13–2.99), and 4.69-fold (95% CI: 1.68–13.14) increased RA risk in carriers of -174C allelic, CC, and GC+CC genotype, respectively. Carriers of GC+CC genotype showed significant reduction in the circulating IL-6 level compared with GG carriers (WMD = −0.77; 95% CI: −1.16 to −0.38; P = 0.000) in overall populations. Mendelian randomization presented 6% and 22% increased risk of RA with 0.1 pg/mL reduction of circulating IL-6 level in overall and Asian populations, respectively. This Mendelian randomization meta-analysis demonstrated that the long-term genetically reduced circulating IL-6 level might be causally related to a higher risk of RA, especially in Asian populations. PMID:27281095

  5. Prediction of Recurrent Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack After Noncardiogenic Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke. (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, ChunXue; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Wong, Ka Sing; Wang, Yongjun


    Posterior circulation ischemic stroke (IS) is generally considered an illness with a poor prognosis. However, there are no effective rating scales to predict recurrent stroke following it. Therefore, our aim was to identify clinical or radiological measures that could assist in predicting recurrent cerebral ischemic episodes. We prospectively enrolled 723 noncardiogenic posterior circulation IS patients with onset of symptoms Stroke risk factors, admission symptoms and signs, topographical distribution and responsible cerebral artery of acute infarcts, and any recurrent IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 1 year were assessed. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with recurrent IS or TIA within the year after posterior circulation IS. A total of 40 patients (5.5%) had recurrent IS or TIA within 1 year of posterior circulation IS. Multivariate Cox regression identified chief complaint with dysphagia (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.2; P =0.002), repeated TIAs within 3 months before the stroke (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 5.55-42.5; P <0.0001), responsible artery stenosis ≥70% (HR, 7.91; 95% CI, 1.00-62.6; P =0.05), multisector infarcts (HR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.25-23.3; P =0.02), and not on antithrombotics treatment at discharge (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.09-8.58; P =0.03) as independent predictors of recurrent IS or TIA. Some posterior circulation IS patients are at higher risk for recurrent IS or TIA. Urgent assessment and preventive treatment should be offered to these patients as soon as possible. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Training Teaching Assistants. (United States)

    Rava, Susan


    Washington University's (Missouri) Department of Romance Languages and Literature requires its graduate teaching assistants to take a one-semester pedagogy course to ensure their competence and effectiveness as teaching assistants. The course features seminars in which goals, expectations, and learning theories are discussed and practice teaching…

  7. Agricultural Disaster Assistance (United States)


    ineligible for crop insurance, and include mushrooms, floriculture , ornamental nursery, Christmas tree crops , turfgrass sod, aquaculture, and ginseng. Trees...federal crop insurance, the noninsured assistance program and emergency disaster loans. Since 1988, Congress regularly has made supplemental financial...assistance available to farmers and ranchers on an ad-hoc basis, primarily in the form of direct crop disaster payments and emergency livestock

  8. Federal disaster assistance programs (United States)

    William J. Patterson


    The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act—Public Law 93-288, as amended—is designed to provide support and assistance to citizens, state, and local government from catastrophic disasters and emergencies. The law provides support in three distinct phases, including preparedness in avoiding or minimizing the effect of a disaster, response...

  9. Service water assistance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)


    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  10. Assistive Technology (Moldinclud)


    Luján Mora, Sergio


    Slides of the seminar "Assistive Technology" taught at the Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldova) in november 2011. Transparencias del seminario "Assistive Technology" impartido en el Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldavia) en noviembre 2011. Tempus project: MOLDINCLUD, Teaching Training Centre for Inclusive Education (TEMPUS 158980-2009).

  11. Social Assistance: Theoretical Underpinnings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Minas Hiruy. 90. Reflections: Social assistance: theoretical underpinnings. Minas Hiruy. 1. Key words: marginalized community, social assistance, social welfare, MDGs, development. The case of the marginalized and how society regarded or responded to the same has played a significant part in shaping human history ...

  12. Ockham's Razorblade Shaving Wind-Induced Circulation (United States)

    Bergmann, Juan Carlos


    Terrestrial physical oceanography is fortunate because of the existence of the continents that divide the low-latitude oceans into basins. At first glance, the previous statement appears to be not obvious because an ocean-planet should be much simpler to describe. Simple-case explanation is the central aspect of Ockham's Razorblade: If a theory fails to describe the most-simple case properly, the theory is, at least, ‘not good'. Also Descartes' methodical rules take the most-simple case as starting point. The analysis of wind-induced circulation on an ocean-planet will support the initial statement. Earth's south hemisphere is dominated by the oceans. The continents' influence on the zonal-average zonal-wind climate is relatively small. Therefore, South Hemisphere's zonal wind pattern is a relatively good proxy for that of an ocean planet. Application of this wind-stress pattern to an ocean planet yields reasonable meridional mass-flow results from the polar-regions down to the high-pressure belts: Down-welling and up-welling of water-mass are approximately balanced. However, the entire tropical circulation can in principle not be closed because there is only down-welling - even if the extreme down-welling in the equatorial belt (± 8°, with a singularity at the equator) is disregarded. The only input to the calculations is the observed terrestrial south-hemisphere zonal wind-stress pattern. Meridional stress is irrelevant because it produces a closed zonal Ekman-transport around the ocean planet (sic!). Vertical mass-transport is calculated from the divergence of the wind-induced meridional Ekman-mass-transport, which in its turn is a necessary consequence of angular-momentum conservation. No assumptions are made on how the return-flows at depth are forced because the wind-force equations cannot contribute hereto. This circumstance expresses a fundamental difference to atmospheric circulation, where mechanical forcing is caused by the pressure-fields that

  13. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao


    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  14. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)


    The stability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation against meltwater input is investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The meltwater input to the Labrador Sea is increased linearly for 250 years to a maximum input of 0.625 Sv and then reduced again to 0 (both instantaneously and slowly decreasing over 250 years). The resulting freshening forces a shutdown of the formation of North Atlantic deepwater and a subsequent reversal of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic, filling the deep Atlantic with Antarctic bottom water. The change in the overturning pattern causes a drastic reduction of the Atlantic northward heat transport, resulting in a strong cooling with maximum amplitude over the northern North Atlantic and a southward shift of the sea-ice margin in the Atlantic. Due to the increased meridional temperature gradient, the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone is displaced southward and the westerlies in the northern hemisphere gain strength. We identify four main feedbacks affecting the stability of the thermohaline circulation: the change in the overturning circulation of the Atlantic leads to longer residence times of the surface waters in high northern latitudes, which allows them to accumulate more precipitation and runoff from the continents, which results in an increased stability in the North Atlantic.

  15. Explicit Determinants of the RFPrLrR Circulant and RLPrFrL Circulant Matrices Involving Some Famous Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu


    Full Text Available Circulant matrices may play a crucial role in solving various differential equations. In this paper, the techniques used herein are based on the inverse factorization of polynomial. We give the explicit determinants of the RFPrLrR circulant matrices and RLPrFrL circulant matrices involving Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, and Pell-Lucas number, respectively.

  16. The adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant sequence in groups (United States)

    Deveci, Ömür; Adıgüzel, Zafer


    In this work, we study the adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant sequence modulo α and we obtain the cyclic groups from the generating matrix of the adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant numbers when read modulo α. Then, we derive the relationship among the periods of the adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant sequence modulo α and the orders of the cyclic groups obtained. Furthermore, we extend the adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant sequence to groups. Finally, we obtain the length of the period of the adjacency-Jacobsthal-circulant sequence in the quaternion group Q8 as applications of the results obtained.

  17. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection.

  18. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  19. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels. (United States)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Whitfield, John B; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Kyvik, Kirsten O H M; Rudan, Igor; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Åsa; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Smith, Johannes J; Wild, Sarah H; Pedersen, Nancy L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Mangino, Massimo; Hayward, Caroline; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Grant W; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Döring, Angela; Pramstaller, Peter P; Gyllensten, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Wilson, James F; Rivadeneria, Fernando; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim; Campbell, Harry; Hoehne, Birgit; Martin, Nicholas G; Oostra, Ben A; McCarthy, Mark; Peltonen-Palotie, Leena; Aulchenko, Yurii; Visscher, Peter M; Ripatti, Samuli; Janssens, A Cecile J W; van Duijn, Cornelia M


    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture of circulating lipids involves a number of undiscovered variants with very small effects, and that increasing GWAS sample sizes will enable the identification of novel variants that regulate lipid levels.

  20. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S


    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  1. Introduction: The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Chiang, John C. H.; Hemming, Sidney R.

    The meridional overturning circulation is a system of surface and deep currents encompassing all ocean basins. It transports large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients and other substances around the globe, and connects the surface ocean and atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea. As such, it is of critical importance to the global climate system. This monograph summarizes the current state of knowledge of this current system, how it has changed in the past and how it may change in the future, its driving mechanisms, and the impacts of its variability on climate, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H


    was not significantly different from that of age-matched control subjects. The lungs extracted both endogenous NA and 3H-NA significantly, but no significant pulmonary extraction of endogenous adrenaline was found. The pulmonary arterial-systemic arterial extraction ratio of NA was mean 0.08 (n = 9) as compared......% of this value. The small, but significant, pulmonary extraction of circulating noradrenaline implies that whole-body clearance, as estimated from infusion rate and systemic arterial sampling, will be overestimated by approximately 7%. As pulmonary extraction of NA and 3H-NA was almost identical, the results...

  3. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  4. Probing circulating tumor cells in microfluidics. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Stratton, Zackary S; Dao, Ming; Ritz, Jerome; Huang, Tony Jun


    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are important targets for study as we strive to better understand, diagnose, and treat cancers. However, CTCs are found in blood at extremely low concentrations; this makes isolation, enrichment, and characterization of CTCs technically challenging. Recently, the development of CTC separation devices has grown rapidly in both academia and industry. Part of this development effort centered on microfluidic platforms, exploiting the advantages of microfluidics to improve CTC separation performance and device integration. In this Focus article, we highlight some of the recent work in microfluidic CTC separation and detection systems and discuss our appraisal of what the field should do next.

  5. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) (United States)

    ... com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/third-party-reproduction-booklet.pdf (PDF - 902 KB) [top] American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May ...

  6. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  7. Accessibility and assistive products (United States)

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina


    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  8. Glioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lombard


    Full Text Available Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a “homing metastasis” process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM.


    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S


    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico.

  10. Circulating Tumor Cells Measurements in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Chiappini


    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC reflects the aggressiveness nature of a tumor. Many attempts have been made to develop assays that reliably detect and enumerate the CTC during the development of the HCC. In this case, the challenges are (1 there are few markers specific to the HCC (tumor cells versus nontumor cells and (2 they can be used to quantify the number of CTC in the bloodstream. Another technical challenge consists of finding few CTC mixed with million leukocytes and billion erythrocytes. CTC detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTC can also be used to predict progression-free survival and overall survival. CTC are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. Our aim is to review and analyze the different new methods existing to detect, enumerate, and characterize the CTC in the peripheral circulation of patients with HCC.

  11. [Disorders of choroidal circulation in diabetic maculopathy]. (United States)

    Takamine, Y


    Diabetic maculopathy is classified into 3 types, namely, macular edema, ischemic maculopathy, and pigment epitheliopathy. Blood-retinal barrier disturbance and the influence of the posterior vitreous membrane have been reported as the cause of diabetic maculopathy. However, its association with the choroidal circulation feeding the outer layer of the retina which involves the outer blood-retinal barrier has not been clarified yet. In this work, we studied the presence of the choroidal circulatory disturbance by performing indocyanine green angiography (IA) on patients with diabetic maculopathy. Choroidal circulatory disturbance was also differentiated from fluorescent block with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). The proportion of hypofluorescence observed in IA was 4 eyes in 2 patients among 37 eyes in 24 patients (11%) in the macular edema group, 3 eyes in 2 patients among 14 eyes in 10 patients (21%) in the ischemic maculopathy group, and 26 eyes in 17 patients among 33 eyes in 22 patients (79%) in the pigment epitheliopathy group. Of the cases showing hypofluorescence in IA in the pigment epitheliopathy group, 4 eyes in 4 patients had hypofluorescence due to both choroidal circulatory disturbance and fluorescent block. This suggests that the choroidal circulation disturbance is partly involved in diabetic maculopathy mainly in the pigment epitheliopathy group.

  12. Measuring circulating antioxidants in wild birds. (United States)

    Cohen, Alan; Klasing, Kirk; Ricklefs, Robert


    Antioxidants protect against free radical damage, which is associated with various age-related pathologies. Antioxidants are also an important buffer against the respiratory burst of the immune system. This protection presumably has costs and therefore might underlie important life-history trade-offs. Studying such trade-offs in a comparative context requires field-applicable methods for assessing antioxidant capacity in wild animals. Here, we present modifications to a simple spectrophotometric assay (the TEAC or TAS assay) that can be applied to miniscule amounts of blood plasma to determine circulating antioxidant capacity. Additionally, uric acid, the most abundant circulating antioxidant, should be measured independently. Uric acid in birds is derived from amino acid catabolism, perhaps incidentally to its antioxidant function. The assay was validated in experimental studies on chickens showing effects of diet on antioxidant capacity, and in field measurements on 92 species of birds, which demonstrate substantial species differences in constitutive antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, most wild birds demonstrate a dramatic change in antioxidant capacity due to stress. These results show that this technique detects variation appropriate for both interspecific and intraspecific studies, and that antioxidants and uric acid change in response to conditions of interest to field ecologists, such as diet and stress.

  13. Coastal ocean circulation during Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Glenn, Scott


    Hurricane Sandy (2012) was the second costliest tropical cyclone to impact the United States and resulted in numerous lives lost due to its high winds and catastrophic storm surges. Despite its impacts little research has been performed on the circulation on the continental shelf as Sandy made landfall. In this study, integrated ocean observing assets and regional ocean modeling were used to investigate the coastal ocean response to Sandy's large wind field. Sandy's unique cross-shelf storm track, large size, and slow speed resulted in along-shelf wind stress over the coastal ocean for nearly 48 h before the eye made landfall in southern New Jersey. Over the first inertial period (˜18 h), this along-shelf wind stress drove onshore flow in the surface of the stratified continental shelf and initiated a two-layer downwelling circulation. During the remaining storm forcing period a bottom Ekman layer developed and the bottom Cold Pool was rapidly advected offshore ˜70 km. This offshore advection removed the bottom Cold Pool from the majority of the shallow continental shelf and limited ahead-of-eye-center sea surface temperature (SST) cooling, which has been observed in previous storms on the MAB such as Hurricane Irene (2011). This cross-shelf advective process has not been observed previously on continental shelves during tropical cyclones and highlights the need for combined ocean observing systems and regional modeling in order to further understand the range of coastal ocean responses to tropical cyclones.

  14. Numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verissimo, Gabriel L.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, Jose Luiz H., E-mail: gabrielverissimo@poli.ufrj.b, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This work presents a numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop using computational fluid dynamics. The simulated loop is an experimental model in a reduced scale of 1:10 of a passive heat removal system typical of advanced PWR reactors. The loop is composed of a heating vessel containing 52 electric heaters, a vertical shell-tube heat exchanger and a column of expansion. The working fluid is distilled water. Initially it was created a tridimensional geometric model of the loop components. After that, it was generated a tridimensional mesh of finite elements in order to calculate the variables of the problem. The boundaries of the numerical simulation were the power of the electric resistances and the cooling flow in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. The initial conditions were the temperature, the pressure and the fluid velocity at the time just before the power has been switched on. The results of this simulation were compared with the experimental data, in terms of the evolution of the temperatures in different locations of the loop, and of the average natural circulation flow as a function of time for a given power. (author)

  15. Computer Security Assistance Program (United States)


    Information COMPUTER SECURITY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM OPR: HQ AFCA/SYS (CMSgt Hogan) Certified by: HQ USAF/SCXX (Lt Col Francis X. McGovern) Pages: 5...Distribution: F This instruction implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 33-2, Information Protection, establishes the Air Force Computer Security Assistance...Force single point of contact for reporting and handling computer security incidents and vulnerabilities including AFCERT advisories and Defense

  16. Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance (United States)


    Effectiveness..., October 18, 2007, p. x. 51 Shawn Dorman, “Iraq PRTs: Pins on a Map,” Foreign Service Journal, March 2007; Testimony of Ginger Cruz, Deputy... Blood Money, Little, Brown, and Company, 2006; SIGIR, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons in Program and Project Management, March 2007; and Glenn Zorpette...local participation that would have made projects more effective. Among widely circulated reasons were a failure to anticipate post-invasion security

  17. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data (United States)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.


    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  18. Shallow Circulations: Relevance and Strategies for Satellite Observation (United States)

    Bellon, Gilles; Reitebuch, Oliver; Naumann, Ann Kristin


    Shallow circulations are central to many tropical cloud systems. We investigate the potential of existing and upcoming data to document these circulations. Different methods to observe or constrain atmospheric circulations rely on satellite-borne instruments. Direct observations of the wind are currently possible at the ocean surface or using tracer patterns. Satellite-borne wind lidar will soon be available, with a much better coverage and accuracy. Meanwhile, circulations can be constrained using satellite observations of atmospheric diabatic heating. We evaluate the commonalities and discrepancies of these estimates together with reanalysis in systems that include shallow circulations. It appears that existing datasets are in qualitative agreement, but that they still differ too much to provide robust evaluation criteria for general circulation models. This state of affairs highlights the potential of satellite-borne wind lidar and of further work on current satellite retrievals.

  19. Effect of Vegetation on the Late Miocene Ocean Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Lohmann


    Full Text Available We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago. In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to a weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean which is consistent with most other modeling studies for this time period. Here, we estimate the effect of a changed vegetation cover on the ocean general circulation using atmospheric circulation model simulations for the late Miocene climate with 353 ppmv CO2 level. The Late Miocene land surface cover reduces the albedo, the net evaporation in the North Atlantic catchment is affected and the North Atlantic water becomes more saline leading to a more vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water circulation. These effects reveal potentially important feedbacks between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  20. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation


    M.-A. Knietzsch; V. Lucarini; F. Lunkeit


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized earthlike aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is put on the Lorenz energy cycle and the atmospheric mean meridional circulation. The latter is analysed by means of the Kuo–Eliassen equation. The atmospheric heat transport compensates the imposed oceanic heat transport changes to a large extent in co...

  1. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation


    M.-A. Knietzsch; A. Schröder; V. Lucarini; F. Lunkeit


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general ci...

  2. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.


    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  3. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron


    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify...... suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture...

  4. [Harvey and his theory of circulation]. (United States)

    Wolters, Frank J


    In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned.

  5. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou


    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  6. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu


    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  7. Circulating Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. (United States)

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Spitali, Pietro


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Genetic and biochemical research over the years has characterized the cause, pathophysiology and development of the disease providing several potential therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers. High throughput - omic technologies have provided a comprehensive understanding of the changes occurring in dystrophic muscles. Murine and canine animal models have been a valuable source to profile muscles and body fluids, thus providing candidate biomarkers that can be evaluated in patients. This review will illustrate known circulating biomarkers that could track disease progression and response to therapy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We present an overview of the transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic biomarkers described in literature. We show how studies in muscle tissue have led to the identification of serum and urine biomarkers and we highlight the importance of evaluating biomarkers as possible surrogate endpoints to facilitate regulatory processes for new medicinal products.

  8. The collateral circulation of the heart (United States)


    The coronary arteries have been regarded as end arteries for decades. However, there are functionally relevant anastomotic vessels, known as collateral arteries, which interconnect epicardial coronary arteries. These vessels provide an alternative source of blood supply to the myocardium in cases of occlusive coronary artery disease. The relevance of these collateral arteries is a matter of ongoing debate, but increasing evidence indicates a relevant protective role in patients with coronary artery disease. The collateral circulation can be assessed by different methods; the gold standard involves intracoronary pressure measurements. While the first clinical trials to therapeutically induce growth of collateral arteries have been unavailing, recent pilot studies using external counterpulsation or growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) have shown promising results. PMID:23735225

  9. BIM-Enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee


    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC's schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs' schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  10. Multidecadal Thermohaline Circulation Variability Driven by Atmospheric Surface Flux Forcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delworth, Thomas L; Greatbatch, Richard J


      Previous analyses of an extended integration of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model have revealed pronounced multidecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation (THC...

  11. Modelling seasonal circulation and thermohaline structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz


    Full Text Available The wind- and buoyancy-driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and mesoscale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward-flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS, especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  12. Silent circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon. (United States)

    Fokam, E B; Levai, L D; Guzman, H; Amelia, P A; Titanji, V P K; Tesh, R B; Weaver, S C


    To investigate the silent circulation and transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in the Fako Division of Cameroon. This survey was conducted based on clinical observations and laboratory diagnosis; field collections of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Fako Division of South West Cameroon. One hundred and two sera were obtained from febrile patients (with negative laboratory findings for malaria and typhoid fever) at clinics in the Fako Division, and diurnal anthropophilic mosquitoes (4,764) collected. Virus isolation was attempted from these, and sera were screened for antibodies against 18 African arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and complement fixation (CF) tests. No virus was isolated. Fifty three of 79 (67.1%) sera reacted with one or more viral antigens. Twenty nine sera (36.7%) reacted with members of the genus Alphavirus, with Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) viruses as the most frequent (34.2%). Forty six sera (58.2%) reacted with members of the genus Flavivirus: 24 (30.4%) were cross-reactive, but 11.4% reacted monotypically with Zika, 5.1% with yellow fever virus (YFV), 5.1% with dengue virus-2 (DENV-2), 2.5% with DENV-1 and 1.3% with Wesselsbron virus, respectively. The plaque reduction neutralisation test used to specify the agent that elicited the response could not resolve 33.3% of the cross reactions between CHIKV and ONNV. Neutralising antibody titres against ONNV and CHIKV were very high indicating probable re-infection. Our results indicate previously undetected circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon, and suggest that they are important, overlooked public health problems.

