WorldWideScience

Sample records for assignment systems requirements

  1. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  2. 46 CFR 67.237 - Requirements for assignments of mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for assignments of mortgages. 67.237... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.237 Requirements for assignments of mortgages. An assignment of...

  3. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  4. Do It Right! Requiring Multiple Submissions of Math and NMR Analysis Assignments in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The first-semester introductory organic chemistry laboratory has been adapted to include mini postlab assignments that students must complete correctly, through as many attempts as prove to be necessary. The use of multiple drafts of writing assignments is a standard approach to improving writing, so the system was designed to require drafts for…

  5. Characteristic ratio assignment in fractional order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Haeri, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the characteristic ratios and generalized time constant are defined for all-pole commensurate fractional order systems. The sufficient condition for stability of these systems in terms of their characteristic ratios is obtained. Also an analytical approach for characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) to have a non-overshooting fast closed loop step response is introduced. The proposed CRA method is then employed to design a fractional order controller. Computer simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the CRA based designed fractional order controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System - Tactical / Operational Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Reporting data store for the Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (ACT). ACT automates the assignment and tracking of correspondence processing within the...

  7. GPON system with user controlled port-ID assignment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    2008-11-01

    Passive Optical Network (PON) system with characters of low-cost and high-efficiency has become a promising solution for access network in relieving the bandwidth bottleneck problem. PON system can provide high-speed optical subscriber networks with broad bandwidth and long distance transmission. In current telecommunication carriers' PON system, different service has its given priority which is configured by carriers based on common requirements. However, different users have their own requirement and inflexibility of the given default service priority causes users' inconvenience and frustration. In this paper, we propose a novel method of user controlled Port-IDentifier (Port-ID) assignment in a Gigabit-capable PON (GPON) system. This method provides users a more individualized priority determination mechanism for end users through assigning a multi-level Port-ID to different service. Then users can manage their own bandwidth based on their requirements for different service and carriers can provide a flexible service management mechanism.

  8. Frequency assignment with minimum intermodulation noise for satellite SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y.-H.; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast, and effective procedure for quasi-optimum frequency assignment of equal carrier systems is given. The quality of assignments is marginally the same as published results. The computation time has been reduced greatly; a conservative estimate shows that the reduction factor can be greater than N/2.

  9. Intermodulation interference-minimum frequency assignment for satellite SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Hirata, Y.

    1984-04-01

    This paper addresses frequency assignment for single-level and multilevel SCPC systems. In order to obtain the optimum channel allocation, where the influence of intermodulation noise on carriers is minimized, a practical and effective method is proposed. The quasi-optimum solutions obtained with the proposed method are presented for single-level SCPC systems, showing their advantage in intermodulation noise reduction. Concerning frequency assignment for multilevel SCPC systems, two strategies to realize the quasi-optimum channel allocation are compared with regard to the improvement in carrier-to-intermodulation noise power ratio. The performance of the obtained channel allocation indicates the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  10. Effects of Various Methods of Assigning and Evaluating Required Reading in One General Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John L., III; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wiley, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to creating out-of-class reading assignments for university general education courses might affect the amount of time students actually spend reading. Five instructors of a required religion/philosophy class used different approaches to assign out-of-class reading. Subsequently, their students (n = 504) were surveyed about…

  11. Towards Next Generation Rubrics: An Automated Assignment Feedback System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilupulee Nathawitharana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the use of blended learning environments and digital technologies become integrated into the higher education sector, rich technologies such as analytics have shown promise in facilitating teaching and learning. One popular application of analytics is Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE systems. Such systems can be used in a formative way; for example, by providing students with feedback on digitally submitted assignments. This paper presents work on the development of an AWE software tool for an Australian university using advanced text analytics techniques. The tool was designed to provide students with timely feedback on their initial assignment drafts, for revision and further improvement. Moreover, it could also assist academics in better understanding students’ assignment performance so as to inform future teaching activities. The paper provides details on the methodology used for development of the software, and presents the results obtained from the analysis of text-based assignments submitted in two subjects. The results are discussed, highlighting how the tool can provide practical value, followed by insights into existing challenges and possible future directions.

  12. Linear Optimization of Frequency Spectrum Assignments Across System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    selection tools, frequency allocation, transmission optimization , electromagnetic maneuver warfare, electronic protection, assignment model 15. NUMBER...bound of start time, upper bound of end time, and duration of transmission . The system capabilities are presented to the optimization model using...made that overlap in frequency, as shown in line 2 of Table 1. Do Not Transmit frequencies will be unavailable for any transmissions and these will

  13. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  14. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  15. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  16. Rule-based support system for multiple UMLS semantic type assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Morrey, C Paul; Xu, Julia

    2013-02-01

    When new concepts are inserted into the UMLS, they are assigned one or several semantic types from the UMLS Semantic Network by the UMLS editors. However, not every combination of semantic types is permissible. It was observed that many concepts with rare combinations of semantic types have erroneous semantic type assignments or prohibited combinations of semantic types. The correction of such errors is resource-intensive. We design a computational system to inform UMLS editors as to whether a specific combination of two, three, four, or five semantic types is permissible or prohibited or questionable. We identify a set of inclusion and exclusion instructions in the UMLS Semantic Network documentation and derive corresponding rule-categories as well as rule-categories from the UMLS concept content. We then design an algorithm adviseEditor based on these rule-categories. The algorithm specifies rules for an editor how to proceed when considering a tuple (pair, triple, quadruple, quintuple) of semantic types to be assigned to a concept. Eight rule-categories were identified. A Web-based system was developed to implement the adviseEditor algorithm, which returns for an input combination of semantic types whether it is permitted, prohibited or (in a few cases) requires more research. The numbers of semantic type pairs assigned to each rule-category are reported. Interesting examples for each rule-category are illustrated. Cases of semantic type assignments that contradict rules are listed, including recently introduced ones. The adviseEditor system implements explicit and implicit knowledge available in the UMLS in a system that informs UMLS editors about the permissibility of a desired combination of semantic types. Using adviseEditor might help accelerate the work of the UMLS editors and prevent erroneous semantic type assignments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Demand assignment system design for a mobile satellite (MSAT) SCPC mobile radio service

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, G. R.; Mazur, B. A.; Kent, J. D. B.

    The MSAT system is planned to provide mobile communication services to users needing wide area Canadian coverage and it is essential that efficient use be made of the limited spectrum by allocating SCPC channels on a demand assigned multiple access basis. This paper deals primarily with the design and specification of the mobile radio service DAMA system, with particular emphasis placed on the signalling schemes used to provide the user/controller interface. The requirements for low signalling overhead and delays for the characteristic short call durations led to the use of novel hybrid techniques to implement this system.

  18. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  19. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... encompass preoperational testing of electrical power systems used to meet current Station Blackout...

  20. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    frequency signature? 14. Have any electro -optical or optical components on the system been hardened to reduce optical cross- sectional measurements...measures: • Electrocardiography ( EKG ) • Infrared (IR) facial flush • Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) • Eye tracking 45 HSI REQUIREMENTS GUIDE...E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects EA Evolutionary Acquisition EA Electronic Attack ECU Environmental Conditioning Unit EKG Electrocardiogram

  1. Fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems considering the whole set of packed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Pedro Manuel F. C.; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems with nonuniform traffic distribution. The objective of the channel assignment is to minimise the average blocking probability. Methods for finding a good allocation can be based on first building a numb...

  2. A Web Support System for Submission and Handling of Programming Assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Individual submission of programming assignments should be considered in all introductory programming courses. We describe a custom web support system for submission and management of programming assignments in an introductory C programming course. Experience from the first time use of the system...... is reported. In addition, we compare the pattern of use with the results of the final exam in order to reveal a possible impact of the programming assignments. We summarize the lessons learned in preparation for improving the system prior to the next round of use in the fall of 2011....

  3. Assigning metabolic equivalent values to the 2002 census occupational classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Washington, Tracy L; Troiano, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The Current Population Survey (CPS) and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) use the 2002 census occupation system to classify workers into 509 separate occupations arranged into 22 major occupational categories. We describe the methods and rationale for assigning detailed Metabolic Equivalent (MET) estimates to occupations and present population estimates (comparing outputs generated by analysis of previously published summary MET estimates to the detailed MET estimates) of intensities of occupational activity using the 2003 ATUS data comprised of 20,720 respondents, 5323 (2917 males and 2406 females) of whom reported working 6+ hours at their primary occupation on their assigned reporting day. Analysis using the summary MET estimates resulted in 4% more workers in sedentary occupations, 6% more in light, 7% less in moderate, and 3% less in vigorous compared with using the detailed MET estimates. The detailed estimates are more sensitive to identifying individuals who do any occupational activity that is moderate or vigorous in intensity resulting in fewer workers in sedentary and light intensity occupations. Since CPS/ATUS regularly captures occupation data it will be possible to track prevalence of the different intensity levels of occupations. Updates will be required with inevitable adjustments to future occupational classification systems.

  4. Arbitrary eigenvalue assignments for linear time-varying multivariable control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of eigenvalue assignments for a class of linear time-varying multivariable systems is considered. Using matrix operators and canonical transformations, it is shown that a time-varying system that is 'lexicography-fixedly controllable' can be made via state feedback to be equivalent to a time-invariant system whose eigenvalues are arbitrarily assignable. A simple algorithm for the design of the state feedback is provided.

  5. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  6. Optimal carrier frequency assignments for a two-carrier-level SCPS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, X. T.; Forsey, R. J.

    A two-carrier-level SCPC system may occur in a star network where one master station (hub) with large G/T communicates with many remote stations with small G/T via one satellite transponder. By properly assigning the frequencies of carriers passing through the transponder, one can reduce and balance the relative intermodulation power levels falling into the SCPC channels. Through computer simulation, optimal carrier frequency assignments are found for four different criteria of optimality. The optimal assignments vary with respect to the difference in the two levels of carrier output power. All four criteria provide the conclusion that when the difference is around 3 dB, the assignment with small carriers stacked in the middle is best; and, when the difference is large (greater than 6 dB) the assignment with large carriers and small carriers alternated is best.

  7. An automated framework for NMR resonance assignment through simultaneous slice picking and spin system forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed; Guo, Xianrong; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2014-06-01

    Despite significant advances in automated nuclear magnetic resonance-based protein structure determination, the high numbers of false positives and false negatives among the peaks selected by fully automated methods remain a problem. These false positives and negatives impair the performance of resonance assignment methods. One of the main reasons for this problem is that the computational research community often considers peak picking and resonance assignment to be two separate problems, whereas spectroscopists use expert knowledge to pick peaks and assign their resonances at the same time. We propose a novel framework that simultaneously conducts slice picking and spin system forming, an essential step in resonance assignment. Our framework then employs a genetic algorithm, directed by both connectivity information and amino acid typing information from the spin systems, to assign the spin systems to residues. The inputs to our framework can be as few as two commonly used spectra, i.e., CBCA(CO)NH and HNCACB. Different from the existing peak picking and resonance assignment methods that treat peaks as the units, our method is based on 'slices', which are one-dimensional vectors in three-dimensional spectra that correspond to certain ([Formula: see text]) values. Experimental results on both benchmark simulated data sets and four real protein data sets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while using a less number of spectra than those methods. Our method is freely available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx.

  8. On the Solution of the Eigenvalue Assignment Problem for Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. E. Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The output feedback eigenvalue assignment problem for discrete-time systems is considered. The problem is formulated first as an unconstrained minimization problem, where a three-term nonlinear conjugate gradient method is proposed to find a local solution. In addition, a cut to the objective function is included, yielding an inequality constrained minimization problem, where a logarithmic barrier method is proposed for finding the local solution. The conjugate gradient method is further extended to tackle the eigenvalue assignment problem for the two cases of decentralized control systems and control systems with time delay. The performance of the methods is illustrated through various test examples.

  9. USER EQUILIBRIUM AND SYSTEM OPTIMUM TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENTS; ISTANBUL ROAD NETWORK EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihan GÜNAY

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of road networks and traffic flow equilibrium conditions are briefly reviewed and discussed. In order to see whether some benefits for the society (e.g. whole network by employing a System Optimum assignment approach can be achieved or not, an assessment study was carried out on the Ystanbul road network using the actual data gathered. As a result of the system optimising simulation, queuing times on the Bosphorus Bridge dropped by 12% and speed of an average car increased by 16%, compared to the results produced by the User Equilibrium assignment. Besides, the total system journey time was also reduced by about 4%.

  10. Meeting water requirements system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Roy

    2007-05-01

    There is a plethora of legislation and guidelines relating to the control and supply of water in healthcare establishments. Here, Roy Minett, marketing manager of Rada in the UK, provides some advice on making sense of what is expected and required.

  11. Teaching Case: A Systems Analysis Role-Play Exercise and Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Michel; Cole, Carey; Atkins, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a role-play exercise and assignment that provides an active learning experience related to the system investigation phase of an SDLC. Whether using waterfall or agile approaches, the first SDLC step usually involves system investigation activities, including problem identification, feasibility study, cost-benefit analysis, and…

  12. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R., E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Assadi, Amir [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mathematics Department (United States); Markley, John L. [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data.

  13. An automated framework for NMR resonance assignment through simultaneous slice picking and spin system forming

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2014-04-19

    Despite significant advances in automated nuclear magnetic resonance-based protein structure determination, the high numbers of false positives and false negatives among the peaks selected by fully automated methods remain a problem. These false positives and negatives impair the performance of resonance assignment methods. One of the main reasons for this problem is that the computational research community often considers peak picking and resonance assignment to be two separate problems, whereas spectroscopists use expert knowledge to pick peaks and assign their resonances at the same time. We propose a novel framework that simultaneously conducts slice picking and spin system forming, an essential step in resonance assignment. Our framework then employs a genetic algorithm, directed by both connectivity information and amino acid typing information from the spin systems, to assign the spin systems to residues. The inputs to our framework can be as few as two commonly used spectra, i.e., CBCA(CO)NH and HNCACB. Different from the existing peak picking and resonance assignment methods that treat peaks as the units, our method is based on \\'slices\\', which are one-dimensional vectors in three-dimensional spectra that correspond to certain (N, H) values. Experimental results on both benchmark simulated data sets and four real protein data sets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while using a less number of spectra than those methods. Our method is freely available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  14. Design of an Officer Assignment and Career Planning Decision Support System for Electronic Security Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    vii Abstract .............................. viii I. Introduction ......................... 1 Air Force Assignment Guidelines ............. 1 Air Force...PLANNING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC SEORITY COMMAND I. Introduction Air Force Assionment Guidelines The primary objective of the officer...to multiple-criteria decision making (MC)M): 1) Multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA), which "is the descriptive version of MCDM " and 2) rulti

  15. An Evolutionary Video Assignment Optimization Technique for VOD System in Heterogeneous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Man Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the video assignment problem of a hierarchical Video-on-Demand (VOD system in heterogeneous environments where different quality levels of videos can be encoded using either replication or layering. In such systems, videos are delivered to clients either through a proxy server or video broadcast/unicast channels. The objective of our work is to determine the appropriate coding strategy as well as the suitable delivery mechanism for a specific quality level of a video such that the overall system blocking probability is minimized. In order to find a near-optimal solution for such a complex video assignment problem, an evolutionary approach based on genetic algorithm (GA is proposed. From the results, it is shown that the system performance can be significantly enhanced by efficiently coupling the various techniques.

  16. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-08-04

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  17. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  18. Embedded Library Guides in Learning Management Systems Help Students Get Started on Research Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether library guides embedded in learning management systems (LMS get used by students, and to identify best practices for the creation and promotion of these guides by librarians. Design – Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (survey, interviews, and statistical analysis. Setting – A large public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 100 undergraduate students and 14 librarians. Methods – The researchers surveyed undergraduate students who were participating in a Project Information Literacy study about their use of library guides in the learning management system (LMS for a given quarter. At that university, all course pages in the LMS are automatically assigned a library guide. In addition, web usage data about the course-embedded guides was analyzed and high use guides were identified, namely guides that received an average of at least two visits per student enrolled in a course. The researchers also conducted a qualitative analysis of the layout of the high use guides, including the number of widgets (or boxes and links. Finally, librarians who created high use library guides were interviewed. These mixed methods were designed to address four research questions: 1 Were students finding the guides in the LMS, and did they find the guides useful? 2 Did high use guides differ in design and composition? 3 Were the guides designed for a specific course, or for an entire department or college? and, 4 How did the librarians promote use? Main Results – Only 33% of the students said they noticed the library guide in the LMS course page, and 21% reported using the guide. Among those who used the guide, the majority were freshmen (possibly because embedding of library guides in the LMS had just started at the university. Library guides with high use in relation to class enrollment did not significantly differ from low use guides in terms of numbers of

  19. Architecture of a Conference Management System Providing Advanced Paper Assignment Features

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmukov, Yordan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture and assignment management model of a conference management system that performs a precise and accurate automatic assignment of reviewers to papers. The system relies on taxonomy of keywords to describe papers and reviewers' competences. The implied hierarchical structure of the taxonomy provides important additional information - the semantic relationships between the separate keywords. It allows similarity measures to take into account not only the number of exactly matching keywords between a paper and a reviewer, but in case of non-matching ones to calculate how semantically close they are. Reviewers are allowed to bid on the papers they would like to (or not like to) review and to explicitly state conflicts of interest (CoI) with papers. An automatic CoI detection is checking for additional conflicts based on institutional affiliation, co-authorship (within the local database) and previous co-authorship in the past (within the major bibliographic indexes and digital lib...

  20. Generalized characteristic ratios assignment for commensurate fractional order systems with one zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new method for determination of the desired characteristic equation and zero location of commensurate fractional order systems is presented. The concept of the characteristic ratio is extended for zero-including commensurate fractional order systems. The generalized version of characteristic ratios is defined such that the time-scaling property of characteristic ratios is also preserved. The monotonicity of the magnitude frequency response is employed to assign the generalized characteristic ratios for commensurate fractional order transfer functions with one zero. A simple pattern for characteristic ratios is proposed to reach a non-overshooting step response. Then, the proposed pattern is revisited to reach a low overshoot (say for example 2%) step response. Finally, zero-including controllers such as fractional order PI or lag (lead) controllers are designed using generalized characteristic ratios assignment method. Numerical simulations are provided to show the efficiency of the so designed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  2. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  3. Storage assignment optimization in a multi-tier shuttle warehousing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Mou, Shandong; Wu, Yaohua

    2016-03-01

    The current mathematical models for the storage assignment problem are generally established based on the traveling salesman problem(TSP), which has been widely applied in the conventional automated storage and retrieval system(AS/RS). However, the previous mathematical models in conventional AS/RS do not match multi-tier shuttle warehousing systems(MSWS) because the characteristics of parallel retrieval in multiple tiers and progressive vertical movement destroy the foundation of TSP. In this study, a two-stage open queuing network model in which shuttles and a lift are regarded as servers at different stages is proposed to analyze system performance in the terms of shuttle waiting period (SWP) and lift idle period (LIP) during transaction cycle time. A mean arrival time difference matrix for pairwise stock keeping units(SKUs) is presented to determine the mean waiting time and queue length to optimize the storage assignment problem on the basis of SKU correlation. The decomposition method is applied to analyze the interactions among outbound task time, SWP, and LIP. The ant colony clustering algorithm is designed to determine storage partitions using clustering items. In addition, goods are assigned for storage according to the rearranging permutation and the combination of storage partitions in a 2D plane. This combination is derived based on the analysis results of the queuing network model and on three basic principles. The storage assignment method and its entire optimization algorithm method as applied in a MSWS are verified through a practical engineering project conducted in the tobacco industry. The applying results show that the total SWP and LIP can be reduced effectively to improve the utilization rates of all devices and to increase the throughput of the distribution center.

  4. A Web-based Peer Assessment System for Assigning Student Scores in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Sukstrienwong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Working in groups has become increasingly important in order to develop students' skills. However, it can be more successful when peers cooperate and are involved in the assigned tasks. However, several educators firmly show disadvantages when all peers received the same reward, regardless of individual contribution. Some teachers also considering peer assessment to be time and effort consuming because preparation and monitoring are needed. In order to overcome these problems, we have developed a web-based peer assessment referred to as the ‘Scoring by Peer Assessment System’ (SPAS that allows teachers to set up the process of peer assessment, in order to assign scores that reflect the contribution of each student. Moreover, a web-based application allows students to evaluate their peers regarding their individual contribution where cooperative learning and peer assessment are used. The paper describes the system design and the implementation of our peer assessment application.

  5. Spreading Code Assignment Strategies for MIMO-CDMA Systems Operating in Frequency-Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude D'Amours

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA and multiple input multiple output- (MIMO- CDMA systems suffer from multiple access interference (MAI which limits the spectral efficiency of these systems. By making these systems more power efficient, we can increase the overall spectral efficiency. This can be achieved through the use of improved modulation and coding techniques. Conventional MIMO-CDMA systems use fixed spreading code assignments. By strategically selecting the spreading codes as a function of the data to be transmitted, we can achieve coding gain and introduce additional degrees of freedom in the decision variables at the output of the matched filters. In this paper, we examine the bit error rate performance of parity bit-selected spreading and permutation spreading under different wireless channel conditions. A suboptimal detection technique based on maximum likelihood detection is proposed for these systems operating in frequency selective channels. Simulation results demonstrate that these code assignment techniques provide an improvement in performance in terms of bit error rate (BER while providing increased spectral efficiency compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the proposed strategies are more robust to channel estimation errors as well as spatial correlation.

  6. Spreading Code Assignment Strategies for MIMO-CDMA Systems Operating in Frequency-Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahmane AdelOmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA and multiple input multiple output- (MIMO- CDMA systems suffer from multiple access interference (MAI which limits the spectral efficiency of these systems. By making these systems more power efficient, we can increase the overall spectral efficiency. This can be achieved through the use of improved modulation and coding techniques. Conventional MIMO-CDMA systems use fixed spreading code assignments. By strategically selecting the spreading codes as a function of the data to be transmitted, we can achieve coding gain and introduce additional degrees of freedom in the decision variables at the output of the matched filters. In this paper, we examine the bit error rate performance of parity bit-selected spreading and permutation spreading under different wireless channel conditions. A suboptimal detection technique based on maximum likelihood detection is proposed for these systems operating in frequency selective channels. Simulation results demonstrate that these code assignment techniques provide an improvement in performance in terms of bit error rate (BER while providing increased spectral efficiency compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the proposed strategies are more robust to channel estimation errors as well as spatial correlation.

  7. An online emotional regulation system to deliver homework assignments for treating adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Soledad; Molés, Mar; Pérez-Ara, M Angeles; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Adjustment Disorders (AD) is a very common mental health problem in primary care. Only general treatment guidelines are available for its treatment. Our research team has developed a cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) supported by Virtual reality (EMMA system) that has shown its utility in the treatment of AD. EMMA is a VR adaptive display that adapts its presentation to the patient' therapeutic needs. So far, researchers have been centered on how to use the Information and Communication Technologies to deliver treatment within the therapeutic context. TEO is a completely open Online Emotional Therapy web-based system that allows creating personalized therapeutic material. The patient can access this material over the Internet. Preliminary data about the acceptability of TEO system in a case study has already been obtained. The aim of the present work is to describe the session protocol regarding the homework assignments component in the treatment of AD designed in TEO system. Also, data about preferences and efficacy of TEO system versus traditional homework assignments implementation in a single case study with AD are presented. A web-based system of this kind increases the possibilities for therapy.

  8. Stabilization of nonlinear system using uniform eigenvalue assignment in linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Sahat P.; Pangaribuan, Timbang

    2017-09-01

    Some plant in control system has nonlinear dynamic, so it is not easy to do in analysis to see its behavior using eigenstructure assignment. From many observations which have been made, some literature give methods to design nonlinear control system. The modern control theory uses state-space method to explain the behaviour on stability of a plant. To improve the stability of the closed-loop system, designer commonly use the state feedback control law. For the case inverted pendulum plant with the nonlinear dynamics, its need to perform the nonlinear control law with the concepts of modern control theory to satisfy the closed-loop system characteristic, and all the behaviour of the closed-loop system only determined from the given linear pole specifications.