  13. Circulating tumor cells in melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Clawson

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are of recognized importance for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. With melanoma, most studies do not show any clear relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease. Here, CTCs were enriched (∼400X from blood of melanoma patients using a simple centrifugation device (OncoQuick, and 4 melanocyte target RNAs (TYR, MLANA, MITF, and MIF were quantified using QPCR. Approximately one-third of melanoma patients had elevated MIF and MLANA transcripts (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively compared with healthy controls. In contrast, healthy controls had uniformly higher levels of TYR and MITF than melanoma patients (p<0.0001. There was a marked shift of leukocytes into the CTC-enriched fractions (a 430% increase in RNA recovery, p<0.001, and no relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease was found. CTCs were captured on microfabricated filters and cultured. Captured melanoma CTCs were large cells, and consisted of 2 subpopulations, based on immunoreactivity. One subpopulation (∼50% stained for both pan-cytokeratin (KRT markers and the common leukocyte marker CD-45, whereas the second subpopulation stained for only KRT. Since similar cells are described in many cancers, we also examined blood from colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients. We observed analogous results, with most captured CTCs staining for both CD-45/KRT markers (and for the monocyte differentiation marker CD-14. Our results suggest that immature melanocyte-related cells (expressing TYR and MITF RNA may circulate in healthy controls, although they are not readily detectable without considerable enrichment. Further, as early-stage melanomas develop, immature melanocyte migration into the blood is somehow curtailed, whereas a significant proportion of patients develop elevated CTC levels (based on MIF and MLANA RNAs. The nature of the captured CTCs is consistent with literature describing leukocyte/macrophage-tumor cell fusion hybrids

  14. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus. (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan


    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PV Perspectives On The Titan Atmospheric Circulation (United States)

    Allison, M.

    Potential vorticity (or PV) has become an important tool for the conceptual model- ing of atmospheric/oceanic circulations and promises to be an important element of the diagnostic study of Titan. Recent applications of PV thinking to numerical simu- lations and observations of several extraterrestrial atmospheres have encouraged the prospects for a unified understanding of planetary circulations encompassing a wide range of rotation and stratification parameters. The accumulated evidence suggests that zonal-mean winds and temperatures at the jet levels approximate a state of zero potential vorticity within the bounding low-latitudes of anticyclonic flow, with the ex- terior cyclonic regions conforming to a PV state that is well mixed with respect to its polar limit [e.g. Allison et al., 1994; Allison, 2000]. The forthcoming reconnais- sance of Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini-Huygens mission will likely represent the greatest leap in the science of planetary meteorology for the coming decade, and pro- vide a unique test of the application of PV thinking to a global cyclostrophic regime, possibly in combination with a geostrophic sub-layer. The visualization of potential vorticity maps of the eight scale-height depth of atmosphere between Titan's surface and its visually opaque haze layer may be facilitated with an appropriately modeified but informationally equivalent formulation of the Ertel PV which removes the expo- nential variation with altitude of its inverse density factor [cf. Lait, 1994]. Specific examples of these kinds of maps and sections will be presented, as constrained by available observations, with a view to their eventual definition by anticipated in situ vertical profiles and orbital global maps from Cassini-Huygens.

  16. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.


    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  17. Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA for precision medicine: dream or reality? (United States)

    Ignatiadis, M; Dawson, S-J


    Next-generation sequencing studies have provided further evidence to support the notion that cancer is a disease characterized by Darwinian evolution. Today, we often fail to capture this evolution and treatment decisions, even in the metastatic setting, are often based on analysis of primary tumor diagnosed years ago. Currently, this is considered a major reason for treatment failures in cancer care. Recent technological advances in the detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA might address this and allow for treatment tailoring based on real-time monitoring of tumor evolution. In this review, we summarize the most important recent findings in the field, focusing on challenges and opportunities in moving these tools forward in clinical practice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  18. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)


    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  19. Interactions Between the Thermohaline Circulation and Tropical Atlantic SST in a Coupled General Circulation Model (United States)

    Miller, Ron; Jiang, Xing-Jian; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)


    Tropical Atlantic SST shows a (statistically well-defined) decadal time scale in a 104-year simulation of unforced variability by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The SST anomalies superficially resemble observed Tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and are associated with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Brazilian rainfall is modulated with a decadal time scale, along with the strength of the Atlantic trade winds, which are associated with variations in evaporation and the net surface heat flux. However, in contrast to observed tropical Atlantic variability, the trade winds damp the associated anomalies in ocean temperature, indicating a negative feedback. Tropical SST anomalies in the CGCM, though opposed by the surface heat flux, are advected in from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. These variations modulate the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC): warm, salty anomalies at the equator sink drawing cold, fresh mid-latitude water. Upon reaching the equator, the latter inhibit vertical overturning and advection from higher latitudes, which allows warm, salty anomalies to reform, returning the cycle to its original state. Thus, the cycle results from advection of density anomalies and the effect of these anomalies upon the rate of vertical overturning and surface advection. This decadal modulation of Tropical Atlantic SST and the thermohaline circulation is correlated with ocean heat transport to the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and Norwegian Sea SST. Because of the central role of equatorial convection, we question whether this mechanism is present in the current climate, although we speculate that it may have operated in palaeo times, depending upon the stability of the tropical water column.

  20. Circulation of the surface waters in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Sharma, G.S.

    The circulation pattern of the surface waters in the North Indian Ocean for different months of the year is discussed. In order to arrive at a reliable and detailed picture of the circulation pattern, streamlines are drawn using the isogon technique...

  1. Pirates, stewards, and the securitisation of global circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis


    This article is a contribution to the theorization of global maritime circulation as a key category of a global biopolitics of security. It seeks to advance knowledge on the ways in which liberal life is promoted and protected by exacerbating global circulation. It focuses on the security effects of

  2. Circulation Price Elasticity in the Daily Newspaper Industry. (United States)

    Grotta, Gerald L.; Taylor, Michael Lee

    Pricing of subscriptions and single copies has historically been arbitrary. Evidence indicates that the newspaper industry has tended to overestimate the elasticity of demand for newspaper circulation. This study analyzed price changes, circulation changes, and population changes for all daily newspapers in the United States between 1970 and 1975.…

  3. Circulating immune complexes – reviewing the biological roles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circulating immune complexes – reviewing the biological roles in human immune function and exercise. ... Circulating immune complexes (CIC) are formed when antigen (Ag) binds to an antibody (Ab). Each time there is an antibody response, and the antibody meets an antigen, an immune complex (IC) is established.

  4. 36 CFR 1192.29 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.29 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (a) Interior handrails and stanchions shall permit sufficient turning and maneuvering space for wheelchairs and...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.155 Section 1192.155 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.155 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.77 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.77 Section 1192.77 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.77 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.115 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.115 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions... gripping surface of interior handrails and stanchions shall be 11/4 inches to 11/2 inches or shall provide...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.97 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.97 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions... gripping surface of interior handrails and stanchions shall be 11/4 inches to 11/2 inches or shall provide...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.57 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.57 Section 1192.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.57 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions...

  10. Metabolites associated with circulating interleukin-6 in older adults (United States)

    Background: Circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are elevated in older adults, but mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach to develop an improved understanding about mechanisms related to circulating IL-6 in ...

  11. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang


    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  12. Impact of interocean exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.


    The awareness that human activity could change climate has greatly raised public and scientific interest in climate. One issue of present-day climate research is the stability of the thermohaline circulation. This overturning circulation, popularly known as the `conveyor belt', redistributes

  13. Circulating osteogenic cells: implications for injury, repair, and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pignolo, Robert J; Kassem, Moustapha


    The aim of this review is to provide a critical reading of recent literature pertaining to the presence of circulating, fluid-phase osteoblastic cells and their possible contribution to bone formation. We have termed this group of cells collectively as circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells...

  14. Single particle behaviour in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus


    An investigation of single particle behaviour in a circulating fluidized bed combustor is described, relating to sulphur capture reactions by limestone under alternate oxidizing and reducing conditions present in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, and to the devolatilization and burn out...

  15. Circulating nucleic acids as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of circulating nucleic acids have been found in a variety of benign and malignant pathological conditions. The ability to detect and quantitate specific DNA, RNA and micro-RNA sequences in serum/ plasma has opened up the possibilities of non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. Circulating ...

  16. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  17. Internal variability of the wind-driven ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsman, C.A.


    The ocean circulation is known to vary on a multitude of time and spatial scales. Due to the large heat capacity of the oceans, variations in its circulation have a profound impact on climate. Therefore, understanding the origin of this variability and its sensitivity to physical parameters is an

  18. Recent summer Arctic atmospheric circulation anomalies in a historical perspective (United States)

    Belleflamme, A.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.


    A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland has been observed since the beginning of the 2000s, and particularly between 2007 and 2012. These circulation anomalies are likely partly responsible for the enhanced Greenland ice sheet melt as well as the Arctic sea ice loss observed since 2007. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse whether similar conditions might have happened since the late 19th century over the Arctic region. We have used an atmospheric circulation type classification based on daily mean sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height data from five reanalysis data sets (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, ERA-20C, and 20CRv2) to put the recent circulation anomalies in perspective with the atmospheric circulation variability since 1871. We found that circulation conditions similar to 2007-2012 have occurred in the past, despite a higher uncertainty of the reconstructed circulation before 1940. For example, only ERA-20C shows circulation anomalies that could explain the 1920-1930 summertime Greenland warming, in contrast to 20CRv2. While the recent anomalies exceed by a factor of 2 the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic region, their origin (natural variability or global warming) remains debatable.

  19. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V


    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  20. Circulating nucleic acids damage DNA of healthy cells by integrating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whether nucleic acids that circulate in blood have any patho-physiological functions in the host have not been explored. We report here that far from being inert molecules, circulating nucleic acids have significant biological activities of their own that are deleterious to healthy cells of the body. Fragmented DNA and ...

  1. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: mechanisms and predictability. (United States)

    Marotzke, J


    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood.

  2. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: Mechanisms and predictability


    Marotzke, Jochem


    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood.

  3. Conceptual models of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, S.S.; Marshall, D.P.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline

  4. Coronary circulation in the presence of vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, J. D.; Spaan, J. A.


    This paper discusses three specific aspects of coronary circulation as they relate to the patient with coronary artery disease. Firstly, the normal autoregulatory and metabolic control of the coronary circulation is considered in the light of current understanding of the relevant processes.

  5. Exercise limitation in patients with Fontan circulation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; Tacken, Marieke H. P.; Blank, A. Christian; Hulzebos, Erik H.; Strengers, Jan L. M.; Helders, Paul J. M.


    The aim of the current literature study was to perform a literature review of the factors contributing to exercise limitation and physiological response to exercise in patients with Fontan circulation. In patients with Fontan circulation, peak oxygen uptake ranged from about 14.4 to 32.3 ml/min/kg,

  6. Digital Operating Room assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geudon, A.C.P.


    The Operating Room (OR) is a complex environment, where a large variety of patients and diseases can be treated and many unexpected events occur (such as emergency surgeries and unexpected progress of procedures). In practice, OR assistants support OR processes as well as they can, in order to

  7. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  8. Assistive Technologies for Reading (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.


    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  9. Robotic assisted andrological surgery (United States)

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet


    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  10. The aeromedical physician assistant. (United States)

    Radi, Joshua; Brisson, Michael; Line, Michael


    The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.

  11. Partnership for Prescription Assistance (United States)

    Skip to main content ☒ Close PPA is a Free Service Other companies may offer to connect consumers to these same ... Received Assistance Established in 2005 PPA is a Free Service Other companies may offer to connect consumers to these same ...

  12. Physician-assisted suicide. (United States)

    Snyder, L; Sulmasy, D P


    Medical professional codes have long prohibited physician involvement in assisting a patient's suicide. However, despite ethical and legal prohibitions, calls for the liberalization of this ban have grown in recent years. The medical profession should articulate its views on the arguments for and against changes in public policy and decide whether changes are prudent. In addressing such a contentious issue, physicians, policymakers, and society must fully consider the needs of patients, the vulnerability of particular patient groups, issues of trust and professionalism, and the complexities of end-of-life health care. Physician-assisted suicide is prominent among the issues that define our professional norms and codes of ethics. The American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP-ASIM) does not support the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. The routine practice of physician-assisted suicide raises serious ethical and other concerns. Legalization would undermine the patient-physician relationship and the trust necessary to sustain it; alter the medical profession's role in society; and endanger the value our society places on life, especially on the lives of disabled, incompetent, and vulnerable individuals. The ACP-ASIM remains thoroughly committed to improving care for patients at the end of life.

  13. Assisted Cycling Tours (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter


    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  14. Robotic assisted kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Modi


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end stage renal disease. While open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive surgery has recently been introduced for the recipient undergoing kidney transplantation. We review the evolution of techniques of minimally invasive surgery for kidney transplantation with specific emphasis on technical aspects of robotic assisted kidney transplantation.

  15. Towards Wearable Cognitive Assistance (United States)


    Nokia -Siemens Networks announced the availability of a “mobile edge computing platform” [1]. Wearable cognitive assistance can be viewed as a “killer...first step, providing an open-source foundation for exploring this exciting new domain. References [1] IBM and Nokia Siemens Networks Announce World’s

  16. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.


    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  17. Assisted death and martyrdom. (United States)

    Thomasma, David C


    Against the backdrop of ancient, mediaeval and modern Catholic teaching prohibiting killing (the rule against killing), the question of assisted suicide and euthanasia is examined. In the past the Church has modified its initial repugnance for killing by developing specific guidelines for permitting killing under strict conditions. This took place with respect to capital punishment and a just war, for example. One wonders why in the least objectionable instance, when a person is already dying, suffering, and repeatedly requesting assistance in dying, there is still such widespread condemnation of assisted suicide and euthanasia. In a Gedankexperiment, I suggest that certain stories of martyrdom in the history of the Christian Church shed some light on the role of taking one's life, or putting one's life in danger out of love. I further suggest that requesting assisted suicide and/or euthanasia from the motive of love of one's family or care givers might possibly qualify as one instance of justifiable euthanasia, although I acknowledge that the Church will not be making changes in its stance any time soon.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen


    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  19. Circulating Immune Complexes among Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicoloff


    Full Text Available Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is an autoimmune disease associated with the presence of different types of autoantibodies. The presence of these antibodies and the corresponding antigens in the circulation leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC. CIC are known to persist in the blood for long periods of time. Such CIC following deposition in the small blood vessels have the potential to lead to microangiopathy with debilitating clinical consequences. The aim of our pilot study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between CIC and the development of microvascular complications in diabetic children. Isolation of a new glycoprotein complement inhibition factor (CIF from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea seed, which appears to bind specifically to complement component C3 has provided an unique tool for the measurement of immune complexes by means of ELISA-type techniques (CIF-ELISA. We studied the levels of CIC (IgG, IgM and IgA in 58 diabetic children (mean age 12.28±4.04 years, diabetes duration 5.3±3.7 years, 29 of them had vascular complications (group 1 and the other 29 were without vascular complications (group 2. As controls, we studied sera samples from 21 healthy children (mean age 13.54±4.03 years. Sera from the diabetic patients showed statistically significant higher levels of CIC IgG ( p=0.03 than sera from the control group. In sera from group 1 values of CIC IgG showed statistically significant higher levels than controls (0.720±0.31 vs. 0.46±0.045; p=0.011 Sera from 59% of the patients were positive for CIC IgG, 36% for CIC IgM and 9% for CIC IgA. Among 26 patients with microalbuminuria, sera from 17/26 (65% were positive for CIC IgG, 8/26 (31% for CIC IgM and 2/26 (8% for CIC IgA. CIC IgG correlated with HbA1c (r=0.51; p=0.005 and microalbuminuria (r=0.42, p=0.033. CIC IgA correlated with age (r=0.44, p=0.03. CIC IgM correlated with the duration of diabetes (r=0.63, p=0.02. These

  20. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.


    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Differential Radiative Heating Drives Tropical Atmospheric Circulation Weakening (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Huang, Yi


    The tropical atmospheric circulation is projected to weaken during global warming, although the mechanisms that cause the weakening remain to be elucidated. We hypothesize that the weakening is related to the inhomogeneous distribution of the radiative forcing and feedback, which heats the tropical atmosphere in the ascending and subsiding regions differentially and thus requires the circulation to weaken due to energetic constraints. We test this hypothesis in a series of numerical experiments using a fully coupled general circulation model (GCM), in which the radiative forcing distribution is controlled using a novel method. The results affirm the effect of inhomogeneous forcing on the tropical circulation weakening, and this effect is greatly amplified by radiative feedback, especially that of clouds. In addition, we find that differential heating explains the intermodel differences in tropical circulation response to CO2 forcing in the GCM ensemble of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project.

  2. The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. (United States)

    Clark, Peter U; Pisias, Nicklas G; Stocker, Thomas F; Weaver, Andrew J


    The possibility of a reduced Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increases in greenhouse-gas concentrations has been demonstrated in a number of simulations with general circulation models of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. But it remains difficult to assess the likelihood of future changes in the thermohaline circulation, mainly owing to poorly constrained model parameterizations and uncertainties in the response of the climate system to greenhouse warming. Analyses of past abrupt climate changes help to solve these problems. Data and models both suggest that abrupt climate change during the last glaciation originated through changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to small changes in the hydrological cycle. Atmospheric and oceanic responses to these changes were then transmitted globally through a number of feedbacks. The palaeoclimate data and the model results also indicate that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the mean climate state.

  3. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj


    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  4. Comparison of model and observed nearshore circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J. H.; Ditmars, J. D.; Harrison, W.; Paddock, R. A.


    Results from a two-dimensional numerical model for nearshore circulation induced by waves and wind are compared with observations made during two storms at a beach on Lake Michigan. Model-input data include bathymetry, offshore wave characteristics, wind histories, and local water-level changes. The predicted locations of the breaker zone are in rough accord with those observed during the storms. Data for comparison with model results consist of wave and current observations across the surf zone, especially those acquired by using a towed, instrumented sled. The comparisons show that the model often predicts peak currents near the breaker zone quite well, but underestimates the decay of wave height and the strength of longshore currents across the surf zone. Wave breaking on the bar-trough beach structure prevalent in this study apparently is not well represented by the model. An improved breaking criterion, treatment of breaking waves as traveling bores, and inclusion of horizontal mixing of momentum might add to better simulation of surf-zone currents.

  5. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  6. Modeling the Middle Jurassic ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brunetti


    Full Text Available We present coupled ocean–sea-ice simulations of the Middle Jurassic (∼165 Ma when Laurasia and Gondwana began drifting apart and gave rise to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Since the opening of the Proto-Caribbean is not well constrained by geological records, configurations with and without an open connection between the Proto-Caribbean and Panthalassa are examined. We use a sea-floor bathymetry obtained by a recently developed three-dimensional (3D elevation model which compiles geological, palaeogeographical and geophysical data. Our original approach consists in coupling this elevation model, which is based on detailed reconstructions of oceanic realms, with a dynamical ocean circulation model. We find that the Middle Jurassic bathymetry of the Central Atlantic and Proto-Caribbean seaway only allows for a weak current of the order of 2 Sv in the upper 1000 m even if the system is open to the west. The effect of closing the western boundary of the Proto-Caribbean is to increase the transport related to barotropic gyres in the southern hemisphere and to change water properties, such as salinity, in the Neo-Tethys. Weak upwelling rates are found in the nascent Atlantic Ocean in the presence of this superficial current and we discuss their compatibility with deep-sea sedimentological records in this region.

  7. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Gascoyne


    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a the principles of DEP; (b the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  8. The epistemological status of general circulation models (United States)

    Loehle, Craig


    Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.

  9. Circulating microRNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases. (United States)

    Orlicka-Płocka, Marta; Gurda, Dorota; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Smolarek, Iwona; Wyszko, Eliza


    Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) are currently one of the most common causes of death. Because heart related deaths occur on such an enormous scale this phenomenon is referred to as an epidemic. Chronic and acute injury of the heart could be an effect of cardiac remodeling, which is a result of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, influenced by hemodynamic load or neurohormonal activation (Cohn et al., 2000). These small deviations in cardiac activity and morphology may lead to an enormous negative effect. Despite a significant progress, knowledge of standard risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has become less and less effective, which is why predicting and seeking an appropriate treatment is very challenging. As a result, there is a growing interest in finding new markers of the CD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are short, non-coding RNAs responsible for regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Among them that have the greatest potential are microRNA molecules that circulate in the blood plasma or serum, that are related to direct activation of signaling pathways, implicated in the aging process and thus for the development of cardiovascular disease. This paper is a summary of the current state of knowledge on miRNAs, their biogenesis and potential role as biomarkers to diagnose heart disease.

  10. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media. (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin


    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  11. Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability. (United States)

    Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert


    The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future.

  12. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  13. Microfluidic Platform for Circulating Tumor Cells Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras-Mari, I.; Rodriguez-Trujillo, L.; Samitier-Marti, J.


    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are released from primary tumors into the bloodstream and transported to distant organs, promoting metastasis, which is known to be responsible for most cancer‐related deaths. Currently tumors are not found until symptoms appear or by chance when the patient undergoes a medical test, which in both situations can be too late. Once a tumor is found it is studied from tissue samples obtained directly from the patient in an invasive way. This invasive procedure is known as biopsy and apart from being invasive, it is costly, time consuming and can sometimes be painful and even risky for the patients’ health condition. Therefore, CTCs detection in blood also addressed as “liquid biopsy” would be very useful because by running routine blood analysis CTCs could be detected and collected suggesting tumor presence. However, due to the scarce presence in blood of these cells and to the huge amount of contamination from other cellular components a perfect method providing good capture and purity of CTCs has not been developed yet. In this project, a spiral size sorter microfluidic device has been manufactured and tested in order to determine its performance and limitations. Device performance was tested with different dilutions of healthy donor blood samples mixed with 30 micron particles simulating CTCs. The results obtained from these experiments show very good CTC recovery of up to 100% and the depletion of blood cellular components is around 99.9%. (Author)

  14. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  15. Laser-assisted electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.F.


    The effect of laser irradiation on electrodeposition processes has been investigated. These studies demonstrated that the addition of laser irradiation to an electroplating process can dramatically enhance plating rates and current efficiencies, as well as improve the morphology of the resultant electrodeposit. During the course of these investigations, the mechanism for the laser enhancement of electrodeposition processes was determined. Experimental evidence was obtained to show that laser irradiation of the substrate results in increased metal ion concentrations at the surface of the electrode due to a laser-induced Soret effect. The laser-induced Soret effect has important implications for laser-assisted electrochemical processing. The increase in the surface concentration of ions allows efficient electrodeposition from dilute solutions. As such, laser- assisted electrodeposition may develop into an environmentally conscious manufacturing process by reducing waste and limiting worker exposure to toxic chemicals.

  16. Circulating endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitors in kidney disease--victims, witnesses, or accomplices? (United States)

    Závada, J; Kideryová, L; Pytlík, R; Tesar, V


    Nephrologists deal with a host of pathologic conditions involving renal and systemic endothelium. Both in native and transplanted kidneys, often the insult to the renal endothelium initiates the pathogenic process ultimately leading to the loss of organ function. Also, systemic atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with renal dysfunction. In this review we would like to cover the possible role of CECs and their counterparts--circulating EPCs in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction associated with chronic renal failure, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and progression of chronic renal disease.

  17. Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea: evidences, debates and unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Millot


    Full Text Available The overall counterclockwise alongslope circulation of Atlantic Water (AW in the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea is now generally accepted. As the eastern basin displays similar general features, why is it generally assumed to function in a different way, and why is AW now said to circulate across the interior of the eastern basin? Relatively huge mesoscale anticyclonic eddies induced by the instability of the AW circulation in the south of the western basin have lifetimes up to several years. It is possible that they extend down to the sea bottom and play a major role in the distribution of all water masses. Why have apparently similar eddies generated in the eastern basin never received specific attention? Once formed, Mediterranean Waters (MWs must spread and circulate before outflowing. Why have simple dynamical arguments for understanding the circulation of AW, such as the Coriolis effect, rarely been considered for the circulation of MWs? In this paper we address these major aspects of water circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In order to be as objective and convincing as possible, and to write a paper that can be understood by as broad a readership as possible, we have chosen to present only raw data sets that can be easily interpreted by the reader without any help from the author. Based on the evidence provided by these data sets, we specify the current debates and list what we think are the main unanswered questions.

  18. How northern freshwater input can stabilise thermohaline circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Lambert


    Full Text Available The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC carries heat and salt towards the Arctic. This circulation is partly sustained by buoyancy loss and is generally believed to be inhibited by northern freshwater input as indicated by the ‘box-model’ of Stommel (1961. The inferred freshwater-sensitivity of the THC, however, varies considerably between studies, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The northernmost branch of the Atlantic THC, which forms a double estuarine circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean, is one example where both buoyancy loss and buoyancy gain facilitate circulation. We have built on Stommel's original concept to examine the freshwater-sensitivity of a double estuarine circulation. The net inflow into the double estuary is found to be more sensitive to a change in the distribution of freshwater than to a change in the total freshwater input. A double estuarine circulation is more stable than a single overturning, requiring a larger amount and more localised freshwater input into regions of buoyancy loss to induce a thermohaline ‘collapse’. For the Arctic Mediterranean, these findings imply that the Atlantic inflow may be relatively insensitive to increased freshwater input. Complementing Stommel's thermal and haline flow regimes, the double estuarine circulation allows for a third: the throughflow regime. In this regime, a THC with warm poleward surface flow can be sustained without production of dense water; a decrease in high-latitude dense water formation does therefore not necessarily affect regional surface conditions as strongly as generally thought.

  19. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  20. Assisted reproductive techniques. (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev


    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  1. Physician Assistant Genomic Competencies. (United States)

    Goldgar, Constance; Michaud, Ed; Park, Nguyen; Jenkins, Jean


    Genomic discoveries are increasingly being applied to the clinical care of patients. All physician assistants (PAs) need to acquire competency in genomics to provide the best possible care for patients within the scope of their practice. In this article, we present an updated version of PA genomic competencies and learning outcomes in a framework that is consistent with the current medical education guidelines and the collaborative nature of PAs in interprofessional health care teams.

  2. Virtual Personal Assistant


    Imrie, Peter; Bednar, Peter


    Abstract This report discusses ways in which new technology could be harnessed to create an intelligent Virtual Personal Assistant (VPA) with a focus on user-based information. It will look at examples of intelligent programs with natural language processing that are currently available, with different categories of support, and examine the potential usefulness of one specific piece of software as a VPA. This engages the ability to communicate socially through natural language processing, hol...

  3. Personal Digital Assistants


    Wiggins III, Richard H.


    Personal digital assistant sales are growing exponentially, and as medical technology advances the amount of information available becomes staggering, making a handheld device, with the ability to store a great amount of information, progressively more valuable to health care providers. Mobile computing allows for a great deal of knowledge in a small package, creating a “walking library” with a mobile collection of data always accessible. There are many diverse types of PDAs, and this article...


    Lantero, Caroline


    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  5. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe


    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto


    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  6. Fasting Circulating Glicentin Increases After Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Raffort, Juliette; Panaïa-Ferrari, Patricia; Lareyre, Fabien; Bayer, Pascale; Staccini, Pascal; Fénichel, Patrick; Chinetti, Giulia


    Bariatric surgery including the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a well-established therapeutic option for patients with morbid or severe obesity. Metabolic modifications observed after bariatric surgery are thought to be, at least partly, linked to hormonal changes. While variation of several proglucagon-derived peptides during bariatric surgery is well documented, little is known about glicentin. The aim of this study was to investigate circulating glicentin variations after bariatric surgery. Thirty patients eligible for bariatric surgery (18 RYGB and 12 LSG procedures) were prospectively included in the University Hospital of Nice. Clinical data and fasting biological parameters were recorded preoperatively, at 3, 6, and 12 months after bariatric surgery. The median age of patients was 51 years (35-56) with 33.3% men. Fasting glicentin concentration increased progressively after bariatric surgery from 6 months and was more marked at 12 months (14 ± 3.6 pmol/L at baseline vs 19.7 ± 2.7 pmol/L at 12 months for RYGB and 12.5 ± 1.4 vs 16.4 ± 1.8 pmol/L for LSG, respectively). Compared to preoperative values, the fold increase of glicentin at 12 months was 2 ± 0.2 in the RYGB group and 1.6 ± 0.3 in the LSG group. Glicentin variation after surgery did not correlate with anthropometric, glycemic, or lipid parameter modifications. Fasting glicentin level increases after bariatric surgery suggesting the potential interest of this peptide as a player and/or a marker of physiological changes after bariatric surgery.

  7. Circulating biomarkers in acute myofascial pain (United States)

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Parkinson, William; Upadhye, Suneel; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel; Flannery, John; Peng, Philip; Kumbhare, Dinesh


    Abstract The aims of the present study were to compare levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and growth factors between patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and healthy control participants, and to assess the relationship among inflammatory markers and growth factors in the two groups. Biomarkers levels were assessed in patients (n = 37) with myofascial pain complaints recruited from the hospital emergency department and non-MPS controls (n = 21), recruited via advertisements in the hospital and community. Blood levels of the cytokines, namely, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the chemokine, namely, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher in patients with MPS than controls. The results of the growth factor analyses revealed significantly higher levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MPS patients versus controls. The pattern of correlation coefficients between cytokines and growth factors differed considerably for MPS patients and controls with far fewer significant positive coefficients observed in the controls. Serum inflammatory and growth factor biomarkers were elevated in MPS patients. Inflammatory biomarkers and growth factor levels may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of MPS and therefore may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of MPS. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in MPS necessitates future research. PMID:27631214

  8. Robot-Assisted Nephropexy. (United States)

    Peixoto, Guilherme Andrade; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Moschovas, Marcio Covas; Carneiro, Arie; Borrelli, Milton; Colombo, José Roberto


    Renal ptosis is defined as the renal descent when there is a change from supine to orthostatic position, usually with a change of two vertebral bodies or more than five cm apart. Although rare, it is one of the causes of chronic flank pain or of upper abdomen. The typical patient of renal ptosis is young, female, thin, with complaint of pain when in an upright position (1, 2). Demonstrate a robot-assisted nephropexy technique in a young woman diagnosed with symptomatic renal ptosis on the right kidney, confirmed by imaging tests. A 29-year-old female patient with a history of chronic right-sided pain and palpable renal mobility on physical examination. The diagnosis of renal ptosis was confirmed by ultrasound imaging, excretory urography (Figure -1), and renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA (Figure-2). She was submitted to a robotic-assisted right nephropexy with a polypropylene mesh fixing the right kidney to the ipsilateral psoas muscle fascia. We reported a 96-minute surgical time. The patient was discharged in the first postoperative day. At the one-month follow-up, there was an important improvement of the symptoms, with normality renal function and imaging tests describing adequate renal positioning. Robotic-assisted nephropexy is feasible and can be an excellent minimally invasive alternative technique for the proposed surgery. We reported a shorter hospital stay and a faster postoperative recovery compared with the opened procedure. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Bridi


    Full Text Available The present article intends to bring about who the students in situation of inclusion are. The ones who are sent for specialized educational assistance facing the new policy of Special Education under the perspective of the Inclusive Education and to Know how the directions of this document have produced effects are asks for a reflection on this educational space that shelters them in order to create conditions so that they can stay in the context of a common study. The document presents a conceptual and terminological change to reinforce the contingent of pupils characterized as being of the “Special Education as well as sets up guidelines for the special education, for the implementation and functioning of a Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE, in Portuguese. After the discussion in the theoretical, legal and conceptual plan, it is aimed to present how these modifications have happened in the context of the City Teaching Net in Santa Maria, RS state, Brazil. Key words: National policy of special education; Specialized educational assistance; Students of special education

  10. The Orientation and Mobility Assistant. (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; And Others


    Implementation of recommendations of a position paper on training Orientation Mobility (OM) assistants is considered with suggestions concerning the roles of the OM specialist and OM assistant, specific skill areas for training, the role of the agency or school, and a preparation program for the mobility assistant leading to certification. (DB)

  11. Are recent climatic trends in Europe caused by circulation changes? (United States)

    Cahynová, M.; Huth, R.


    We have analyzed the effect of changes in the frequency of circulation types on significant seasonal trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation at 26 European stations in the period 1961-2000 using 24 objective atmospheric circulation classifications arising from the COST733 Action. First we have compared the circulation-induced seasonal trends (computed from a "hypothetical" daily series constructed by replacing the daily data by their long-term monthly mean under the specific circulation type) with observed seasonal trends significant at the 95% level. In winter the regional circulation changes explain mostly around 40% and up to 73% of observed warming trends, the link is the strongest in Britain and northern Germany but none in SW Europe and the Balkans. In spring the circulation-caused proportion of observed warming is around 20% for TX and a bit less for TN, the maxima are 58% for TX and 28% for TN at the Alpine station Hohenpeissenberg. In summer the proportion of circulation-caused temperature trends is around zero, with both positive and negative values for individual classifications. In autumn very few stations yield significant temperature trends, and circulation changes can explain only up to 30% of these trends (in Iceland). Precipitation trends are rarely significant at the 95% level. The few significant trends suggest similar relationships between circulation and precipitation changes as resulted for temperature. Using a different method - decomposition of climatic changes between the first and the second half of the study period into frequency-related part and within-type related part - we arrive at similar results. In winter the frequency-related (circulation-induced) part of climatic changes is even a bit more pronounced than using the first method. On the other hand, most of the climatic changes in spring, summer and autumn can only be attributed to changing properties of individual circulation types (within-type changes

  12. Circulating Extracellular microRNA in Systemic Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Carlsen, Anting Liu; Skovgaard, Kerstin


    , extracellular miRNA is protected against degradation by complexation with carrier proteins and/or by being enclosed in subcellular membrane vesicles. This, together with their tissue- and disease-specific expression, has fuelled the interest in using circulating microRNA profiles as harbingers of disease, i......, and rheumatoid arthritis. Even though the link between cellular alterations and extracellular profiles is still unpredictable, the data suggest that circulating miRNAs in autoimmunity may become diagnostically useful. Here, we review important circulating miRNAs in animal models of inflammation and in systemic...

  13. The Role of Eddy-Tansport in the Thermohaline Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paola Cessi


    Several research themes were developed during the course of this project. (1) Low-frequency oceanic varibility; (2) The role of eddies in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region; (3) Deep stratification and the overturning circulation. The key findings were as follows: (1) The stratification below the main thermocline (at about 500m) is determined in the circumpolar region and then communicated to the enclosed portions of the oceans through the overturning circulation. (2) An Atlantic pole-to-pole overturning circulation can be maintained with very small interior mixing as long as surface buoyancy values are shared between the northern North Atlantic and the ACC region.

  14. Heparin for assisted reproduction. (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan


    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  15. Land-sea thermal contrast determines the trend of Walker circulation simulated in atmospheric general circulation models (United States)

    Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Song, Hwan-Jin; Dommenget, Dietmar; Sohn, B. J.


    Strengthening or weakening of the Walker circulation can highly influence the global weather and climate variability by altering the location and strength of tropical heating. Therefore, there is considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms that lead to the trends in the Walker circulation intensity. Conventional wisdom indicates that a strengthening or weakening of the Walker circulation is primarily controlled by inhomogeneous sea surface temperature (SST) patterns across the tropical Pacific basin. However, we show that Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project climate model simulations with identical SST forcing have different Walker circulation trends that can be linked to differences in land surface temperatures. More prominently, stronger land-sea thermal contrast leads to increases in the precipitation in South America as well as the sea level pressure in the eastern tropical Pacific through a local circulation, resulting in a strengthening of the Walker circulation trend. This implies that correctly simulating the land temperature in atmospheric models is crucial to simulating the intensity of the Walker circulation in the present climate as well as its future change.

  16. Circulating microRNAs as a Novel Class of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kichukova Tatyana M.


    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD, are a huge burden on society, impairing the health of those affected, as well as their ability to learn and work. Biomarkers that reflect the dysregulations linked to neuropsychiatric diseases may potentially assist the diagnosis of these disorders. Most of these biomarkers are found in the brain tissue, which is not easily accessible. This is the challenge for the search of novel biomarkers that are present in various body fluids, including serum or plasma. As a group of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes. Previously, researchers discovered that miRNAs contribute to the neurodevelopment and maturation, including neurite outgrowth, dendritogenesis and dendritic spine formation. These developments underline the significance of miRNAs as potential biomarkers for diagnosing and prognosing central nervous system diseases. Accumulated evidence indicates that there are considerable differences between the cell-free miRNA expression profiles of healthy subjects and those of patients. Therefore, circulating miRNAs are likely to become a new class of noninvasive, sensitive biomarkers. Despite the fact that little is known about the origin and functions of circulating miRNAs, their essential roles in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of neuropsychiatric diseases make them attractive biomarkers. In this review we cover the increasing amounts of dataset that have accumulated in the last years on the use of circulating miRNAs and their values as potential biomarkers in most areas of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  17. The Use of Flow Diverter in Ruptured, Dissecting Intracranial Aneurysms of the Posterior Circulation. (United States)

    Maus, Volker; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Dorn, Franziska; Möhlenbruch, Markus; Borggrefe, Jan; Stavrinou, Pantelis; Abdullayev, Nuran; Barnikol, Utako Birgit; Liebig, Thomas; Kabbasch, Christoph


    Acute dissecting aneurysms of the posterior circulation are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Established endovascular treatment options include parent artery occlusion and stent-assisted coiling, but appear to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Vessel reconstruction with flow diverters is an alternative treatment option; however, its safety and efficacy in the acute stage remains unclear. This is a multicentric retrospective analysis of 15 consecutive acutely ruptured dissecting posterior circulation aneurysms treated with flow diverters. The primary end point was favorable aneurysm occlusion, defined as OKM C1-3 and D (O'Kelly Marotta scale). Secondary end points were procedure-related complications and clinical outcome. Nine of 15 aneurysms (60%) arose from the intradural portion of the vertebral artery, 3 were located on the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and 1 each on the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior cerebral artery, and basilar artery. Flow diverter placement was technically successful in 14 of 15 cases (93%). After endovascular treatment, none of the ruptured aneurysms rebled. Median clinical follow-up was 217 days and median angiographic follow-up was 203 days. Favorable occlusion was observed in 7 of 14 aneurysms (50%) directly after flow diverter placement; of those, 5 were completely occluded (36%). Seven patients (47%) with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage died in the acute phase. Favorable clinical outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤2) was observed in 4 of 15 patients (27%) and a moderate outcome (modified Rankin scale 3/4) was observed in 5 of 15 patients (33%). All aneurysms showed complete occlusion at follow-up. Flow diverters might be a feasible, alternative treatment option for acutely ruptured dissecting posterior circulation aneurysms and may effectively prevent rebleeding. Larger cohort studies are required to validate these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Circulating Haemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata following Angiostrongylus vasorum Infection Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales A. Barçante


    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite of dogs and related to carnivores that have an indirect life cycle, with a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods as the obligatory intermediate host. Unfortunately, the relationship between A. vasorum and their snail hosts remains poorly understood. Circulating haemocytes are the main line of cellular defence involved in the destruction of helminths in snails. Aiming to further characterize the haemocyte subsets in Biomphalaria snails, we have performed a flow cytometric analysis of whole haemolymph cellular components using a multiparametric dual colour labelling procedure. Our findings demonstrated that B. glabrata infected with A. vasorum have two major circulating haemocyte subsets, referred to as small and large haemocytes. Differences in the cell proportion occurred over time. The development of better invertebrate infection control strategies would certainly result in the better control of human diseases caused by other species of the genus Angiostrongylus. Such knowledge will assist in the establishment of novel control strategies aimed at parasites that use molluscs as intermediate hosts and clarify new aspects of the parasite-host relationship regarding cell recognition and activation mechanisms, which are also found in the innate response of vertebrates.

  19. A Physical Heart Failure Simulation System Utilizing the Total Artificial Heart and Modified Donovan Mock Circulation. (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Betterton, Edward; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J


    With the growth and diversity of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems entering clinical use, a need exists for a robust mock circulation system capable of reliably emulating and reproducing physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states for use in MCS training and inter-device comparison. We report on the development of such a platform utilizing the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and a modified Donovan Mock Circulation System, capable of being driven at normal and reduced output. With this platform, clinically relevant heart failure hemodynamics could be reliably reproduced as evidenced by elevated left atrial pressure (+112%), reduced aortic flow (-12.6%), blunted Starling-like behavior, and increased afterload sensitivity when compared with normal function. Similarly, pressure-volume relationships demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to afterload and decreased Starling-like behavior in the heart failure model. Lastly, the platform was configured to allow the easy addition of a left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II at 9600 RPM), which upon insertion resulted in improvement of hemodynamics. The present configuration has the potential to serve as a viable system for training and research, aimed at fostering safe and effective MCS device use. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Advances of circulating biomarkers in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms]. (United States)

    Chen, Luohai; Chen, Minhu; Chen, Jie


    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplam (GEP-NEN) is a rare group of tumors with its incidence rising significantly in recent decades. Because of the late presentation of the disease and limitations in conventional biomarkers, about 50% of GEP-NEN patients manifests advanced disease when diagnosed. Therefore, it is vital to identify circulating biomarkers which can not only be used for early diagnosis but also accurately evaluating the biological behavior of GEP-NEN. This review summarizes the advances of circulating biomarkers in diagnosing and evaluating efficacy of treatment in GEP-NEN. Well-known circulating biomarkers include chromogranin A (CgA), pancreastatin (PST), chromogranin B (CgB), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and pancreatic peptide(PP). Novel biomarkers including circulating tumor cell(CTC), microRNA and NETest are promising biomarkers with potential clinical benefit, but further researches are needed before their clinical applications.

  1. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  2. Duality of circulation decay statistics and survival probability (United States)


    Survival probability and circulation decay history have both been used for setting wake turbulence separation standards. Conceptually a strong correlation should exist between these two characterizations of the vortex behavior, however, the literatur...

  3. Dynamics of circulation of the waters around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    During the last decade the understanding of dynamics of the large-scale seasonal coastal currents around India has markedly improved. However, a number of major issues concerning circulation on the shelf and in the estuaries remain unresolved...

  4. The pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming


    transplantation and point to the pathophysiological significance of portal hypertension. In this paper we aimed to review current knowledge on the pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  5. performance simulation of a natural circulation solar air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PCM) heat storage in a single glazed flat plate natural circulation solar a prepared in modules, with the modules equispaced across the abs plied to convert the relevant energy balance equations into dimensi moving phase boundaries. Crank.

  6. Determinants of the hyperdynamic circulation and central hypovolaemia in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Hobolth, Lise; Winkler, Christine


    Patients with advanced cirrhosis often develop a hyperdynamic circulation with central hypovolaemia. The events that initiate the systemic haemodynamic abnormalities and the coupling of these factors to splanchnic haemodynamics are still unclear. Objective On the basis of a large population...

  7. Gateway Arch Circulator Conceptual Feasibility Study : Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (United States)


    The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (JEFF) is undergoing major design changes as part of the City Arch River 2015 project (CAR) that will impact access for park visitors. The park and stakeholders are considering a circulator system to facilita...