  9. FPGA-Based Laboratory Assignments for NoC-Based Manycore Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofis, C.; Theocharides, T.; Michael, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Manycore systems have emerged as being one of the dominant architectural trends in next-generation computer systems. These highly parallel systems are expected to be interconnected via packet-based networks-on-chip (NoC). The complexity of such systems poses novel and exciting challenges in academia, as teaching their design requires the students…

  10. Decentralized PID controller for TITO systems using characteristic ratio assignment with an experimental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, V D; Patre, B M

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a decentralized PID controller design method for two input two output (TITO) systems with time delay using characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) method. The ability of CRA method to design controller for desired transient response has been explored for TITO systems. The design methodology uses an ideal decoupler to reduce the interaction. Each decoupled subsystem is reduced to first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to design independent diagonal controllers. Based on specified overshoot and settling time, the controller parameters are computed using CRA method. To verify performance of the proposed controller, two benchmark simulation examples are presented. To demonstrate applicability of the proposed controller, experimentation is performed on real life interacting coupled tank level system. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  12. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal O. Olusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  14. The porcine M blood group system: evidence to suggest assignment of its M1 factor to a new system (P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojný, J; Schröffel, J; Geldermann, H; Cepica, S

    1994-06-01

    A new allele Maejm and a more precise genetic analysis of the Ml factor previously assigned to the M system are described after screening three generation families (Wild Boar x Pietrain, Meishan x Pietrain) for the M blood group system using a complete set of 13 M reagents. From informative families with proven parental M genotypes it was shown that the Ml antigen is controlled by an allele from another system. We propose to designate this new system P and to change the factor designation from Ml to Pa.

  15. Bi-Criteria System Optimum Traffic Assignment in Networks With Continuous Value of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For an elastic demand transportation network with continuously distributed value of time, the system disutility can be measured either in time units or in cost units. The user equilibrium model and the system optimization model are each formulated in two different criteria. The conditions required for making the system optimum link flow pattern equivalent to the user equilibrium link flow pattern are derived. Furthermore, a bi-objective model has been developed which minimizes simultaneously the system travel time and the system travel cost. The existence of a pricing scheme with anonymous link tolls which can decentralize a Pareto system optimum into the user equilibrium has been investigated.

  16. Developing and testing a computerized decision support system for nurse-to-patient assignment: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Braaksma, Aleida; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-01

    Nurse-to-patient assignment is a frequently recurring, time-consuming, and complex process owing to the many considerations involved. Creating well-balanced, high-quality assignments is crucial to ensuring patient safety, quality of care, and job satisfaction for nurses. A computerized decision support system can assist (charge) nurses in the nurse-to-patient assignment process. In this two-phase multimethod study, a computerized decision support system was developed and evaluated. Three nursing wards in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital participated. In the first phase of this study, considerations relevant to the assignment process--and their relative importance--were investigated in a literature review, focus group sessions with nurses, and a survey among nurses. Using information from the first phase, the computerized decision support system was developed based on an integer linear program. In the second phase, a before-and-after study was conducted to test and evaluate the computerized decision support system both quantitatively (duration of the assignment process) and qualitatively (survey on workload). Thirty-six measurements were performed to test the computerized decision support system. After implementation, a 30% time reduction was achieved in the nurse-to-patient assignments, and nurses (N = 138) experienced a lower workload. Therefore, the implementation of computerized decision support system would increase both the quality and safety of care as well as the nurses' job satisfaction and should be investigated rigorously in the coming years.

  17. Due-date assignment for multi-server multi-stage assembly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we attempt to present a constant due-date assignment policy in a multi-server multi-stage assembly system. This system is modelled as a queuing network, where new product orders are entered into the system according to a Poisson process. It is assumed that only one type of product is produced by the production system and multi-servers can be settled in each service station. Each operation of every work is operated at a devoted service station with only one of the servers located at a node of the network based on first come, first served (FCFS) discipline, while the processing times are independent random variables with exponential distributions. It is also assumed that the transport times between each pair of service stations are independent random variables with generalised Erlang distributions. Each product's end result has a penalty cost that is some linear function of its due date and its actual lead time. The due date is calculated by adding a constant to the time that the order enters into the system. Indeed, this constant value is decided at the beginning of the time horizon and is the constant lead time that a product might expect between the time of placing the order and the time of delivery. For computing the due date, we first convert the queuing network into a stochastic network with exponentially distributed arc lengths. Then, by constructing an appropriate finite-state continuous-time Markov model, a system of differential equations is created to find the manufacturing lead-time distribution for any particular product, analytically. Finally, the constant due date for delivery time is obtained by using a linear function of its due date and minimising the expected aggregate cost per product.

  18. Travel Demand-Based Assignment Model for Multimodal and Multiuser Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfeng Si

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural characteristic of urban multimodal transport system is fully analyzed and then a two-tier network structure is proposed to describe such a system, in which the first-tier network is used to depict the traveller’s mode choice behaviour and the second-tier network is used to depict the vehicle routing when a certain mode has been selected. Subsequently, the generalized travel cost is formulated considering the properties of both traveller and transport mode. A new link impedance function is proposed, in which the interferences between different vehicle flows are taken into account. Simultaneously, the bi-equilibrium patterns for multimodal transport network are proposed by extending Wardrop principle. Correspondingly, a bi-level programming model is then presented to describe the bi-equilibrium based assignment for multi-class multimodal transport network. The solution algorithm is also given. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the model and algorithm.

  19. 47 CFR 90.625 - Other criteria to be applied in assigning channels for use in conventional systems of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... channels for use in conventional systems of communication. 90.625 Section 90.625 Telecommunication FEDERAL... applied in assigning channels for use in conventional systems of communication. (a) Where an applicant... C of this part on a commercial basis using a conventional system of communication, the applicant...

  20. A*-Based Task Assignment Algorithm for Context-Aware Mobile Patient Monitoring Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, H.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Pawar, P.; Widya, I.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile Patient Monitoring System (MPMS) is positioned to provide high quality healthcare services in the near future. The gap between its application demands and resource supplies, however, still remains and may hinder this process. Dynamic context-aware adaptation mechanisms are required in order

  1. Regression coefficient-based scoring system should be used to assign weights to the risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Mehta, Vinay; Girman, Cynthia J; Adhikari, Deepak; Johnson, Michael L

    2016-11-01

    Some previously developed risk scores contained a mathematical error in their construction: risk ratios were added to derive weights to construct a summary risk score. This study demonstrates the mathematical error and derived different versions of the Charlson comorbidity score (CCS) using regression coefficient-based and risk ratio-based scoring systems to further demonstrate the effects of incorrect weighting on performance in predicting mortality. This retrospective cohort study included elderly people from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed for time to 1-year mortality. Weights were assigned to 17 comorbidities using regression coefficient-based and risk ratio-based scoring systems. Different versions of CCS were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC), McFadden's adjusted R(2), and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Regression coefficient-based models (Beta, Beta10/integer, Beta/Schneeweiss, Beta/Sullivan) had lower AIC and higher R(2) compared to risk ratio-based models (HR/Charlson, HR/Johnson). Regression coefficient-based CCS reclassified more number of people into the correct strata (NRI range, 9.02-10.04) compared to risk ratio-based CCS (NRI range, 8.14-8.22). Previously developed risk scores contained an error in their construction adding ratios instead of multiplying them. Furthermore, as demonstrated here, adding ratios fail to even work adequately from a practical standpoint. CCS derived using regression coefficients performed slightly better than in fitting the data compared to risk ratio-based scoring systems. Researchers should use a regression coefficient-based scoring system to develop a risk index, which is theoretically correct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen

    2011-05-01

    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  3. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  4. JEMs and incompatible occupational coding systems: Effect of manual and automatic recoding of job codes on exposure assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, T.; Offermans, N.S.M.; Christopher-De Vries, Y.; Slottje, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In epidemiological studies, occupational exposure estimates are often assigned through linkage of job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs). However, available JEMs may have a coding system incompatible with the coding system used to code the job histories, necessitating a

  5. Recommender Systems in Requirements Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasher, Bamshad; Cleland-Huang, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Requirements engineering in large-scaled industrial, government, and international projects can be a highly complex process involving thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of potentially distributed stakeholders. The process can result in massive amounts of noisy and semistructured data that must be analyzed and distilled in order to extract useful requirements. As a result, many human intensive tasks in requirements elicitation, analysis, and management processes can be augmented and supp...

  6. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Thomas P [Knoxville, TN; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [Knoxville, TN; Chaum, Edward [Memphis, TN

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  7. Artificial intelligence applied to assigned merchandise location in retail sales systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Domínguez, O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an option for improving the process of assigning storage locations for merchandise in a warehouse. A disadvantage of policies in the literature is that the merchandise is assigned allocation only according to the volume of sales and the rotation it presents. However, in some cases it is necessary to deal with other aspects such as family group membership, the physical characteristics of the products, and their sales pattern to design an integral policy. This paper presents an alternative to the afore- mentioned process using Flexsim®, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms.

  8. Education policy and frame conflict : Student assignment in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis research explores frame conflict in the context of education policy. It centers on the public discourse surrounding the retraction of a student assignment policy aimed at socio-economic diversity in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina, USA. It argues that the

  9. Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Control for Port-Hamiltonian mechanical systems with only position measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D. A.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Ortega, R.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic extension for position feedback of port-Hamiltonian mechanical systems is studied. First we look at the consequences for the matching equations when applying Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Control (IDA-PBC). Then we look at the possibilities of asymptotically

  10. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Loepfe

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1 diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2% of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2 when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  11. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Lasse; Cabrales, Antonio; Sánchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1) diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2%) of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2) when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  12. Use of Entire Eigenstructure Assignment with High-Gain Error-Actuated Flight Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    release; distribution unlimited Acknowledgements I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Captain James Silverthorn , and my thesis committee consisting of...32) Therefore, [i] lies in the null space of [XiI-All A121. Using the method of singular value decomposition suggested by Silverthorn and Reid (Ref 6...October 1981, Vol. 12, No. 10, 1169-1180. 6. Silverthorn , J. and Reid, J. G. "Computation of the Subspaces for Entire Eigenstructure Assignment Via

  13. TEO: an online emotional therapy system to apply homework assignments in the Treatment of adjustment disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Pérez Ara, María Ángeles; Andreu Mateu, Maria Sabrina; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Castilla López, Diana Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment Disorders (AD) are a very important public health problem. Regarding its treatment, only a series of general guidelines are available. Our research team has developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) supported by Virtual Reality (VR) that has shown its utility in the treatment of AD. A CBT approach gives a crucial role to homework assignments. So far, studies that use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for psychological treatments have been ...

  14. Requirements analysis and system design

    CERN Document Server

    Maciaszek, Leszek A

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the methods and techniques used in the analysis and design phases of Information System development. Emphasis is placed upon the application of object technology in enterprise information systems (EIS) with UML being used throughout. Through its excellent balance of practical explanation and theoretical insight the book manages to avoid unnecessary, complicating details without sacrificing rigor. Examples of real-world scenarios are used throughout, giving the reader an understanding of what really goes on within the field of Software Engineering.

  15. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 233 RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY... regulatory requirement that each carrier must file with FRA a signal system status report every five years... Reporting Requirements by updating an outdated statutory citation. DATES: Written comments must be received...

  16. Requirements engineering for human activity systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available requirements engineering and social systems may be unified, the example of an illustrative health care system is used. The paper concludes with the finding that it is a valid approach to use requirements to describe desired characteristics of social systems...

  17. Automatic Identification System (AIS) User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Identification System (AIS) User Requirements December 2000 Final Report This document is available to the U.S. public through...Report Type Final Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Automatic Identification System (AIS) User Requirements Contract Number Grant...The original document contains color images. Abstract Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that should improve situational

  18. JEMs and incompatible occupational coding systems: effect of manual and automatic recoding of job codes on exposure assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeman, Tom; Offermans, Nadine S M; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Slottje, Pauline; Van Den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, occupational exposure estimates are often assigned through linkage of job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs). However, available JEMs may have a coding system incompatible with the coding system used to code the job histories, necessitating a translation of the originally assigned job codes. Since manual recoding is usually not feasible in large studies, this is often done by use of automated crosswalks translating job codes from one system to another. We set out to investigate whether automatically translating job codes led to different exposure estimates compared with those resulting from manual recoding using the original job descriptions. One hundred job histories were randomly drawn from the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), using a sampling strategy designed to oversample potentially exposed jobs. This resulted in 220 job codes that were automatically translated from the original Dutch coding system to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-68 and ISCO-88 as well as manually recoded from the job descriptions in the original questionnaire by two coders. Exposure to several agents (i.e. chromium, asbestos, silica, pesticides, aromatic solvents, and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields) was assigned by JEMs based on job codes resulting from automatic and manual recodings. The agreement between occupational exposure estimates based on the crosswalk versus those based on manual recoding reached a Cohen's Kappa (κ) of 0.66 or higher and were similar to the agreements between the two coders. Results of this study indicate that using automated crosswalks to recode job codes from one occupational classification system to another results only in a limited loss in agreement in assigned occupational exposure estimates compared with direct manual recoding. Therefore, in this case, crosswalks provide an efficient alternative to the costly and time-consuming direct manual recoding from job

  19. A Management Information System for Allocating, Monitoring and Reviewing Work Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    This thesis investigated the feasibility of developing a small scale management information system on a micro-computer. The working system was...ORSA journal. The management information system was designed using Ashton-Tate’s dBaseIII software. As designed, the system will operate on any...computer operating under microsoft’s Disk Operating System (MS-DOS). The user must provide his own dBaseIII software. A similar management information system could

  20. Paternity assignment in the polyploid Acipenser dabryanus based on a novel microsatellite marker system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Liu

    Full Text Available Acipenser dabryanus is listed as a Critical Endangered species in the IUCN Red List and the first class protected animals in China. Fortunately, A. dabryanus specimens are being successfully bred in captivity for conservation. However, for effective ex situ conservation, we should be aware of the genetic diversity and the degree of relatedness of the individuals selected for breeding. In this study, we aimed at the development of novel and reliable microsatellites used for the genetic study of A. dabryanus. A total of 14,321 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected by transcriptome sequencing and screening. We selected 20 novel and polymorphic microsatellites (non-dinucleotide with good repeatability from the 100 tested loci for a subsequent genetic and paternity study. A set of captive broodstock (F1 stock, n = 43 and their offspring (F2 stock, n = 96 were used to examine the efficiency of the 20 SSRs for assigning parentage to offspring, with an allocation success of 91.7%. We also found that only a few families predominantly contributed to the progeny produced by the 43 breeders. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data showed that the captive broodstock (F1 individuals had an excellent probability of the same lineage, implying that a high level of inbreeding may have occurred in these individuals. Our research provides useful information on genetic diversity and reproductive pattern of A. dabryanus, and the 20 SSRs developed in this study can be applied to the future breeding program to avoid inbreeding for this stock or other related species of Acipenseriformes.

  1. A management information system for allocating, monitoring and reviewing work assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Bourassa, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigated the feasibility of developing a small scale management information system on a micro-computer. The working system was developed around the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA) three tiered review and acceptance process for articles submitted for publication in the ORSA journal. The management information system was designed using Ashton-Tate ' s dBaselll software. As designed, the ...

  2. Enhancing Food and Nutrition Curricula in Higher Education by Assigning Collaborative Food System Assessment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, June

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement in higher education is important. Some professional healthcare programs, however, can become quite focused and competitive, limiting the potential for positive student engagement and for students to see how their field of study fits within larger systems. Food system assessments are an ideal way to see the interconnectedness of…

  3. 76 FR 42706 - Amendment of Inspector General Operations & Reporting System Audit, Assignment, and Timesheet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the..., Retaining, and Disposing of Records in the System: Storage: In a computer database. Retrievability: By.... Safeguards: Computer records are maintained in a secure, password protected computer system. All records are...

  4. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  5. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  6. Fuzzy-probabilistic multi agent system for breast cancer risk assessment and insurance premium assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatari, Farzaneh; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Sabahi, Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an agent-based system for distributed risk assessment of breast cancer development employing fuzzy and probabilistic computing. The proposed fuzzy multi agent system consists of multiple fuzzy agents that benefit from fuzzy set theory to demonstrate their soft information (linguistic information). Fuzzy risk assessment is quantified by two linguistic variables of high and low. Through fuzzy computations, the multi agent system computes the fuzzy probabilities of breast cancer development based on various risk factors. By such ranking of high risk and low risk fuzzy probabilities, the multi agent system (MAS) decides whether the risk of breast cancer development is high or low. This information is then fed into an insurance premium adjuster in order to provide preventive decision making as well as to make appropriate adjustment of insurance premium and risk. This final step of insurance analysis also provides a numeric measure to demonstrate the utility of the approach. Furthermore, actual data are gathered from two hospitals in Mashhad during 1 year. The results are then compared with a fuzzy distributed approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A system for routing and capacity assignment in computer communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Bezalel; Neuman, Irina

    1989-04-01

    The combined problem of selecting a primary route for each communicating pair and a capacity value for each link in computer communication networks is considered. The network topology and traffic characteristics are given: a set of candidate routes and of candidate capacities for each link are also available. The goal is to obtain the least costly feasible design where the costs include both capacity and queuing components. Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization techniques were used to obtain verifiable solutions to the problem. The method was tested on several topologies, and in all cases good feasible solutions, as well as tight lower bounds, were obtained. The model can be generalized to deal with different classes of customers, characterized by different priorities, message lengths, and/or delay requirements.

  8. Modelling and Simulation Methodology for Dynamic Resources Assignment System in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the competition among international container terminals has become increasingly fierce, every port is striving to maintain the competitive edge and provide satisfactory services to port users. By virtue of information technology enhancement, many efforts to raise port competitiveness through an advanced operation system are actively being made, and judging from the viewpoint of investment effect, these efforts are more preferable than infrastructure expansion and additional equipment acquisition. Based on simulation, this study has tried to prove that RFID-based real-time location system (RTLS data collection and dynamic operation of transfer equipment brings a positive effect on the productivity improvement and resource utilization enhancement. Moreover, this study on the demand for the real-time data for container terminal operation have been made, and operation processes have been redesigned along with the collection of related data, and based on them, simulations have been conducted. As a result of them, much higher productivity improvement could be expected.

  9. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... very high penetration of distributed generation. This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test such flexible control architectures. Keywords: Electric power system, distributed control, autonomous systems, intelligent agents ...

  10. Freight advanced traveler information system : functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the System Requirement Specifications (SyRS) for a Freight Advanced Traveler Information System : (FRATIS). The SyRS is based on user needs described in the FRATIS Concept of Operations (ConOps), which cover the essential : func...

  11. Continuing Students' Responses to Academic Advising Following Implementation of an Advisor Caseload Assignment System at the Community College of Allegheny County, Homewood-Brushton Branch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Rachel J.

    In January 1990, an Advisor Caseload Assignment System (ACAS) was implemented at the Homewood-Brushton Branch (HBB) of the Community College of Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) to ensure that admitted students were assigned an academic advisor with responsibility for assessing their academic needs, advising them, and monitoring their progress.…

  12. The Potential of Flexible UL/DL Slot Assignment in 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Davide; Gatnau, Marta; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2014-01-01

    5th Generation (5G) small cells are expected to satisfy the increasing demand for wireless data traffic. In the presence of large scale dense and randomly deployed cells, autonomous and distributed configuration mechanisms are highly desirable. However, small cells typically serve a small number...... of users, such that sudden traffic imbalances between downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) are expected in the new 5G system. We exploit the flexibility of time-division duplex (TDD) to deal with such imbalances by adapting swiftly to instantaneously varying traffic needs. In this paper we propose a distributed...

  13. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus......,a real-time interval logic. Controlling real-time automata arespecified in the same formalism by elementaryconstraints on the plant states for each control state or phase.The Duration Calculus is used to verify that the control design refinesthe requirements.The real-time automata map smoothly...

  14. Requirements engineering for software and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Solid requirements engineering has increasingly been recognized as the key to improved, on-time and on-budget delivery of software and systems projects. This book provides practical teaching for graduate and professional systems and software engineers. It uses extensive case studies and exercises to help students grasp concepts and techniques. With a focus on software-intensive systems, this text provides a probing and comprehensive review of recent developments in intelligent systems, soft computing techniques, and their diverse applications in manufacturing. The second edition contains 100% revised content and approximately 30% new material

  15. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  16. Solar Probe - System concepts and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronroos, H. G.; Hollert, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The design and related constraints relevant to the development of the Solar Probe are examined with reference to the environmental conditions and mission trajectory. The science-related requirements of the Solar Probe mission include instruments with 360-deg sweep on a platform that spins at 60 rpm and carries a magnetometer on a boom. The mission trajectory of a 4-solar-radii perihelion is designed to eliminate angular velocity about the sun, and the unusual requirements of dense interplanetary dust and enhanced gamma-ray radiation are mentioned. A list of specific functional requirements that directly affect the system configuration is given which includes those for the high-gain antenna and the main shield. These requirements are translated into a full-science-scope spacecraft design, and specific mass and power estimates are given. Reduced-scope and baseline configurations are also presented that allow good scientific return with significantly reduced development costs.

  17. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  18. Interactive Assignments for Online Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Students can experience first hand through interactive assignments what is involved in teaching an online course. Most students develop a whole new appreciation for the student learning process. Faculty are beginning to realize that online instruction is more than a series of readings posted to a course management system. This paper summarizes the faculty member's instructional strategies involved when creating student interaction assignments. The paper also summarizes the assignments, discussion board, and trends in education from the student's perspective. In summary, it concludes with the faculty's overall perspective concerning these assignments and how the assignments could be more effective for the student.

  19. Model requirements for Biobank Software Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukacs, Edit; Korotij, Agnes; Maros-Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Agnes Marta; Hajdu, Andras; Torok, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Biobanks are essential tools in diagnostics and therapeutics research and development related to personalized medicine. Several international recommendations, standards and guidelines exist that discuss the legal, ethical, technological, and management requirements of biobanks. Today's biobanks are much more than just collections of biospecimens. They also store a huge amount of data related to biological samples which can be either clinical data or data coming from biochemical experiments. A well-designed biobank software system also provides the possibility of finding associations between stored elements. Modern research biobanks are able to manage multicenter sample collections while fulfilling all requirements of data protection and security. While developing several biobanks and analyzing the data stored in them, our research group recognized the need for a well-organized, easy-to-check requirements guideline that can be used to develop biobank software systems. International best practices along with relevant ICT standards were integrated into a comprehensive guideline: The Model Requirements for the Management of Biological Repositories (BioReq), which covers the full range of activities related to biobank development. The guideline is freely available on the Internet for the research community. The database is available for free at http://bioreq.astridbio.com/bioreq_v2.0.pdf.

  20. Job Assignment of Graduates of the University of Bucharest and Their Integration in the Labor System of the 1980s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirela Rotaru

    2014-01-01

    ... more restrictive than ever before. This study focuses on the changes of the job supply for graduates of the University of Bucharest during the 1980s, and on the process of assigning graduates to their work-place.

  1. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  2. Requirements and Solutions for Personalized Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Bernd; Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Lopez, Diego M; Oemig, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Organizational, methodological and technological paradigm changes enable a precise, personalized, predictive, preventive and participative approach to health and social services supported by multiple actors from different domains at diverse level of knowledge and skills. Interoperability has to advance beyond Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concerns, including the real world business domains and their processes, but also the individual context of all actors involved. The paper introduces and compares personalized health definitions, summarizes requirements and principles for pHealth systems, and considers intelligent interoperability. It addresses knowledge representation and harmonization, decision intelligence, and usability as crucial issues in pHealth. On this basis, a system-theoretical, ontology-based, policy-driven reference architecture model for open and intelligent pHealth ecosystems and its transformation into an appropriate ICT design and implementation is proposed.

  3. Surviving mousepox infection requires the complement system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Moulton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses subvert the host immune response by producing immunomodulatory proteins, including a complement regulatory protein. Ectromelia virus provides a mouse model for smallpox where the virus and the host's immune response have co-evolved. Using this model, our study investigated the role of the complement system during a poxvirus infection. By multiple inoculation routes, ectromelia virus caused increased mortality by 7 to 10 days post-infection in C57BL/6 mice that lack C3, the central component of the complement cascade. In C3(-/- mice, ectromelia virus disseminated earlier to target organs and generated higher peak titers compared to the congenic controls. Also, increased hepatic inflammation and necrosis correlated with these higher tissue titers and likely contributed to the morbidity in the C3(-/- mice. In vitro, the complement system in naïve C57BL/6 mouse sera neutralized ectromelia virus, primarily through the recognition of the virion by natural antibody and activation of the classical and alternative pathways. Sera deficient in classical or alternative pathway components or antibody had reduced ability to neutralize viral particles, which likely contributed to increased viral dissemination and disease severity in vivo. The increased mortality of C4(-/- or Factor B(-/- mice also indicates that these two pathways of complement activation are required for survival. In summary, the complement system acts in the first few minutes, hours, and days to control this poxviral infection until the adaptive immune response can react, and loss of this system results in lethal infection.

  4. Information Requirements Analysis for Business Intelligence Systems using System Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mosig, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop new approaches to improve the information supply of decision makers in order to reduce information overload and associated problems such as mental stress or reduced decision quality. The work focuses on measures that are used in business intelligence systems since measures represent a core aspect of corporate information supply. A distinction is made between role-specific and individual information requirements. After developing a System Dynami...

  5. Requirements for Interoperability in Healthcare Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Noumeir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability is a requirement for the successful deployment of Electronic Health Records (EHR. EHR improves the quality of healthcare by enabling access to all relevant information at the diagnostic decision moment, regardless of location. It is a system that results from the cooperation of several heterogeneous distributed subsystems that need to successfully exchange information relative to a specific healthcare process. This paper analyzes interoperability impediments in healthcare by first defining them and providing concrete healthcare examples, followed by discussion of how specifications can be defined and how verification can be conducted to eliminate those impediments and ensure interoperability in healthcare. This paper also analyzes how Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE has been successful in enabling interoperability, and identifies some neglected aspects that need attention.

  6. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS.

  7. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  8. Empirical evaluation of DArT, SNP, and SSR marker-systems for genotyping, clustering, and assigning sugar beet hybrid varieties into populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominant and co-dominant molecular markers are routinely used in plant genetic diversity research. In the present study we assessed the success-rate of three marker-systems for estimating genotypic diversity, clustering varieties into populations, and assigning a single variety into the expected pop...

  9. The NMR side-chain assignments and solution structure of enzyme IIBcellobiose of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, Eiso; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea; Reizer, Jonathan; Saier, Milton H.; Dijkstra, Klaas; Scheek, Ruud M.; Robillard, George T.

    The assignment of the side-chain Nh IR resonances and the determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the C10S mutant of enzyme IIBcellobiose (IIBcel) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli are presented. The side-chain resonances were

  10. Information System Requirements Determination: Factors Impeding Stakeholders from Reaching Common Understandings and Agreements on Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissel, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Information system implementations require developers to first know what they must create and then determine how best to create it. The requirements determination phase of the system development life cycle typically determines what functions a system must perform and how well it must accomplish required functions. Implementation success depends on…

  11. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a military environment an operator is typically required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect defended assets against enemy threats by assigning available weapon systems to engage enemy craft. This environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making under severe stress conditions ...

  12. Pulse source requirements for OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted.......A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted....

  13. 23 CFR 972.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 972.204 Section 972.204... WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The FWS shall develop, establish and implement the management systems as...

  14. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    microgrids, virtual power plants (VPP), cell based systems, vehicle to grid, are under consideration and development in electric power system. Furthermore, Denmark is now moving towards a target set out by a new national energy strategy which implies. 50% wind power penetration for the electric power system by 2025.

  15. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    degree in computer science and and an M.Sc degree in Artificial Intelligence from Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona, Sweden in 2003 and 2007 respectively. His research interests are intelligent systems applications to power system, power system analysis and distributed control. Morten Lind is Professor of ...

  16. Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fornai, Cinzia; Bayle, Priscilla; Coquerelle, Michael; Kullmer, Ottmar; Mallegni, Francesco; Weber, Gerhard W

    2011-09-01

    Traditional morphometric approaches for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human dental remains are mainly characterized by caliper measurements of tooth crowns. Several studies have recently described differences in dental tissue proportions and enamel thickness between Neanderthal and modern human teeth. At least for the lower second deciduous molar (dm(2)), a three-dimensional lateral relative enamel thickness index has been proposed for separating the two taxa. This index has the advantage over other measurements of being applicable to worn teeth because it ignores the occlusal aspect of the crown. Nevertheless, a comparative evaluation of traditional crown dimensions and lateral dental tissue proportion measurements for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s has not yet been performed. In this study, we compare various parameters gathered from the lateral aspects of the crown. These parameters include crown diameters, height of the lateral wall of the crown (lateral crown height = LCH), lateral enamel thickness, and dentine volume of the lateral wall, including the volume of the coronal pulp chamber (lateral dentine plus pulp volume = LDPV), in a 3D digital sample of Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s to evaluate their utility in separating the two taxa. The LDPV and the LCH allow us to discriminate between Neanderthals and modern humans with 88.5% and 92.3% accuracy, respectively. Though our results confirm that Neanderthal dm(2)s have lower relative enamel thickness (RET) index compared with modern humans (p = 0.005), only 70% of the specimens were correctly classified on the basis of the RET index. We also emphasize that results of the lateral enamel thickness method depend on the magnitude of the interproximal wear. Accordingly, we suggest using the LCH or the LDPV to discriminate between Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s. These parameters are more independent of interproximal wear and loss of lateral enamel. Copyright

  17. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in paragraph...

  18. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  19. Knowledge requirements for information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (IS) outsourcing is a complex, multi-layered and a multifaceted concept. An organisation may gain access to knowledge it does not own in-house or be able to obtain it at a lower price by entering into an outsourcing relationship...

  20. Research Requirements for Future Visual Guidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    deficiencies that appear in need of correction? FIGURE 5.1. PILOT QUESTIONNAIRE 21 5.5 INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH . Industry research programs constitute...improvements in automated measurement of airport lighting systems performance as an aid to maintenance. A-13 5. INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH Industry research

  1. Performance requirements for locomotive braking systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaak, P

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available of underground locomotives, excluding those used on high speed main haulages. In addition a survey was carried out on the most widely used types of locomotives and the braking systems. The survey gave an insight into the knowledge of the mine personnel...

  2. Requirements Engineering Process for Sales Management System : Case study: Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Thanh Duc

    2009-01-01

    The starting point of this thesis project was to analyse the system and software requirements for the Sales Management System to help Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd. as a final assignment for the student to get a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Information Technology. Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd. is trading company in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The main business of the company is to trade motorcycle spare-parts in wholesale or retail within the local market. The sales management is still using t...

  3. Defense Logistics Standard Systems Functional Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    administration * Quality assurance " 0 Production * Transportation * Management statistics. DoD and its contractors should, when practica !, have on-line...transportation support to all DoD customers and other authorized agencies Includes the fiscal controls for reimbursement of industrially-funded TOA activities...processes. The completed system is scheduled to be deployed during Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990 and will provide other Service ammunition managers on-line

  4. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements. (a...

  5. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium... Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.712 Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment... water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), unfiltered systems must calculate the arithmetic mean of...

  6. Decision support using anesthesia information management system records and accreditation council for graduate medical education case logs for resident operating room assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Charnin, Jonathan; Driscoll, William D; Bailin, Michael T; Baker, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Our goal in this study was to develop decision support systems for resident operating room (OR) assignments using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs and evaluate the implementations. We developed 2 Web-based systems: an ACGME case-log visualization tool, and Residents Helping in Navigating OR Scheduling (Rhinos), an interactive system that solicits OR assignment requests from residents and creates resident profiles. Resident profiles are snapshots of the cases and procedures each resident has done and were derived from AIMS records and ACGME case logs. A Rhinos pilot was performed for 6 weeks on 2 clinical services. One hundred sixty-five requests were entered and used in OR assignment decisions by a single attending anesthesiologist. Each request consisted of a rank ordered list of up to 3 ORs. Residents had access to detailed information about these cases including surgeon and patient name, age, procedure type, and admission status. Success rates at matching resident requests were determined by comparing requests with AIMS records. Of the 165 requests, 87 first-choice matches (52.7%), 27 second-choice matches (16.4%), and 8 third-choice matches (4.8%) were made. Forty-three requests were unmatched (26.1%). Thirty-nine first-choice requests overlapped (23.6%). Full implementation followed on 8 clinical services for 8 weeks. Seven hundred fifty-four requests were reviewed by 15 attending anesthesiologists, with 339 first-choice matches (45.0%), 122 second-choice matches (16.2%), 55 third-choice matches (7.3%), and 238 unmatched (31.5%). There were 279 overlapping first-choice requests (37.0%). The overall combined match success rate was 69.4%. Separately, we developed an ACGME case-log visualization tool that allows individual resident experiences to be compared against case minimums as well as resident peer groups. We conclude that it is feasible to use ACGME case

  7. Formal Verification of Real-Time System Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szpyrka

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of system requirements verification presented in this paper is a proposition of a practical procedure for reducing some negatives of the specification of requirements. The main problem that is considered is to create a complete description of the system requirements without any negatives. Verification of the initially defined requirements is based on the coloured Petri nets. Those nets are useful for testing some properties of system requirements such as completeness, consistency and optimality. An example ofthe litt controller is presented.

  8. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...

  9. Requirements Engineering for a Pervasive Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Bossen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We describe requirements engineering for a new pervasive health care system for hospitals in Denmark. The chosen requirements engineering approach composes iterative prototyping and explicit environment description in terms of workflow modelling. New work processes and their proposed computer...... and system developers in engineering the requirements for the new system...... support are represented via a combination of prose, formal models, and animation. The representation enables various stakeholders to make interactive investigations of requirements for the system in the context of the envisioned work processes. We describe lessons learned from collaboration between users...

  10. System biology approach to detect and assign biological functions and regulator genes to feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel

    The objective of this study was to use a system biology approach to identify biological mechanisms involved on feed efficiency in Nellore cattle and its possible regulator genes. Two modules of co-expressed and highly inter-connected genes correlated to feed efficiency were identified as well...

  11. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  12. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing requirements...

  13. Information Requirements for a Procurement Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Management Information System is...described and some justification for this type of procurement management information system is presented. A literature search was made to determine...information systems. If information requirements are correctly identified and satisfied by a procurement management information system , contract administration and procurement management can be

  14. 5 CFR 9701.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performance management systems for DHS employees, subject to the requirements set forth in this subpart. (b) Each DHS performance management system must— (1) Specify the employees covered by the system(s); (2) Provide for the periodic appraisal of the performance of each employee, generally once a year, based on...

  15. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  16. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  17. Power system requirements and definition for lunar and Mars outposts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, D. A.; Cataldo, R. L.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Candidate power systems being considered for outpost facilities (stationary power systems) and vehicles (mobile systems) are discussed, including solar, chemical, isotopic, and reactor. The current power strategy was an initial outpost power system composed of photovoltaic arrays for daytime energy needs and regenerative fuel cells for power during the long lunar night. As day and night power demands grow, the outpost transitions to nuclear-based power generation, using thermoelectric conversion initially and evolving to a dynamic conversion system. With this concept as a guideline, a set of requirements has been established, and a reference definition of candidate power systems meeting these requirements has been identified.

  18. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  19. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  20. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  1. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  2. 21 CFR 821.25 - Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking... procedure for the collection, maintenance, and auditing of the data specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of... recording system, and the file maintenance procedures system; and (3) A quality assurance program that...

  3. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  4. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  5. Integrating Online Assignments Checking in Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundak, David; Shacham, Miri; Herscovitz, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Web technology offers lecturers the option of checking students' assignments online. Several systems have evolved to deliver personal assignments to each student in a multi-participant course. These systems provide students with immediate feedback, allowing them to correct erroneous answers and referring them to relevant literary sources that can…

  6. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  7. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  8. Optimising software development policies for evolutionary system requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Glandrup, Maurice; Nicola, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Anticipating future software requirements might support the evolution of software systems and as such reduce the cost of development and maintenance in due time. Unfortunately identifying the right set of evolution scenarios is difficult due to the uncertainty of occurrence of future requirements.

  9. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hands, J.

    1996-04-09

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions.

  10. Discovering affect-laden requirements to achieve system acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Alistair; Rayson, Paul; Bull, Christopher; Sawyer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Novel envisioned systems face the risk of rejection by their target user community and the requirements engineer must be sensitive to the factors that will determine acceptance or rejection. Conventionally, technology acceptance is determined by perceived usefulness and ease-of-use, but in some domains other factors play an important role. In healthcare systems, particularly, ethical and emotional factors can be crucial. In this paper we describe an approach to requirements discovery that we ...

  11. Optimization of demand assigned SCPC satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, E.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates various system aspects and price tradeoffs involved in providing cost-effective Demand Assignment (DA) satellite channel service. Those network characteristics which significantly affect the ultimate cost-based decision are discussed. The number of stations participating in the DA or PA system, the number of satellite channels, and the traffic are kept parametric within expected limits, covering most of the present and future applications. In particular, the interrelationships between the network requirements (e.g., grade of service) and network elements, and the impacts of different blocking assignment allocations on the number of modems in the network is examined. A cost model is then derived that allows the evaluation and comparison of both DA and PA networks. Absolute and differential costing of PA and DA networks is permitted using economic quantities available to the system planner. These include modem cost, satellite channel cost, network size, and defined efficiency factors. Based on the differential cost comparisons for several DA and PA network strategies, tradeoffs have been derived to aid the system designer in configuring the most cost-effective DA network.

  12. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  13. Patient Accounting Systems: Are They Fit with the Users' Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Nazemi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A patient accounting system is a subsystem of a hospital information system. This system like other information systems should be carefully designed to be able to meet users' requirements. The main aim of this research was to investigate users' requirements and to determine whether current patient accounting systems meet users' needs or not. Methods This was a survey study, and the participants were the users of six patient accounting systems used in 24 teaching hospitals. A stratified sampling method was used to select the participants (n = 216). The research instruments were a questionnaire and a checklist. The mean value of ≥3 showed the importance of each data element and the capability of the system. Results Generally, the findings showed that the current patient accounting systems had some weaknesses and were able to meet between 70% and 80% of users' requirements. Conclusions The current patient accounting systems need to be improved to be able to meet users' requirements. This approach can also help to provide hospitals with more usable and reliable financial information. PMID:26893945

  14. Patient Accounting Systems: Are They Fit with the Users' Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Nazemi, Zahra; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A patient accounting system is a subsystem of a hospital information system. This system like other information systems should be carefully designed to be able to meet users' requirements. The main aim of this research was to investigate users' requirements and to determine whether current patient accounting systems meet users' needs or not. This was a survey study, and the participants were the users of six patient accounting systems used in 24 teaching hospitals. A stratified sampling method was used to select the participants (n = 216). The research instruments were a questionnaire and a checklist. The mean value of ≥3 showed the importance of each data element and the capability of the system. Generally, the findings showed that the current patient accounting systems had some weaknesses and were able to meet between 70% and 80% of users' requirements. The current patient accounting systems need to be improved to be able to meet users' requirements. This approach can also help to provide hospitals with more usable and reliable financial information.

  15. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  16. Reliability program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    The objectives of the reliability program requirements described in this report are (1) to provide contractors with an outline of the reliability requirements established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in the areas of design, development, production, testing, and acceptance of space and terrestrial nuclear systems hardware, and (2) to guide the contractor in meeting these requirements. This publication or particular portions of it is applicable as specified in the contract. Whether the contractors/subcontractors are subject to all the requirements or only to part of them will be specified by contract, program letter, or by the contract statement-of-work.

  17. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  18. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  19. Classifying Assumptions Made During Requirements Verification of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Paech, Barbara; Rolland, Colette

    2008-01-01

    We are investigating ways to improve the process of modelling of embedded systems for formal verification. In the modelling process, we make a mathematical model of the system software and its environment (the plant), and we prove that the requirement holds for the model. But we also want to have an

  20. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  1. Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components.

  2. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor vehicle must have brakes adequate to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of motor vehicles. Each commercial..., and 393.52 of this subpart. (4) Electric brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with electric brake...

  3. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements computer system SSDR 1.5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-05

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Computer System, WBS 1.5.1 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1.5) which is the document directly above.

  4. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  5. Assignment Tracking Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy

    2016-01-01

    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  6. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  7. The Assessment of Students by Formal Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Michael

    New Zealand universities have been examining the possibilities of abolishing end-of-year examinations and placing more importance on coursework. This monograph offers the alternative of assessing students by formal assignments. The formal assignment system has 4 essential characteristics which distinguish it from other methods of assessment. (1) A…

  8. Information security requirements in patient-centred healthcare support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalamah, Shada; Gray, W Alex; Hilton, Jeremy; Alsalamah, Hessah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling Patient-Centred (PC) care in modern healthcare requires the flow of medical information with the patient between different healthcare providers as they follow the patient's treatment plan. However, PC care threatens the stability of the balance of information security in the support systems since legacy systems fall short of attaining a security balance when sharing their information due to compromises made between its availability, integrity, and confidentiality. Results show that the main reason for this is that information security implementation in discrete legacy systems focused mainly on information confidentiality and integrity leaving availability a challenge in collaboration. Through an empirical study using domain analysis, observations, and interviews, this paper identifies a need for six information security requirements in legacy systems to cope with this situation in order to attain the security balance in systems supporting PC care implementation in modern healthcare.

  9. Systems Requirement Document for the MSRE U-233 Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2001-01-11

    The fissile material reclamation activities for the MSRE remediation project include the removal and recovery of uranium from the off-gas system, from the stored fuel salt, and finally, from the uranium-laden charcoal in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB). Each of these operations produces an uranium/fluoride compound that is not suitable for long-term storage. The uranium-fluoride compounds can be stored for a limited period of time in pressure vessels. The interim-storage vessels are designed to handle the internal pressure buildup from gases formed by radiolysis of the uranium-fluoride compounds. The conversion process will take the pressurized vessels from interim storage and process the materials in a hot cell located at Building 4501. The gas in the vessels will be vented through chemical traps and then the traps will be processed to convert the various uranium-fluoride compounds to a stable uranium oxide form. This will be done one trap at a time. The chemical form of uranium being extracted from the off-gas system and from fuel salt fluorination process is uranium hexafluoride UF{sub 6}. During the operations at MSRE, the UF{sub 6} is chemisorbed onto sodium fluoride (NaF) traps where it forms the complex, 2NaF{center_dot}UF{sub 6}. The conversion process that will be installed in the Building 4501 Hot Cell D will recover the UF{sub 6} from the NaF traps by decomposition of the binary complex at elevated temperatures (>300 C). After the uranium is extracted from the NaF traps, it is collected in the conversion process reaction vessel. The reaction vessel is then hydrolized and heated through several step operations up to 900 C in order to convert the material to a stable uranium oxide. The ACB at MSRE contains uranium-laden charcoal with unstable C{sub x}F compounds. After extraction at MSRE, this material will be delivered to Building 4501 Hot Cell D for processing to a stable oxide. The charcoal conversion process is still under development, with mockup and

  10. Passenger Requirements of a Public Transport Ticketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Brian; O'MAHONY, MARGARET

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED Vienna, Austria Currently in Dublin the system of public transport ticketing is under review and there are plans to introduce a multi-modal, multi-operator ticketing system. It is planned that this system would be operated via smart card technology, whereby passengers can pass between mode and operator with ease of use. The purpose of this paper is to examine what passengers require from their ticketing system with regard to the means and method of payment and the kind of info...

  11. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  12. Neural reactivations during sleep determine network credit assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Tanuj; Guo, Ling; Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Bodepudi, Anitha; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2017-09-01

    A fundamental goal of motor learning is to establish the neural patterns that produce a desired behavioral outcome. It remains unclear how and when the nervous system solves this 'credit assignment' problem. Using neuroprosthetic learning, in which we could control the causal relationship between neurons and behavior, we found that sleep-dependent processing was required for credit assignment and the establishment of task-related functional connectivity reflecting the casual neuron-behavior relationship. Notably, we observed a strong link between the microstructure of sleep reactivations and credit assignment, with downscaling of non-causal activity. Decoupling of spiking to slow oscillations using optogenetic methods eliminated rescaling. Thus, our results suggest that coordinated firing during sleep is essential for establishing sparse activation patterns that reflect the causal neuron-behavior relationship.

  13. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed inbetween stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require......An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of thesystem in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate...... protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possibleintroduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total...

  14. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  15. 47 CFR 73.687 - Transmission system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.687 Transmission system requirements. (a... modulating frequency of 1.25 MHz or greater and in addition, for color, shall not be greater than −42 dB for a modulating frequency of 3.579545 MHz (the color subcarrier frequency). For both monochrome and...

  16. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans; Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    1993-01-01

    , a real-time interval logic, where predicates define durations of states. Requirements define safety and functionality constraints on the system or a component. A top-level design is given by a control law: a predicate that defines an automation controlling the transition between phases of operation. Each...

  17. 7 CFR 400.403 - Required system of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required system of records. 400.403 Section 400.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General Administrative Regulations; Collection...

  18. Research Perspectives for Material Requirements Planning Systems. Paper No. 434.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. L.; Whybark, D. Clay

    Material requirements planning (MRP) systems are described as management tools for planning and controlling production operations. A wide variety of industries and production organizations are credited as reporting significant operating improvements in such areas as inventory control, production scheduling, delivery performance, and production…

  19. Risk-Based Confidentiality Requirements Specification for Outsourced IT Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Today, companies are required to be in control of their IT assets, and to provide proof of this in the form of independent IT audit reports. However, many companies have outsourced various parts of their IT systems to other companies, which potentially threatens the control they have of their IT

  20. Detector Control System for an LHC experiment - User Requirements Document

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.

  1. A Type System for Required/Excluded Elements in CLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of looping sequences is a formalism for describing the evolution of biological systems by means of term rewriting rules. We enrich this calculus with a type discipline to guarantee the soundness of reduction rules with respect to some biological properties deriving from the requirement of certain elements, and the repellency of others. As an example, we model a toy system where the repellency of a certain element is captured by our type system and forbids another element to exit a compartment.

  2. Requirements for the evaluation of computational speech segregation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on computational speech segregation reported improved speech intelligibility in noise when estimating and applying an ideal binary mask with supervised learning algorithms. However, an important requirement for such systems in technical applications is their robustness to acoustic...... conditions not considered during training. This study demonstrates that the spectro-temporal noise variations that occur during training and testing determine the achievable segregation performance. In particular, such variations strongly affect the identification of acoustical features in the system...... associated with perceptual attributes in speech segregation. The results could help establish a framework for a systematic evaluation of future segregation systems....

  3. A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM REQUIRES MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos Dimitros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be the health care system sustainable , management transformations must be based on very precise diagnostic analysis that includes complete and current information. It is necessary to implement an information system that collects information in real time, that watches the parameters that significantly influence the sustainability of the system. Such an information system should point out a radiography(a scan of the system at some time under following aspects:: 1. An overview of system; 2 An overview of the economic situation; 3 A technical presentation ;4. A legal overview; 5. A social overview ; 6. A management overview .Based on these Xrays of the health system, it outlines a series of conclusions and recommendations together with a SWOT analysis that highlights the potential internal (strengths and weaknesses and external potential (opportunities and threats. Based on this analysis and recommendations, the management is going to redesign the system in order to be adapted to the changing environmental requirements. Management transformation is recommended to be by following steps. :1. The development of a new management system that would make a positive change in the health care system 2. Implementation of the new management system 3. Assessment of the changes

  4. Engineering Runtime Requirements-Monitoring Systems Using MDA Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, James; Emmerich, Wolfgang

    The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technology toolset includes a language for describing the structure of meta-data, the MOF, and a language for describing consistency properties that data must exhibit, the OCL. Off-the-shelf tools can generate meta-data repositories and perform consistency checking over the data they contain. In this paper we describe how these tools can be used to implement runtime requirements monitoring of systems by modelling the required behaviour of the system, implementing a meta-data repository to collect system data, and consistency checking the repository to discover violations. We evaluate the approach by implementing a contract checker for the SLAng service-level agreement language, a language defined using a MOF meta-model, and integrating the checker into an Enterprise JavaBeans application. We discuss scalability issues resulting from immaturities in the applied technologies, leading to recommendations for their future development.

  5. Technical note: A procedure to estimate glucose requirements of an activated immune system in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvidera, S K; Horst, E A; Abuajamieh, M; Mayorga, E J; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Baumgard, L H

    2016-11-01

    Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein steers (148 ± 9 kg; = 15) were jugular catheterized bilaterally and assigned to 1 of 3 i.v. control (CON; 3 mL saline; = 5), LPS-administered controls (LPS-C; 055:B5; 1.5 mg/kg BW; = 5), and LPS + euglycemic clamp (LPS-Eu; 1.5 mg/kg BW; 50% dextrose infusion to maintain euglycemia; = 5). In LPS-Eu steers, postbolus blood samples were analyzed for glucose every 10 min. Dextrose infusion rates were adjusted to maintain euglycemia for 720 min. All steers were fasted during the challenge. Samples for later analysis were obtained at 180, 360, 540, and 720 min relative to LPS administration. Rectal temperature was increased ∼0.5°C in both LPS treatments relative to CON steers ( = 0.01). Steers in both LPS treatments were hyperglycemic for ∼3 h postbolus; thereafter, blood glucose was markedly decreased (30%; large amount of glucose needed to maintain euglycemia indicates extensive repartitioning of nutrients away from growth and the importance of glucose as a fuel for the immune system.