  8. The South China Sea Thermohaline Structure and Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Ma, Binbing; Chen, Yuchun


    ...), consisting of 116,019 temperature and 9,617 salinity profiles, during 1968-1984 to investigate the temporal and spatial variabilities of South China Sea thermohaline structures and circulation...

  9. The Physiology of Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices. (United States)

    Lim, Hoong Sern; Howell, Neil; Ranasinghe, Aaron


    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has increased significantly over the past few years, in part because heart transplant activity has plateaued, but also because of the improving clinical outcomes with contemporary continuous-flow LVAD. As such, there is now a growing population of patients with continuous-flow LVADs. Management of these patients is complicated by the altered circulatory physiology, because continuous-flow LVADs provide a parallel circulation from the heart to the aorta, which interacts with the native left heart (systemic) circulation with consequent effects on the right heart circulation. In addition, the displayed pump parameters can mislead the unwary clinician. An understanding of LVAD physiology can guide clinicians in the management of patients with LVADs. This review describes the basic design of axial and centrifugal continuous-flow LVADs, the functional anatomy and physiology of continuous-flow LVADs, and the interaction between the heart and the LVAD. leading to a discussion about the interpretation of the pump parameters in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computation of the q -th roots of circulant matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakizeh Mohammadi Khanghah


    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we investigate the reduced form of circulant matrices‎ ‎and we show that the problem of computing the $q$-th roots of a‎ ‎nonsingular circulant matrix $A$ can be reduced to that of computing‎ ‎the $q$-th roots of two half size matrices $B-C$ and $B+C$. 

  11. North Atlantic circulation in a 1000 year climate model


    Williams, Joanne; Hughes, Christopher; Bingham, Rory


    The North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is important for ocean heat transport in the Atlantic, so it is widely monitored and modelled. Previous work based on a few decades of model simulations has shown that the overturning north of about 40N is quite different from that further south, and that changes in the circulation can be accuratelymonitored using pressuremeasurements at the western boundary, and reasonably well using tide gauge data. Here, we extend these analyses t...

  12. Circulating tumor cells: Exploring intratumor heterogeneity of colorectal cancer


    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; de Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola


    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients u...

  13. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014. (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo


    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar-assisted hemodialysis. (United States)

    Agar, John W M; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie


    Hemodialysis resource use-especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use-all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. A 24-m(2), 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter-total cost of A$16,219-has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance.

  15. Physician assistant dual employment. (United States)

    Jeffery, Colette; Morton-Rias, Dawn; Rittle, Mary; Cannon, James; Hooker, Roderick S


    National health workforce supply and demand models help predict requirements built on individual annual productivity assumptions. Dual employment rarely is addressed, yet in 2015, about 13.5% of certified physician assistants (PAs) reported two or more clinical positions. Of PAs working two positions, 44% reported the main reason was to supplement earnings, followed by role variety. The mean number of hours worked by all certified PAs was 40.7 per week and the average number of patients was 75. Dual-employed PAs averaged more than 51 hours and 97 patients per week. This new finding reveals an added dimension to provider productivity statistics requiring refinements to annual output calculations.

  16. Solar assisted heat pumps


    Godbold, R; Paurine, A; Maidment, GG


    Solar Assisted Heat Pumps have the potential to provide low carbon heat for domestic hot water generation and low temperature heating. They have advantages over conventional solar thermal systems because they can generate heating and hot water during periods of low or zero solar, whist still maintain the advantage of not needing to be connected to the gas grid. They are simple in nature and can be installed in a wide range of applications. They are also currently uncommon in the UK so a thoro...

  17. Characterization of circulating DNA in healthy human plasma. (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Kamataki, Akihisa; Yamaki, Junko; Homma, Yoshimi


    The importance of circulating DNA has been recognized since the detection of mutated oncogene products in cancer patients; however, there is little information about circulating DNA in normal human plasma. We characterized circulating DNA in normal human plasma to obtain basic information. Circulating DNA was purified from plasma samples obtained from 10 healthy donors and examined. Purified DNA was cloned and their sequence determined and analyzed. The terminal structure was examined by a labeling method. The DNA levels in normal plasma samples were quite low (3.6-5.0 ng/ml). All 556 clones analyzed were independent, and obtained from various chromosomes and various regions of the gene. The mean values of their length and GC content were 176 bp and 53.7%, respectively. Their 5' and 3' ends were rich in C and G, respectively, and they presented as 5' protruding forms of double-stranded DNA in plasma. Circulating DNA in normal human plasma is derived from apoptotic cells but not from necrotic cells. Structural characteristics of the circulating DNA might be associated with their stability in plasma.

  18. Modelling the Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao


    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. For the winter overturning circulation, the climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation.

  19. In Vivo Tracking of Platelets: Circulating Degranulated Platelets Rapidly Lose Surface P-Selectin but Continue to Circulate and Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelson, A


    To examine the hypothesis that surface P-selectin-positive (degranulated) platelets are rapidly cleared from the circulation, we developed novel methods for tracking of platelets and measurement of platelet function in vivo...

  20. Seasonal circulations in the Malay Peninsula Eastern continental shelf from a wave-tide-circulation coupled model (United States)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Xia, Changsui; Qiao, Fangli; Juneng, Liew; Shan, Feng


    A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on Princeton Ocean Model is established to study the seasonal circulation in the Malay Peninsula Eastern Continental Shelf region. The model successfully reconstructs the observed seasonal variation of the circulation in the region, as well as the main currents. The simulated tidal harmonic constants, sea surface temperature, and sea surface height anomaly agree with the observations well. The model results show that the upper-layer circulation in the region is mainly controlled by the monsoon winds, while there are two transitions in spring and fall. An anti-cyclonic eddy is present off the Peninsular Malaysia's east coast in summer, centered at 5°N and 105.5°E, both in the TOPEX/Poseidon data and in the model. Numerical experiments show that the wind stress curl and bathymetry steering are responsible for its formation.

  1. Sensitivity of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to the dynamical framework in an ocean general circulation model (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Yu, Yongqiang; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei


    The horizontal coordinate systems commonly used in most global ocean models are the spherical latitude-longitude grid and displaced poles, such as a tripolar grid. The effect of the horizontal coordinate system on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is evaluated by using an OGCM (ocean general circulation model). Two experiments are conducted with the model—one using a latitude-longitude grid (referred to as Lat_1) and the other using a tripolar grid (referred to as Tri). The results show that Tri simulates a stronger North Atlantic deep water (NADW) than Lat_1, as more saline water masses enter the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) seas in Tri. The stronger NADW can be attributed to two factors. One is the removal of the zonal filter in Tri, which leads to an increasing of the zonal gradient of temperature and salinity, thus strengthening the north geostrophic flow. In turn, it decreases the positive subsurface temperature and salinity biases in the subtropical regions. The other may be associated with topography at the North Pole, because realistic topography is applied in the tripolar grid while the latitude-longitude grid employs an artificial island around the North Pole. In order to evaluate the effect of the filter on AMOC, three enhanced filter experiments are carried out. Compared to Lat_1, an enhanced filter can also augment NADW formation, since more saline water is suppressed in the GIN seas, but accumulated in the Labrador Sea, especially in experiment Lat_2_S, which is the experiment with an enhanced filter on salinity.

  2. 44 CFR 206.62 - Available assistance. (United States)


    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other...

  3. Atmospheric circulation influence on climatic trends in Europe: an analysis of circulation type classifications from the COST733 catalogue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahynová, Monika; Huth, R.


    Roč. 36, č. 7 (2016), s. 2743-2760 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric circulation * classification * circulation type * climatic trends * Europe * COST733 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  4. Atmospheric circulation influence on climatic trends in Europe: an analysis of circulation type classifications from the COST733 catalogue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahynová, Monika; Huth, Radan


    Roč. 36, č. 7 (2016), s. 2743-2760 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265; GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P811 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmospheric circulation * classification * circulation type * climatic trends * Europe * COST733 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  5. The coronary circulation in exercise training. (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J


    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest

  6. The coronary circulation in exercise training (United States)

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.


    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest

  7. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.


    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration: Multistage process for polyphenol recovery from purple sweet potatoes


    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Tian; He, Jingren; Barba, Francisco J.; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Koubaa, Mohamed


    This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centri...

  9. Mock circulation loop to investigate hemolysis in a pulsatile total artificial heart. (United States)

    Gräf, Felix; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Laumen, Marco; Mager, Ilona; Steinseifer, Ulrich


    Hemocompatibility of blood pumps is a crucial parameter that has to be ensured prior to in vivo testing. In contrast to rotary blood pumps, a standard for testing a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) has not yet been established. Therefore, a new mock circulation loop was designed to investigate hemolysis in the left ventricle of the ReinHeart TAH. Its main features are a high hemocompatibility, physiological conditions, a low priming volume, and the conduction of blood through a closed tubing system. The mock circulation loop consists of a noninvasive pressure chamber, an aortic compliance chamber, and an atrium directly connected to the ventricle. As a control pump, the clinically approved Medos-HIA ventricular assist device (VAD) was used. The pumps were operated at 120 beats per minute with an aortic pressure of 120 to 80 mm Hg and a mean atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg, generating an output flow of about 5 L/min. Heparinized porcine blood was used. A series of six identical tests were performed. A test method was established that is comparable to ASTM F 1841, which is standard practice for the assessment of hemolysis in continuous-flow blood pumps. The average normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values of the VAD and the ReinHeart TAH were 0.018 g/100 L and 0.03 g/100 L, respectively. The standard deviation of the NIH was 0.0033 for the VAD and 0.0034 for the TAH. Furthermore, a single test with a BPX-80 Bio-Pump was performed to verify that the hemolysis induced by the mock circulation loop was negligible. The performed tests showed a good reproducibility and statistical significance. The mock circulation loop and test protocol developed in this study are valid methods to investigate the hemolysis induced by a pulsatile blood pump. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relation between temperature indices and circulation types in Europe (United States)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; van der Schrier, G.


    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of atmospheric circulation on the recent changes in the number of warm days and cold days in Europe. This influence was modelled with a multi-regression fit over the period 1947-1974 and tested for the period 1974-2000. The temperature series for stations in the European Climate Assessment and Dataset project ( and the GrossWetterLagen (GWL) were used as input. These temperature series were first adjusted for global warming before determining the cold day and warm day indices. The 29 GWLs were grouped in ten circulation types. Then the number of days a certain circulation type occurred during the winter period was determined for each year. The difference between the observed indices and the calculated indices, based on the regression with circulation types, in the second period indicates a warming effect, which is unaccounted for by the global warming trend. One hypothesis for this might be that the influence of each circulation type (or at least a few) has changed in recent years, i.e. the same circulation type brings more warm or cold air to Europe than in the past. For example, changes in the snow cover extent over Europe might change the influence of circulation types bringing air from the North or the East. These results have important implications not only for understanding the observed changes in the past, but also for evaluation of future climate projections of extremes. Only if the climate models succeed in reproducing the observed relations, we can have confidence in the projected future changes in extremes.

  11. Audiology Assistants in Private Practice. (United States)

    Hamill, Teri A; Andrews, Julia P


    Using audiology assistants allows a practice to meet the expected increase in patient demand in a cost-effective manner, without compromise to quality of patient care. Assistants are particularly valuable in private practice settings that have an emphasis in amplification, as many of the tasks involved do not require the unique skills of the doctor of audiology. Regulatory considerations, methods of training, and scope of practice of the assistant are discussed.

  12. Passive heat stress reduces circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles. (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Ainslie, Philip N; Bammert, Tyler D; Hijmans, Jamie G; Sekhon, Mypinder; Hoiland, Ryan L; Flück, Daniela; Donnelly, Joseph; DeSouza, Christopher A


    What is the central question of this study? Does passive heat stress of +2°C oesophageal temperature change concentrations of circulating arterial endothelial- and platelet-derived microparticles in healthy adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Concentrations of circulating endothelial- and platelet-derived microparticles were markedly decreased in heat stress. Reductions in circulating microparticles might indicate favourable vascular changes associated with non-pathological hyperthermia. Interest in circulating endothelial- and platelet-derived microparticles (EMPs and PMPs, respectively) has increased because of their potential pathogenic role in vascular disease and as biomarkers for vascular health. Hyperthermia is commonly associated with a pro-inflammatory stress but might also provide vascular protection when the temperature elevation is non-pathological. Circulating microparticles might contribute to the cellular adjustments and resultant vascular impacts of hyperthermia. Here, we determined whether circulating concentrations of arterial EMPs and PMPs are altered by passive heat stress (+2°C oesophageal temperature). Ten healthy young men (age 23 ± 3 years) completed the study. Hyperthermia was achieved by circulating ∼49°C water through a water-perfused suit that covered the entire body except the hands, feet and head. Arterial (radial) blood samples were obtained immediately before heating (normothermia) and in hyperthermia. The mean ± SD oesophageal temperature in normothermia was 37.2 ± 0.1°C and in hyperthermia 39.1 ± 0.1°C. Concentrations of circulating EMPs and PMPs were markedly decreased in hyperthermia. Activation-derived EMPs were reduced by ∼30% (mean ± SD; from 61 ± 8 to 43 ± 7 microparticles μl -1 ; P microparticles μl -1 ; P microparticles μl -1 ). These beneficial reductions in circulating EMPs and PMPs in response to a 2°C increase in core temperature might partly underlie the

  13. Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen (18) water boreholes were studied for lost circulation. When locations of the boreholes associated with lost circulation were plotted on the map of Anambra State a lost circulation belt was observed around the River Niger – Onitsha – Oba – Nnewi axis. Lost circulation intervals range between 20-50m and 75-90m ...

  14. Composite circulation index of weather extremes (the example for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ustrnul


    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a composite circulation index of weather extremes (CIE. The new index informs about the synoptic conditions favoring the occurrence of extremes on a regional scale. It was evaluated for temperature and precipitation extremes for Poland. Daily homogenized data obtained from 14 weather stations, which cover most of the country, were used. The data used cover the 60-year period from 1951 to 2010. The index is based on relationships between extremes and mesoscale circulation conditions. The core material also included data describing circulation types for the study period. Three different calendars were used (Grosswetterlagen, by Lity?ski, by Nied?wied?. The conditional probability of the occurrence of extremes for particular types was calculated independently using partial indices (Partial Index of weather Extremes ? PIE. The higher the index values, the more favorable the synoptic situation for the occurrence of extremes. The results were grouped by describing the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes on the IPCC likelihood scale. Three thresholds corresponding to the frequency of an occurrence were identified via a seasonal approach. The CIE was validated using basic correlation coefficients as well as contingency tables based on feature-displacement criteria and Bayesian Probability Methods. The results confirmed the significance of atmospheric circulation in the formation of temperature and precipitation extremes in Poland. The CIE proved the relationship by trying to estimate the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes occurrence depending on the circulation type forecasted.

  15. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  16. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental


    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  17. The strength of the meridional overturning circulation of the stratosphere (United States)

    Linz, Marianna; Plumb, R. Alan; Gerber, Edwin P.; Haenel, Florian J.; Stiller, Gabriele; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Ming, Alison; Neu, Jessica L.


    The distribution of gases such as ozone and water vapour in the stratosphere--which affect surface climate--is influenced by the meridional overturning of mass in the stratosphere, the Brewer-Dobson circulation. However, observation-based estimates of the global strength of this circulation are difficult to obtain. Here we present two calculations of the mean strength of the meridional overturning of the stratosphere. We analyse satellite data that document the global diabatic circulation between 2007-2011, and compare these to three reanalysis data sets and to simulations with a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model. Using measurements of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrous oxide, we calculate the global mean diabatic overturning mass flux throughout the stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, these two estimates agree, and at a potential temperature level of 460 K (about 20 km or 60 hPa in tropics) the global circulation strength is 6.3-7.6 × 109 kg s-1. Higher in the atmosphere, only the SF6-based estimate is available, and it diverges from the reanalysis data and simulations. Interpretation of the SF6-data-based estimate is limited because of a mesospheric sink of SF6; however, the reanalyses also differ substantially from each other. We conclude that the uncertainty in the mean meridional overturning circulation strength at upper levels of the stratosphere amounts to at least 100%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Makeev


    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to generalise the results of the application of technologies and means for organising pulse coolant flow within a district heating system in order to increase its energy efficiency based on the organisation of local hydraulic shocks and the subsequent use of their energy to ensure the purification of heat energy equipment, intensify the heat transfer process and realise the possibility of transforming the available head from one hydraulic circuit to another. Methods Substations connecting the thermal power installations of consumers with heat networks via dependent and independent schemes are analytically generalised. The use of pulse coolant circulation is proposed as a means of overcoming identified shortcomings. Results Principal schemes of substations with pulse coolant circulation for dependent and independent connection of thermal power installations are detailed. A detailed description of their operation is given. The advantages of using pulse coolant circulation in substations are shown. The materials reflecting the results of the technical implementation and practical introduction of this technology are presented. Conclusion Theoretical analysis of the operation of the basic schemes of substations with pulse coolant circulation and the results of their practical application, as well as the materials of scientific works devoted to the use of the energy of a hydraulic impact and the study of the effect of pulse coolant flow on thermal and hydrodynamic processes, have yielded a combination of factors reflecting technical and economic rationality of application of pulse coolant circulation

  19. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)


    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  20. Risk mapping of West Nile virus circulation in Spain, 2015. (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Amela, Carmen; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Sierra-Moros, María José


    West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, pSpain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.


    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  2. Norms and Spread of the Fibonacci and Lucas RSFMLR Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenai Xu


    Full Text Available Circulant type matrices have played an important role in networks engineering. In this paper, firstly, some bounds for the norms and spread of Fibonacci row skew first-minus-last right (RSFMLR circulant matrices and Lucas row skew first-minus-last right (RSFMLR circulant matrices are given. Furthermore, the spectral norm of Hadamard product of a Fibonacci RSFMLR circulant matrix and a Lucas RSFMLR circulant matrix is obtained. Finally, the Frobenius norm of Kronecker product of a Fibonacci RSFMLR circulant matrix and a Lucas RSFMLR circulant matrix is presented.

  3. Observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu


    Full Text Available Using three meteorological reanalyses and three outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR datasets, we show that the Hadley circulation has a significant expansion of about 2 to 4.5 degrees of latitude since 1979. The three reanalyses all indicate that the poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation in each hemisphere occurs during its summer and fall seasons. Results from the OLR datasets do not have such seasonality. The expansion of the Hadley circulation implies a poleward expansion of the band of subtropical subsidence, leading to enhanced mid-latitude tropospheric warming and poleward shifts of the subtropical dry zone. This would contribute to an increased frequency of midlatitude droughts in both hemispheres.

  4. Circulating Vitamin D and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Arslan


    Full Text Available We conducted a nested case-control study within two prospective cohorts, the New York University Women's Health Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and the risk of subsequent invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. The 25(OHD levels were measured in serum or plasma from 170 incident cases of EOC and 373 matched controls. Overall, circulating 25(OHD levels were not associated with the risk of EOC in combined cohort analysis: adjusted OR for the top tertile versus the reference tertile, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.59–2.01. In addition, there was no evidence of an interaction effect between VDR SNP genotype or haplotype and circulating 25(OHD levels in relation to ovarian cancer risk, although more complex gene-environment interactions may exist.

  5. Experimental study on a natural circulation driven HPLWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Joen, C.; Rohde, M. [Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)


    The large density change through the core of a supercritical water reactor could be used as the driving force for circulating the coolant. To study such a natural circulation system, a scaled experimental setup was developed using Freon R23. This paper presents the first power-flow measurements for single core heating as well as 3 core heating (HPLWR power distribution) indicating that natural circulation occurs. A numerical model was developed to further study the impact of geometric and system parameters. This model shows good qualitative agreement with the experiment. By further refining the proposed model to include the pressure drop over the heat exchanger, a better quantitative agreement could be obtained. (author)

  6. Chemical Grouting Lost-Circulation Zones with Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.; Westmoreland, J.J.


    Sandia National Laboratories is developing polyurethane foam as a chemical grout for lost circulation zones. In past work polyurethane foam was tried with limited success in laboratory tests and GDO sponsored field tests. Goals were that the foam expanded significantly and harden to a chillable firmness quickly. Since that earlier work there have been improvements in polyurethane chemistry and the causes of the failures of previous tests have been identified. Recent success in applying pure solution grouts (proper classification of polyurethane--Naudts) in boreholes encourages reevaluating its use to control lost circulation. These successes include conformance control in the oil patch (e.g. Ng) and darn remediation projects (Bruce et al.). In civil engineering, polyurethane is becoming the material of choice for sealing boreholes with large voids and high inflows, conditions associated with the worst lost circulation problems. Demonstration of a delivery mechanism is yet to be done in a geothermal borehole.

  7. In Defense of Sparse Tracking: Circulant Sparse Tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu


    Sparse representation has been introduced to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error within the particle filter framework. However, most sparse representation based trackers have high computational cost, less than promising tracking performance, and limited feature representation. To deal with the above issues, we propose a novel circulant sparse tracker (CST), which exploits circulant target templates. Because of the circulant structure property, CST has the following advantages: (1) It can refine and reduce particles using circular shifts of target templates. (2) The optimization can be efficiently solved entirely in the Fourier domain. (3) High dimensional features can be embedded into CST to significantly improve tracking performance without sacrificing much computation time. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark sequences demonstrate that CST performs better than all other sparse trackers and favorably against state-of-the-art methods.