  6. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  7. Effects of Numerical Requirement System on Students' Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Tuti Handayani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the impacts of the ‘requirement system’ on student learning is still rare, however the system is still widely applied by Dental Schools in many countries. The major consequent of this system is the unpreparedness of students’ learning prior to presenting patients with particular complaints. Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of the ‘requirement system’ on students’ learning strategy in Dental Education University of Jenderal Soedirman. Methods: This was a qualitative-phenomenography study. The collection of data was through observations and interviews. The number of subjects was 13 students of the same batch in a clinical education level. Observations by 2 clinical teachers were done in advance and lasted for six weeks, followed by in-depth interviews. Results: Interviews revealed that application of the ‘requirement system’ had prompted the students to get the patients and to learn or not learn correspondingly to the specified cases. Observations revealed that preparation for learning did not consequently lead to students’ performance in doing clinical work. Conclusion: ‘Requirement system’ driven students’ preparation for learning. However, number of cases did not. Modifying the ‘requirement system’ and improving the quality of clinical supervision are two important things suggested by this study.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.260

  8. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  9. Rationale for windshield glass system specification requirements for shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, K.; King, G. L.; Tesinsiky, J.; Wittenburg, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary procurement specification for the space shuttle orbiter windshield pane, and some of the design considerations and rationale leading to its development are presented. The windshield designer is given the necessary methods and procedures for assuring glass pane structural integrity by proof test. These methods and procedures are fully developed for annealed and thermally tempered aluminosilicate, borosilicate, and soda lime glass and for annealed fused silica. Application of the method to chemically tempered glass is considered. Other considerations are vision requirements, protection against bird impact, hail, frost, rain, and meteoroids. The functional requirements of the windshield system during landing, ferrying, boost, space flight, and entry are included.

  10. Establishing functional requirements for emergency management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The advancement of computer technologies has led to the development of a number of emergency management information systems (e.g., EIS, CAMEO, IEMIS). The design of these systems has tended to be technologically driven rather than oriented to meeting information management needs during an emergency. Of course, emergency management needs vary depending on the characteristics of the emergency. For example, in hurricanes, onset is typically slow enough to allow emergency managers to simulate evacuations dynamically while in chemical disasters onset may be sufficiently rapid to preclude such simulation(s). This paper describes a system design process in which the analysis of widely recognized emergency management functions was used to identify information requirements and the requisite software and hardware capabilities to deal with rapid onset, low probability, high consequence events. These requirements were then implemented as a prototype emergency management system using existing hardware and software to assure feasibility. Data, hardware, and software requirements were further developed, refined, and made more concrete through an iterative prototyping effort. This approach focuses attention directly on meeting emergency management information needs while avoiding unneeded technological innovations. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Microgravity fluid management requirements of advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migra, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    The advanced solar dynamic system (ASDS) program is aimed at developing the technology for highly efficient, lightweight space power systems. The approach is to evaluate Stirling, Brayton and liquid metal Rankine power conversion systems (PCS) over the temperature range of 1025 to 1400K, identify the critical technologies and develop these technologies. Microgravity fluid management technology is required in several areas of this program, namely, thermal energy storage (TES), heat pipe applications and liquid metal, two phase flow Rankine systems. Utilization of the heat of fusion of phase change materials offers potential for smaller, lighter TES systems. The candidate TES materials exhibit large volume change with the phase change. The heat pipe is an energy dense heat transfer device. A high temperature application may transfer heat from the solar receiver to the PCS working fluid and/or TES. A low temperature application may transfer waste heat from the PCS to the radiator. The liquid metal Rankine PCS requires management of the boiling/condensing process typical of two phase flow systems.

  12. SWEPP assay system version 2.0 software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, S.D.; East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    The INEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to WIPP, SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of Pu and other transuranic isotopes present. The code NEUT2 was originally used to perform data acquisition and reduction; the SWEPP Assay System (SAS) code replaced NEUT2 in early 1994. This document specifies the requirements for the SAS software as installed at INEL and was written to comply with RWMC (INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex) quality requirements.

  13. Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    ISO/IEC 27001:2005 covers all types of organizations (e.g. commercial enterprises, government agencies, not-for profit organizations). ISO/IEC 27001:2005 specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving a documented Information Security Management System within the context of the organization's overall business risks. It specifies requirements for the implementation of security controls customized to the needs of individual organizations or parts thereof. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is designed to ensure the selection of adequate and proportionate security controls that protect information assets and give confidence to interested parties. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is intended to be suitable for several different types of use, including the following: use within organizations to formulate security requirements and objectives; use within organizations as a way to ensure that security risks are cost effectively managed; use within organizations to ensure comp...

  14. The ESCRT system is required for hepatitis C virus production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Ariumi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, lipid droplets have been found to be involved in an important cytoplasmic organelle for hepatitis C virus (HCV production. However, the mechanisms of HCV assembly, budding, and release remain poorly understood. Retroviruses and some other enveloped viruses require an endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT components and their associated proteins for their budding process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether or not the ESCRT system is needed for HCV production, we examined the infectivity of HCV or the Core levels in culture supernatants as well as HCV RNA levels in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, expressing short hairpin RNA or siRNA targeted to tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101, apoptosis-linked gene 2 interacting protein X (Alix, Vps4B, charged multivesicular body protein 4b (CHMP4b, or Brox, all of which are components of the ESCRT system. We found that the infectivity of HCV in the supernatants was significantly suppressed in these knockdown cells. Consequently, the release of the HCV Core into the culture supernatants was significantly suppressed in these knockdown cells after HCV-JFH1 infection, while the intracellular infectivity and the RNA replication of HCV-JFH1 were not significantly affected. Furthermore, the HCV Core mostly colocalized with CHMP4b, a component of ESCRT-III. In this context, HCV Core could bind to CHMP4b. Nevertheless, we failed to find the conserved viral late domain motif, which is required for interaction with the ESCRT component, in the HCV-JFH1 Core, suggesting that HCV Core has a novel motif required for HCV production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the ESCRT system is required for infectious HCV production.

  15. Wind Farms’ Spatial Distribution Effect on Power System Reserves Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The wind power development during last millennium was typically based on small wind turbines dispersed over large areas, leading to a significant smoothing of the wind power fluctuations in a power system balancing area. The present development goes towards much larger wind farms, concentrated...... in smaller areas, which causes the total wind power fluctuations in power system areas to increase significantly. The impact of future large wind farms spatial distribution with respect to the power system reserve requirements is analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, Correlated Wind (CorWind) power time...... series simulation model developed to simulate wind power variability over a large area is used. As a study case, two scenarios for short term offshore wind power development in the West Danish power system region are used. The first scenario assumes that all the wind farms are built in the region...

  16. Design Requirements for Designing Responsive Modular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Madsen, Ole; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    the needed flexibility and responsiveness, but such systems are not yet fully achieved. From related theory it is known that achieving modular benefits depend on the modular architecture; a modular architecture which must be developed according to the customer needs. This makes production needs a design...... and industrial work are conducted in this area and has resulted in a wide span of theories, models, and methods. Manufacturing companies are, regardless hereon, still facing these challenges, especially regarding their manufacturing systems. Several theories state that modular manufacturing concepts possess...... requirement in order to achieve responsiveness and other benefits of modular manufacturing systems (MMS). Due to the complex and interrelated nature of a production system and its surroundings these production needs are complex to identify. This paper presents an analysis framework for identification...

  17. Requirements of a Web-based experiment management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, R; Soderland, S G; Taira, R K; Brinkley, J F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in tools for scientific data acquisition, visualization, and analysis have lead to growing information management problems for medical research laboratories. An exponential increase in the volume of data, combined with a proliferation of heterogeneous formats and autonomous systems, has driven the need for flexible and powerful Experiment Management Systems (EMS). This paper provides a detailed analysis of the informatics requirements of an EMS, and proposes a new type of middleware called an EMS-Building Environment (EMSBE), which enables the rapid development of web-based systems for managing laboratory data and workflow. We describe the Web-Interfacing Respository Manager (WIRM), an open-source application server for building customizable experiment management systems. WIRM is being used to manage several ongoing experiments, including a natural language processor of radiological findings, and an interdisciplinary project for studying brain function.

  18. Antenna systems meet the diverse requirements of EW applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettling, L. G.

    In meeting the requirements for Electronic Support Measure systems and Electronic Countermeasures (ESM/ECM), the antennas that provide the primary interface between friendly equipment and a potentially hostile external electromagnetic environment characteristically employ extremely broad operating frequency bands and wide polarization ranges. Missions cover the spectrum from omnidirectional acquisition to high resolution direction finding. Attention is presently given to ESM/ECM antenna systems that are representative of the full complement available at the current state of technology development, including cavity-backed planar spirals, omnidirectional biconical horns and conical spirals, and a long-periodic dipole array.

  19. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  20. Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, William J.; Tomkins, James Lee

    2003-10-01

    This report is based on the Statement of Work (SOW) describing the various requirements for delivering 3 new supercomputer system to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. This system is named Red Storm and will be a distributed memory, massively parallel processor (MPP) machine built primarily out of commodity parts. The requirements presented here distill extensive architectural and design experience accumulated over a decade and a half of research, development and production operation of similar machines at Sandia. Red Storm will have an unusually high bandwidth, low latency interconnect, specially designed hardware and software reliability features, a light weight kernel compute node operating system and the ability to rapidly switch major sections of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments. Particular attention has been paid to architectural balance in the design of Red Storm, and it is therefore expected to achieve an atypically high fraction of its peak speed of 41 TeraOPS on real scientific computing applications. In addition, Red Storm is designed to be upgradeable to many times this initial peak capability while still retaining appropriate balance in key design dimensions. Installation of the Red Storm computer system at Sandia's New Mexico site is planned for 2004, and it is expected that the system will be operated for a minimum of five years following installation.

  1. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  3. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  4. Memorizing innate instructions requires a sufficiently specific adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, José A M; De Boer, Rob J

    2002-05-01

    During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype, e.g. secrete a particular profile of cytokines. Once stimulated, lymphocytes store the appropriate type of response by differentiating from a naive to a memory phenotype. This allows the appropriate type of immune reaction to be regenerated upon re-stimulation of those memory clones. We developed a computer simulation model in which cross-reacting effector/memory clones contribute to the immunological context of pathogens. If a pathogen is recognized by both naive clones and pre-existing effector/memory clones, the naive lymphocytes adopt the effector mechanism of the memory clone. The adaptive immune system thereby stores immunological decisions and somatically learns to induce the right type of immune response to pathogens sharing epitopes. The influence of effector/memory lymphocytes may be detrimental when they cross-react to new pathogens that require a different kind of immune response. Here, we show that the immune system needs to be sufficiently specific to avoid such mistakes and to profit from the information that is stored in effector/memory lymphocytes. Repertoire diversity is required to reconcile this specificity with reactivity against many pathogens.

  5. Job Management Requirements for NAS Parallel Systems and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphir, William; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Traversat, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    A job management system is a critical component of a production supercomputing environment, permitting oversubscribed resources to be shared fairly and efficiently. Job management systems that were originally designed for traditional vector supercomputers are not appropriate for the distributed-memory parallel supercomputers that are becoming increasingly important in the high performance computing industry. Newer job management systems offer new functionality but do not solve fundamental problems. We address some of the main issues in resource allocation and job scheduling we have encountered on two parallel computers - a 160-node IBM SP2 and a cluster of 20 high performance workstations located at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation facility. We describe the requirements for resource allocation and job management that are necessary to provide a production supercomputing environment on these machines, prioritizing according to difficulty and importance, and advocating a return to fundamental issues.

  6. Systemic Immunity Is Required for Effective Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Matthew H; Carmi, Yaron; Reticker-Flynn, Nathan E; Kwek, Serena S; Madhireddy, Deepthi; Martins, Maria M; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Prestwood, Tyler R; Chabon, Jonathan; Bendall, Sean C; Fong, Lawrence; Nolan, Garry P; Engleman, Edgar G

    2017-01-26

    Immune responses involve coordination across cell types and tissues. However, studies in cancer immunotherapy have focused heavily on local immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. To investigate immune activity more broadly, we performed an organism-wide study in genetically engineered cancer models using mass cytometry. We analyzed immune responses in several tissues after immunotherapy by developing intuitive models for visualizing single-cell data with statistical inference. Immune activation was evident in the tumor and systemically shortly after effective therapy was administered. However, during tumor rejection, only peripheral immune cells sustained their proliferation. This systemic response was coordinated across tissues and required for tumor eradication in several immunotherapy models. An emergent population of peripheral CD4 T cells conferred protection against new tumors and was significantly expanded in patients responding to immunotherapy. These studies demonstrate the critical impact of systemic immune responses that drive tumor rejection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat engine requirements for advanced solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Pham, H. Q.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements and constraints are established for power conversion subsystems, including heat engine, alternator and auxiliaries, of dish concentrator solar thermal power systems. In order to be competitive with conventional power systems, it is argued that the heat engine should be of less than 40 kW rated output, in a subsystem with an efficiency of at least 40% at rated output and at least 37% at half power. An interval between major overhauls of 50,000 hours is also desirable, along with minor maintenance and lubrication not more than four times a year requiring no more than one man-hour each time, and optimal reliability. Also found to be important are the capability for hybrid operation using heat from a solar receiver, fuel-fired combustor or both simultaneously, operation at any attitude, stability to transients in input power and output loading, operation at ambient temperatures from -30 to 50 C, and compatibility with environmental and safety requirements. Cost targets include a price of $180/kWe, and operation, maintenance and replacement costs averaging $0.001/kWh for 30 years of operation.

  8. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  9. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  10. Conceptual design requirements for Korean Reference HLW disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Son; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun; Lee, Yang

    2005-05-15

    This report outlined the requirements for the conceptual design of KRS(Korean Reference HLW disposal System). The site for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes has not yet been selected in Korea. Since the KRS should be designed under these circumstances, the necessary requirements which should be determined are studied in the report. The amounts of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants in the long-term national power development plan are projected. With this estimation the disposal rates of CANDU and PWR spent fuels are analyzed and determined. The national and international regulations regarding the disposal of HLW are summarized. The functions of the underground facilities are defined. The representative geological conditions are determined since no site is yet decided in Korea.

  11. Formal Requirements Modeling for Reactive Systems with Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon

    This dissertation presents the contributions of seven publications all concerned with the application of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) to requirements modeling for reactive systems. The publications are introduced along with relevant background material and related work, and their contributions...... to addressing the problem of validating formal requirements models through interactive graphical animations is presented. Executable Use Cases (EUCs) provide a framework for integrating three tiers of descriptions of specifications and environment assumptions: the lower tier is an informal description...... activity. The traces are automatically recorded during execution of the model. The second publication presents a formally specified framework for automating a large part of the tasks related to integrating Problem Frames with CPN. The framework is specified in VDM++, and allows the modeler to automatically...

  12. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  13. 48 CFR 227.7009 - Patent releases, license agreements, and assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent releases, license... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7009 Patent releases, license agreements, and...

  14. Referencing academic assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, N

    External examiners often identify inaccurate referencing as a weakness in scripts submitted for assessment. This article explores the main aspects of referencing, and offers a protocol for referencing founded on the Harvard (name-date) system.

  15. System requirements for a computerised patient record information system at a busy primary health care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Blignaut

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototyping approach was used to determine the essential system requirements of a computerised patient record information system for a typical township primary health care clinic. A pilot clinic was identified and the existing manual system and business processes in this clinic was studied intensively before the first prototype was implemented. Interviews with users, incidental observations and analysis of actual data entered were used as primary techniques to refine the prototype system iteratively until a system with an acceptable data set and adequate functionalities were in place. Several non-functional and user-related requirements were also discovered during the prototyping period.

  16. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  17. Eliminating livelock by assigning the same priority state to each message that is inputted into a flushable routing system during N time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Vance

    1994-01-01

    Livelock-free message routing is provided in a network of interconnected nodes that is flushable in time T. An input message processor generates sequences of at least N time intervals, each of duration T. An input register provides for receiving and holding each input message, where the message is assigned a priority state p during an nth one of the N time intervals. At each of the network nodes a message processor reads the assigned priority state and awards priority to messages with priority state (p-1) during an nth time interval and to messages with priority state p during an (n+1) th time interval. The messages that are awarded priority are output on an output path toward the addressed output message processor. Thus, no message remains in the network for a time longer than T.

  18. Eliminating livelock by assigning the same priority state to each message that is input into a flushable routing system during N time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, V.

    1994-11-29

    Livelock-free message routing is provided in a network of interconnected nodes that is flushable in time T. An input message processor generates sequences of at least N time intervals, each of duration T. An input register provides for receiving and holding each input message, where the message is assigned a priority state p during an nth one of the N time intervals. At each of the network nodes a message processor reads the assigned priority state and awards priority to messages with priority state (p-1) during an nth time interval and to messages with priority state p during an (n+1) th time interval. The messages that are awarded priority are output on an output path toward the addressed output message processor. Thus, no message remains in the network for a time longer than T. 4 figures.

  19. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  20. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  1. Innovative requirements and technologies for future RLVs health management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, L.; Miccichè, L.; Russo, G.; Sellitto, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Italian aerospace research program PRORA (PROgramma nazionale di Ricerche Aerospaziali), which has been conceived and managed by CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Center), is focused on the development of innovative technologies, also based on experience from flying test beds. One family of these test beds, designated USV (Unmanned Space Vehicle) will be dedicated to acquire the knowledge about future RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) technologies. Major strategic technologies identified are reusability, hypersonic flight and atmospheric re-entry. The Phase-A study has been concluded and recently approved. Laben (a Finmeccanica Company) has contributed to identify requirements for the next generations of on board Vehicle Health Management System (VHMS) and to investigate possible innovative architectures. This new generation VHMS will be able to manage in a real-time mode the health of the vehicle (structure, propulsion, avionics, etc.). The proposed approach is based on a set of decentralised computers linked via an advanced high-speed interconnect system. This paper will describe preliminary requirements analysis and trade-off's mainly in terms of HW (e.g. use of general purpose CPUs versus DSPs, interconnects and topologies).

  2. The impact of assignment strategy on the performance of postgraduate trainees: An analysis of the assessment scores database in a military medicine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hung Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students who graduate after 2003 need to participate in the "Postgraduate Primary Care Medical Training Program," provided by the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation. We wish to know how the education and assignment strategy influences National Defense Medical Center (NDMC graduates. We examined whether the performance of postgraduate year (PGY trainees would be affected by the assignment strategies. Materials and Methods: We consecutively collected 173 NDMC graduated trainees who participated in 6-months of PGY training and another 94 trainees who participated for 1-year. During the training period, all the trainees were evaluated by several assessment tools. Trainees were dichotomized according to the levels of dispatched hospitals and preassigned specialty, respectively, to evaluate those effects on the performance of the 6-month PGY training period. Results: We describe the assessment scores of NDMC graduate M.D. trainees engaged in the Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH PGY training program. PGY trainees who were preassigned to TSGH due to better overall averages in medical school had better scores in case-based discussion, mini-clinical evaluation exercise, and direct observation of procedural skills than those who were preassigned to the Regional Teaching Hospitals. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall scores. The preassigned specialties themselves did not affect the performance in PGY training. Incorporation of PGY scores in the assignment strategy significantly elevated the performance of PGY trainees who were dispatched to TSGH. Conclusion: The accumulated PGY training database provides educators a unique opportunity in reviewing the effects of education policies and strategies. Assignment strategy could affect the performance of PGY trainees during their training period.

  3. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  4. Modelling Framework for Dynamic Multiclass Traffic Assignment in ITS Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of flexible traffic control, pre-trip, on-trip,guidance and other ITS services require considerable researchtoward the development of appropriate methodological frameworkand tools. In this paper, adapted modelling framework fordynamic mu/tic/ass traffic assignment (DMTA in ITS environmentis proposed and elaborated. DMTA system uses trafficdata associated with three backdrops: time, space and defined"user classes". The proposed structure of DMTA system includesmodules for 0-D estimation and prediction, real-timenetwork state simulation, consistency checking, updating functions,resetting functions. The methodological tools for solvingDMTA problems include combination of mathematical programming,simulation and heuristic methods.

  5. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5. Appendix: Requirements data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Appendix A contains data that characterize the system functions in sufficient depth as to determine the requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS). This data is in the form of: (1) top down traceability report; (2) bottom up traceability report; (3) requirements data sheets; and (4) cross index of requirements paragraphs of the source documents and the requirements numbers. A data base users guide is included that interested parties can use to access the requirements data base and get up to date information about the functions.

  6. Privacy-Preserving Task Assignment in Spatial Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, An

    2017-09-20

    With the progress of mobile devices and wireless networks, spatial crowdsourcing (SC) is emerging as a promising approach for problem solving. In SC, spatial tasks are assigned to and performed by a set of human workers. To enable effective task assignment, however, both workers and task requesters are required to disclose their locations to untrusted SC systems. In this paper, we study the problem of assigning workers to tasks in a way that location privacy for both workers and task requesters is preserved. We first combine the Paillier cryptosystem with Yao’s garbled circuits to construct a secure protocol that assigns the nearest worker to a task. Considering that this protocol cannot scale to a large number of workers, we then make use of Geohash, a hierarchical spatial index to design a more efficient protocol that can securely find approximate nearest workers. We theoretically show that these two protocols are secure against semi-honest adversaries. Through extensive experiments on two real-world datasets, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our protocols.

  7. User requirements on the future laboratory information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, J; McNair, P

    1996-07-01

    Today numerous information technology solutions exist for the clinical laboratory which operate either as stand-alone functionalities or with ad hoc integration solutions. The OpenLabs (A2028) AIM Project puts emphasis on the design and specification of a framework for the interoperability of existing systems and new advanced services, and consequently concentrates on the issue of integration. The purpose of the OpenLabs open architecture is to serve as a functional solution to this integration. A basic principle for this open architecture is that each of the advanced services shall be able to function individually or in any combination with an existing Laboratory Information System (LIS), and that it shall enable new modular functionalities to be incorporated in a 'plug-and-play' fashion. The synthesis of the main user needs and requirements implies that the future IT solutions: (a) must be highly flexible and maximally customizable--by the users themselves; (b) are based on the concept of open systems, both technically and functionally, which enables modular functionalities from different vendors to co-operate forming a global LIS functionality; (c) are future viable and able to incorporate already installed IT functionalities; (d) support management of failure prevention, of repair, of success, and of change. The establishment of an open architecture implies that a market will develop for modular, scaleable, and cost-effective LIS features without today's dependence on individual manufacturers and hardware/software platforms.

  8. The bicriterion multimodal assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...

  9. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  10. Treatment Planning Systems for BNCT Requirements and Peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G

    2003-01-01

    The main requirements and peculiarities expected from the BNCT-oriented treatment planning system (TPS) are summarized in this paper. The TPS is a software, which can be integrated or composed by several auxiliary programs. It plays important roles inside the whole treatment planning of the patient's organ in BNCT. However, the main goal is the simulation of the irradiation, in order to obtain the optimal configuration, in terms of neutron spectrum, patient positioning and dose distribution in the tumour and healthy tissues. The presence of neutrons increases the level of complexity, because much more nuclear reactions need to be monitored and properly calculated during the simulation of the patient's treatment. To this purposes several 3D geometry reconstruction techniques, generally based on the CT scanning data, are implemented and Monte Carlo codes are normally used. The TPSs are expected to show also the results (basically doses and fluences) in a proper format, such as isocurves (or isosurfaces) along t...

  11. Basic Requirements for Systems Software Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, Chris; Nitzberg, Bill

    1996-01-01

    Our success over the past ten years evaluating and developing advanced computing technologies has been due to a simple research and development (R/D) model. Our model has three phases: (a) evaluating the state-of-the-art, (b) identifying problems and creating innovations, and (c) developing solutions, improving the state- of-the-art. This cycle has four basic requirements: a large production testbed with real users, a diverse collection of state-of-the-art hardware, facilities for evalua- tion of emerging technologies and development of innovations, and control over system management on these testbeds. Future research will be irrelevant and future products will not work if any of these requirements is eliminated. In order to retain our effectiveness, the numerical aerospace simulator (NAS) must replace out-of-date production testbeds in as timely a fashion as possible, and cannot afford to ignore innovative designs such as new distributed shared memory machines, clustered commodity-based computers, and multi-threaded architectures.

  12. The geodetic requirements for commercial data base management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Charles R.

    1982-06-01

    There are many data base management systems now available as commercially marketed software packages. Although most of these packages were initially aimed at bussiness or administrative data processing applications, they may frequently also be the right tool for a scientific data processing task. This becomes more apparent as we notice that scientific computer programmers are spending more and more time on data management requirements rather than the coding of mathematical algorithms. In a scientific environment, a generalized data base management package is best viewed as a tool for programmers, rather than as a tool for direct, independent use by end users or by agency management. To the end user, the most attractive feature of a commerical DBMS is usually the interactive retrieval and update language. To the programmer, the most attractive feature is more likely to be the strong support for various types of keyed access. All of the manipulations necessary to build and maintain indices and other tables can be treated as procedural abstractions. Coupled with a procedural language, a DBMS offers the programmer a higher level (in the sense of more abstract) language. The most important geodetic requirement on a commercial DBMS is therefore that the package contain a strong Data Manipulation Language, with strong support for the algorithmic language used for scientific processing.

  13. 47 CFR 22.351 - Channel assignment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignment policy. 22.351 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.351 Channel assignment policy. The channels allocated for use in the Public Mobile Services are listed in the applicable...

  14. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  15. Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) using Branch and Bound Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuthairah Syed-Abdullah, Sharifah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Mauziah Benjamin, Aida; Wibowo, Antoni; Ku-Mahamud, Ku-Ruhana

    2018-01-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) has been a very popular problem to be solved among researchers due to its practical applications. Several variants of QAP have been proposed by researchers in the past in order to reflect the real situations of QAP. One of the real problems of QAP is related with facilities which are required to be assigned to certain locations due to its function. In solving this problem, a fixed assignment has to be made thus allowing for the complexity of the problem to be reduced. Hence, this study introduces Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) with the objective to minimize the assignment cost between the facility and location. This assignment takes into account the flow and distance between facility and location. QAPFA represents the real-world situation of the problem especially in dealing with specific requirement of some facilities to specific locations. Dataset of QAPFA is introduced and is solved using branch and bound approach. As for validation, the results of QAPFA are compared with QAP in terms of objective function and running time. The computational results show that the solution quality of QAPFA is lower when compared with the QAP, while the running time for QAPFA is lower than the QAP. Since the complexity of the problem is reduced by fixing the assignment, thus there is possibility that QAPFA has lower quality than QAP due to the fixed assignment. Nevertheless, in terms of running time QAPFA is better than QAP. It can be concluded that this problem reflect the real problem and practical to be used.

  16. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  17. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Bouras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area.

  18. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  19. Assignment of fields from particles to mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics there have been many attempts to combine the power of a fixed mesh on which to carry out spatial calculations with that of a set of particles that moves following the velocity field. These ideas indeed go back to Particle-in-Cell methods, proposed about 60 years ago. Of course, some procedure is needed to transfer field information between particles and mesh. There are many possible choices for this "assignment", or "projection". Several requirements may guide this choice. Two well-known ones are conservativity and stability, which apply to volume integrals of the fields. An additional one is here considered: preservation of information. This means that mesh interpolation, followed by mesh assignment, should leave the field values invariant. The resulting methods are termed "mass" assignments due to their strong similarities with the Finite Element Method. We test several procedures, including the well-known FLIP, on three scenarios: simple 1D convection, 2D convection of Zales...

  20. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  1. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  2. Universal Documentation System Handbook. Volume 2. Requirement Formats and Instructions; Program Introduction, Program Requirements Document/Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    or the Air Force precedence rating. Program Status: State whether the program is proposed or approved and whether the PI is being subitted to obtain...instructions for Format 2CF,,. JT ( TATUOMATION ( ): indicate ’ tetbar each item number sukmitted is a requirement fc: - mort frcm the Support A.-ccy or

  3. Application Requirements for Middleware for Mobile and Pervasive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Raatikainen, Kimmo; Nakajim, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the requirements for future middleware to support mobile and pervasive applications and identify key research areas. We illustrate the research areas with requirements identified in two specific research projects concerning pervasive healthcare and home entertainment....

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems As required in § 63.11498, you must comply with the requirements for wastewater systems as shown in the following table. For...

  5. Fuel cell systems for passenger cars - opportunities and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachtler, J. [BMW, Munich (Germany); Bourne, C. [Rover Group, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    From the point of view of energy density, handling and economy, present-day motor fuels are superior to all known alternatives. The internal combustion engine powered by them satisfies the requirements of customers to an excellent degree. The search for alternatives can therefore only be justified if emissions can be avoided totally and non-fossil primary energy sources can be used or at least partially our dependence on mineral oil can be reduced. What was long suspected has been increasingly confirmed, not least by developments at BMW: electricity (stored in batteries) and hydrogen offer the best prerequisites for achieving these goals in the long term. These forms of energy can be produced in sufficient quantities and with relatively little effect on the environment. They promise to produce an absolute minimum of pollutants when used in vehicles. Natural gas, which is very similar to hydrogen, and hybrid systems, that would compensate for battery risks, could perform a valuable function in the transitional phase.

  6. Assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti-Spaccamela, A.; Rutten, C.; van der Ster, S.L.; Wiese, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines such that the tasks on each machine can be feasibly scheduled. Despite its importance for modern real-time systems, this problem has not been studied before. We present a polynomial-time algorithm which approximates the problem

  7. Politics, Internet Assignments, and Civic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Vaughn

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor of American government fights the apathy and cynicism of college students toward politics by using the Internet to help students more fairly appraise the workings of the American political system. One assignment has students research and manage a particular public policy initiative through visits to Web sites…

  8. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  9. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent agents in future Danish electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    we review innovative control architectures in electric power systems such as Microgrids, Virtual power plants and Cell based systems. We evaluate application of autonomous systems and intelligent agents in each of these control architectures particularly in the context of Denmark's strategic energy...... plans. The second part formulates a flexible control architecture for electric power systems with very high penetration of distributed generation. This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test...

  10. Efficient eigenvalue assignment by state and output feedback with applications for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannell, Eric C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Maghami, Peiman G.

    1995-03-01

    The erection and deployment of large flexible structures having thousands of degrees of freedom requires controllers based on new techniques of eigenvalue assignment that are computationally stable and more efficient. Scientists at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a novel and efficient algorithm for the eigenvalue assignment of large, time-invariant systems using full-state and output feedback. The objectives of this research were to improve upon the output feedback version of this algorithm, to produce a toolbox of MATLAB functions based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm, and to experimentally verify the algorithm and software by implementing controllers designed using the MATLAB toolbox on the phase 2 configuration of NASA Langley's controls-structures interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory model used to study space structures. Results from laboratory tests and computer simulations show that effective controllers can be designed using software based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm.

  11. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  12. Strategy-Proof Stochastic Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Erdil, A.

    2013-01-01

    I study strategy-proof assignment mechanisms where the agents reveal their preference rankings over the available objects. A stochastic mechanism returns lotteries over deterministic assignments, and mechanisms are compared according to first-order stochastic dominance. I show that non-wasteful strategy-proof mechanisms are not dominated by strategy-proof mechanisms, however nonwastefulness is highly restrictive when the mechanism involves randomization. In fact, the Random Priority mechanism...

  13. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., implementation and operation of nationwide management systems. If a tribe develops tribal management systems, the... operation of tribal management systems. The procedures shall include: (1) A description of each management system; (2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; (3...

  14. Judicial protection of the rights of the victim (bank-creditor after the conclusion of the agreement of assignment of the right (requirements in the conditions of the intentional bankruptcy of the debtor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Truntsevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is Russian insolvency legislation? As well as rules ofRussian Criminal Code about insolvency crimes.The purpose of the article is to analyze methods of the judicial protection of the rights ofthe victim (creditor-bank after the conclusion of the contract of cession of rights (claimsin the context of deliberate bankruptcy of the debtor.The methodology of research includes: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, survey,and statistical method.The results, scope of application. Intentional bankruptcy (Art. 196 of the Russian CriminalCode violates the legitimate property interests of creditors. In particular, the Bank has theright to appeal to law enforcement agencies with a statement about criminal acts committedagainst the Bank that caused damage to the Bank. The creditor has the right to applyfor recognition as an injured person. Such a creditor is harmed by a crime. In the event thatthe Bank deliberately bankruptcy of the debtor harmed, and there is a causal relationshipbetween such actions and the socially dangerous consequences that have occurred, then,as follows from Part 1 of Art. 44 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, this circumstance is aprerequisite for the recognition of the Bank as a civil plaintiff. Such a bank has the right todeclare in the criminal case a civil claim for damages to the bank. The purpose of this articleis to provide judicial protection of the rights of the victim (creditor bank after concludingthe contract of assignment of the right (claims in the circumstances of the debtor's deliberatebankruptcy. The research methods are: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction,questioning and statistical method. The conclusion is drawn that the assignment of claimsunder a civil law contract is not grounds for refusing to recognize the Bank as a victim anda civil plaintiff in a criminal case under Art. 196 of the Criminal Code.Conclusions. The assignment of claims under civil contract is not

  15. Arterial intelligent transportation systems : infrastructure elements and traveler information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Applying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to arterial systems allows TxDOT to significantly enhance : transportation system operation efficiency and improve traffic mobility. However, no guidelines are available to : assist TxDOT staff in sel...

  16. Limitations and requirements of content-based multimedia authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chai W.

    2001-08-01

    Recently, a number of authentication schemes have been proposed for multimedia data such as images and sound data. They include both label based systems and semifragile watermarks. The main requirement for such authentication systems is that minor modifications such as lossy compression which do not alter the content of the data preserve the authenticity of the data, whereas modifications which do modify the content render the data not authentic. These schemes can be classified into two main classes depending on the model of image authentication they are based on. One of the purposes of this paper is to look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of these image authentication schemes and their relationship with fundamental limitations of the underlying model of image authentication. In particular, we study feature-based algorithms which generate an authentication tag based on some inherent features in the image such as the location of edges. The main disadvantage of most proposed feature-based algorithms is that similar images generate similar features, and therefore it is possible for a forger to generate dissimilar images that have the same features. On the other hand, the class of hash-based algorithms utilizes a cryptographic hash function or a digital signature scheme to reduce the data and generate an authentication tag. It inherits the security of digital signatures to thwart forgery attacks. The main disadvantage of hash-based algorithms is that the image needs to be modified in order to be made authenticatable. The amount of modification is on the order of the noise the image can tolerate before it is rendered inauthentic. The other purpose of this paper is to propose a multimedia authentication scheme which combines some of the best features of both classes of algorithms. The proposed scheme utilizes cryptographic hash functions and digital signature schemes and the data does not need to be modified in order to be made authenticatable. Several

  17. System of systems engineering - the link between operational needs and system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available to bring together intended capability planning and actual systems on the ground. Smith and Oosthuizen showed that the Capability Life Cycle and System Life Cycle can be unified through the use of System of Systems Engineering methodologies that include...

  18. Functions & Requirements for Debris Removal System Project A-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-12-29

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin.

  19. Dynamic mobility applications open source application development portal : Task 4 : system requirements specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    This document describes the System Requirements Specifications (SyRS) of the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Open Source Application Development Portal (OSADP) system in details according to IEEE-Std. 1233-1998. The requirement statements discuss...

  20. The UNCITRAL Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, assignment of future receivables and Turkish law.

    OpenAIRE

    Akseli, N. Orkun

    2006-01-01

    The Assignment of receivables is an important financing technique the regulation of which varies from legal system to legal system. In December 2001, the Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade made by the United Nations Commission on International Trade (“the UNCITRAL Convention”)1 was adopted by the General Assembly2. The UNCITRAL Convention was prepared for the purposes of establishing a model for the modernisation of domestic assignment law and as a first substa...

  1. An Assessment of Performance and Condition Monitoring Requirements of Foreign Marine Diesel Propulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the requirements and recommended practices for diesel engine diagnostic, performance and condition monitoring systems for medium and slow speed diesel propulsion systems...

  2. A Poster Assignment Connects Information Literacy and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a poster assignment in a writing and information literacy course required for undergraduate Life Sciences and Environmental Biology majors with the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at McGill University. The assignment was introduced in response to weaknesses identified through course…

  3. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  4. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system...

  5. Detailed requirements document for the Interactive Financial Management System (IFMS), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The detailed requirements for phase 1 (online fund control, subauthorization accounting, and accounts receivable functional capabilities) of the Interactive Financial Management System (IFMS) are described. This includes information on the following: systems requirements, performance requirements, test requirements, and production implementation. Most of the work is centered on systems requirements, and includes discussions on the following processes: resources authority, allotment, primary work authorization, reimbursable order acceptance, purchase request, obligation, cost accrual, cost distribution, disbursement, subauthorization performance, travel, accounts receivable, payroll, property, edit table maintenance, end-of-year, backup input. Other subjects covered include: external systems interfaces, general inquiries, general report requirements, communication requirements, and miscellaneous. Subjects covered under performance requirements include: response time, processing volumes, system reliability, and accuracy. Under test requirements come test data sources, general test approach, and acceptance criteria. Under production implementation come data base establishment, operational stages, and operational requirements.

  6. 23 CFR 970.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operation of management systems. The procedures shall include: (1) A process for ensuring the outputs of the... cost-effectively; (3) A description of each management system; (4) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for data collection...

  7. 23 CFR 971.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... existing, or the development, establishment, implementation, and operation of new management systems. The procedures shall include: (1) A process for ensuring the output of the management systems is considered in... transportation assets cost-effectively; (3) A description of each management system; (4) A process to operate and...

  8. 48 CFR 1442.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1442.202 Section 1442.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 1442.202 Assignment of contract administration. ...

  9. 48 CFR 1342.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1342.202 Section 1342.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Administration Services 1342.202 Assignment of contract administration. The designee authorized...

  10. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-04-20

    This document describes the performance requirements for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System. These requirements reflect the Case 3, Project Planning Case from the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan, Revision 1. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into a specification for the DST System.

  11. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements must a safety management system meet? The functional requirements of a safety management system... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What functional requirements must a safety management system meet? 96.240 Section 96.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  12. 17 CFR 242.303 - Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.303 Section 242.303 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.303 Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(9) of...

  13. Alternative Assignment Incentive Pay Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    300 dollars there was a 52% increase in applications and a 115 % increase in fill rates. This is extremely important to the Navy because it “suggest...Congress.” E-mail to Michael.T.Jones@navy.mil. 01 April 2005. 7. Nimon , W. R. and Hall, D. R. “An Experimental Analysis of the Relative Efficiency of...Scores (60 + 55 = 115 ). Accordingly, Bidder 1 is assigned to Job 1, Bidder 2 is unassigned, and Bidder 3 is assigned to Job 2. Payout in the

  14. Algorithmic requirements for swarm intelligence in differently coupled collective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradner, Jürgen; Thenius, Ronald; Zahadat, Payam; Hamann, Heiko; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Swarm systems are based on intermediate connectivity between individuals and dynamic neighborhoods. In natural swarms self-organizing principles bring their agents to that favorable level of connectivity. They serve as interesting sources of inspiration for control algorithms in swarm robotics on the one hand, and in modular robotics on the other hand. In this paper we demonstrate and compare a set of bio-inspired algorithms that are used to control the collective behavior of swarms and modular systems: BEECLUST, AHHS (hormone controllers), FGRN (fractal genetic regulatory networks), and VE (virtual embryogenesis). We demonstrate how such bio-inspired control paradigms bring their host systems to a level of intermediate connectivity, what delivers sufficient robustness to these systems for collective decentralized control. In parallel, these algorithms allow sufficient volatility of shared information within these systems to help preventing local optima and deadlock situations, this way keeping those systems flexible and adaptive in dynamic non-deterministic environments.

  15. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator driven sub-critical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qd; 29.25.Dz; 29.25.-t. 1. Introduction. This paper briefly presents the perspective of the author on the nuclear data require- .... to flow dynamics and problems arising from the gas formation. Thus, all nuclear data information ... izations, large data files information management, evaluations, that include nuclear model based ...

  16. Student Performance Requirements: Minitary Service. Continuation Education System Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Puente Union High School District, CA.

    Funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the La Puente, California, continuation education project investigated (1) attitudes of former students concerning the success of the school in preparing them for entry into military service, (2) the minimal skills and knowledge required by each of the armed forces, (3)…

  17. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....803 Section 250.803 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE....802 of this subpart and the requirements of API RP 14C (incorporated by reference as specified in 30... inspection, rating, repair, and alteration performed in accordance with the applicable provisions of API...

  18. Firefighter safety for PV systems: Overview of future requirements and protection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic systems is that, as long as they are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters, independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch, which poses a risk...... shutdown procedures. This paper gives an overview on the most recent fire - and firefighter safety requirements for PV systems, with focus on system and module shutdown systems. Several solutions are presented, analyzed and compared by considering a number of essential characteristics, including...... for operators during maintenance or fire-fighting. One of the solutions is individual module shutdown by short-circuiting or disconnecting each PV module from the PV string. However, currently no standards have been adopted either for implementing or testing these methods, or doing an evaluation of the module...

  19. Defining the required infrastructure supporting co-operative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Kievit, M.; Maas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Systems will play a critical role in enabling safe, smart and clean transport, as well as meeting the European Commission's 2020 policy goals. There is today a general understanding of the benefits of cooperative systems but there is still a need for further validation of the estimated

  20. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, M.C.; Tassetto, M.; Rij, R.P. van; Goic, B.; Gausson, V.; Berry, B.; Jacquier, C.; Antoniewski, C.; Andino, R.

    2009-01-01

    Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defence systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA

  1. Memorizing innate instructions requires a sufficiently specific adaptive immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2002-01-01

    During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype,

  2. Semantic Modeling of Requirements: Leveraging Ontologies in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Masood Saleem

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of "Systems Engineering" (SE), having "stakeholders" from diverse domains with orthogonal facets, and need to consider all stages of "lifecycle" of system during conception, can benefit tremendously by employing "Knowledge Engineering" (KE) to achieve semantic agreement among all…

  3. System Design Description and Requirements for Modeling the Off-Gas Systems for Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Jack D. Law; Troy J. Tranter

    2010-08-01

    This document provides descriptions of the off-gases evolved during spent nuclear fuel processing and the systems used to capture the gases of concern. Two reprocessing techniques are discussed, namely aqueous separations and electrochemical (pyrochemical) processing. The unit operations associated with each process are described in enough detail so that computer models to mimic their behavior can be developed. The document also lists the general requirements for the desired computer models.

  4. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  5. 47 CFR 63.24 - Assignments and transfers of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF SERVICE BY..., is a sale of assets and shall be treated as an assignment, which requires prior Commission approval...

  6. Assignments, Details, and Transfers: Overseas Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-30

    contract will be served regardless of the prescribed tour length. This includes soldiers assigned to Technical Assistance Field Teams ( TAFTS ). r...PUERTO RICO (except as indicated) 36 24 2 Ponce (Ft Allen) and Isabela, Yauco, Cagus, Juana Diaz 36 18 Vieques Island NA 12 QATAR 24 12 40 AR 614–30...55AR 614–30 • 30 August 2001 TAADS The Army Authorization Document System TAFT Technical Assistance Field Team TAT turnaround time TDA table of

  7. Inertial System Requirements for Deflection of the Vertical Compensations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, Ian

    1999-01-01

    .... The approach taken was to develop a deterministic model of an inertial system. Using actual hypervelocity trajectories, a gravity deflection signal was produced and passed through the inertial navigation model...

  8. Spacecraft Thermal Control System Not Requiring Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal management of spacecraft would be enhanced by dynamic control over surface emissivity in the mid-infrared. In this SBIR program, Triton Systems proposes...

  9. Product Assurance Requirements Guide for Naval Ocean Systems Center Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-21

    MIL-P-19834 Plate Identification j. ANSI-Y-14.5 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing k. MIL-STD-483 Configuration Management Practices for Systems...are not designated spare parts. (2) Pmstricting the use of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing to those features which provide an interface with...reliability, maintain- ability, safety and human engineering aspects of the system/equipment e. Tolerancing f. Maintenance engineering g. Environmental

  10. Metrics required for Power System Resilient Operations and Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghi, K.; Johnson, B. K.; Rieger, C. G.

    2016-08-01

    Today’s complex grid involves many interdependent systems. Various layers of hierarchical control and communication systems are coordinated, both spatially and temporally to achieve gird reliability. As new communication network based control system technologies are being deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more complex. Deployment of smart grid concepts promises effective integration of renewable resources, especially if combined with energy storage. However, without a philosophical focus on resilience, a smart grid will potentially lead to higher magnitude and/or duration of disruptive events. The effectiveness of a resilient infrastructure depends upon its ability to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly recover from a potentially catastrophic event. Future system operations can be enhanced with a resilient philosophy through architecting the complexity with state awareness metrics that recognize changing system conditions and provide for an agile and adaptive response. The starting point for metrics lies in first understanding the attributes of performance that will be qualified. In this paper, we will overview those attributes and describe how they will be characterized by designing a distributed agent that can be applied to the power grid.

  11. Preoxygenation with the Mapleson D system requires higher oxygen flows than Mapleson A or circle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Samar; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar; Dagher, Carla; Chehade, Jules-Marie; Baraka, Anis

    2007-02-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of preoxygenation with Mapleson A and Mapleson D breathing systems vs the circle system with CO2 absorber. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent tidal volume breathing for three minutes via facemask using Mapleson A, Mapleson D breathing systems or the circle system with CO2 absorber while breathing 100% O2 at flow rates of 5 L.min-1 and 10 L.min-1. Each volunteer acted as his/her own control by going through each of six preoxygenation protocols in random order. Fractional end-tidal O2 concentration (FETO2) was measured at 30-sec intervals. The results were compared among the three anesthesia systems at the two fresh gas flow rates. At a fresh gas flow rate of 5 L.min-1, the Mapleson A and circle systems achieved F(ETO2) values of 90.8+/-1.4% and 90.0+/-1.1%, respectively, compared with the lower F(ETO2) (81.5+/-6.3%, PMapleson D system. When breathing O2 at 10 L.min-1, the F(ETO2) values after three minutes were similar with the Mapleson A, circle, and Mapleson D breathing systems (91.8+/-2.3%, 91.2+/-1.7%, 90.6+/-2.7%, respectively). When using the Mapleson A and the circle systems for preoxygenation, an oxygen flow rate of 5 L.min-1 can adequately preoxygenate the patient within three minutes, while an oxygen flow of 10 L.min-1 is required to achieve a similar fractional end-tidal O2 concentration with the Mapleson D system.

  12. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  13. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  14. Material requirements for bio-inspired sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter; Lloyd, Peter; Salmond, David; Kusterbeck, Anne

    2008-10-01

    The aim of developing bio-inspired sensing systems is to try and emulate the amazing sensitivity and specificity observed in the natural world. These capabilities have evolved, often for specific tasks, which provide the organism with an advantage in its fight to survive and prosper. Capabilities cover a wide range of sensing functions including vision, temperature, hearing, touch, taste and smell. For some functions, the capabilities of natural systems are still greater than that achieved by traditional engineering solutions; a good example being a dog's sense of smell. Furthermore, attempting to emulate aspects of biological optics, processing and guidance may lead to more simple and effective devices. A bio-inspired sensing system is much more than the sensory mechanism. A system will need to collect samples, especially if pathogens or chemicals are of interest. Other functions could include the provision of power, surfaces and receptors, structure, locomotion and control. In fact it is possible to conceive of a complete bio-inspired system concept which is likely to be radically different from more conventional approaches. This concept will be described and individual component technologies considered.

  15. L-Band System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance Requirements, and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Stephen; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-band and L-band Communications Standard Development. Task 7 was motivated by the five year technology assessment performed for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under the joint FAA-EUROCONTROL cooperative research Action Plan (AP-17), also known as the Future Communications Study (FCS). It was based on direction provided by the FAA project-level agreement (PLA FY09_G1M.02-02v1) for "New ATM Requirements-Future Communications." Task 7 was separated into two distinct subtasks, each aligned with specific work elements and deliverable items. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed development, and tests/demonstrations to establish operational capability for what is now referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2, which is the subject of this report, focused on preliminary systems engineering and support of joint FAA/EUROCONTROL development and evaluation of a future L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) air/ground (A/G) communication system known as the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS), which was defined during the FCS. The proposed L-DACS will be capable of providing ATM services in continental airspace in the 2020+ timeframe. Subtask 7-2 was performed in two phases. Phase I featured development of Concepts of Use, high level functional analyses, performance of initial L-band system safety and security risk assessments, and development of high level requirements and architectures. It also included the aforementioned support of joint L-DACS development and evaluation, including inputs to L-DACS design specifications. Phase II provided a refinement of the systems engineering activities performed during Phase I, along

  16. Requirements on Clinical Trial Management Systems for Academic Site Management Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Martin; Stäubert, Sebastian; Löbe, Matthias; Meinel, Kirsti; Winter, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the introduction of a Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) for an Academic Site Management Organization (SMO) we had to determine the requirements such a system has to meet. By performing extensive Requirements Engineering, we aimed at raising the success of the future system and the user satisfaction. Investigations revealed the existence of TORE (Task and Object-oriented Requirements Engineering), a task-driven approach for determining requirements on user interface- and information-intensive systems. In this paper, we present an adoption of this method for our purposes, resulting in a reasonable list of requirements for CTMS acquisition.