  8. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Abrupt Climate Change. (United States)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean


    Abrupt changes in climate have occurred in many locations around the globe over the last glacial cycle, with pronounced temperature swings on timescales of decades or less in the North Atlantic. The global pattern of these changes suggests that they reflect variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This review examines the evidence from ocean sediments for ocean circulation change over these abrupt events. The evidence for changes in the strength and structure of the AMOC associated with the Younger Dryas and many of the Heinrich events is strong. Although it has been difficult to directly document changes in the AMOC over the relatively short Dansgaard-Oeschger events, there is recent evidence supporting AMOC changes over most of these oscillations as well. The lack of direct evidence for circulation changes over the shortest events leaves open the possibility of other driving mechanisms for millennial-scale climate variability.

  9. Clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells: a Biophysical and Technological Perspective. (United States)

    Au, Sam H; Edd, Jon; Haber, Daniel A; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet


    The vast majority of cancer associated deaths result from metastasis, yet the behaviors of its most potent cellular driver, circulating tumor cell clusters, are only beginning to be revealed. This review highlights recent advances to our understanding of tumor cell clusters with emphasis on enabling technologies. The importance of intercellular adhesions among cells in clusters have begun to be unraveled with the aid of promising microfluidic strategies for isolating clusters from patient blood. Due to their metastatic potency, the utility of circulating tumor cell clusters for cancer diagnosis, drug screening, precision oncology and as targets of antimetastatic therapeutics are being explored. The continued development of tools for exploring circulating tumor cell clusters will enhance our fundamental understanding of the metastatic process and may be instrumental in devising new strategies to suppress and eliminate metastasis.

  10. Optimal control of CPR procedure using hemodynamic circulation model (United States)

    Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok


    A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.

  11. The complexity, function and applications of RNA in circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton eEtheridge


    Full Text Available Blood carries a wide array of biomolecules, including nutrients, hormones and molecules that are secreted by cells for specific biological functions. The recent finding of stable RNA of both endogenous and exogenous origin in the circulation raises a number of questions and opens a broad, new field: exploring the origins, functions and applications of these extracellular RNA molecules. These findings raise many important questions, including: what are the mechanisms of export and cellular uptake, what is the nature and source of their stability, what molecules do they interact with in the blood, and what are the possible biological functions of the circulating RNA. This review summarizes some key recent developments in circulating RNA research and discusses some of the open questions in the field.

  12. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Yu


    Full Text Available Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufficient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to find a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  13. Restructuring the Assistant Principal's Role. (United States)

    Williams, Fredonia B.


    Assistant principals should be expected, encouraged, and empowered to work beyond their disciplines, outside their cultures, and above their traditional roles. The assistant principal's role in team management is to become an advocate for excellence, a visionary leader, a change agent, a communicator, a motivator, and a determinant of school…

  14. Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Abrudean


    Full Text Available A short introduction concerning the content of Assistive Technology and Rehabilitation Engineering is followed by a study of robotic systems which combine two or more assistive functions. Based on biomechanical aspects, a complex robotic system is presented, starting with the study of functionality and ending with the practical aspects of the prototype development.

  15. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide. (United States)

    Callahan, Jay


    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  16. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.


    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  17. Hispanics' Awareness of Assistive Technology (United States)

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam


    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there…

  18. Meridional circulation dynamics in a cyclic convective dynamo (United States)

    Passos, D.; Miesch, M.; Guerrero, G.; Charbonneau, P.


    Surface observations indicate that the speed of the solar meridional circulation in the photosphere varies in anti-phase with the solar cycle. The current explanation for the source of this variation is that inflows into active regions alter the global surface pattern of the meridional circulation. When these localized inflows are integrated over a full hemisphere, they contribute to slowing down the axisymmetric poleward horizontal component. The behavior of this large-scale flow deep inside the convection zone remains largely unknown. Present helioseismic techniques are not sensitive enough to capture the dynamics of this weak large-scale flow. Moreover, the large time of integration needed to map the meridional circulation inside the convection zone, also masks some of the possible dynamics on shorter timescales. In this work we examine the dynamics of the meridional circulation that emerges from a 3D MHD global simulation of the solar convection zone. Our aim is to assess and quantify the behavior of meridional circulation deep inside the convection zone where the cyclic large-scale magnetic field can reach considerable strength. Our analyses indicate that the meridional circulation morphology and amplitude are both highly influenced by the magnetic field via the impact of magnetic torques on the global angular momentum distribution. A dynamic feature induced by these magnetic torques is the development of a prominent upward flow at mid-latitudes in the lower convection zone that occurs near the equatorward edge of the toroidal bands and that peaks during cycle maximum. Globally, the dynamo-generated large-scale magnetic field drives variations in the meridional flow, in stark contrast to the conventional kinematic flux transport view of the magnetic field being advected passively by the flow.

  19. Spice: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Melet, A.; Maes, C.


    South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The south branch is associated with comparable impacts in the Tasman Sea area. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex circulation, with the SEC splitting in strong zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) position and intensity. The circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and Pacific Island countries initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. SPICE is a regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation and the SPCZ, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems. This ongoing project reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, coordinated with broader South Pacific projects.

  20. Lower circulating irisin is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Wong, Melvin D S; Toy, Wan Ching; Tan, Clara S H; Liu, Sylvia; Ng, Xiao Wei; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Sum, Chee Fang; Lim, Su Chi


    Irisin is a novel myokine secreted in response to PPAR-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) activation. Earlier studies suggested that PGC-1α expression and activity were lower in myocytes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we hypothesize that circulating irisin levels are lower in T2DM patients. In this observational study, we recruited 96 T2DM subjects and 60 non-diabetic control subjects. Among T2DM subjects, 38% were on insulin treatment, 78% were taking statins and 72% were taking renin-angiotensin system antagonists. Circulating irisin was quantified by ELISA and its association with markers of metabolic phenotype was analyzed by Pearson bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression. Circulating irisin was significantly lower in individuals with T2DM compared with non-diabetic controls (T2DM 204 ± 72 ng/ml vs. non-diabetic control 257 ± 24 ng/ml, p diabetic subjects, circulating irisin was correlated with age (r = 0.398, p Multiple linear regression model revealed that BMI (β = 0.407, p = 0.012) and FBG (β = 0.315, p = 0.034) were associated with irisin in non-diabetic subjects after adjusting for multiple co-variates. However, similar analysis in T2DM subjects didn't reveal significant association between circulating irisin and major markers of metabolic phenotype. Circulating irisin is lower in T2DM compared with non-diabetic controls. Plasma irisin levels appear to be associated with important metabolic factors in non-diabetic subjects but not in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate. (United States)

    Hui, Sheng; Ghergurovich, Jonathan M; Morscher, Raphael J; Jang, Cholsoon; Teng, Xin; Lu, Wenyun; Esparza, Lourdes A; Reya, Tannishtha; Le Zhan; Yanxiang Guo, Jessie; White, Eileen; Rabinowitz, Joshua D


    Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear. Here we systematically examine the fluxes of circulating metabolites in mice, and find that lactate can be a primary source of carbon for the TCA cycle and thus of energy. Intravenous infusions of 13C-labelled nutrients reveal that, on a molar basis, the circulatory turnover flux of lactate is the highest of all metabolites and exceeds that of glucose by 1.1-fold in fed mice and 2.5-fold in fasting mice; lactate is made primarily from glucose but also from other sources. In both fed and fasted mice, 13C-lactate extensively labels TCA cycle intermediates in all tissues. Quantitative analysis reveals that during the fasted state, the contribution of glucose to tissue TCA metabolism is primarily indirect (via circulating lactate) in all tissues except the brain. In genetically engineered lung and pancreatic cancer tumours in fasted mice, the contribution of circulating lactate to TCA cycle intermediates exceeds that of glucose, with glutamine making a larger contribution than lactate in pancreatic cancer. Thus, glycolysis and the TCA cycle are uncoupled at the level of lactate, which is a primary circulating TCA substrate in most tissues and tumours.

  2. Clouds and the atmospheric circulation response to warming (United States)

    Ceppi, Paulo; Hartmann, Dennis


    We study the effect of clouds on the atmospheric circulation response to CO2 quadrupling in an aquaplanet model with a slab-ocean lower boundary. The cloud effect is isolated by locking the clouds to either the control or 4xCO2 state in the shortwave (SW) or longwave (LW) radiation schemes. In our model, cloud-radiative changes explain more than half of the total poleward expansion of the Hadley cells, midlatitude jets, and storm tracks under CO2 quadrupling, even though they cause only one-fourth of the total global-mean surface warming. The effect of clouds on circulation results mainly from the SW cloud-radiative changes, which strongly enhance the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient at all levels in the troposphere, favoring stronger and poleward-shifted midlatitude eddies. By contrast, quadrupling CO2 while holding the clouds fixed causes strong polar amplification and weakened midlatitude baroclinicity at lower levels, yielding only a small poleward expansion of the circulation. Our results show that (a) the atmospheric circulation responds sensitively to cloud-driven changes in meridional and vertical temperature distribution, and (b) the spatial structure of cloud feedbacks likely plays a dominant role in the circulation response to greenhouse gas forcing. While the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud feedback are expected to be highly model-dependent, an analysis of 4xCO2 simulations of CMIP5 models shows that the SW cloud feedback likely forces a poleward expansion of the tropospheric circulation in most climate models.

  3. Rising maternal circulating GH during murine pregnancy suggests placental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Gatford


    Full Text Available Placenta-derived hormones including growth hormone (GH in humans contribute to maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and intermittent maternal GH administration increases foetal growth in several species. Both patterns and abundance of circulating GH are important for its activity, but their changes during pregnancy have only been reported in humans and rats. The aim of the present study was to characterise circulating profiles and secretory characteristics of GH in non-pregnant female mice and throughout murine pregnancy. Circulating GH concentrations were measured in whole blood (2 μL collected every 10 min for 6 h in non-pregnant diestrus female C57Bl/6J mice (n = 9, and pregnant females at day 8.5–9.5 (early pregnancy, n = 8, day 12.5–13.5 (mid-pregnancy, n = 7 and day 17.5 after mating (late pregnancy, n = 7. Kinetics and secretory patterns of GH secretion were determined by deconvolution analysis, while orderliness and regularity of serial GH concentrations were calculated by approximate entropy analysis. Circulating GH was pulsatile in all groups. Mean circulating GH and total and basal GH secretion rates increased markedly from early to mid-pregnancy, and then remained elevated. Pulse frequency and pulsatile GH secretion rate were similar between groups. The irregularity of GH pulses was higher in all pregnant groups than that in non-pregnant mice. Increased circulating GH in murine pregnancy is consistent with an important role for this hormone in maternal adaptation to pregnancy and placental development. The timing of increased basal secretion from mid-pregnancy, concurrent with the formation of the chorioallantoic placenta and initiation of maternal blood flow through it, suggests regulation of pituitary secretion by placenta-derived factors.

  4. On the symmetries of some classes of recursive circulant graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Mirafzal


    Full Text Available A recursive-circulant $G(n; d$ is defined to be acirculant graph with $n$ vertices and jumps of powers of $d$.$G(n; d$ is vertex-transitive, and has some strong hamiltonianproperties. $G(n; d$ has a recursive structure when $n = cd^m$,$1 leq c < d $ [10]. In this paper, we will find the automorphismgroup of some classes of recursive-circulant graphs. In particular, wewill find that the automorphism group of $G(2^m; 4$ is isomorphicwith the group $D_{2 cdot 2^m}$, the dihedral group of order $2^{m+1}

  5. Stability research on a natural circulation driven SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Joen, C.; Kam, F.; Rohde, M. [Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)


    To improve the thermal efficiency of nuclear reactors, a concept design using supercritical water has been proposed. As an inherent safety feature, natural circulation could be applied, driving the flow with the strong density changes. Such natural circulation flows can however experience instabilities (density wave oscillations). To study the stability, an experimental facility representing the HPLWR was designed using a scaling fluid (R23). In parallel a computational tool was developed which uses a transient analysis technique. This paper will present a comparison of the experimental measurements and numerical predictions for the stability of a supercritical loop, showing good agreement. (author)

  6. Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, R.Q.


    This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE's Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

  7. Lack of suppression of increased circulating prolactin by 2-hydroxyestrone. (United States)

    Kicovic, P M; Franchi, F; Luisi, M


    To study the effect of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) on circulating prolactin (PRL) in a hyperprolactinaemic state, seven anovulatory women with hyperprolactinaemia were given a 2-OHE1 infusion at a rate of 80 microgram/h for 3 h following a control infusion. Plasma samples for PRL determination were obtained at 30-minute intervals for 6h. No changes in PRL levels were observed during the 2-OHE1 infusion as compared with the control period. It was concluded under conditions of the present experiment that 2-OHE1 does not suppress circulating PRL in hyperprolactinaemic anovulatory women.

  8. Time variability of cyclonic geostrophic circulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Guijarro


    Full Text Available Interannual variability and trends of the surface geostrophic cyclonic circulation and cyclone frequency in Western and Eastern Mediterranean areas are analyzed, based on a cyclone data base derived from the ERA-40 ECWMF reanalysis (within the MEDEX project tasks, spanning from September/1957 to August/2002. In this 45 years, the cyclonic circulation show a significant decrease in the Western Mediterranean, mostly in winter and spring, and an increase in the Eastern, mainly due to the summer and autumn increase in the frequency of thermal lows.

  9. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation. (United States)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn


    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.

  10. Circulating pumps. Mastering consumptions; Circulateurs. Maitriser les consommations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document, written by the French scientific and technical committee of air-conditioning industries (CoSTIC), gathers the necessary technical information to understand, dimension, select and use circulating pumps. The applications concern first the pumps used in space heating water loops. Some mathematical models are proposed for more elaborate calculations. The first goal of this document is to inform the professionals about the mastery of the energy consumptions of these devices. Significant energy savings can be performed when space heating installations are properly designed with no useless over-dimensioning, and when efficient circulating pumps are used and properly controlled. (J.S.)

  11. Assisted reproduction: who qualifies? (United States)

    deLacey, S


    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been the focus of considerable debate in which a range of social issues has been addressed, yet the question of who is eligible for ART, who can get access, who is excluded and by what means, has received little attention in comparison with other issues. In Australia social policies presently exist in some (but not all) states which address this question, however several recently publicised cases have highlighted the need for an examination of inclusion/exclusion practices from a social justice perspective. This paper seeks to explore the issue of access and eligibility for ART with a particular interest in exposing the contradictions, inconsistencies and assumptions inherent in arguments put forward for particular inclusions and exclusions. It is my contention that social policy relating to criteria for eligibility and access to ART invests the medical profession with a gatekeeping role which holds the power to define and create different classes of women. Moreover, discourses of 'medical indication' and the 'best interests of children' intersect to inscribe a form of discursive eugenic practice which in turn sustains sexism and discrimination against childless women. Finally, this paper seeks to alert the nursing profession to requirements emerging from social policy which influence practice, interfere in client-nurse relationships, and may ultimately result in unethical conduct.

  12. Breeding-assisted genomics. (United States)

    Poland, Jesse


    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly. (United States)

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D


    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms2) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Books in heaven: dreams, texts and conspicuous circulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the phenomenon of miraculous literacy in which the ability to read and write is conferred through divine revelation. In such revelations, it is clear that texts circulate between heaven and earth. This paper considers examples of miraculous literacy drawn both from African Christianity and the Protestant ...

  15. Satellite comparison of the seasonal circulation in the Benguela and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satellite surface height and surface temperature fields are used to examine the seasonal surface circulation in the Benguela and California Current systems. In the California Current system, an equatorward jet develops in spring and summer near to the coast, with a latitudinal structure that responds to the equatorward ...

  16. Visual and optical evaluation of bank notes in circulation (United States)

    Church, Sara; Lacelle, Martine; Garanzotis, Theodoros


    A method for comparing quality of bank notes in circulation based on both a subjective visual sorting technique and on quantitative wear evaluations is described and applied to circulated Canadian bank notes. The sample notes, which were part of a $5 circulation trial, issued over a 4 to 6 week period, had been in circulation for roughly 6 months. Notes were first sorted visually into four defined substrate categories (No Edge Wear, Corner Folds, Minimal Edge Wear and Edge Wear) and four surface wear categories (None, Low, Medium and High). Samples of each category were tested at Crane and Co. using a range of physical and optical techniques: air resistance, air permeability, stiffness deflection, double folds, gray scale, brightness, perimeter length, and top/bottom mean and maximum deviations. The visual sort showed that neither soiling nor ink loss are the major wear problems for bank notes in Canada. However, the substrate does become tattered and worn. The mechanical and optical wear tests show that most of the parameters change logically as the soil level increases. The changes for other parameters are less clear as a function of wear categories, but are relatively consistent in distinguishing between the No Edge Wear and Edge Wear. Impact of wear on the effectiveness of security features will also be described.

  17. Nucleic acids in circulation: Are they harmful to the host?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 25, 2012 ... addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is also found in circulation, as are RNA and microRNA. There is extensive ..... of DNA from nuclear antigens, promotes susceptibility to- wards autoimmune ..... Fliedner TM, Graessle D, Paulsen C and Reimers K 2002 Structure and function of ...

  18. Circulating noradrenaline and central haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J


    Cardiovascular haemodynamics and circulating catecholamines were studied in 22 patients with cirrhosis. Arterial plasma noradrenaline (NA) was significantly increased (median, 0.48 ng/ml, versus controls, 0.24 ng/ml; n = 17; P less than 0.001), indicating enhanced sympathetic nervous activity...

  19. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)


    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  20. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan. Onkar S Chauhan1,∗ and E Vogelsang. 2. 1. National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. 2. Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, ...

  1. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 2. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the modulation of Aerosol Optical Depth over the Arabian Sea. Sandhya K Nair S Sijikumar S S Prijith. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 263-272 ...

  2. Planktonic interactions and chaotic advection in Langmuir circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Mezic, I.; McGlade, J.


    The role of unsteady laminar flows for planktonic communities is investigated. Langmuir circulation is used, as a typical medium-scale structure, to illustrate mechanisms for the generation of plankton patches. Two behaviours are evident: chaotic regions that help to spread plankton and locally...

  3. Influence of the zonal mean circulation on tropical cyclone frequency (United States)

    Ballinger, A. P.; Held, I.; Merlis, T. M.; Zhao, M.


    Aquaplanet general circulation modeling experiments have been useful tools for understanding the response of large scale circulations to climate change. Here, we extend this approach to investigate the influence of the zonal mean circulation on tropical cyclone frequency. GFDL's High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM, ~50km horizontal resolution) has previously been shown to simulate tropical cyclone (TC) statistics consistent with observations (e.g. Zhao et al., 2009, 2010). A new set of experiments have been designed to investigate the relationship between the large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic fields and tropical cyclone frequency. We perform HiRAM simulations in two different aquaplanet configurations: one with a fixed, zonally-symmetric SST boundary condition and the other with interactive SSTs determined by a slab ocean boundary condition. By varying the latitude of maximum SST in the fixed SST runs or the prescribed value of cross-equatorial ocean heat transport in the slab runs, the ITCZ can be shifted further to the north or south. A TC detection and tracking algorithm computes the various storm statistics associated with the different experiments, and we find that more tropical cyclones develop as the latitude of the ITCZ moves poleward. We explore the relationship between genesis frequency and the large scale circulation, such as the strength of the Hadley Cell and position of the ITCZ. These results may have implications for tropical cyclone frequency in a changing climate.

  4. Realisation of microstrip junction circulator using LTCC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, V; Kjærgaard, Claus


    An integrated circulator based on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) tapes and LTCC compatible ferrite tapes has been developed for the first time and its performance has been verified experimentally. The insertion loss is less than 2 dB and the isolation is better than 25 dB with a centre...

  5. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper


    of disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  6. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor


    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  7. AV Rising: Demand, Budgets, and Circulation Are All Up. (United States)

    Oder, Norman


    A survey of 486 public libraries found that audiovisual (AV) budgets have increased 53% in the last five years. Provides data on average size of AV collections; budget break downs; circulation; audiobook, video, and music CD purchases; popular authors and titles in abridged and unabridged audiobooks; and problems with audiobook, video, and music…

  8. Prognostic Importance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Nonsmall Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and to predict the treatment response in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methodology: A single-center prospective study involving 93 patients with NSCLC was conducted. Blood samples were analyzed for CTC count before and after ...

  9. Mapping the Intricacies of the Gulf of Mexico's Circulation (United States)

    Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Green, Rebecca E.


    From hosting key shipping lines, drilling platforms, and commercial fisheries, to sustaining mangrove swamps that shelter the coastline from the hurricanes that churn its waters, the Gulf of Mexico is important to the nations surrounding it for socio-economic, ecological, military, political, and scientific reasons. Critical to all of these sectors is the Gulf's circulation—it controls hurricane tracks and intensity, biological productivity, and larvae dispersal. Since 1982, the Environmental Studies Program (ESP) of the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) has invested more than $67 million in field and numerical modeling studies to improve our understanding of the Gulf's circulation (see Figure 1). ESP-funded research has covered a broad array of topics, some applied and some basic. Studies carried out on behalf of the bureau reflect the bureau's information needs, stakeholder input, and offshore energy exploration and development trends. All ESP studies culminate in a technical report—127 technical reports on physical oceanography are publicly available (see Additionally, more than 100 peer-reviewed publications have been issued on the Gulf's physical oceanography and circulation. The AGU Geophysical Monograph Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: Observations and Models, the very first circulation overview since 1972, was funded by ESP. Additionally, data collected during fieldwork are deposited in national archives for public dissemination.

  10. Keynes's Lost Distinction Between Industrial and Financial Circulation of Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper


    Although financial circulation is an important part of banks' balance sheets in the form of savings deposits, this is hardly discussed in monetary circuit theory. In this paper, we argue that monetary circuit theory would be more coherent if it were expanded to incorporate some aspects of Keynes'...... in his Treatise on Money....

  11. Circulation Produced by a Flapping Wing During Stroke Reversal (United States)

    Burge, Matthew; Ringuette, Matthew


    We investigate the circulation behavior of the 3D flow structures formed during the stroke-reversal of a 2-degree-of-freedom flapping wing in hover. Previous work has related circulation peaks to the unsteady wing kinematics and forces. However, information from experiments detailing contributions from the multiple, 3D flow structures is lacking. The objective of this work is to quantitatively study the spanwise circulation as well as the spanwise flow which advects vorticity in the complex loop topology of a flapping wing during stroke reversal. We analyze the flow features of a scaled wing model using multi-plane stereo digital particle image velocimetry in a glycerin-water mixture. Data plane locations along the wing span are inspired by the time-resolved behavior of the 3D vortex structures observed in our earlier flow visualization studies. As with our prior work, we vary dimensionless parameters such as the pitching reduced frequency to understand their effect on the circulation. This research provides insight into the vortex dynamics produced by the coupled rotational and pitching wing motions during stroke reversal, when lift generation is challenging. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Award Number 1336548, supervised by Dr. Dimitrios Papavassiliou.

  12. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health...

  13. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  14. Semiquantitative determination of circulating islet cell surface antibodies in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgawara, Hisako; Machiyama, Etsuko; Hirata, Yukimasa (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Circulating pancreatic islet cell antibodies have been demonstrated in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD). The islet cell surface antibodies (ICSA) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence test using a suspension of viable islet cells, and similar cytoplasmic antibodies which require the use of group O human pancreas were also found in the serum of some patients. A strong association exists between the presence of islet cell antibodies and the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. The quantitative determination of circulating ICSA using /sup 125/I-protein A, which binds to IgG attached to the islet cell surface, was essentially as described by Lernmark et al. In the present study, we determined the circulating ICSA in diabetes, especially in IDD. The ICSA were estimated in various sera from both indirect immunofluorescence and /sup 125/I-protein A. Controls bound <2,000 cpm /sup 125/I-protein A. Sera from 4 IDD patients with circulating ICSA demonstrated by immunofluorescence showed >3,000 cpm /sup 125/I-protein A binding activity, and that from 5 patients without ICSA bound <2,000 cpm. Sera from newly-diagnosed diabetics who had severe hyperglycemia showed <2,000 cpm, with or without ICSA.

  15. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa


    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based...

  16. Performance simulation of a natural circulation solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The one-dimensional radial heat conduction in a phase change material (PCM) heat storage system that is encapsulated in cylindrical pipes in a single glazed flat plate natural circulation solar air heater is presented. The PCM is prepared in modules, with the modules equispaced across the absorber plate. Enthalpy ...

  17. Circulation patterns in the Delagoa Bight, Mozambique, and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of the circulation patterns and thermohaline structures in the Delagoa Bight, Mozambique, was undertaken during May 2004, August 2004, April 2005, and April 2006, using hydrographic surveys, surface drifters and satellite imagery. Hydrographic and satellite data during May 2004 illustrated a cyclonic ...

  18. The Donders model of the circulation in normo- and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, Gerrit J.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Kortsmit, Wil J.P.M.


    A model of the closed human cardiovascular loop is developed. This model, using one set of 88 equations, allows variations from normal resting conditions to exercise, as well as to the extreme condition of a circulation following cardiac arrest. The principal purpose of the model is to evaluate t...

  19. Circulating immature osteoprogenitor cells and arterial stiffening in postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Pirro, M; Schillaci, G; Mannarino, M R; Scarponi, A M; Manfredelli, M R; Callarelli, L; Leli, C; Fabbriciani, G; Helou, R S; Bagaglia, F; Mannarino, E


    An increased number of circulating osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) expressing bone-related proteins and the stem cell marker CD34 have been identified in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, who also have stiffer arteries than nonosteoporotic subjects. We investigated whether an increased number of circulating OPCs underlies the association of osteoporosis with arterial stiffness. The number of circulating OPCs was quantified by FACS analysis in 120 postmenopausal women with or without osteoporosis. OPCs were defined as CD34+/alkaline phosphatase(AP)+ or CD34+/osteocalcin(OCN)+ cells. Participants underwent cardiovascular risk factor assessment, measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as a measure of arterial stiffness. Osteoporotic women had higher aPWV (9.8 ± 2.8 vs 8.5 ± 1.9 m/s, p = 0.005) and levels of CD34+/AP+ and CD34+/OCN+ cells than nonosteoporotic controls [1045 n/mL (487-2300) vs 510 n/mL (202-940), p osteoporosis an increased availability of circulating osteoprogenitor cells has a detrimental influence on arterial compliance, which may in part explain the association between osteoporosis and arterial stiffening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary ascorbic acid and serum concentrations of circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence or absence of ascorbic acid in urine and serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and albumin in HIV infected subjects. A total of 90 participants (30 Symptomatic HIV infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 30 Symptomatic HIV infected ...

  1. Circulating carotenoids and subsequent risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women. (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Cui, Jing; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Malspeis, Susan; Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing


    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between circulating carotenoids and future risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 227 incident RA cases and 671 matched controls with prospectively measured plasma carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Each incident RA case was matched with 3 healthy controls. Serologic phenotype of RA was determined by rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) obtained by chart review. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident intervals (95% CI) for RA risk associated with each circulating carotenoid after adjusting for matching factors and other covariates. The median time from blood draw until RA diagnosis was 8.6 years. In the multivariable models, no significant associations were found between any plasma carotenoids and risk of RA. We further examined the associations for two subtypes of RA, and found associations of circulating α-carotene and β-carotene with reduced risk of seronegative RA. After correction for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method, the findings did not reach statistical significance. Circulating carotenoids levels are not associated with reduced risk of RA. Further investigations using large prospective cohorts are needed to confirm our findings.

  2. Changes in meandering of the Northern Hemisphere circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Capua, Giorgia; Coumou, Dim


    Strong waves in the mid-latitude circulation have been linked to extreme surface weather and thus changes in waviness could have serious consequences for society. Several theories have been proposed which could alter waviness, including tropical sea surface temperature anomalies or rapid climate

  3. Response of an ocean general circulation model to wind and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretched-coordinate ocean general circulation model has been designed to study the observed variability due to wind and thermodynamic forcings. The model domain extends from 60°N to 60°S and cyclically continuous in the longitudinal direction. The horizontal resolution is 5° × 5° and 9 discrete vertical levels.

  4. Circulating Heat Shock Protein 70 in Health, Aging and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demanet Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsp are ubiquitously synthesised in virtually all species and it is hypothesised that they might have beneficial health effects. Recent studies have identified circulating Hsp as an important mediator in inflammation - the effects of low-grade inflammation in the aging process are overwhelming. While much is known about intracellular Hsp70, scant data exist on circulating Hsp70 in the aging context. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of age and disease on circulating Hsp70 and, in particular, to evaluate the association between circulating Hsp70 and inflammatory parameters. Results Serum Hsp70, Interleukin (IL -10, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF alpha concentrations were determined in 90 hospitalised geriatric patients (aged 83 ± 6 years and in 200 community-dwelling control subjects (100 elderly, aged 74 ± 5 years, and 100 young, aged 23 ± 3 years. In the community-dwelling elderly, serum Hsp70 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly lower and IL-6 was significantly higher when compared to healthy young control subjects. Elderly patients presenting inflammation (CRP serum levels ≥5 mg/L showed significantly (p = 0.007 higher Hsp70 values; and Hsp70 correlated positively (p Conclusions The present data provide new evidence that serum concentration of Hsp70 decreases with age in a normal population. Our study also shows that higher levels of Hsp70 are associated with inflammation and frailty in elderly patients.

  5. Circulating Laptops: Lessons Learned in an Academic Library (United States)

    Sharpe, Paul A.


    Laptops have become ubiquitous in academic libraries, as has the practice of circulating laptops for student use. Several studies have analyzed the how-to of loaning laptops, and a number of surveys have focused on how they are being used. However, little has been written of the practical lessons learned; the trial and error of those on the…

  6. Calibrating the ECCO ocean general circulation model using Green's functions (United States)

    Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.; Lee, T.; Fukumori, I.


    Green's functions provide a simple, yet effective, method to test and calibrate General-Circulation-Model(GCM) parameterizations, to study and quantify model and data errors, to correct model biases and trends, and to blend estimates from different solutions and data products.

  7. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor during the normal menstrual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Hospers, GAP; Sluiter, WJ; Dam, WA; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH


    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cycle-related variations in circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels would increase the metastatic potential at specific times during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: VEGF levels in serum and whole blood

  8. Circulating melanoma cells and survival in metastatic melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, C.; Bui, T.; Connelly, M.; Doyle, G.; Karydis, I.; Middleton, M. R.; Clack, G.; Malone, M.; Coumans, F. A. W.; Terstappen, L. W. M. M.


    A validated assay for the enumeration of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) may facilitate the development of more effective therapies for metastatic melanoma patients. In this study CD146(+) cells were immunomagnetically enriched from 7.5 ml of blood. Isolated cells were fluorescently stained with

  9. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) (United States)


    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  10. Use of cement as lost-circulation material : best practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidan, E. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    One of the challenges facing oil well drilling operations is lost circulation, which refers to the partial or complete loss of drilling fluid or cement during drilling, circulation, running casing, or cementing operations. This problem can result in increased cost, loss of time, plugging of productive zones, blowouts, excessive water influx, and excessive formation caving. Lost circulation occurs in high-permeability zones such as highly fractured, vuggy or cavernous reservoirs when the hydrostatic pressure of drilling fluids is greater than the breaking strength of the formation. Cement is one of the common lost-circulation materials (LCMs). The use of proper cement composition and cementing techniques is important for successful cementing jobs. This paper presents solutions for 3 field cases from the Canada Western Sedimentary Basin where cement or drilling fluid loss has been a problem. Cement loss was minimized in two cases by using proper cement type and using optimum design during casing cementing. In another case, cement was used to cure drilling fluid loss. The various LCM applications described in this paper were: thixotropic and ultrathixotropic cement slurries; slurries containing cello flakes, mica and calcium carbonate for mechanical bridging; unique spacers and surfactant packages; and, foamed cement for controlling loss. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, S.; Mohimen, A.; Mehra, S. (Calcutta Medical Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Kothari Centre of Gastroenterology)


    An assay capable of detecting circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens in amoebiasis is described. This assay utilised a radiolabelled affinity purified rabbit anti-E. histolytica antibody that had been depleted of antibodies that cross-react with human serum proteins, and a polyethylene glycol precipitation step.

  12. Nucleic acids in circulation: Are they harmful to the host?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been estimated that 1011–1012 cells, primarily of haematogenous origin, die in the adult human body daily, and a similar number is regenerated to maintain homeostasis. Despite the presence of an efficient scavenging system for dead cells, considerable amounts of fragmented genetic material enter the circulation in ...

  13. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)


    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  14. Naive vs. Sophisticated Methods of Forecasting Public Library Circulations. (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.


    Two sophisticated--autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), straight-line regression--and two naive--simple average, monthly average--forecasting techniques were used to forecast monthly circulation totals of 34 public libraries. Comparisons of forecasts and actual totals revealed that ARIMA and monthly average methods had smallest mean…

  15. Detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are tumors of nasopharynx origin with high rate of distance metastases after radiotherapy. Therefore, detection of micrometastasis will be an important issue in the prognostic and the choice of the systemic treatment. Our aim was early detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of ...

  16. 49 CFR 38.77 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.77 Section 38.77 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems...

  17. 49 CFR 38.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.155 Section 38.155 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems...

  18. 49 CFR 38.29 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.29 Section 38.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.29...

  19. 49 CFR 38.97 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.97 Section 38.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38...

  20. 49 CFR 38.115 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.115 Section 38.115 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems...

  1. 49 CFR 38.57 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.57 Section 38.57 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems...

  2. Interaction between Cape hake spawning and the circulation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape hake in Namibian waters are demersal and mesopelagic spawners, spawning peaking offshore between 100 and 400 m deep, depending on local environmental conditions. The cross-shelf circulation, low-oxygen layers and mesoscale gyres are three important environmental factors influencing hake spawning ...

  3. Visitor circulation and nonhuman animal welfare: an overlooked variable? (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Henzi, Peter


    This article investigates visitor circulation and behaviors within a gallery of primate exhibits in relation to their possible implications for nonhuman animal welfare. When entering a primate house, the majority of visitors (84%) turned right, a pattern upheld throughout all times of the day. These findings demonstrate the existence of the "right-turn" principle, a concept previously identified and investigated in the museum setting. The existence of this circulation pattern in zoos has important implications for the practical management of animal welfare issues because unbalanced or large numbers of visitors at specific enclosures could present a stressful influence. The "direction bias" could not be attributed to demographic or behavioral traits, therefore suggesting that the principle, like similar findings from museum research, generalizes across visitor populations and, therefore, zoos. A visitor sample at another exhibit (located outside the exhibit gallery) did not display a direction bias, suggesting that the marked circulation pattern may be specific to exhibit galleries. The article discusses the significance and consequences of visitor circulation with respect to visitor management and animal welfare.

  4. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of adult Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael D; Andersen, Rikke F; Christensen, Henry


    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found a differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs expressed in CD and assess their performance as biomarkers in patients...

  5. Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Preneel


    Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.

  6. "Check This out": Assessing Customer Service at the Circulation Desk (United States)

    Long, Dallas


    The access services staff at Milner Library, Illinois State University, designed a customer service assessment to evaluate how effectively the department was carrying out its mission statement. Areas of assessment included the department's waiting times, helpfulness, and courtesy. The assessment activity focused on circulation services, which is…

  7. Circulating Power and In/Visibility: Layers of Educational Leadership (United States)

    Mifsud, Denise


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study circulating power and in/visibility. In the unfolding Maltese education scenario of decentralization and school networking, suffused with entrenched power, with added layers of leadership and more subtle levels of accountability, this paper explores the underlying power relations among the top…

  8. Association of circulating dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 levels with osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Kim, H; Baek, K H; Lee, S-Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S H; Koh, J-M; Rhee, Y; Kim, C H; Kim, D-Y; Kang, M-I; Kim, B-J; Min, Y-K


    Postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture (OF) had higher plasma dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels than those without. Furthermore, higher plasma DPP4 levels were significantly associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of OF. These results indicated that DPP4 may be associated with OF by mediating bone turnover rate. Evidence indicates that dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) plays a distinct role in bone metabolism. However, there has been no report on the association, if any, between circulating DPP4 levels and osteoporosis-related phenotypes, including osteoporotic fracture (OF). Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate these associations in postmenopausal women. This study was conducted in multiple centers in Korea. We enrolled 178 cases with OF and 178 age- and body mass index-matched controls. OF was assessed by an interviewer-assisted questionnaire and lateral thoracolumbar radiographs. Bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and plasma DPP4 levels were obtained in all subjects. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with OF had significantly higher DPP4 levels than those without (P = 0.021). Higher DPP4 levels were significantly positively associated with higher levels of all BTMs, but not with BMD at all measured sites. The differences in DPP4 levels according to OF status disappeared after an additional adjustment for each BTM, but not after adjustment for any BMD values. BTMs explained approximately half of the relationship between DPP4 and OF. The risk of OF was 3.80-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.53-9.42) higher in subjects in the highest DPP4 quartile than in those in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders, including femoral neck BMD. DPP4 may be associated with OF by at least partly mediating the bone turnover rate. Circulating DPP4 levels may be a potential biomarker that could increase the predictive power of current fracture risk assessment

  9. Knowing when to assist: developmental issues in lifelong assistive robotics. (United States)

    Demiris, Yiannis


    Children and adults with sensorimotor disabilities can significantly increase their autonomy through the use of assistive robots. As the field progresses from short-term, task-specific solutions to long-term, adaptive ones, new challenges are emerging. In this paper a lifelong methodological approach is presented, that attempts to balance the immediate context-specific needs of the user, with the long-term effects that the robot's assistance can potentially have on the user's developmental trajectory.

  10. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia (United States)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori


    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  11. SPICE: South PacIfic Circulation and Climate Experiment (United States)

    Ganachaud, A.; Kessler, W.; Brassington, G.; Wijffels, S.; Ridgway, K.; Cai, W.; Holbrook, N.; Bowen, M.; Sutton, P.; Qiu, B.; Timmermann, A.; Roemmich, D.; Sprintall, J.; Cravatte, S.; Gourdeau, L.; Aung, T.


    South Pacific thermocline waters are transported from the subtropical gyre center in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current, towards the southwestern Pacific Ocean-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and southern ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the ENSO cycle and thereby produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex ocean circulation. The South Equatorial Current is split in strong zonal jets upon encountering the island archipelago. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. This climatological view of the current system is subject to substantial seasonal and inter-annual modulation. This circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand and the United States initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the Southwest Pacific ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. The outline of a feasible, regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems is presented. This project, named SPICE, reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, with full coordination with broader South Pacific projects.

  12. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003-2014 (United States)

    Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Bacon, Sheldon; Ridout, Andy L.; Petty, Alek A.; Wolbach, Steven; Tsamados, Michel


    Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003-2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE) congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice-ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s - e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere-ice-ocean coupling in models before we can fully attribute causality to these increases.

  13. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva


    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  14. Application of helium isotopes to studies of ocean circulation (United States)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.; Lupton, J.; Jenkins, W.; Top, Z.; Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.


    Since the discovery of excess He-3 in the ocean by Clarke and Craig in the 1960's helium isotopes have been used in local, regional and global studies of circulation patterns and water mass transformation in the world ocean. From initial pilot studies through systematic exploration of these tracers during the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections) program to the recent global survey as part of the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) hydrographic program (WHP) we obtained more detailed information on the distribution of helium isotopes, as well as their sources and sinks in the ocean. This information can now be applied to construct global fields of helium isotopes and to extract unique information on the circulation patterns at different depth levels in the ocean, as well as on local and regional processes such as ventilation of water masses in deep water formation regions. Additionally, the data sets are now sufficiently large to be useful for validation of Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's). In this contribution we present examples of global helium isotope fields constructed from major programs such as GEOCECS, TTO (Transient Tracers in the Ocean), SAVE (South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment) and WOCE, as well as from individual ocean sections. We use the data to delineate circulation patterns in the major ocean basins at several depth levels, especially mid-depth waters. Additionally, we outline the use of helium isotopes in studies of ocean ventilation. Finally, we compare observed and simulated helium isotope fields to highlight OGCM capabilities and deficiencies to reproduce internal He-3 excesses in the ocean and the related ventilation processes.

  15. Exacerbation of Acute Traumatic Brain Injury by Circulating Extracellular Vesicles. (United States)

    Hazelton, Isla; Yates, Abi; Dale, Ashley; Roodselaar, Jay; Akbar, Naveed; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Anthony, Daniel C; Couch, Yvonne


    Inflammatory lesions in the brain activate a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is dependent on the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the circulation. The resulting APR is responsible for regulating leukocyte mobilization and subsequent recruitment to the brain. Factors that either exacerbate or inhibit the APR will also exacerbate or inhibit central nervous system (CNS) inflammation as a consequence and have the potential to influence ongoing secondary damage. Here, we were interested to discover how the circulating EV population changes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how manipulation of the circulating EV pool impacts on the outcome of TBI. We found the number of circulating EVs increased rapidly post-TBI, and this was accompanied by an increase in CNS and hepatic leukocyte recruitment. In an adoptive transfer study, we then evaluated the outcomes of TBI after administering EVs derived from either in vitro macrophage or endothelial cell lines stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or from murine plasma from an LPS challenge using the air-pouch model. By manipulating the circulating EV population, we were able to demonstrate that each population of transferred EVs increased the APR. However, the characteristics of the response were dependent on the nature of the EVs; specifically, it was significantly increased when animals were challenged with macrophage-derived EVs, suggesting that the cellular origins of EVs may determine their function. Selectively targeting EVs from macrophage/monocyte populations is likely to be of value in reducing the impact of the systemic inflammatory response on the outcome of traumatic CNS injury.

  16. Biogeochemical Proxies in Scleractinian Corals used to Reconstruct Ocean Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Kashgarian, M; Schrag, D P


    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment onetime surveys such as GEOSECS and WOCE. These data not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can be used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate change.

  17. Circulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells Microparticles in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease (United States)

    Cho, Yeon Hee; Kang, Ho Young; Hyung, Na Kyum; Kim, Donghee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ji Yoon; Bang, Oh Young


    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the application of CD105+ mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is feasible and may lead to recovery after stroke. In addition, circulating microparticles are reportedly functional in various disease conditions. We tested the levels of circulating CD105+ microparticles in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The expression of CD105 (a surface marker of MSCs) and CXCR4 (a CXC chemokine receptor for MSC homing) on circulating microparticles was evaluated by flow cytometry of samples from 111 patients and 50 healthy subjects. The percentage of apoptotic CD105 microparticles was determined based on annexin V (AV) expression. The relationship between serum levels of CD105+/AV− microparticles, stromal cells derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), and the extensiveness of cerebral infarcts was also evaluated. CD105+/AV− microparticles were higher in stroke patients than control subjects. Correlation analysis showed that the levels of CD105+/AV− microparticles increased as the baseline stroke severity increased. Multivariate testing showed that the initial severity of stroke was independently associated with circulating CD105+/AV− microparticles (OR, 1.103 for 1 point increase in the NIHSS score on admission; 95% CI, 1.032–1.178) after adjusting for other variables. The levels of CD105+/CXCR4+/AV− microparticles were also increased in patients with severe disability (r = 0.192, p = 0.046 for NIHSS score on admission), but were decreased with time after stroke onset (r = −0.204, p = 0.036). Risk factor profiles were not associated with the levels of circulating microparticles or SDF-1α. In conclusion, our data showed that stroke triggers the mobilization of MSC-derived microparticles, especially in patients with extensive ischemic stroke. PMID:22615882

  18. Circulating Fibrocytes Are Increased in Neonates with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is characterized by the aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma, resulting from accumulation of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. Circulating fibrocytes are implied in pulmonary fibrosis, but whether these cells are associated with the development of BPD or the progressive fibrosis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of fibrocytes in peripheral venous blood and explore whether these cells might be associated with severity of BPD.We investigated circulating fibrocytes in 66 patients with BPD, 23 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS and 11 normal subjects. Circulating fibrocytes were defined and quantified as cells positive for CD45 andcollagen-1 by flow cytometry. Furthermore, serum SDF-1/CXCL12 and TGF-β1 were evaluated using ELISA methods. We also investigated the clinical value of fibrocyte counts by comparison with standard clinical parameters.The patients with BPD had significantly increased numbers of fibrocytes compared to the controls (p < 0.01. Patients with ARDS were not different from healthy control subjects. There was a correlation between the number of fibrocytes and pulmonary hypertension or oxygen saturation (p < 0.05. Fibrocyte numbers were not correlated with other clinical or functional variables or radiologic severity scores. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine CXCL12 increased in plasma (p < 0.05 and was detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 40% of the patients but not in controls.These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes are increased in patients with BPD and may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis in BPD. Circulating fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, might contribute to the production of TGF-β1 for the expansion of fibroblast/myofibroblast population in BPD.