  17. System requirements and design features of Space Station Remote Manipulator System mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Hayes, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a long robotic arm for handling large objects/payloads on the International Space Station Freedom. The mechanical components of the SSRMS include seven joints, two latching end effectors (LEEs), and two boom assemblies. The joints and LEEs are complex aerospace mechanisms. The system requirements and design features of these mechanisms are presented. All seven joints of the SSRMS have identical functional performance. The two LEES are identical. This feature allows either end of the SSRMS to be used as tip or base. As compared to the end effector of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, the LEE has a latch and umbilical mechanism in addition to the snare and rigidize mechanisms. The latches increase the interface preload and allow large payloads (up to 116,000 Kg) to be handled. The umbilical connectors provide power, data, and video signal transfer capability to/from the SSRMS.

  18. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    This project is part of the Photo Audiovisual Management System (PAMS). The project was initially identified in 1989 and has since been has been worked on under various names such as Image Retrieval and Viewing System, Photo Image Retrieval Subsystem and Image Processing and Compression System. This document builds upon the information collected and the analysis performed in the earlier phases of this project. The PAMS Photo Imaging subsystem will provide the means of capturing low resolution digital images from Photography`s negative files and associating the digital images with a record in the PAMS photo database. The digital images and key photo identification information will be accessible to HAN users to assist in locating and identifying specific photographs. After identifying desired photographs, users may request photo prints or high resolution digital images directly from Photography. The digital images captured by this project are for identification purposes only and are not intended to be of sufficient quality for subsequent use.

  19. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams...

  20. Development of an Automated Requirements Management System for the Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Geoff

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Requirements Management System, which is being developed to support traceability and documentation of Space Station Freedom requirements, is described. The objectives of requirements management are validation and verification. Other benefits include comprehensive analytical capabilities, commonality and timeliness of requirements information availability across the program, and the reduction of information duplication and overlap.

  1. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  2. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers. (i) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of recirculating... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or any...

  3. ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM EVOLUTION AND BASEL II REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOLAU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1989, Romanian Banking System was structured in the specific way of a centralized economy. Restructuring of the banking system took its first step at the end of 1990 when the newly- established bank, Banca Comercială Română, took over retail operations performed previously by the NBR. Simultaneously, some privately-owned banking companies were established and foreign banks’ branches were integrated into the domestic banking activity, the number of banks almost trebling. The unfriendly economic environment, the poor quality of bank managers and shareholders and cumbersome legal procedures led to an increase in tensions, the poor quality of credit portfolio representing the major difficulty of the banking sector. In the past years, NBR tried to control more thebanking activity by implementing international settlements. More over, since Romania is one of the European Union countries, it is absolutely necessary the harmonization of entire economic and financial system to EU regulations. The paper try to present the position of Romanian banking system in the framework of all these transformations.

  4. 48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... analysis of the total value, in terms of innovative design, life-cycle costs, and other pertinent factors... performance-based logistics arrangements as well as to weapon systems and subsystems that are to be supported... include, but are not limited to, cost-effective measures intended to achieve the following: (i...

  5. Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System: Contact Management Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    thus facilitating the identification of critical information. The radio network is also open to anyone in the Action Information Organization , so...submarine is the responsibility of all crew. Anyone in the Action Information Organization can contribute to decision making regarding safety...system, situation awareness of the SAC and the broader Action Information Organization , ability to prioritize contacts, and ability to effectively

  6. 28 CFR 544.74 - Work assignment limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appointment and promotion apply to all inmates, including those exempted from required participation in the... incentive pay position. (3) If labor force needs require, an inmate who does not meet the literacy requirement may be assigned to an industrial non-graded incentive pay position if the inmate is simultaneously...

  7. Who benefits from homework assignments?

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Using Dutch data on pupils in elementary school this paper is the first empirical study that analyzes whether assigning homework has an heterogeneous impact on pupil achievement. Addressing potential biases that arise from unobserved school quality, pupil selection by exploiting different methods, I find that the test score gap is larger in classes where everybody gets homework than in classes where nobody gets homework. More precisely pupils belonging to the upper part of the so...

  8. SKU assignment to unidirectional picking lines using correlations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clustering storage assignment policy was further expanded as three sequential steps ... determine the next SKU to assign to a cluster, had a risk of generating correlated couplets of SKUs instead of ..... an order picking system: an application to the food service industry, International Journal of Logistics. Research and ...

  9. 76 FR 34658 - The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA.... ACTION: Further Notice of Inquiry. ] SUMMARY: Critical to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) is the continued performance of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions. The IANA functions have...

  10. Software Requirements for a System to Compute Mean Failure Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder. We also demonstrated this infrastructure through the results of security breakdowns for the ecommerce case. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by an application that supports the computation of the Mean Failure Cost (MFC) for each stakeholder.

  11. 30 CFR 764.21 - Data base and inventory system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data base and inventory system requirements... SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 764.21 Data base and inventory system requirements. (a) The regulatory authority shall develop a data base and inventory system which will permit evaluation of whether reclamation...

  12. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a) Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment must meet the technical requirements of the...

  13. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  14. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  15. A Balanced Approach to Capturing User Requirements in Business- to- Consumer Web Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lane

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of business-to-consumer web information systems pose special challenges in the requirements analysis phase. It is difficult to capture user requirements given that users are relatively autonomous and anonymous and there are no major incentives for users to become involved in the development of a web information system. The researchers reviewed traditional requirement elicitation techniques, marketing research techniques and web usage analysis techniques. Current practice was assessed and the findings suggest that a balanced approach to user requirements capture will result in more complete and user centred requirements. This approach should lead to more effective business-to consumer web information systems.

  16. SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    2003-08-01

    Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics

  17. Powerful nuclear technology, anywhere, requires functioning system of free elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2000-03-01

    Historical development on our planet, utilizing the knowledge of physics, has reached a powerful technology of nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles, conceivably controllable through a computerized ``push-button". Whenever this technology falls under the control of an irresponsible, miscalculating, or, insane, dictator, with powerful means of a mass-produced nuclear built-up, anywhere on our planet, the very survival of all humanity on our planet could be threatened. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that this technology is under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently secure system of free elections, in any country on our planet, wherever and whenever such a threatening possibility exists.

  18. 46 CFR 62.35-50 - Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for specific systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital... lubrication Pressure Low Main propulsion, controllable pitch propeller Hydraulic oil Pressure High, Low...

  19. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Magd A.; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is delivered through a didactic, blended learning, and mixed models. Students are supposed to construct an answerable question in PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework, acquire evidence through search of literature, appraise evidence, apply it to the clinical case scenario, and assess the evidence in relation to clinical context. Yet these teaching models have limitations especially those related to group work, for example, handling uncooperative students, students who fail to contribute, students who domineer, students who have personal conflict, their impact upon progress of their groups, and inconsistent individual acquisition of required skills. At Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, we designed a novel undergraduate pediatric EBM assignment online system to overcome shortcomings of previous didactic method and aimed to assess its effectiveness by prospective follow-up during academic years 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. The novel web-based online interactive system was tailored to provide sequential single and group assignments for each student. Single assignment addressed a specific case scenario question, while group assignment was teamwork that addressed different questions of same case scenario. Assignment comprised scholar content and skills. We objectively analyzed students’ performance by criterion-based assessment and subjectively by anonymous student questionnaire. A total of 2879 were enrolled in 5th year Pediatrics Course consecutively, of them 2779 (96.5%) logged in and 2554 (88.7%) submitted their work. They were randomly assigned to 292 groups. A total of 2277 (89.15%) achieved ≥80% of total mark (4/5), of them 717 (28.1%) achieved a full mark. A total of 2178 (85.27%) and 2359 (92.36%) made evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in single and group assignment, respectively (P < 0.001). A total of 1102 (43.1%) answered student questionnaire

  20. The structure of the total capital requirement after the implementation of Capital Requirements Directive in the Polish banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Wiszniowski

    2009-01-01

    One of the key elements of effective financial banking management is the ability to quickly identify and determine the degree of risk a bank faces as a result of hazardous actions it undertakes. The rules of the market research existing in the Polish banking system for more than two years are based on regulations adopted by the European Parliament. The present article discusses the risks and their significance in the total capital requirement when calculating the solvency ratio. The analysis ...

  1. Wavelength Assignment in Hybrid Quantum-Classical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A

    2018-02-22

    Optimal wavelength assignment in dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) systems that integrate both quantum and classical channels is studied. In such systems, weak quantum key distribution (QKD) signals travel alongside intense classical signals on the same fiber, where the former can be masked by the background noise induced by the latter. Here, we investigate how optimal wavelength assignment can mitigate this problem. We consider different DWDM structures and various sources of crosstalk and propose several near-optimal wavelength assignment methods that maximize the total secret key rate of the QKD channels. Our numerical results show that the optimum wavelength assignment pattern is commonly consisted of several interspersed quantum and classical bands. Using our proposed techniques, the total secret key rate of quantum channels can substantially be improved, as compared to conventional assignment methods, in the noise dominated regimes. Alternatively, we can maximize the number of QKD users supported under certain key rate constraints.

  2. Transformation of visual direction requires the cognitive visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Bruce

    2001-06-01

    We differentiate a cognitive branch of the visual system form a sensorimotor branch with the Roelofs effect, a perception that a target's position is biased in the direction opposite the offset of a surrounding fame. When a small fixed target is presented inside a frame that is offset to one side, normal humans perceive the target to be deviated in the direction opposite the frame's offset. They can still jab the target accurately, however, even though it is perceptually mislocalized. This dissociation indicates that motor coordinates are coded in a 'sensorimotor', possibly dorsal, pathway containing visual information that can be inconsistent with perceived information in a 'cognitive', possibly ventral pathway. Lack of a Roelofs effect indicates use of information in the sensorimotor pathway, independent from perception. We ask whether the sensorimotor pathway can handle a transformation of target position, in an anti-jabbing task analogous to anti-saccade tasks: the observer jabs a position symmetrically opposite the target's position, relative to the midline of the head. A 1 deg left or right. Observers were to jab the symmetrically opposite position as soon as the target disappeared. The result was a large and consistent Roelofs effect for an open-loop motor task, indicating that information from the cognitive pathway must be used to perform this task.

  3. Design requirements of instrumentation and control systems for next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Lee, Byung Sun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Park, Heu Yoon; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Jung Taek; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chul Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hoi; Na, Nan Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-01

    In this report, the basic design requirements of Instrumentation and Control systems for next generation reactor are described, which are top-tier level, to support the advanced I and C systems. It contains the requirements in accordance with the plant reliability, the plant performance, the operator`s aid functions, the features for maintenance and testing, licensing issues for I and C systems. Advanced I and C systems are characterized such as the application of the digital and the human engineering technologies. To development of this requirements, the I and C systems for the foreign passive and the evolutionary types of reactor and the domestic conventional reators were reviewed and anlysed. At the detail design stage, these requirements will be used for top-tier requirements. To develop the detail design requirements in the future, more quantitive and qualitive analyses are need to be added. (Author) 44 refs.

  4. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  5. Algorithm of control systems required accuracy providing under the undetermined external disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrutskyi, O.; Zagirska, I.; Stetsenko, T.

    2011-01-01

    New control algorithm and algorithm for providing required quality are defined. It based on comparison the forecast system condition, allowance conditions value, dynamic system properties and undetermined external disturbances compensation.

  6. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  7. 78 FR 47015 - Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of... 1 of RG 1.172, ``Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software used in Safety... (IEEE) Standard (Std.) 830-1998, ``IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11499 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for heat exchange systems? 63.11499 Section 63.11499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? (a) If the cooling water flow rate in your heat... part 211, you may use the physical integrity of the reactor as the surrogate indicator of heat...

  9. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  10. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... water; (iii) Eliminate the source of contamination; or (iv) Provide treatment that reliably achieves at...

  11. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment...

  12. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  13. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  14. Formal Modeling of Safety Requirements in the Model-Driven Development of Safety Critical Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sojer, Dominik;Buckl, Christian;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Safety requirements are a very important artifact in the developmentof safety critical embedded systems. They are usually identifiedduring safety analyses and are used by experts as a basis for thecorrect selection and implementation of safety mechanisms. Varioussafety analysis research groups have worked on formal modeling ofsafety requirements with the goal of determining if a system canmeet these requirements. In this abstract, we propose the applicationof formal models of safety requireme...

  15. A singular value sensitivity approach to robust eigenstructure assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1986-01-01

    A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows for the ......A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows...

  16. Constellation Program Human-System Integration Requirements. Revision E, Nov. 19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) in this document drive the design of space vehicles, their systems, and equipment with which humans interface in the Constellation Program (CxP). These requirements ensure that the design of Constellation (Cx) systems is centered on the needs, capabilities, and limitations of the human. The HSIR provides requirements to ensure proper integration of human-to-system interfaces. These requirements apply to all mission phases, including pre-launch, ascent, Earth orbit, trans-lunar flight, lunar orbit, lunar landing, lunar ascent, Earth return, Earth entry, Earth landing, post-landing, and recovery. The Constellation Program must meet NASA's Agency-level human rating requirements, which are intended to ensure crew survival without permanent disability. The HSIR provides a key mechanism for achieving human rating of Constellation systems.

  17. Electre tri method used to storage location assignment into categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Day after day, the importance of a company having an efficient storage location assignment system increases. Moreover, since products have different warehouse costs and customers' requirements are also different, it is important to sort products in order to adopt strategies for inventory management that are appropriate for each product. However, adopting a policy for each product is not applicable in the real world. Therefore, companies usually categorize products into classes and thereafter adopt specific inventory management policies. Given this situation, this paper puts forward the arguments for adopting a multi-criteria method, Electre TRI, to sort products that both considers criteria relating to the characteristics of a product as to its physical location in the warehouse and the criteria that are important for inventory strategies, such as, for example, the profitability of each unit held in storage.

  18. Nursing Information Systems Requirements: A Milestone for Patient Outcome and Patient Safety Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Meidani, Zahra; Riazi, Hossein; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2016-12-01

    Considering the integral role of understanding users' requirements in information system success, this research aimed to determine functional requirements of nursing information systems through a national survey. Delphi technique method was applied to conduct this study through three phases: focus group method modified Delphi technique and classic Delphi technique. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the proposed requirements within 15 general hospitals in Iran. Forty-three of 76 approved requirements were clinical, and 33 were administrative ones. Nurses' mean agreements for clinical requirements were higher than those of administrative requirements; minimum and maximum means of clinical requirements were 3.3 and 3.88, respectively. Minimum and maximum means of administrative requirements were 3.1 and 3.47, respectively. Research findings indicated that those information system requirements that support nurses in doing tasks including direct care, medicine prescription, patient treatment management, and patient safety have been the target of special attention. As nurses' requirements deal directly with patient outcome and patient safety, nursing information systems requirements should not only address automation but also nurses' tasks and work processes based on work analysis.

  19. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  20. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemant; Allard, Raymond D; Enberg, Robert; Krishnan, Ganesh; Williams, Patricia; Nadkarni, Prakash M

    2012-03-09

    A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies.

  1. A Use Case Methodology to Handle Conflicting Controller Requirements for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Uslar, Mathias; Tornelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a standards based requirements elicitation and analysis strategy tailored for smart grid control structure development. Control structures in electric power systems often span across several systems and stakeholders. Requirements elicitation for such control systems therefore...... is to describe a process starting from a tailored IEC 62559 template amended for recording controller conflicts and adapting the underlying use case management repository for collaborative work. Conflict identification is supported by Multilevel Flow Modeling providing abstracted conflict patterns....

  2. Preliminary design requirements document for the initial single-shell tank retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The scope of this Preliminary Design Requirements Document is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to demonstrate and accomplish the initial single-shell tank saltcake retrieval from selected tanks. This document sets forth functions, requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System. System and physical interfaces between the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project and the Tank Waste Remediation are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design to be documented by the project.

  3. Connecting Requirements to Architecture and Analysis via Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bjorn F.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2015-01-01

    In traditional systems engineering practice, architecture, concept development, and requirements development are related but still separate activities. Concepts for operation, key technical approaches, and related proofs of concept are developed. These inform the formulation of an architecture at multiple levels, starting with the overall system composition and functionality and progressing into more detail. As this formulation is done, a parallel activity develops a set of English statements that constrain solutions. These requirements are often called "shall statements" since they are formulated to use "shall." The separation of requirements from design is exacerbated by well-meaning tools like the Dynamic Object-Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) that remained separated from engineering design tools. With the Europa Clipper project, efforts are being taken to change the requirements development approach from a separate activity to one intimately embedded in formulation effort. This paper presents a modeling approach and related tooling to generate English requirement statements from constraints embedded in architecture definition.

  4. Enhancing requirements engineering for patient registry software systems with evidence-based components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Patient registries are instrumental for medical research. Often their structures are complex and their implementations use composite software systems to meet the wide spectrum of challenges. Commercial and open-source systems are available for registry implementation, but many research groups develop their own systems. Methodological approaches in the selection of software as well as the construction of proprietary systems are needed. We propose an evidence-based checklist, summarizing essential items for patient registry software systems (CIPROS), to accelerate the requirements engineering process. Requirements engineering activities for software systems follow traditional software requirements elicitation methods, general software requirements specification (SRS) templates, and standards. We performed a multistep procedure to develop a specific evidence-based CIPROS checklist: (1) A systematic literature review to build a comprehensive collection of technical concepts, (2) a qualitative content analysis to define a catalogue of relevant criteria, and (3) a checklist to construct a minimal appraisal standard. CIPROS is based on 64 publications and covers twelve sections with a total of 72 items. CIPROS also defines software requirements. Comparing CIPROS with traditional software requirements elicitation methods, SRS templates and standards show a broad consensus but differences in issues regarding registry-specific aspects. Using an evidence-based approach to requirements engineering for registry software adds aspects to the traditional methods and accelerates the software engineering process for registry software. The method we used to construct CIPROS serves as a potential template for creating evidence-based checklists in other fields. The CIPROS list supports developers in assessing requirements for existing systems and formulating requirements for their own systems, while strengthening the reporting of patient registry software system descriptions. It may be

  5. Generic waste management requirements for a controlled ecological life support system /CELSS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.; Hansen, B. D., III

    1981-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems for future space missions will require closure of the waste-food loop. Each mission application will generate specific requirements for the waste management system. However, there are generic input and output requirements that can be identified when a probable scenario is chosen. This paper discusses the generic requirements when higher plants are chosen as the primary food source. Attention is focused on the quality and quantity of nutrients necessary for culturing higher plants. The types of wastes to be processed are also discussed. In addition, requirements generated by growing plants on three different substrates are presented. This work suggests that the mineral composition of waste materials may require minimal adjustment to satisfy the plant requirements.

  6. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  7. The study on knowledge transferring incentive for information system requirement development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [School of Economics and Business Administration, Chongqing University (China)

    2015-03-10

    Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper.

  8. Multichannel assignment using K-Means in cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Raul Marquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The developed scheme allows carrying out the assignment of several frequency channels (both contiguous and not contiguous available to the secondary users that require a higher bandwidth, under an environment of equality. Objective: The following paper develops a multichannel assignment which allows taking in a more efficient way the spectral opportunities in cognitive radio networks. Method: The developed assignment model is composed by the K-Means algorithm, which is in charged of carrying out the grouping of channels through clusters for the best parameters, and another algorithm in charge of establishing an equal criteria for all the secondary users that wish to transmit. The reached results were evaluated with experimental spectral occupancy data taken from the GSM frequency band. The developed model was compared with the MFA-CRN algorithm. Results: The obtained measurements correspond to the average bandwidth, the average delay, and the fairness calculation in the assignment of several channels. The developed assignment model shows an improvement in the assignment of a higher transmission average bandwidth for each secondary user while maintaining the fairness criteria in the channel assignments. Conclusion: Despite the increasing in the number of handoffs, it is also observed that metrics such as average bandwidth, average throughput and average delay are never negatively impacted by this increase in handoffs.

  9. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  10. Functional requirements for the Automated Transportation Management System: TTP number: RL 439002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portsmouth, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This requirements analysis, documents Department of Energy (DOE) transportation management procedures for the purpose of providing a clear and mutual understanding between users and designers of the proposed Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). It is imperative that one understand precisely how DOE currently performs traffic management tasks; only then can an integrated system be proposed that successfully satisfies the major requirements of transportation managers and other system users. Accordingly, this report describes the current workings of DOE transportation organizations and then proposes a new system which represents a synthesis of procedures (both current and desired) which forms the basis for further systems development activities.

  11. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  12. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  13. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  14. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-08-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001-2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  15. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  16. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  17. 17 CFR 242.302 - Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative trading systems. 242.302 Section 242.302 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.302 Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems. To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(8) of § 242.301, an...

  18. 21 CFR 1311.55 - Requirements for systems used to process digitally signed orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for systems used to process digitally signed orders. 1311.55 Section 1311.55 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... deactivated, the system must clear the plain text private key from the system memory to prevent the...

  19. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  20. 49 CFR 579.25 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restraint systems. 579.25 Section 579.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 579.25 Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems. For each reporting period... introduction in interstate commerce, or imported child restraint systems into the United States, shall submit...

  1. 46 CFR 27.205 - What are the requirements for internal communication systems on towing vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for internal communication systems on towing vessels? (a) You must ensure that your vessel is fitted with a communication system between the engine room and the operating station that— (1) Consists... electrical system on your towing vessel; and (2) Provides two-way voice communication and calling between the...

  2. Identifying and confirming information and system quality requirements for multi-agency disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Appelman, J.A.; Van Zanten, B.; Zuurmond, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance and assurance of information and system quality as requirements for information systems success during disaster management. Despite the many examples of poor information quality and poor system quality, research on the relevance and assurance of these

  3. Effects of an Explicit Assignment on Task Identification in College Students with Writing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilk, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding writing assignments is critical to college students' success as they transition from high school to postsecondary environments, but students with writing difficulties struggle to extrapolate required tasks from assignments presented in narrative form. The researcher examined the ability of students to identify assignment tasks when…

  4. INDEXING WORKSHOP: HOW TO ASSIGN KEYWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-09-01

    You have heard about issues surrounding indexing and retrieval of nuclear records and automation and micrographics of these records. Now we are going to get each of you involved in indexing and assigning keywords. The first part of this hands-on workshop will be a very basic, elementary step-by-step introduction, concentrating on how to assign keywords. It is a workshop for beginners, People who have never done it before. It is planned to demonstrate what an analyst has to do to index and assign keywords to a document. Then I will take some pages of a report and demonstrate how I choose keywords for it. Then each of you will have a chance to do the same thing with similar pages from another report. Then we will discuss the variations ln the keywords you individually assigned. There are many systems that can be used. In this particular workshop we will cover only a system of building your own keyword listing as you index your documents. We will be discussing keywords or descriptors or subject words, but first I want to point out a few other critical points about indexing. When developing an indexing project the most important thing to do first lS decide what elements you want to retrieve by. Whether you go into a large computer retrieval system or a small three-by-five card system, you have to decide in advance what you want to retrieve. Then you can go on from there. If you only need to search by equipment number or by purchase order or by contract number, then you can use a very simple retrieval system. But if you want to be able to retrieve a record by any combination of elements, then you have to consistently input these into your system. For example, if you want to be able to ask for the drawings of the piping in the secondary cooling system, level 3, manufactured by a certain vendor, then you must have put the information into the index by a retrieval file point, in advance. I want to stress that the time spent in deciding what has to be retrievable is never

  5. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  6. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  7. Cleared for Launch - Lessons Learned from the OSIRIS-REx System Requirements Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig; Adams, Angela; Williams, Bradley; Goodloe, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Requirements verification of a large flight system is a challenge. It is especially challenging for engineers taking on their first role in space systems engineering. This paper describes our approach to verification of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) system requirements. It also captures lessons learned along the way from developing systems engineers embroiled in this process. We begin with an overview of the mission and science objectives as well as the project requirements verification program strategy. A description of the requirements flow down is presented including our implementation for managing the thousands of program and element level requirements and associated verification data. We discuss both successes and methods to improve the managing of this data across multiple organizational interfaces. Our approach to verifying system requirements at multiple levels of assembly is presented using examples from our work at instrument, spacecraft, and ground segment levels. We include a discussion of system end-to-end testing limitations and their impacts to the verification program. Finally, we describe lessons learned that are applicable to all emerging space systems engineers using our unique perspectives across multiple organizations of a large NASA program.

  8. Computer-Assisted Traffic Engineering Using Assignment, Optimal Signal Setting, and Modal Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Methods of traffic assignment, traffic signal setting, and modal split analysis are combined in a set of computer-assisted traffic engineering programs. The system optimization and user optimization traffic assignments are described. Travel time func...