  19. Nutrient pumping by submesoscale circulations in the mauritanian upwelling system (United States)

    Hosegood, P. J.; Nightingale, P. D.; Rees, A. P.; Widdicombe, C. E.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Clark, D. R.; Torres, R. J.


    Observations made within a cold filament in the Mauritanian upwelling system demonstrate that intense submesoscale circulations at the peripheral edges of the filament are likely responsible for anomalously high levels of observed primary productivity by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Measurements made on the shelf within the recently upwelled water reveal that primary production (PP) of 8.2 gC/m-2 day-1 was supported by nitrate concentrations (NC) of 8 mmol m-3. Towards the front that defined the edge of the filament containing the upwelled water as it was transported offshore, PP dropped to 1.6 gC m-2 day-1 whilst NC dropped to 5.5 mmol m-3. Thus, whilst the observed nutrients on the shelf accounted for 90% of new production, this value dropped to ∼60% near the filament's front after accounting for vertical turbulent fluxes and Ekman pumping. We demonstrate that the N15 was likely to have been supplied at the front by submesoscale circulations that were directly measured as intense vertical velocities ⩾100 m day-1 by a drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler that crossed a submesoscale surface temperature front. At the same time, a recently released tracer was subducted out of the mixed layer within 24 h of release, providing direct evidence that the frontal circulations were capable of accessing the reservoir of nutrients beneath the pycnocline. The susceptibility of the filament edge to submesoscale instabilities was demonstrated by O(1) Rossby numbers at horizontal scales of 1-10 km. The frontal circulations are consistent with instabilities arising from a wind-driven nonlinear Ekman buoyancy flux generated by the persistent northerly wind stress that has a down-front component at the northern edge of the inshore section of the filament. The prevalence of submesoscale instabilities and their associated vertical circulations are proposed to be a key mechanism operating at sub-grid scales and sustaining new production throughout the upwelling

  20. Intelligent wheelchairs and assistant robots


    Amat Girbau, Josep


    This work presents an overview over the main technological aids oriented to the rehabilitation of the physically disabled so that they can get some independence. These aids range from wheelchairs up to the assistant robots developed in the last years.

  1. National Center for Assisted Living (United States)

    ... spread. Looking for more information reguarding Prefered Provider Program Quality Care Book Store ​​ ​ ​​​ ​ ​​​ Featured Video Intergenerational Programming ​ Learn how Golden Oaks, an assisted living ...

  2. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  3. Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Regions (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) in the 1950s to make DOE resources and expertise available to organizations...

  4. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  5. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  6. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.


    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  7. Compliance Assistance Tools for Demolition (United States)

    Learn about how to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), find contacts for asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), and get construction industry specific compliance assistance

  8. Occupational Therapist Assistants and Aides (United States)

    ... study and include instruction in subjects such as psychology, biology, and pediatric health. In addition to taking ... Handbook , Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides, on the Internet at ...

  9. S-Chip Technical Assistance (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  10. 33 CFR 203.13 - Available assistance. (United States)


    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Introduction § 203... consumption. Subpart E addresses drought assistance. (f) Advance Measures. Advance Measures assistance may be...

  11. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  12. The Cognitive Onboard Operator Assistant Architecture Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a cognitively inspired architecture for deploying an automated intelligent onboard operator assistant. This assistant facilitates the onboard control...

  13. Study on biomass circulation and gasification performance in a clapboard-type internal circulating fluidized bed gasifier. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao-qiu; Ma, Long-long; Yin, Xiu-li; Wu, Chuang-zhi; Huang, Li-cheng; Wang, Chu


    We investigated the solid particle flow characteristics and biomass gasification in a clapboard-type internal circulating fluidized bed reactor. The effect of fluidization velocity on particle circulation rate and pressure distribution in the bed showed that fluidization velocities in the high and low velocity zones were the main operational parameters controlling particle circulation. The maximum internal circulation rates in the low velocity zone came almost within the range of velocities in the high velocity zone, when u(H)/u(mf)=2.2-2.4 for rice husk and u(H)/u(mf)=3.5-4.5 for quartz sand. In the gasification experiment, the air equivalence ratio (ER) was the main controlling parameter. Rice husk gasification gas had a maximum heating value of around 5000 kJ/m(3) when ER=0.22-0.26, and sawdust gasification gas reached around 6000-6500 kJ/m(3) when ER=0.175-0.24. The gasification efficiency of rice husk reached a maximum of 77% at ER=0.28, while the gasification efficiency of sawdust reached a maximum of 81% at ER=0.25.

  14. Assistive Technology and Affective Mediation


    Nestor Garay; Idoia Cearreta; Juan Miguel López; Inmaculada Fajardo


    The lack of attention towards affective communication in assistive technology and disability research can be potentially overcome thanks to the development of affective computing and affective mediation areas. This document describes the main impairments and disorders that may involve affective communication deficits. We also present several affective mediation technologies that are being applied or may be integrated in assistive technologies in order to improve affective communication for a ...

  15. [Active euthanasia, or assisted suicide? (United States)

    Julesz, Máté


    Both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and, most recently, in Canada. Examination of national legislations of countries where both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal. The number of accomplished active euthanasia cases and that of assisted suicide cases. Analysis of national statistical data. Comparison of statistical data before and after 2010. Comparison of the related practices in the surveyed countries. The number of active euthanasia cases markedly predominates over the number of assisted suicide cases. Cancer is a main reason for active euthanasia, or assisted suicide. In countries with a larger population, the number of active euthanasia cases is higher than that in countries with a smaller population. Regarding the fact that the applicants for active euthanasia withdraw their requests in a smaller number than the applicants for assisted suicide, patients prefer the choice of active euthanasia. Since the related legislative product is too recent in Canada at present, it may be only presumed that a certain preference will also develop in the related practices in Canada. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(40), 1595-1600.

  16. Robot-assisted general surgery. (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott


    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  17. Weather regimes and orographic circulation around New Caledonia. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Jérôme; Marchesiello, Patrick; Jourdain, Nicolas C; Menkes, Christophe; Leroy, Anne


    The local climate and island-scale circulation around New Caledonia is investigated using a 4-km resolution mesoscale atmospheric model in concert with QuikSCAT scatterometer winds at 12.5-km resolution. The mesoscale atmospheric weather regimes are first examined through an objective classification applied to the remote sensed winds for nine warm seasons from 1999 to 2008. Four main weather types are identified. Their corresponding synoptic-scale circulation reveals that they are strongly discernable through the position and intensity of the South Pacific Convergence zone (SPCZ), the mid-latitude systems, and the subtropical jet stream. The link between the mesoscale weather types and the two dominant large-scale modes of variability, namely the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is also described in terms of their influence on the occurrence of each weather type. It shows that their occurrence is significantly controlled by both MJO and ENSO, through modulation of the SPCZ. The large-scale modes of variability are scaled down to island-scale circulation through synoptic and mesoscale regimes, and are eventually modulated by orographic and thermal control. The island-scale circulation is inferred in this study by applying the compositing method to both observed and simulated winds. Their comparison clearly shows the ability of the mesoscale model to capture the local circulation and its spatial and temporal variability. A scaling analysis conducted from the simulated atmospheric parameters shows that the mountain range of New Caledonia is hydrodynamically steep. As a result of trade-wind obstruction by the mountainous island, the flow is shaped by coastally trapped mesoscale responses, i.e., blocking, flow splitting and corner winds, with a spatial scale of about 150 km. Two main obstacles, Mont Panié and Mont Humboldt play a significant role on the dynamical behavior of the low-level flow, while the diurnal heating

  18. Models for changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ocean geochemistry and circulation during the late Pleistocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; SenGupta, R.

    the regionally varying responses of primary productivity and water circulation to the climatic changes. For example, given the unique seasonally varying circulation pattern and an acute deficiency in dissolved oxygen at mid-depth, the feedback mechanisms...

  19. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.


    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone

  20. Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S


    To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....

  1. Circulation and water characteristics on isanosteric surfaces in the Northern Arabian Sea during February-April

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; Gouveia, A.D.; Varma, K.K.

    Distribution of water characteristics and circulation were studied on 260, 160, 140, 120 and 80 cl/t surfaces using isanosteric analysis and geostrophic computation The circulation pattern consisted of several eddies and meanders The most prominent...

  2. Optimal nonlinear excitation of decadal variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziqing, Z.; Mu, M.; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467


    Nonlinear development of salinity perturbations in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is investigated with a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation method. The results show two types of optimal initial perturbations of sea surface

  3. Analysis and Modeling of Circulating Current in Two Parallel-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand


    this model, the circulating current between two parallel-connected inverters is analysed in this study. The peak and root mean square (rms) values of the normalised circulating current are calculated for different PWM methods, which makes this analysis a valuable tool to design a filter for the circulating......-width modulation (PWM). However, the interleaved PWM causes a circulating current between the inverters, which in turn causes additional losses. A model describing the dynamics of the circulating current is presented in this study which shows that the circulating current depends on the common-mode voltage. Using...... current. The peak and rms values of the circulating current are plotted for different PWM methods, and a discontinuous PWM is identified which offers the minimum peak and rms value of the circulating current. Experimental results are presented to verify the analysis....

  4. Numerical experimentation of a diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    Climatic circulation in the upper levels of the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean are computed using a 3-dimensional, 33 level diagnostic circulation model. A steady state solution is obtained within 30 days of model integration. Model...

  5. FFTF operating experience with sodium natural circulation: slides included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, T.M.; Additon, S.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Midgett, J.C.


    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been designed for passive, back-up, safety grade decay heat removal utilizing natural circulation of the sodium coolant. This paper discusses the process by which operator preparation for this emergency operating mode has been assured, in paralled with the design verification during the FFTF startup and acceptance testing program. Over the course of the test program, additional insights were gained through the testing program, through on-going plant analyses and through general safety evaluations performed throughout the nuclear industry. These insights led to development of improved operator training material for control of decay heat removal during both forced and natural circulation as well as improvements in the related plant operating procedures.

  6. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia Tanas


    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...... with SLE based on comprehensive MP proteome profiling using patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and healthy donors (HC) as controls. METHODS: We purified MPs from platelet-poor plasma using differential centrifugation of samples from SLE (n = 45), SSc (n = 38), and two sets of HC (n = 35, n = 25). MP......-MPs (which we propose to call luposomes) are highly specific for SLE, i.e. not found in MP preparations from HC or patients with another autoimmune, systemic disease, SSc. In SLE-MPs platelet proteins and mitochondrial proteins are significantly diminished, cytoskeletal proteins deranged, and glycolytic...

  7. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville


    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  8. [Regulation of innate immunity during xenogenic changes in blood circulation]. (United States)

    Shevchenko, V S


    Calcium-dependent innate immune response with participation of the superfamily of immunoglobulins to several intra- and extracorporal xenobiotics were studied at 216 recipients during synthetic cardiac valves implantation or veins transplantation in coronary arteries. It was shown that immediate immune response to xenobiotics was manifested by generation of the antitissue anodical autoprecipitin with specificity to the surface cell membrane component. This reaction initiated and regulated the subsequent dynamics of the two different fibrinogen autoimmune complexes formation, resulting in development of the immunogenic damages of blood circulation. Correction of these rapid innate immune responses is important for prevention and normalisation of the xenogenic damages of blood circulation during trans- and implantation on the heart impaired with endocarditis or aterosclerosis.

  9. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong


    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations...

  10. Tacking bonds: fashion image circulation in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Laura Matté


    Full Text Available This study aims at delineating the aspects of fashion in contemporary times under a bias of communication. It is a search to identify, through the images that circulate on social networks, the characteristics that may distinguish the contemporary fashion circumscribed to the so called postmodernity. Therefore, we performed a bibliographic research in order to understand the concepts of post modernity. Among the authors studied, we chose to follow the pathways taken by the French sociologist Michel Maffesoli, since his ideas about post modernity are the key to explain the contemporary fashion in post modernity. The corpus of this study consists of images extracted from a social network of fashion image sharing: Collective Fashion Consciousness. We believe that these images are loaded with information that might explain fashion in post modernity, and contribute to discussions about the creation of bonds enabled by the circulation of these imagery elements.

  11. Efficiency of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean circulation (United States)

    Mashayek, A.; Salehipour, H.; Bouffard, D.; Caulfield, C. P.; Ferrari, R.; Nikurashin, M.; Peltier, W. R.; Smyth, W. D.


    Turbulent mixing produced by breaking of internal waves plays an important role in setting the patterns of downwelling and upwelling of deep dense waters and thereby helps sustain the global deep ocean overturning circulation. A key parameter used to characterize turbulent mixing is its efficiency, defined here as the fraction of the energy available to turbulence that is invested in mixing. Efficiency is conventionally approximated by a constant value near one sixth. Here we show that efficiency varies significantly in the abyssal ocean and can be as large as approximately one third in density stratified regions near topographic features. Our results indicate that variations in efficiency exert a first-order control over the rate of overturning of the lower branch of the meridional overturning circulation.

  12. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.


    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  13. Prediction of colorectal cancer diagnosis based on circulating plasma proteins. (United States)

    Surinova, Silvia; Choi, Meena; Tao, Sha; Schüffler, Peter J; Chang, Ching-Yun; Clough, Timothy; Vysloužil, Kamil; Khoylou, Marta; Srovnal, Josef; Liu, Yansheng; Matondo, Mariette; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Weisser, Hendrik; Buhmann, Joachim M; Hajdúch, Marián; Brenner, Hermann; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi


    Non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer with blood-based markers is a critical clinical need. Here we describe a phased mass spectrometry-based approach for the discovery, screening, and validation of circulating protein biomarkers with diagnostic value. Initially, we profiled human primary tumor tissue epithelia and characterized about 300 secreted and cell surface candidate glycoproteins. These candidates were then screened in patient systemic circulation to identify detectable candidates in blood plasma. An 88-plex targeting method was established to systematically monitor these proteins in two large and independent cohorts of plasma samples, which generated quantitative clinical datasets at an unprecedented scale. The data were deployed to develop and evaluate a five-protein biomarker signature for colorectal cancer detection. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Reconfigurable large-area magnetic vortex circulation patterns (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys


    Magnetic vortices in nanodots own a switchable circulation sense. These nontrivial magnetization configurations can be arranged into extended and interacting patterns. We have experimentally created large arrays of magnetically reconfigurable vortex patterns in nonplanar honeycomb lattices using particle lithography. Optimizing height asymmetry of the vertices and applying an in-plane magnetic field provide means to switch between homocircular and staggered vortex patterns with a potentially high impact on magnonics and spintronics relying on chiral noncollinear spin textures. To this end, exchange coupling of extended vortex lattices with an out-of-plane magnetized layer allows one to realize artificial skyrmionic core textures with controllable circulation and topological properties in extended exchange coupled honeycomb lattices that may pave the way towards magnetic memory and logic devices based on artificial skyrmions.

  15. Experimental study of natural circulation flow instability in rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tao; Qi, Shi; Song, Mingqiang [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Passive Nuclear Safety Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab.; Xiao, Zejun [Nuclear, Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Chengdu (China). CNNC Key Lab.


    Experiments of natural circulation flow instability were conducted in rectangular channels with 5 mm and 10 mm wide gaps. Results for different heating powers were obtained. The results showed that the flow will tend to be instable with the growing of heating power. The oscillation period of pressure D-value and volume flow are the same, but their phase positions are opposite. They both can be described by trigonometric functions. The existence of edge position and secondary flow will strengthen the disturbance of fluid flow in rectangle channels, which contributes to heat transfer. The disturbance of bubble and fluid will be strengthened, especially in the saturated boiling section, which make it possible for the mixing flow. The results also showed that the resistance in 5 mm channel is bigger than that in 10 mm channel, it is less likely to form stable natural circulation in the subcooled region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oloomi


    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia complicating malignancy is a rare complication in pediatric age group. In this article, we present a case with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as severe hypercalcemia. A 10 years old girl presented with an acute onset of fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, costovertebral pain and frequency. She was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Her examination showed mild hepatosplenomegaly. In laboratory studies she had sever hypercalcemia. Despite the absence of circulating blast, bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous hydration and furosemide but the serum calcium levels normalized only after the beginning of specific chemotherapy. Hypercalcemia represents an emergency in children, and acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis even when there are no circulating blasts.

  17. Seasonal predictability of Kiremt rainfall in coupled general circulation models (United States)

    Gleixner, Stephanie; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Demissie, Teferi D.; Counillon, François; Wang, Yiguo; Viste, Ellen


    The Ethiopian economy and population is strongly dependent on rainfall. Operational seasonal predictions for the main rainy season (Kiremt, June–September) are based on statistical approaches with Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) as the main predictor. Here we analyse dynamical predictions from 11 coupled general circulation models for the Kiremt seasons from 1985–2005 with the forecasts starting from the beginning of May. We find skillful predictions from three of the 11 models, but no model beats a simple linear prediction model based on the predicted Niño3.4 indices. The skill of the individual models for dynamically predicting Kiremt rainfall depends on the strength of the teleconnection between Kiremt rainfall and concurrent Pacific SST in the models. Models that do not simulate this teleconnection fail to capture the observed relationship between Kiremt rainfall and the large-scale Walker circulation.

  18. Mutations in circulating mitochondrial DNA: Cassandra of oral cancer? (United States)

    Kandel, Eugene S


    Cell-free circulating nucleic acids in human blood are increasing being researched as a source of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for clinical oncology. High copy number per cell and frequent mutations in various malignancies make mitochondrial genome an attractive target for such an investigation, but practical development and validation of biomarkers based on cell-free mitochondrial DNA has been lagging. Uzawa and colleagues report in the July issue of Oncotarget that in a retrospective study of patients with oral cancer the load of mutant mitochondrial DNA in patient's serum was a strong indicator of postoperative recurrence. Based on these observations, the predictive value of circulating mutant mitochondrial DNA merits further evaluation in patients with oral and other malignancies.

  19. Fractal analysis of circulating platelets in type 2 diabetic patients. (United States)

    Bianciardi, G; Tanganelli, I


    This paper investigates the use of computerized fractal analysis for objective characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy of the complexity of circulating platelets collected from healthy individuals and from type 2 diabetic patients, a pathologic condition in which platelet hyperreactivity has been described. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Local fractal dimension by box counting (measure of geometric complexity) was automatically calculated. The results showed that the platelet boundary observed by electron microscopy is fractal and that the shape of the circulating platelets is significantly more complex in the diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects (p fractal analysis of platelet shape by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative, data to study platelet activation in diabetes mellitus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kazko


    Full Text Available Different ways of defining the characteristics of Antarctic subglacialLakeVostokcirculation are considered. The disadvantages of hydrodynamic models using the hydrostatic approximation exposed to analysis. Differential equations and boundary conditions of three-dimensional nonhydrostatic model in terms vorticity–vector potential, specially developed for the modelling of the lake circulation are presented. 3D model passed through the testing by means simulations of convective currents in the simple-form reservoirs. On the basis of the seismic data on the thickness of a glacier and bathimetry of the lake the computational domain approximating a water body ofLakeVostokis constructed. Some results of modeling of the convective processes in the lake, obtained at the initial stage of circulation evolution using finite-difference grid with a spatial resolution of 8000 × 1500 ×30 mare shown.

  1. Cytomorphology of Circulating Colorectal Tumor Cells: A Small Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Marrinucci


    Full Text Available Several methodologies exist to enumerate circulating tumor cells (CTCs from the blood of cancer patients; however, most methodologies lack high-resolution imaging, and thus, little is known about the cytomorphologic features of these cells. In this study of metastatic colorectal cancer patients, we used immunofluorescent staining with fiber-optic array scanning technology to identify CTCs, with subsequent Wright-Giemsa and Papanicolau staining. The CTCs were compared to the corresponding primary and metastatic tumors. The colorectal CTCs showed marked intrapatient pleomorphism. In comparison to the corresponding tissue biopsies, cells from all sites showed similar pleomorphism, demonstrating that colorectal CTCs retain the pleomorphism present in regions of solid growth. They also often retain particular cytomorphologic features present in the patient's primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. This study provides an initial analysis of the cytomorphologic features of circulating colon cancer cells, providing a foundation for further investigation into the significance and metastatic potential of CTCs.

  2. Circulating biomarkers to monitor cancer progression and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthee Rapisuwon


    Full Text Available Tumor heterogeneity is a major challenge and the root cause of resistance to treatment. Still, the standard diagnostic approach relies on the analysis of a single tumor sample from a local or metastatic site that is obtained at a given time point. Due to intratumoral heterogeneity and selection of subpopulations in diverse lesions this will provide only a limited characterization of the makeup of the disease. On the other hand, recent developments of nucleic acid sequence analysis allows to use minimally invasive serial blood samples to assess the mutational status and altered gene expression patterns for real time monitoring in individual patients. Here, we focus on cell-free circulating tumor-specific mutant DNA and RNA (including mRNA and non-coding RNA, as well as current limitations and challenges associated with circulating nucleic acids biomarkers.

  3. Apparatus and method for determining solids circulation rate (United States)

    Ludlow, J Christopher [Morgantown, WV; Spenik, James L [Morgantown, WV


    The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.

  4. On the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias; Rahmstorf, Stefan


    One of the most important large-scale ocean current systems for Earth's climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Here we review its stability properties and present new model simulations to study the AMOC's hysteresis response to freshwater perturbations. We employ seven different versions of an Ocean General Circulation Model by using a highly accurate tracer advection scheme, which minimizes the problem of numerical diffusion. We find that a characteristic freshwater hysteresis also exists in the predominantly wind-driven, low-diffusion limit of the AMOC. However, the shape of the hysteresis changes, indicating that a convective instability rather than the advective Stommel feedback plays a dominant role. We show that model errors in the mean climate can make the hysteresis disappear, and we investigate how model innovations over the past two decades, like new parameterizations and mixing schemes, affect the AMOC stability. Finally, we discuss evidence that current climate models systematically overestimate the stability of the AMOC. PMID:19897722

  5. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nicolazzo


    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells can be detected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Their prognostic value has been established in the last 10 years for metastatic colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. On the contrary their presence in patients affected by sarcomas has been poorly investigated. The discovery of EpCAM mRNA expression in different sarcoma cell lines and in a small cohort of metastatic sarcoma patients supports further investigations on these rare tumors to deepen the importance of CTC isolation. Although it is not clear whether EpCAM expression might be originally present on tumor sarcoma cells or acquired during the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, the discovery of EpCAM on circulating sarcoma cells opens a new scenario in CTC detection in patients affected by a rare mesenchymal tumor.

  6. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela


    Circulating tumor cells can be detected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Their prognostic value has been established in the last 10 years for metastatic colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. On the contrary their presence in patients affected by sarcomas has been poorly investigated. The discovery of EpCAM mRNA expression in different sarcoma cell lines and in a small cohort of metastatic sarcoma patients supports further investigations on these rare tumors to deepen the importance of CTC isolation. Although it is not clear whether EpCAM expression might be originally present on tumor sarcoma cells or acquired during the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, the discovery of EpCAM on circulating sarcoma cells opens a new scenario in CTC detection in patients affected by a rare mesenchymal tumor. PMID:26167450

  7. Circulating PCSK9 and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Laugsand, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available The usefulness of circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9 as a risk marker of coronary heart disease in the general population remains unclear. In a nested case-control study in Norway, 1,488 incident myocardial infarctions were registered during 11.3 years of follow-up and compared with 3,819 controls. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of PCSK9, myocardial infarction risk was 47% higher in the highest quartile after adjustment for age and sex. After additional adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the association was strongly attenuated. Thus, circulating PCSK9 does not contribute useful information in the assessment of myocardial infarction risk in the general population beyond the information provided by lipid measurements.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    The exoplanet GJ1214b presents an interesting example of compositional degeneracy for low-mass planets. Its atmosphere may be composed of water, super-solar or solar metallicity material. We present atmospheric circulation models of GJ1214b for these three compositions, with explicit gray radiative transfer and an optional treatment of MHD bottom drag. All models develop strong, superrotating zonal winds ({approx}1-2 km s{sup -1}). The degree of eastward heat advection, which can be inferred from secondary eclipse and thermal phase curve measurements, varies greatly between the models. These differences are understood as resulting from variations in the radiative times at the thermal photosphere, caused by separate molecular weight and opacity effects. Our GJ1214b models illustrate how atmospheric circulation can be used as a probe of composition for similar tidally locked exoplanets in the mini-Neptune/waterworld class.

  9. Circulating microRNA Profile throughout the menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Rekker

    Full Text Available Normal physiological variables, such as age and gender, contribute to alterations in circulating microRNA (miRNA expression levels. The changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle can also be reflected in plasma miRNA expression levels. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the plasma miRNA profile of healthy women during the menstrual cycle and to assess which circulating miRNAs are derived from blood cells. The plasma miRNA expression profiles in nine healthy women were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel I assays from four time-points of the menstrual cycle. This platform was also used for studying miRNAs from pooled whole blood RNA samples at the same four time-points. Our results indicated that circulating miRNA expression levels in healthy women were not significantly altered by the processes occurring during the menstrual cycle. No significant differences in plasma miRNA expression levels were observed between the menstrual cycle time-points, but the number of detected miRNAs showed considerable variation among the studied individuals. miRNA analysis from whole blood samples revealed that majority of miRNAs in plasma are derived from blood cells. The most abundant miRNA in plasma and blood was hsa-miR-451a, but a number of miRNAs were only detected in one or the other sample type. In conclusion, our data suggest that the changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle do not affect the expression of circulating miRNAs at measurable levels.

  10. Active Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) during the warm Pliocene (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Fedorov, Alexey V.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Tiedemann, Ralf; Haug, Gerald H.


    An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world’s largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400–ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell. In Pliocene subarctic North Pacific sediments, we report orbitally paced maxima in calcium carbonate accumulation rate, with accompanying pigment and total organic carbon measurements supporting deep-ocean ventilation-driven preservation as their cause. Together with high accumulation rates of biogenic opal, these findings require vigorous bidirectional communication between surface waters and interior waters down to ~3 km in the western subarctic North Pacific, implying deep convection. Redox-sensitive trace metal data provide further evidence of higher Pliocene deep-ocean ventilation before the 2.73-Ma (million years) transition. This observational analysis is supported by climate modeling results, demonstrating that atmospheric moisture transport changes, in response to the reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradients of the Pliocene, were capable of eroding the halocline, leading to deep-water formation in the western subarctic Pacific and a strong PMOC. This second Northern Hemisphere overturning cell has important implications for heat transport, the ocean/atmosphere cycle of carbon, and potentially the equilibrium response of the Pacific to global warming. PMID:28924606

  11. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. 1990 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  12. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев


    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  13. A Novel Method to Predict Circulation Control Noise (United States)


    anemom-:Jtry. Hotwire anemometry operates on the principle relating the thermal loss of a heated resistance sensor to the convective effects of the...Circulation Control Noise 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0544 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Robert Reger, Adam Nickels...maneuverability. However, with CC comes additional noise sources. A method involving estimation of the velocity, surface pressure, and far-field

  14. Circulating dendritic cells in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Circulating DC count was lower in nephrotic patients in both proteinuria and remission groups [(48.89±13.52) and (64.64±7.69) X106/liter respectively] than in the control group (78.54±9.8) X106/liter with highly significant statistical difference (p < 0.001), and lower in proteinuria group than the remission group with ...

  15. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in obese children and adolescents. (United States)

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Paiva, Artur; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel


    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cell count and endothelial activation in a pediatric population with obesity. Observational and transversal study, including 120 children and adolescents with primary obesity of both sexes, aged 6-17 years, who were recruited at this Cardiovascular Risk Clinic. The control group was made up of 41 children and adolescents with normal body mass index. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, E-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine and circulating progenitor endothelial cell count. Insulin resistance was correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ρ=0.340; p=0.003), which was directly, but weakly correlated to E-selectin (ρ=0.252; p=0.046). High sensitivity C-reactive protein was not found to be correlated to markers of endothelial activation. Systolic blood pressure was directly correlated to body mass index (ρ=0.471; p<0.001) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (ρ=0.230; p=0.012), and inversely correlated to adiponectin (ρ=-0.331; p<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ρ=-0.319; p<0.001). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count was directly, but weakly correlated, to body mass index (r=0.211; p=0.016), leptin (ρ=0.245; p=0.006), triglyceride levels (r=0.241; p=0.031), and E-selectin (ρ=0.297; p=0.004). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count is elevated in obese children and adolescents with evidence of endothelial activation, suggesting that, during infancy, endothelial repairing mechanisms are present in the context of endothelial activation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens


    Cooke, Bradley M.; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Breedlove, S. Marc


    Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulatin...

  17. Synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns controlling avalanche activity in central Svalbard (United States)

    Hancock, Holt; Prokop, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Hendrikx, Jordy


    Central Svalbard's avalanche activity is primarily controlled by the local and synoptic scale meteorological conditions characterizing the region's winter storms. Previous work has described Svalbard's direct-action snow climate as High-Arctic maritime based on the unique meteorological conditions and resulting snowpack stratigraphy observed in the region. To gain a better understanding of the broad-scale spatial controls on regional avalanche activity in Svalbard, this work investigates synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns associated with observed avalanche cycles during the 2007/2008 to 2015/2016 winter seasons. We use avalanche observations systematically recorded as part of the Cryoslope Svalbard project from 2007-2010 in combination with additional observations from notable avalanche events from 2010-2016 to develop a regional avalanche cycle history. We then compare the timing of these avalanche cycles to an existing daily calendar of synoptic types and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets to characterize the synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns influencing this avalanche activity. Our results indicate regional avalanche cycles are driven by cyclonic activity in the seas surrounding Svalbard under synoptic circulation patterns associated with warm air advection and moisture transport from lower latitudes to Svalbard. The character and spatial distribution of observed avalanche activity can be differentiated by atmospheric circulation type: mid-winter slushflow and wet slab avalanche cycles, for example, are typically associated with meridional southerly flow over the North Atlantic bringing warm air and heavy precipitation to Svalbard. Such analyses can provide a foundation upon which to improve the understanding of central Svalbard's snow climate to facilitate regional avalanche forecasting efforts.

  18. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, E M; Milman, N


    Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs in pregnant...... women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum....

  19. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank


    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the oceanic heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger oceanic heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in zonal mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.

  20. The beam has circulated 30 minutes in the LHC!

    CERN Multimedia

    Last night around 2 a.m. the beam circulated for the first time for about 30 minutes in the clockwise ring of the LHC. This confirms that the accelerating cavities are working well. During the night, the LHC team also increased the intensity of the single bunch to around 1/20th of the nominal LHC bunch intensity. You can follow the beam commissioning daily reports on:

  1. Transplacental transfer of schistosomal circulating anodic antigens in cows


    Gabriël, Sarah; De Bont, J; Phiri, IK; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, AM; DEELDER, AM; Van Dam, GJ; Vercruysse, Jozef


    The present work investigated the transplacental passage of circulating anodic schistosome antigens (CAA) and the production of foetal antibodies in response to antigenic stimulation in Schistosoma mattheei infected cows. Three groups were available: six calves born to non-infected cows received colostrum from a pool from non-infected cows (group 1), six calves born to non-infected cows (group 2) and six calves born to infected cows (group 3) received colostrum from a pool from infected cows....

  2. Regional circulation around New Caledonia from two decades of observations (United States)

    Cravatte, Sophie; Kestenare, Elodie; Eldin, Gérard; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Lefèvre, Jérôme; Marin, Frédéric; Menkes, Christophe; Aucan, Jérôme


    The regional and near-coastal circulation around New Caledonia is investigated using a compilation of more than 20 years of observations. Velocity profiles acquired by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) during 109 research cruises and ship transits since 1991 are analyzed and compared with absolute geostrophic currents inferred from hydrographic profiles and Argo floats drifts. In addition, altimetric surface currents are used to explore the variability of the circulation at various timescales. By making the best use of the strength of these various observations, this study provides an unprecedented detailed picture of the mean circulation around New Caledonia and of its variability in the upper layers. New Caledonia, together with the Vanuatu Archipelago and the Fiji Islands, acts as a 750-km long obstacle to the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC) entering the Coral Sea. On average, the SEC bifurcates against New Caledonia's east coast into a northwestward boundary current, the East Caledonian Current, beginning east of the Loyalty Islands and extending to at least 1000 m depth, and into a weak southeastward current. The latter, the Vauban Current, flows into the Loyalty channel against the mean trade winds where it extends to at least 500 m depth. It is highly variable at intraseasonal timescales; it often reverses and its variability is mainly driven by incoming mesoscale eddies east and south of New Caledonia. West of the Island, the southeastward Alis Current of New Caledonia (ACNC) flows along the reef slope in the 0-150 m layer. It overlays a weaker northwestward current, creating an unusual coastal circulation reminiscent of the current system along the Australian west coast. The ACNC is a persistent feature of the observations, even if its transport is also strongly modulated by the presence of offshore eddies. This study highlights the fact, if needed, that a snapshot view of the currents provided by a single transect can be strongly

  3. A Model Study of the Salish Sea Estuarine Circulation (United States)


    A Model Study of the Salish Sea Estuarine Circulation* DAVID A. SUTHERLAND1 AND PARKER MACCREADY School of Oceanography, University of Washington... Salish Sea , which encompasses the estuarine systems of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia, is described for the year...freshwater exported by not only Puget Sound but the Strait of Georgia (SoG) to the north as well. The region as a whole is known as the Salish Sea

  4. Campaign for A-rated circulator pumps - a proven strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, Christian; Wilke, Goeran (The Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark)); Dam Wied, Martin (Wormslev - NRGi Raadgivning A/S (Denmark))


    1.2 million households in Denmark have a central heating circulator pump. An estimated 800,000 pumps installed are old and inefficient. Potential savings per year of 400 GWh and 200,000 tons of CO{sub 2} can be achieved by replacing these obsolete pumps. However, many consumers and installers have neither an opinion about, nor play an active role in choosing a circulator pump. This paper documents how it is possible to promote the wider use of A-rated circulator pumps via an offensive campaign strategy to get both consumers and installers to participate actively in the choice of pump, thereby increasing the market share of A-rated pumps sold. The campaign is based on a broadly-based push-pull strategy which aims to influence both consumers and suppliers simultaneously. The strategy consists of the following elements: Involvement of the supply side via voluntary agreements with producers, wholesalers, installers, and their trade organisations; Partnerships with installers in order to secure fixed price installations for A-rated pumps; Influencing consumers through magazine advertisements and TV commercials. The market share for A-rated circulator pumps in Denmark grew from 15-60% in the period January 2006 to the end of October 2008. In a new phase, the strategy is switching the focus to OEM and boiler producers, and producers of heat exchangers for district and underfloor heating systems. The aim of the current phase was for A pumps to have accounted for 60% of the Danish market by the end of 2008

  5. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R


    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  6. Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Soft Tissue Sarcoma


    Chiara Nicolazzo; Angela Gradilone


    Circulating tumor cells can be detected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Their prognostic value has been established in the last 10 years for metastatic colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. On the contrary their presence in patients affected by sarcomas has been poorly investigated. The discovery of EpCAM mRNA expression in different sarcoma cell lines and in a small cohort of metastatic sarcoma patients supports further investigations on these rare tumors to deepen the impor...

  7. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others


    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  8. Circulant conference matrices for new complex Hadamard matrices


    Dita, Petre


    The circulant real and complex matrices are used to find new real and complex conference matrices. With them we construct Sylvester inverse orthogonal matrices by doubling the size of inverse complex conference matrices. When the free parameters take values on the unit circle the inverse orthogonal matrices transform into complex Hadamard matrices. The method is used for $n=6$ conference matrices and in this way we find new parametrisations of Hadamard matrices for dimension $ n=12$.

  9. Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.


    Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.

  10. Hyperintense Acute Reperfusion Marker on FLAIR in Posterior Circulation Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of blood brain barrier injury in posterior circulation infarction as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR.From a MRI report database we identified patients with posterior circulation infarction who underwent MRI, including perfusion-weighted images (PWI, within 12 hours after onset and follow-up MRI within 24 hours and analyzed diffusion-weighted images (DWI, PWI, FLAIR, and MR angiography (MRA. On FLAIR images, the presence of HARM was noted by using pre-specified criteria (focal enhancement in the subarachnoid space and/or the ventricles.Overall 16 patients (median age of patients 68.5 (IQR 55.5-82.75 years with posterior circulation infarction were included. Of these, 13 (81.3% demonstrated PCA occlusion, and 3 (18.7% patients BA occlusion on MRA. Initial DWI demonstrated ischemic lesions in the thalamus (68.8%, splenium (18.8%, hippocampus (75%, occipital lobe (81.3%, mesencephalon (18.8%, pons (18.8%, and cerebellum (50%. On follow-up MRA recanalization was noted in 10 (62.5% patients. On follow-up FLAIR images, HARM was observed in 8 (50% patients. In all of these, HARM was detected remote from the acute ischemic lesion. HARM was more frequently observed in patients with vessel recanalization (p = 0.04, minor infarction growth (p = 0.01, and smaller ischemic lesions on follow-up DWI (p = 0.05.HARM is a frequent finding in posterior circulation infarction and associated with vessel recanalization, minor infarction growth as well as smaller infarction volumes in the course. Neuroradiologists should be cognizant of the fact that HARM may be present on short interval follow-up FLAIR images in patients with acute ischemic infarction who initially underwent MRI and received intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agents.

  11. Variability of the Bering Sea Circulation in the Period 1992-2010 (United States)


    ocean circulation . J Phys Oceanogr 35:512-531 Hu H, Wang J (2010) Modeling effects of tidal and wave mixing on circulation and thermohaline ...J Oceanogr (2012) 68:485^96 DOI 10.1O07/S10872-012-0113-O REVIEW Variability of the Bering Sea circulation in the period 1992-2010 Gleb Panteleev...1992-2010 are combined with monthly climatol- ogies of temperature and salinity to estimate circulation in the southern Bering Sea. The estimated

  12. 13 CFR 125.3 - Subcontracting assistance. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subcontracting assistance. 125.3... § 125.3 Subcontracting assistance. (a) General. The purpose of the subcontracting assistance program is to provide the maximum practicable subcontracting opportunities for small business concerns...

  13. 34 CFR 300.105 - Assistive technology. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology. 300.105 Section 300.105 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.105 Assistive technology. (a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those terms...

  14. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will be...

  15. Improving Instructional Assistant Effectiveness in Inclusive Settings (United States)

    Weiner, Kimberly Beth


    As of 2007, 718,119 instructional assistants were employed in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009b). Of those instructional assistants, 373,466 were classified as full-time special education instructional assistants (Data Accountability Center, 2009a). As the employment of instructional assistants continues to grow,…

  16. AssistMe robot, an assistance robotic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Alexan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a full size assistance robot. Its main purpose it to assist a person and eventually avoid a life threatening situation. Its implementation revolves around a chipKIT Arduino board that interconnects a robotic base controller with a 7 inch TABLET PC and various sensors. Due to the Android and Arduino combination, the robot can interact with the person and provide an easy development platform for future improvement and feature adding. The TABLET PC is Webcam, WIFI and Bluetooth enabled, offering a versatile platform that is able to process data and in the same time provide the user a friendly interface.

  17. Ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meter for extracorporeal circulation (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.


    In cardiac surgeries it is frequently necessary to carry out interventions in internal heart structures, and where the blood circulation and oxygenation are made by artificial ways, out of the patient's body, in a procedure known as extracorporeal circulation (EC). During this procedure, one of the most important parameters, and that demands constant monitoring, is the blood flow. In this work, an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler blood flowmeter, to be used in an extracorporeal circulation system, was developed. It was used a 2 MHz ultrasonic transducer, measuring flows from 0 to 5 liters/min, coupled externally to the EC arterial line destined to adults perfusion (diameter of 9.53 mm). The experimental results using the developed flowmeter indicated a maximum deviation of 3.5% of full scale, while the blood flow estimator based in the rotation speed of the peristaltic pump presented deviations greater than 20% of full scale. This ultrasonic flowmeter supplies the results in a continuous and trustworthy way, and it does not present the limitations found in those flowmeters based in other transduction methods. Moreover, due to the fact of not being in contact with the blood, it is not disposable and it does not need sterilization, reducing operational costs and facilitating its use.

  18. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Slomp


    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  19. Simulating effects of highway embankments on estuarine circulation (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan K.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.


    A two-dimensional depth-averaged, finite-difference, numerical model was used to simulate tidal circulation and mass transport in the Port Royal Sound. South Carolina, estuarine system. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the utility of the Surface-Water. Integrated. Flow and Transport model (SWIFT2D) for evaluating changes in circulation patterns and mass transport caused by highway-crossing embankments. A model of subregion of Port Royal Sound including the highway crossings and having a grid size of 61 m (200ft) was derived from a 183-m (600-ft) model of the entire Port Royal Sound estuarine system. The 183-m model was used to compute boundary-value data for the 61-m submodel, which was then used to simulate flow conditions with and without the highway embankments in place. The numerical simulations show that, with the highway embankment in place, mass transport between the Broad River and Battery Creek is reduced and mass transport between the Beaufort River and Battery Creek is increased. The net result is that mass transport into and out of upper Battery Creek is reduced. The presence of the embankments also alters circulation patterns within Battery Creek.

  20. Circulating leptin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Takabatake, N; Nakamura, H; Abe, S; Hino, T; Saito, H; Yuki, H; Kato, S; Tomoike, H


    Unexplained weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since leptin, an obesity gene product, is known to play important roles in the control of body weight and energy expenditure, we investigated serum leptin levels, along with circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R55 and -R75) levels, in 31 patients with COPD and 15 age-matched healthy controls. The body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%fat) were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (BMI = 18.1 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 versus 22.8 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 [mean +/- SD]; p leptin levels were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (1.14 +/- 1.17 ng/ml versus 2.47 +/- 2.01 ng/ml; p COPD patients than in the healthy controls. Importantly, circulating leptin levels (log transformed) did correlate well with BMI and %fat, but not with TNF-alpha or with sTNF-R levels in the COPD patients. These data suggest that circulating leptin is independent of the TNF-alpha system and is regulated physiologically even in the presence of cachexia in patients with COPD.