  9. International Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) Project Technical Requirements Specification, Revision F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Docking System (NDS) is NASA's implementation for the emerging International Docking System Standard (IDSS) using low impact docking technology. The NASA Docking System Project (NDSP) is the International Space Station (ISS) Program's project to produce the NDS, Common Docking Adapter (CDA) and Docking Hub. The NDS design evolved from the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). The acronym international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) is also used to describe this system as well as the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project designing the NDS for the NDSP. NDS and iLIDS may be used interchangeability. This document will use the acronym iLIDS. Some of the heritage documentation and implementations (e.g., software command names, requirement identification (ID), figures, etc.) used on NDS will continue to use the LIDS acronym. This specification defines the technical requirements for the iLIDS GFE delivered to the NDSP by the iLIDS project. This document contains requirements for two iLIDS configurations, SEZ29101800-301 and SEZ29101800-302. Requirements with the statement, iLIDS shall, are for all configurations. Examples of requirements that are unique to a single configuration may be identified as iLIDS (-301) shall or iLIDS (-302) shall. Furthermore, to allow a requirement to encompass all configurations with an exception, the requirement may be designated as iLIDS (excluding -302) shall. Verification requirements for the iLIDS project are identified in the Verification Matrix (VM) provided in the iLIDS Verification and Validation Document, JSC-63966. The following definitions differentiate between requirements and other statements: Shall: This is the only verb used for the binding requirements. Should/May: These verbs are used for stating non-mandatory goals. Will: This verb is used for stating facts or declaration of purpose. A Definition of Terms table is provided in Appendix B to define those terms with specific tailored uses in this document.

  10. Review on Requirements Modeling and Analysis for Self-Adaptive Systems: A Ten-Year Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhuoqun; Li, Zhi; Jin, Zhi; Zhang, He

    2017-01-01

    Context: Over the last decade, software researchers and engineers have developed a vast body of methodologies and technologies in requirements engineering for self-adaptive systems. Although existing studies have explored various aspects of this field, no systematic study has been performed on summarizing modeling methods and corresponding requirements activities. Objective: This study summarizes the state-of-the-art research trends, details the modeling methods and corresponding requirements...

  11. The determination of user information requirements during the development of management information systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardella, Paul Richard Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited One of the major causes for the failure of Management Information Systems (MIS) is that they do not satisfy the users' information requirements. This, in turn, is most often caused by the fact that those requirements are difficult to obtain accurately and completely. Simply "asking" the user what he needs is inadequate. This thesis reviews the Information Requirements Analysis (IRA) literature, briefly describing some of the techniq...

  12. NASA Requirements for Ground-Based Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems (PVS). Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Owen Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to ensure the structural integrity of PVS through implementation of a minimum set of requirements for ground-based PVS in accordance with this document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 8710.5, NASA Safety Policy for Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Systems, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements, applicable Federal Regulations, and national consensus codes and standards (NCS).

  13. Designing assignment using authentic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This research is conducted to get an overview of the use of authentic assessment in the department of chemistry education, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research was conducted on the students of semester five, odd semester of academic year 2016/2017. Authentic assessment is an assessment process that is capable of measuring the knowledge, attitudes and skills of learners. Chemistry teacher candidates are required to be equipped with teaching and judging skills. Teachers were required can design and carry out assessment of the process and learning outcomes of students in an objective, accountable, and informative. Teacher creativity is required in the assessment. Therefore, authentic assessment is very appropriate used to improve the competence of students in education department as teachers candidates in the preparation of learning assessments.

  14. Extending and automating a Systems-Theoretic hazard analysis for requirements generation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

    2012-05-01

    Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a powerful new hazard analysis method designed to go beyond traditional safety techniques - such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) - that overlook important causes of accidents like flawed requirements, dysfunctional component interactions, and software errors. While proving to be very effective on real systems, no formal structure has been defined for STPA and its application has been ad-hoc with no rigorous procedures or model-based design tools. This report defines a formal mathematical structure underlying STPA and describes a procedure for systematically performing an STPA analysis based on that structure. A method for using the results of the hazard analysis to generate formal safety-critical, model-based system and software requirements is also presented. Techniques to automate both the analysis and the requirements generation are introduced, as well as a method to detect conflicts between the safety and other functional model-based requirements during early development of the system.

  15. Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology, 3(4), 404-423.

  16. Towards an Automated Requirements-driven Development of Smart Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vinarek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Invariant Refinement Method for Self Adaptation (IRM-SA is a design method targeting development of smart Cyber-Physical Systems (sCPS. It allows for a systematic translation of the system requirements into the system architecture expressed as an ensemble-based component system (EBCS. However, since the requirements are captured using natural language, there exists the danger of their misinterpretation due to natural language requirements' ambiguity, which could eventually lead to design errors. Thus, automation and validation of the design process is desirable. In this paper, we (i analyze the translation process of natural language requirements into the IRM-SA model, (ii identify individual steps that can be automated and/or validated using natural language processing techniques, and (iii propose suitable methods.

  17. The FDA and worldwide quality system requirements guidebook for medical devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Amiram; Kimmelman, Ed; Trautman, Kimberly A

    2008-01-01

    "This new and expanded second edition maintains the organizational approach of the first and includes the requirements and guidance contained in the Quality System Regulation (QSReg), the ISO 13485...

  18. CCIR paper on the radiocommunications requirements for systems to search for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, D.

    1978-01-01

    The allocation and propagation of radio frequency bands to be used in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is considered. Topics discussed include: propagation factors; preferred frequency bands; system characteristics and requirements; and interference.

  19. From Collective Knowledge to Intelligence : Pre-Requirements Analysis of Large and Complex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; He, Keqing; Xu, Lai

    2010-01-01

    Requirements engineering is essentially a social collaborative activity in which involved stakeholders have to closely work together to communicate, elicit, negotiate, define, confirm, and finally come up with the requirements for the system to be implemented or upgraded. In the development of large

  20. Teaching Management Information Systems as a General Education Requirement (GER) Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoanca, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Although many IS programs nationwide use capstone courses in the major, this paper reports on the use of an upper division Management Information Systems (MIS) class as a general education requirements (GER) capstone. The class is a core requirement for all majors in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) program at the University of Alaska…

  1. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  2. 47 CFR 15.515 - Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.515 Technical requirements for vehicular radar systems. (a) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to UWB field disturbance sensors mounted in... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for vehicular radar...

  3. Implementation of an agile maintenance mechanic assignment methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jesus A.; Quintana, Rolando

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a decision support system (DSS) to study the impact of introducing new equipment into a medical apparel plant from a maintenance organizational structure perspective. This system will enable the company to determine if their capacity is sufficient to meet current maintenance challenges. The DSS contains two database sets that describe equipment and maintenance resource profiles. The equipment profile specifies data such as mean time to failures, mean time to repairs, and minimum mechanic skill level required to fix each machine group. Similarly, maintenance-resource profile reports information about the mechanic staff, such as number and type of certifications received, education level, and experience. The DSS will then use this information to minimize machine downtime by assigning the highest skilled mechanics to machines with higher complexity and product value. A modified version of the simplex method, the transportation problem, was used to perform the optimization. The DSS was built using the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) language contained in the Microsoft Excel environment. A case study was developed from current existing data. The analysis consisted of forty-two machine groups and six mechanic categories with ten skill levels. Results showed that only 56% of the mechanic workforce was utilized. Thus, the company had available resources for meeting future maintenance requirements.

  4. Meta-Model and UML Profile for Requirements Management of Software and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpinen Tero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software and embedded system companies today encounter problems related to requirements management tool integration, incorrect tool usage, and lack of traceability. This is due to utilized tools with no clear meta-model and semantics to communicate requirements between different stakeholders. This paper presents a comprehensive meta-model for requirements management. The focus is on software and embedded system domains. The goal is to define generic requirements management domain concepts and abstract interfaces between requirements management and system development. This leads to a portable requirements management meta-model which can be adapted with various system modeling languages. The created meta-model is prototyped by translating it into a UML profile. The profile is imported into a UML tool which is used for rapid evaluation of meta-model concepts in practice. The developed profile is associated with a proof of concept report generator tool that automatically produces up-to-date documentation from the models in form of web pages. The profile is adopted to create an example model of embedded system requirement specification which is built with the profile.

  5. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  6. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  7. A Framework to Determine New System Requirements Under Design Parameter and Demand Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    A FRAMEWORK TO DETERMINE NEW SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS UNDER DESIGN PARAMETER AND DEMAND UNCERTAINTIES Parithi Govindaraju, Navindran Davendralingam...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Framework to Determine New System Requirements Under Design Parameter and Demand Uncertainties...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Purdue University,School of Aeronautics and Astronautics ,701 W. Stadium Ave,West Lafayette,IN,47907-2045 8

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  9. A Study of Laser System Requirements for Application in Beam Diagnostics And Polarimetry at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, S.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Howell, D.F.; Peach, K.; Quelch, G.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; /Oxford U.; Hirst, G.; Ross, I.; /Rutherford; Urakawa, J.; /KEK,; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Brachmann,; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Advanced laser systems will be essential for a range of diagnostics devices and polarimetry at the ILC. High average power, high beam quality, excellent stability and reliability will be crucial in order to deliver the information required to attain the necessary ILC luminosity as well as for efficient polarimetry. The key parameters are listed together with the R & D required to achieve the necessary laser system performance.

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  11. Development of the switch requirements and architecture of a safety data communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.I.; Lee, J.K.; Park, H.Y.; Koo, I.S

    2004-12-01

    In accordance with digitalising the Instrumentation and Control(I and C) systems in the integral reactor, a communication network is required for effective information exchanges between the different equipment, an enhancement of the design flexibility, a simple installation and cost reduction. Generally, a communication network consists of a topology, the protocol, a communication medium, an interconnection device, etc. In this report, the development methods of switch and the architecture of a Safety Data Communication System(SDCS) are investigated and analyzed. In this report, the design requirements for switch are presented, which are the essential requirements to develop the switch in a SDCS of the SMART-P. To establish these requirements, the evaluation and analysis of the design and implementation method of the COTS switches, the architecture of SDCS and the design requirements of a SDCS were performed. At the detail design stage, these requirements will be used for the top-tier requirements, especially the design target and design basis. To develop the detail design requirements in the future, more quantitative and qualitative analyses are required. In the case of selecting the COTS switch and developing the switch, these requirements will also be used for the evaluation guide.

  12. Transforming user needs into functional requirements for an antibiotic clinical decision support system: explicating content analysis for system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, T J

    2013-01-01

    Many informatics studies use content analysis to generate functional requirements for system development. Explication of this translational process from qualitative data to functional requirements can strengthen the understanding and scientific rigor when applying content analysis in informatics studies. To describe a user-centered approach transforming emergent themes derived from focus group data into functional requirements for informatics solutions and to illustrate these methods to the development of an antibiotic clinical decision support system (CDS). THE APPROACH CONSISTED OF FIVE STEPS: 1) identify unmet therapeutic planning information needs via Focus Group Study-I, 2) develop a coding framework of therapeutic planning themes to refine the domain scope to antibiotic therapeutic planning, 3) identify functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system via Focus Group Study-II, 4) discover informatics solutions and functional requirements from coded data, and 5) determine the types of information needed to support the antibiotic CDS system and link with the identified informatics solutions and functional requirements. The coding framework for Focus Group Study-I revealed unmet therapeutic planning needs. Twelve subthemes emerged and were clustered into four themes; analysis indicated a need for an antibiotic CDS intervention. Focus Group Study-II included five types of information needs. Comments from the Barrier/Challenge to information access and Function/Feature themes produced three informatics solutions and 13 functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system. Comments from the Patient, Institution, and Domain themes generated required data elements for each informatics solution. This study presents one example explicating content analysis of focus group data and the analysis process to functional requirements from narrative data. Illustration of this 5-step method was used to develop an antibiotic CDS system, resolving unmet antibiotic prescribing

  13. Prefrontal Neurons Encode a Solution to the Credit-Assignment Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Lauro, Peter M; Perge, János A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2017-07-19

    To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit-assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem. We found that neurons conveyed the information necessary for credit assignment. Specifically, neuronal activity reflected both the relevant cues and outcomes at the time of feedback and did so in a manner that was stable over time, in contrast to prior reports of representational instability in the dlPFC. Furthermore, these representations were most stable early in learning, when credit assignment was most needed. When the same features were not needed for credit assignment, these neuronal representations were much weaker or absent. These results demonstrate that the activity of dlPFC neurons conforms to the basic requirements of a system that performs credit assignment, and that spiking activity can serve as a stable mechanism that links causes and effects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Credit assignment is the process by which we infer the causes of our successes and failures. We found that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex conveyed the necessary information for performing credit assignment. Importantly, while there are various potential mechanisms to retain a "trace" of the causal events over time, we observed that spiking activity was sufficiently stable to act as the link between causes and effects, in contrast to prior reports that suggested spiking representations were

  14. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one of the m......To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one...... of the most desirable and important functions within Distribution Automation systems and DMSs. The overall Volt/Var control function is concerned with maintaining system voltage profile within a desired range and minimizing system losses by controlling the reactive power flow. The main objective of this paper...

  15. Reduced tillage systems for irrigated cotton: Energy requirements and crop response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W.; Thacker, G. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Arizona law mandates that plant material left in the field following cotton harvest be buried to reduce overwintering sites for insects. Conventional operations which accomplish this are energy-intensive. Reduced tillage systems offer significant energy savings over conventional systems, however growers have expressed concerns that compaction will increase over time, with resultant yield reduction. To address this concern, two reduced tillage systems were compared to a conventional system over six reasons at one site, while at another site, four reduced tillage systems were compared to the same conventional system over three seasons. The reduced tillage systems required significantly indicates that growers can reduce the inputs required to produce irrigated cotton, without negatively impacting yield, at least over the time intervals examined.

  16. A case study in specifying data requirements for a decision support system database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, V.

    1990-08-01

    An atomic database is a collection of detailed and archival data primarily used to support a decision support system (DSS). Typically, atomic data are generated externally from other sources. In order to build an atomic data base in which data represent the information the DSS users expect, detailed data requirements must be specified to the source system. The basic types of information a source system needs are a list of required data items, the frequency and terms of data needs, and the method of interface. A detailed list of required items recommended for inclusion in any specifications of external data requirements is presented in this paper. Because of the volume of information involved in such specifications, a matrix presentation is believed to be the best organizational format to describe the requirements concisely and precisely. The specifications of external data requirements written for the Worldwide Household Goods Information System for Transportation Modernization (WHIST-MOD) project for the Personal Property Directorate (MTPP) of the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) are presented as a case study in this paper. It has been shown that the specifications in this case study effectively serve the objective of such a document. It is recommended that the concept presented in this paper be used as a guideline in specifying data requirements for an atomic database. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  18. On Early Conflict Identification by Requirements Modeling of Energy System Control Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Control systems are purposeful systems involving goal-oriented information processing (cyber) and technical (physical) structures. Requirements modeling formalizes fundamental concepts and relations of a system architecture at a high-level design stage and can be used to identify potential design...... issues early. For requirements formulation of control structures, cyber and physical aspects need to be jointly represented to express interdependencies, check for consistency and discover potentially conflicting requirements. Early identification of potential conflicts may prevent larger problems...... at later design stages. However, languages employed for requirements modeling today do not offer the expressiveness necessary to represent control purposes in relation to domain level interactions and therefore miss several types of interdependencies. This paper introduces the idea of control structure...

  19. Architecturally Significant Requirements Identification, Classification and Change Management for Multi-tenant Cloud-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    requirements (such as scalability, reliability, and interoperability) are handled in the overall architecture design of a cloud-based system. It is important to distinguish tenant-specific run-time architecturally significant quality requirements and corresponding cloud-based systems’ components so that run...... identification, classification, and change management challenges. We have explored findings from systematic as well as structured reviews of the literature on quality requirements of the cloud-based systems including but not limited to security, availability, scalability, privacy, and multi-tenancy. We have...... presented a framework for requirements classification and change management focusing on distributed Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) systems as well as complex software ecosystems that are built using PaaS and SaaS, such as Tools as a Service (TaaS). We have demonstrated...

  20. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  1. NMR assignments of sparsely labeled proteins using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Chalmers, Gordon R; Moremen, Kelley W; Prestegard, James H

    2017-04-01

    Sparse isotopic labeling of proteins for NMR studies using single types of amino acid ((15)N or (13)C enriched) has several advantages. Resolution is enhanced by reducing numbers of resonances for large proteins, and isotopic labeling becomes economically feasible for glycoproteins that must be expressed in mammalian cells. However, without access to the traditional triple resonance strategies that require uniform isotopic labeling, NMR assignment of crosspeaks in heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra is challenging. We present an alternative strategy which combines readily accessible NMR data with known protein domain structures. Based on the structures, chemical shifts are predicted, NOE cross-peak lists are generated, and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) are calculated for each labeled site. Simulated data are then compared to measured values for a trial set of assignments and scored. A genetic algorithm uses the scores to search for an optimal pairing of HSQC crosspeaks with labeled sites. While none of the individual data types can give a definitive assignment for a particular site, their combination can in most cases. Four test proteins previously assigned using triple resonance methods and a sparsely labeled glycosylated protein, Robo1, previously assigned by manual analysis, are used to validate the method and develop a criterion for identifying sites assigned with high confidence.

  2. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  3. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  4. Telecommunications system architecture and technology requirements for future human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A. L.; Sue, M. K.; Hall, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The Mars telecommunications system as currently conceived at JPL calls for the use of multifrequency bands in combination with advanced space and ground technologies. This paper reviews the architecture and technology requirements for the telecommunications system. It also presents an overview of the technology development plan.

  5. 40 CFR 267.198 - What are the general operating requirements for my tank systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.198 What are the general operating... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the general operating requirements for my tank systems? 267.198 Section 267.198 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. Requirements and Matching Software Technologies for Sustainable and Agile Manufacturing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal Muller; Daniël Telgen; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable and Agile manufacturing is expected of future generation manufacturing systems. The goal is to create scalable, reconfigurable and adaptable manufacturing systems which are able to produce a range of products without new investments into new manufacturing equipment. This requires a new

  7. 20 CFR 670.530 - Are Job Corps centers required to maintain a student accountability system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accountability system? Yes, each Job Corps center must establish and operate an effective system to account for... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps centers required to maintain a... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Program...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways of...

  9. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  10. Software requirements elicitation to support internal monitoring of quality assurance system for higher education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-02-01

    The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.

  11. ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PRICING SYSTEM IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the pricing system and underlying investment and construction activities were analyzed by the authors in their research. It is noteworthy that the pricing system has a common basis with other human systems, as it incorporates such constituents as process, people, software, etc. Correct interaction between these elements ensures conformity between the anticipated and the practical performance of the system. The basis for the effective operation of the existing system and reduction of potential risks consists in early identification and analysis of requirements set by the user. Absent of implementation of an effective requirement management process, the pattern of the system development will look chaotic and unpredictable. In the process of the data analysis, the data set is converted into a set of the user requirements describing the anticipated behavior of the system in the course of its interaction with the operating environment. The requirements of users comprise an important constituent of the system design. They affect the entire development process from the beginning to the very end. In accordance with the principles of the system engineering, the authors have identified the key pricing system parameters; their implementation assures the appropriate functionality with a view to the formation of the contract price at various stages of the life-cycle of the investment project. Analysis of the above requirements makes it possible to convert them into a technical vision of the desired product that can demonstrate the required functionality. The methodology proposed by the authors contemplates decomposition of the levels of requirements; therefore, the authors employ a three-level model that describes the expected functionality of the system. The model includes an organizational level (basic processes, participants, information flows, a methodological level (method of calculating the cost of design, construction and operation

  12. User requirements for NASA data base management systems. Part 1: Oceanographic discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, B.

    1981-01-01

    Generic oceanographic user requirements were collected and analyzed for use in developing a general multipurpose data base management system for future missions of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA) of NASA. The collection of user requirements involved; studying the state-of-the-art technology in data base management systems; analyzing the results of related studies; formulating a viable and diverse list of scientists to be interviewed; developing a presentation format and materials; and interviewing oceanographic data users. More effective data management systems are needed to handle the increasing influx of data.

  13. Avionics system design for requirements for the United States Coast Guard HH-65A Dolphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation (AHC) was awarded a contract by the United States Coast Guard for a new Short Range Recovery (SRR) Helicopter on 14 June 1979. The award was based upon an overall evaluation of performance, cost, and technical suitability. In this last respect, the SRR helicopter was required to meet a wide variety of mission needs for which the integrated avionics system has a high importance. This paper illustrates the rationale for the avionics system requirements, the system architecture, its capabilities and reliability and its adaptability to a wide variety of military and commercial purposes.

  14. Object Oriented Modeling of a Tutorial System for Major Risks Management – Requirements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica MIHALCA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues concerning major risks management are very important at European level and they have been described in two EU directives, Seveso I and Seveso II. Romanian Integration in EU is conditioned by the implementation of these directives, especially Seveso II, in Romanian economy. The directives are very complex, their management and implementation requiring qualified staff. The training of the employees requires adequate training systems, including computer aided training systems. Such system must offer a framework made of legislation issues (both Romanian and European and also case studies that depict accidents in major risks field.

  15. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  16. Understanding requirements of novel healthcare information systems for management of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Amol S; Fung, Maggie; Nelson, Colleen C

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of chronic diseases is a global health priority. A healthcare information system offers opportunities to address challenges of chronic disease management. However, the requirements of health information systems are often not well understood. The accuracy of requirements has a direct impact on the successful design and implementation of a health information system. Our research describes methods used to understand the requirements of health information systems for advanced prostate cancer management. The research conducted a survey to identify heterogeneous sources of clinical records. Our research showed that the General Practitioner was the common source of patient's clinical records (41%) followed by the Urologist (14%) and other clinicians (14%). Our research describes a method to identify diverse data sources and proposes a novel patient journey browser prototype that integrates disparate data sources.

  17. Postures and Motions Library Development for Verification of Ground Crew Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mariea Dunn; Dischinger, Charles; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a Primitive motion capture library. The Library will be used by the human factors engineering in the future to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the Primitive models are being developed for the library the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed for the SLS and Orion launch systems. This paper explains how the Motion Capture of unique ground systems activities are being used to verify the human factors analysis requirements for ground system used to process the STS and Orion vehicles, and how the primitive models will be applied to future spacecraft and launch vehicle processing.

  18. 40 CFR 141.521 - What updated watershed control requirements must my unfiltered system implement to continue to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements must my unfiltered system implement to continue to avoid filtration? 141.521 Section 141.521... People Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.521 What updated watershed control requirements must my unfiltered system implement to continue to avoid filtration? Your system must...

  19. Weapon System Requirements: Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    report on systems engineering status of each major acquisition program in the department’s annual budget request. What GAO Found GAO’s analysis of...more detailed descriptions of the system design are established in what systems engineering literature refers to as configuration baselines. Within...does not necessarily mean that problems are unavoidable. Rather, the ensuing systems engineering effort, if timely and sufficiently vigorous, can

  20. Operational air traffic control requirements for the new Voice Switching and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, N.

    1984-01-01

    Final user requirements defined for the Voice Switching and Control System (VSCS) to be implemented for ATC functions as part of the Area Control Facility (ACF) concept for the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. The VSCS will be communications equipment at operational stations, supervisory positions, and support systems, the switching system itself, and interfaces between the VSCS and other systems. Supervisory users will include the Area Manager, Traffic Management Coordinator, a Military Operations Specialists, a Weather Coordinator, a NAS manager, Maintenance, and a flight Data Communications Specialist. The VSCS will supply computerized communications capability within and among ATC centers. Details of the efforts used to define the system requirements are recounted, noting the heavy reliance on recommendations from active ATC personnel.

  1. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  2. Library-Based Assignments That Enrich the Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the benefits of library work (and some cautions) before describing four assignments that exploit library resources: a business report assignment; a professional journal assignment; a style manual format assignment; and an international business communication assignment. (SG)

  3. Sense and avoid requirements for unmanned aircraft systems using a target level of safety approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Richard; Schrage, Daniel; Volovoi, Vitali; Jimenez, Hernando

    2014-10-01

    One of the most critical challenges to full integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) is the requirement to comply with CFR 14 Part 91.113 to "see and avoid" other aircraft. Various attempts have been made to develop systems to "sense and avoid" other aircraft so UAS can comply with the intent of the regulation. This article proposes a framework to develop effectiveness requirements for any SAA system by linking UAS characteristics and operating environments to midair collision risk quantified by a fatality rate. The framework consists of a target level of safety (TLS) approach using an event tree format. Safety has been identified as the most important consideration in the UAS integration process. While safety can be defined in many ways, the authors propose using a fatality rate metric that follows other statistics used in the industry. This metric allows for the use of a TLS approach to the development of SAA requirements for system certification. Failure to adequately link system requirements to safety could result in the implementation of SAA systems that either do not adequately mitigate the risk associated with UAS operations or are overdesigned, resulting in increased cost and complexity. This article demonstrates the use of the proposed framework to develop specific SAA effectiveness standards based on UAS weight and airspace class combinations. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  5. Insulator and Clerance Requirements in Overhead Line Transmission Systems without Shield Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically examines the required insulation lengths and clearances in 400 kV overhead line systems when not making use of ground wires as lightning protection. The influence of lightning strikes to the system is investigated based on dynamic transmission line simulations of a 400 k......V section in PSCAD/EMTDC. The performance of the system without shield wires is considerably deteriorated if no steps are taken to increase the insulation level of the system. However by increasing the insulator lengths and clearances in the system greatly the performance can be improved....

  6. National Counterdrug Center (NCC) Simulation System Operational Requirements Document (ORD) Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, Gregory M.

    2001-01-26

    This Operational Requirements Document (ORD) describes the capabilities that need to be incorporated in the NCC interactive simulation system being developed under the auspices of the NCC development program. The ORD addresses the necessary capabilities (i.e. what the system needs to be able to do); it defines the envelope of situations and circumstances that the NCC system must be able to represent and operate within. The NCC system will be developed in modules over a period of several years. This ORD, Version 2, supersedes the previous version. Future updates of this ORD are anticipated to be issued as needed to guide the development of later versions of the NCC system.

  7. 48 CFR 3042.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 3042.202 Section 3042.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration...

  8. Defining System Requirements: a critical assessment of the Niam conceptual design procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Darke

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements definition is a fundamental activity within information systems development. Social and organisational issues are at the centre of many of the problems experienced during the development and implementation of information systems, and these need to be explored during requirements definition. The NIAM Conceptual Schema Design Procedure (CSDP is a method for identifying and describing information requirements using fact types. This paper discusses some limitations of the information requirements definition step of the CSDP which result from its lack of focus on the socio-organisational dimension of information systems development. Four different approaches to exploring the socio-organisational contexts of systems are discussed. It is proposed that one of these, viewpoint development, be incorporated into the NIAM CSDP to provide a means of exploring and understanding a system's socio organisational context and to ensure that contextual information is a major input to the requirements definition process. This results in an enhanced design procedure. Future and current research areas are identified.

  9. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur...... during operations. We introduce a basic static model that can be adapted to the layout of different airports. Afterwards we show how a decision support system based on a MIP-model can be designed in a dynamic real world environment. The system supports the decisions of the dispatcher during daily...... operations. Computational results for a real world problem at Frankfurt Airport are presented. At Frankfurt Airport the suggested solution method was successfully implemented and is running now for over half an year. The experiences show that the system increases the quality of the dispatching process...

  10. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Requirements Document Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Satpathi, Meara Allena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This System Requirements Document (SRD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IDC applies, on a routine basis, automatic processing methods and interactive analysis to raw International Monitoring System (IMS) data in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties. The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data, but includes requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  11. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Requirements Document V1.3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Satpathi, Meara Allena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This System Requirements Document (SRD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IDC applies, on a routine basis, automatic processing methods and interactive analysis to raw International Monitoring System (IMS) data in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties. The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data but includes requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  12. Information rich mapping requirement to product architecture through functional system deployment: The multi entity domain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagny; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for mapping requirements to architecture. These approaches do not fully support the steps and information created during product design synthesis. Design Specifications used to guide the design are often documented in text based documents, outside the design models. This results in lack of traceability which......Successful transformation of design information from customer requirements to design implementation is critical for engineering design. As systems become complex the tracking of how customer requirements are implement becomes difficult. Existing approaches suggest so called domain modelling...... may impede the ability to evolve, maintain or reuse systems. In this paper the Multi Entity Domain Approach (MEDA) is presented. The approach combines different design information within the domain views, incorporates both Software and Hardware design and supports iterative requirements definition...

  13. GUARANTEED LOAN SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: Checklist for Reviewing Systems Under the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...), in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-127, Financial Management Systems, and in OMB s Revised Implementation Guidance for the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act (FFMIA...

  14. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  15. INTERNATIONAL REQUIRMENTS ANALYSIS APPLIED AT PROGRAM SYSTEMS DESIGN FOR AERONAUTICAL SPECIALISTS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kolokolnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the international requirements being taken in to account when building a system of aviation specialists training whose activities are related to the sphere of aircraft airworthiness and aviation safety. The content of normative and technical documentation is considered, provisions related to the international standards requirements and a set of documents on the certification of aviation specialists training are analyzed.

  16. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    test levels used in this standard, which should be translated and tailored for the levels and terms of a specific program. The test requirements...should not be confused with the analysis method described here. Bug (software): Common and traditional slang for a defect in software syntax or logic

  17. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering system failure detection and identification software requirements (uncontrolled)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, L. A.; Vullo, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate designs and their software implementation are presented for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) Failure Detection and Identification (FDI) algorithms in the Redundance Management (RM) module of the Space Shuttle Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software. The OMS engine FDI algorithm monitors OMS engine thrust performance, and the OMS actuator FDI algorithm monitors OMS gimbal actuator performance. The software functional requirements of the algorithms are described along with the objective of each algorithm. A list of the assumptions which have governed its design, input/output requirements, a functional description of the algorithm (including a functional block diagram), and input interface requirements are given. The HAL (the language of the space shuttle flight computer) software formulation of the algorithms is considered including structured flowcharts of the procedures, estimates of flight computer core storage and CPU time, and processing requirements. A glossary of the symbols used to define the software requirements and formulations is included.

  18. Architectural and Algorithmic Requirements for a Next-Generation System Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Mousseau

    2010-05-01

    This document presents high-level architectural and system requirements for a next-generation system analysis code (NGSAC) to support reactor safety decision-making by plant operators and others, especially in the context of light water reactor plant life extension. The capabilities of NGSAC will be different from those of current-generation codes, not only because computers have evolved significantly in the generations since the current paradigm was first implemented, but because the decision-making processes that need the support of next-generation codes are very different from the decision-making processes that drove the licensing and design of the current fleet of commercial nuclear power reactors. The implications of these newer decision-making processes for NGSAC requirements are discussed, and resulting top-level goals for the NGSAC are formulated. From these goals, the general architectural and system requirements for the NGSAC are derived.

  19. Exploring Propulsion System Requirements for More and All-Electric Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicopters offer unique capabilities that are important for certain missions. More and all-electric propulsion systems for helicopters offer the potential for improved efficiency, reliability, vehicle and mission capabilities as well as reduced harmful emissions. To achieve these propulsion system-based benefits, the relevant requirements must be understood and developed for the various component, sub-component and ancillary systems of the overall propulsion system. Three representative helicopters were used to explore propulsion and overall vehicle and mission requirements. These vehicles varied from light utility (one to three occupants) to highly capable (three crew members plus ten passengers and cargo). Assuming 15 and 30 year technology availability, analytical models for electric system components were developed to understand component and ancillary requirements. Overall propulsion system characteristics were developed and used for vehicle sizing and mission analyses to understand the tradeoffs of component performance and weight, with increase in vehicle size and mission capability. Study results indicate that only the light utility vehicle retained significant payload for an arbitrary 100 nautical mile range assuming 15 year technology. Thirty year technology assumptions for battery energy storage are sufficient to enable some range and payload capabilities, but further improvements in energy density are required to maintain or exceed payload and range capabilities versus present systems. Hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders can be prudently used to recover range and payload deficiencies resulting from battery energy density limitations. Thermal loads for electric systems are low heat quality, but seem manageable. To realize the benefits from more and all-electric systems, technology goals must be achieved, as well as identify vehicles, missions and systems that are best suited to take advantage of their unique characteristics.

  20. User-centered requirements engineering in health information systems: a study in the hemophilia field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2012-06-01

    The use of sophisticated information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health care domain is a way to improve the quality of services. However, there are also hazards associated with the introduction of ICTs in this domain and a great number of projects have failed due to the lack of systematic consideration of human and other non-technology issues throughout the design or implementation process, particularly in the requirements engineering process. This paper presents the methodological approach followed in the design process of a web-based information system (WbIS) for managing the clinical information in hemophilia care, which integrates the values and practices of user-centered design (UCD) activities into the principles of software engineering, particularly in the phase of requirements engineering (RE). This process followed a paradigm that combines a grounded theory for data collection with an evolutionary design based on constant development and refinement of the generic domain model using three well-known methodological approaches: (a) object-oriented system analysis; (b) task analysis; and, (c) prototyping, in a triangulation work. This approach seems to be a good solution for the requirements engineering process in this particular case of the health care domain, since the inherent weaknesses of individual methods are reduced, and emergent requirements are easier to elicit. Moreover, the requirements triangulation matrix gives the opportunity to look across the results of all used methods and decide what requirements are critical for the system success. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Requirements for a cleanable steel HEPA filter derived from a systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    A systems analysis was conducted to determine customer requirements for a cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in DOE Environmental Management (EM) facilities. The three principal drivers for cleanable steel HEPA are large cost savings, improved filter reliability, and new regulations; they produce a strong incentive to DOE customers to use cleanable steel HEPA filters. Input for customer requirements were obtained from field trips to EM sites and from discussions. Most existing applications require that cleanable steel HEPA filters meet size/performance requirements of standard glass HEPA filters; applications in new facilities can relax size/weight/pressure drop requirements on a case-by-case basis. We then obtained input from commercial firms on availability of cleanable steel HEPA filters. Systems analysis then showed that currently available technology was only able to meet customer needs in a limited number of cases. Further development is needed to meet requirements of EM customers. For cleanable steel HEPA to be retrofitted into existing systems, pressure drop and weight must be reduced. Pressure drop can be reduced by developing steel fiber media from 0.5 {mu}m dia steel fibers. Weight can be reduced by packaging the steel fiber media in one of the standard HEPA configurations. Although most applications will be able to use standard 304 or 316L alloys, an acid resistant alloy such as Hastelloy or Inconel will be needed for incinerator and other thermal processes.

  2. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  3. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  4. From Requirements via Colored Workflow Nets to an Implementation in Several Workflow Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mans, Ronny S.; van der Aalst, Willibrordus Martinus Pancratius; Molemann, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Care organizations, such as hospitals, need to support complex and dynamic workflows. More- over, many disciplines are involved. This makes it important to avoid the typical disconnect between requirements and the actual implementation of the system. This paper proposes an approach where an Execu......Care organizations, such as hospitals, need to support complex and dynamic workflows. More- over, many disciplines are involved. This makes it important to avoid the typical disconnect between requirements and the actual implementation of the system. This paper proposes an approach where...... an Executable Use Case (EUC) and Colored Care organizations, such as hospitals, need to support complex and dynamic workflows. Moreover, many disciplines are involved. This makes it important to avoid the typical disconnect between requirements and the actual implementation of the system. This paper proposes...... an approach where an Executable Use Case (EUC) and Colored Workflow Net (CWN) are used to close the gap between the given requirements specification and the realization of these requirements with the help of a workflow system. This paper describes a large case study where the diagnostic trajectory...

  5. Sensor Selection method for IoT systems – focusing on embedded system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayama Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.

  6. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Systems Engineering Requirements and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    other significant design features affecting EMC . (2) Structure RF shielding effectiveness in excess of 40 dB. (3) Return of power on spacecraft...products of order 7 or less in platform receiver pass bands. (9) Any EMC wire shields or grounds that are required to flex or rotate or rub/roll more...second source procurement); EMI/ EMC , including electrical referencing and ground, electrical bonding, and electrical shielding ; corrosion prevention

  7. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  8. Does a new steam meal catering system meet patient requirements in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Fearnley, L; Thomas, J; Evans, S

    2007-10-01

    It has been consistently observed that a significant proportion of hospital inpatients are malnourished and many actually develop malnutrition in hospital. The NHS provides over 300 million meals each year at a cost of pound 500 million, yet there is relatively little research evaluating how well different catering systems provide for the needs of hospital inpatients. The aim of the study was to: (i) evaluate whether a new steam meal catering system (Steamplicity) enables patients in theory to meet their energy requirements in hospital and (ii) compare energy and protein intake using Steamplicity with a traditional bulk cook-chill system. Patients not at nutritional risk had their food intake at one lunchtime assessed. Energy intake was compared with the patients' energy requirements and energy and protein intake were compared with previous data from a bulk system. Fifty-seven patients had a median daily energy requirement of 7648 kJ (1821 kcal) [inter-quartile range (IQR): 6854-9164 kJ]. Assuming 30% [2293 kJ (546 kcal)] should be supplied by the lunch meal the average intake of 1369 kJ (326 kcal) fell short by 40%. Patients served meals from Steamplicity ate less energy [1369 kJ versus 1562 kJ (326 kcal versus 372 kcal) P = 0.04] but similar protein (18 g versus 19 g P = 0.34) to the bulk system. The largest difference was the energy provided by the dessert since the bulk system served more hot high-calorie desserts. Patient intakes did not meet their estimated requirements. The patients in this study were eating well and not at nutritional risk, thus patients with a poor appetite will be even less likely to meet their nutritional requirements. Steamplicity meals result in a lower energy intake than meals from a bulk cook-chill system, but similar protein intakes.

  9. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products encoded in. MTB. These domain assignments have been made using a compendium of sequence and structural ...

  10. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  11. Assigning Elementary Pupils to Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Examines variation in the methods used to assign students to classrooms and teachers in a small but highly diversified sample of elementary schools. Gives explicit attention to parental influence on pupil assignments as well as to effects of having an unusually incompetent or excellent teacher at a particular grade level. (NH)

  12. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  13. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  14. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business groups remained intact across various diplomas and large focus areas, which would act as a pivot for the major group assignments, were forged using scenarios from three core courses. Each general topic thus included at least three separate yet complementary portfolio assignments that differed in genre, ...

  15. Requirements for Semantic Educational Recommender Systems in Formal E-Learning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus G. Boticario

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how recommender systems can be applied to current e-learning systems to guide learners in personalized inclusive e-learning scenarios. Recommendations can be used to overcome current limitations of learning management systems in providing personalization and accessibility features. Recommenders can take advantage of standards-based solutions to provide inclusive support. To this end we have identified the need for developing semantic educational recommender systems, which are able to extend existing learning management systems with adaptive navigation support. In this paper we present three requirements to be considered in developing these semantic educational recommender systems, which are in line with the service-oriented approach of the third generation of learning management systems, namely: (i a recommendation model; (ii an open standards-based service-oriented architecture; and (iii a usable and accessible graphical user interface to deliver the recommendations.

  16. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool: A SQUIRE Compliant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Magd A; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is delivered through a didactic, blended learning, and mixed models. Students are supposed to construct an answerable question in PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework, acquire evidence through search of literature, appraise evidence, apply it to the clinical case scenario, and assess the evidence in relation to clinical context. Yet these teaching models have limitations especially those related to group work, for example, handling uncooperative students, students who fail to contribute, students who domineer, students who have personal conflict, their impact upon progress of their groups, and inconsistent individual acquisition of required skills. At Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, we designed a novel undergraduate pediatric EBM assignment online system to overcome shortcomings of previous didactic method and aimed to assess its effectiveness by prospective follow-up during academic years 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. The novel web-based online interactive system was tailored to provide sequential single and group assignments for each student. Single assignment addressed a specific case scenario question, while group assignment was teamwork that addressed different questions of same case scenario. Assignment comprised scholar content and skills. We objectively analyzed students' performance by criterion-based assessment and subjectively by anonymous student questionnaire. A total of 2879 were enrolled in 5th year Pediatrics Course consecutively, of them 2779 (96.5%) logged in and 2554 (88.7%) submitted their work. They were randomly assigned to 292 groups. A total of 2277 (89.15%) achieved ≥ 80% of total mark (4/5), of them 717 (28.1%) achieved a full mark. A total of 2178 (85.27%) and 2359 (92.36%) made evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in single and group assignment, respectively (P < 0.001). A total of 1102 (43.1%) answered student questionnaire, of them 898

  17. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem is given. Here our algorithm outperforms all...

  18. BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF CREATION ONBOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS OF LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE. B. Bodnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages between different units of management systems and on-board diagnostic systems was selected. Properties which are required high data rate, high reliability and low error rate of information transfer. Originality. The main principles of building on-board diagnostic systems which ensure compliance locomotives accumulation of accurate and adequate information about the technical condition which is necessary to organize its maintenance and repair were formulated. Practical value. Diagnostic equipment designed with use of requirements set forth above and principles will affect the technical condition of the engine, increasing the likelihood of uptime, productivity and locomotive repair teams. The introduction of on-board diagnostic systems and stationary locomotives will significantly improve the system and optimize their maintenance costs of maintenance and repairs. Besides, information about diagnostic parameters changing accumulated with the aim of airborne systems will be used in order to create mathematical models that, in turn, will organize a system of maintenance and predict the technical condition of locomotives

  19. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  20. Requirements Analysis for Effective Management Information Systems Design: A Framework and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS FOR EFFECTIVE>_ MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN: C_1- A FRAMEWORK AND CASE ... STUDYC ) L=LJ by John Charles Gerhard, III December 1981 Co-Advisors: D. C. Boger N. R. Lyons Approved for public release; distribution unlimited / 82...Systems Design: December 1981 A Framework and Case Study S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NMBE0 7. AUT14OR’.() I. CONTRACT Olt GRANT 01uBelsve John Charles

  1. Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.

  2. Formal Verification of Complex Systems based on SysML Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    are the most critical in ensuring that the designed system satisfies its safety requirements ( Tumer , Stone, & Bell, 2003; Stone, Tumer , & Stock, 2005...Kurtoglu & Tumer , 2008; Tumer & Smidts, 2011), this paper aims at addressing this challenge using the system-oriented SysML- based modeling approach...Journal of Engineering Design, 20(1), 83–104. Kurtoglu, T., & Tumer , I. Y. (2008). A graph-based fault iden- tification and propagation framework for

  3. Systems engineering and the user: Incorporation of user requirements into the SE process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, John E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is organized into four parts. In the Gestation Phase, I describe the process of starting a new mission and establishing its rough boundaries. Next I show how the scientific experiments are selected. Then we enter the Preliminary Design Phase, where we incorporate the scientist's instruments into the systems engineering process. Finally, I show how the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) assures NASA management and the scientists that the scientific requirements have been incorporated into the systems engineering process to everyone's satisfaction.

  4. Uplink Cross-Layer Scheduling with Differential QoS Requirements in OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fair and efficient scheduling is a key issue in cross-layer design for wireless communication systems, such as 3GPP LTE and WiMAX. However, few works have considered the multiaccess of the traffic with differential QoS requirements in wireless systems. In this paper, we will consider an OFDMA-based wireless system with four types of traffic associated with differential QoS requirements, namely, minimum reserved rate, maximum sustainable rate, maximum latency, and tolerant jitter. Given these QoS requirements, the traffic scheduling will be formulated into a cross-layer optimization problem, which is convex fortunately. By separating the power allocation through the waterfilling algorithm in each user, this problem will further reduce to a kind of continuous quadratic knapsack problem in the base station which yields low complexity. It is then demonstrated that the proposed cross-layer method cannot only guarantee the application layer QoS requirements, but also minimizes the integrated residual workload in the MAC layer. To further enhance the ability of QoS assurance in heavily loaded scenario, a call admission control scheme will also be proposed. The simulation results show that the QoS requirements for the four types of traffic are guaranteed effectively by the proposed algorithms.

  5. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  6. Requirement analysis and architecture of data communication system for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kwon, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S

    2005-05-15

    When digitalizing the Instrumentation and Control(I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plants(NPP), a communication network is required for exchanging the digitalized data between I and C equipments in a NPP. A requirements analysis and an analysis of design elements and techniques are required for the design of a communication network. Through the requirements analysis of the code and regulation documents such as NUREG/CR-6082, section 7.9 of NUREG 0800 , IEEE Standard 7-4.3.2 and IEEE Standard 603, the extracted requirements can be used as a design basis and design concept for a detailed design of a communication network in the I and C system of an integral reactor. Design elements and techniques such as a physical topology, protocol transmission media and interconnection device should be considered for designing a communication network. Each design element and technique should be analyzed and evaluated as a portion of the integrated communication network design. In this report, the basic design requirements related to the design of communication network are investigated by using the code and regulation documents and an analysis of the design elements and techniques is performed. Based on these investigation and analysis, the overall architecture including the safety communication network and the non-safety communication network is proposed for an integral reactor.

  7. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  8. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  9. Architecture-led Requirements and Safety Analysis of an Aircraft Survivability Situational Awareness System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    of safety hazards through a fault propagation ontology and This material is based upon...Administration (FAA) Requirements Engineering Management Handbook (Ref. 3). ALRS adapts the CPRET (Ref.4) representation of a system defined by the...release. Distribution unlimited. 3 annotates an AADL model with fault information utilizing an error propagation ontology as illustrated graphically

  10. 49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of stopping the train with a service application from its maximum operating speed within the signal...) Reducing valve for high-speed brake (minimum) 50 [66 FR 4193, Jan. 17, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 17581, Apr... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for all train brake systems...

  11. Linking Library Automation Systems in the Internet: Functional Requirements, Planning, and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1989-01-01

    This guide to functions to consider in selecting an academic library automation system to operate in a networked environment covers (1) the current academic networking environment; (2) library automation hardware and software platforms; (3) user interface requirements for public access; and (4) security and authentication. (10 references) (MES)

  12. From Requirements via Colored Workflow Nets to an Implementation in Several Workflow Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mans, Ronnie S:; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.; Bakker, Piet J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Care organizations, such as hospitals, need to support complex and dynamic workflows. More- over, many disciplines are involved. This makes it important to avoid the typical disconnect between requirements and the actual implementation of the system. This paper proposes an approach where an Execu......Care organizations, such as hospitals, need to support complex and dynamic workflows. More- over, many disciplines are involved. This makes it important to avoid the typical disconnect between requirements and the actual implementation of the system. This paper proposes an approach where...... an Executable Use Case (EUC) and Colored Workflow Net (CWN) are used to close the gap between the given requirements specification and the realization of these requirements with the help of a workflow system. This paper describes a large case study where the diagnostic tra jectory of the gynaecological oncology...... care process of the Academic Medical Center (AMC) hospital is used as reference process. The process consists of hundreds of activities. These have been modeled and analyzed using an EUC and a CWN. Moreover, based on the CWN, the process has been implemented using four different workflow systems...

  13. Requirements Engineering for Enterprise Systems: What We Know and What We Don't Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Nurcan, Selmin; Salinesi, Camille; Souveyet, Carine; Ralyté, Jolita

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents research progress in Requirements Engineering (RE) for enterprise systems (ES) with a view to formulating current challenges and a promising research agenda for the future. In the field of ES, many RE approaches have been launched and tried out in the past decade, however most

  14. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  15. Specification of requirements for health social-network as Personal Health Record (PHR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Tanhapour

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The proposed set of requirements are qualitatively compared with the other similar systems. Using the proposed health social network that provides PHR capabilities for its users will have an irrefutable impact on quality and efficiency of patient-centered care, and play an important role in improving the health of society.

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ...

  17. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62...

  18. Risk-Based Confidentiality Requirements Specification for Outsourced IT Systems (Extended Version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of their IT assets, and to provide proof of this in the form of independent IT audit reports. However, many companies have outsourced various parts of their IT systems to other companies, which potentially threatens the control they have of their IT

  19. Development Modules for Specification of Requirements for a System of Verification of Parallel Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Yu. Meltsov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the development of one of the modules of the system verification of parallel algorithms that are used to verify the inference engine. This module is designed to build the specification requirements, the feasibility of which on the algorithm is necessary to prove (test.

  20. Requirements for a systems-based research and development management process in transport infrastructure engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available are not suitable for the management of such multi-disciplinary projects. This study focuses on determining the key characteristics required for a systems-based approach to the management of R&D projects. The information and data was compiled from literature reviews...

  1. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sico, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  2. Ventilation systems for multi-unit residential buildings : performance requirements and alternative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.

    2003-09-01

    A growing proportion of housing in Canada consists of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs). Ventilation strategies have not changed much over the past three decades. Research conducted by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and others has shown that conventional ventilation strategies consume significant amounts of energy, are noisy, consume internal floor area, and can become conduits for pests and smoke. As a result, a research project was initiated to develop performance requirements and alternative approaches for ventilation systems in MURBs. The issues to be addressed by alternative ventilation systems were identified through literature review. The various codes and standards applicable to ventilation capacities for apartments in MURBs in Canada were evaluated. It was revealed that the ventilation system airflow rates required for any given apartment and the amount of ventilation that should be provided by infiltration varies greatly depending on the codes or standards selected. The performance parameters that were identified in this paper were: ventilation performance, capital and operating costs, maintenance, fire and smoke control, noise issues, comfort, system issues, and owner and designer construction issues. The following four different alternative ventilation systems were discussed: (1) passive vents with suite-based mechanical exhaust, (2) balanced individual suites with heat recovery (HRV) units, (3) balanced floor-by-floor systems with heat recovery, and (4) balanced central systems with heat recovery. Further testing and assessment is needed before these proposed systems can enter the marketable phase. More research is also needed into the characterization of stack and wind pressures in MURBs. 5 tabs.

  3. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  4. Information management systems for integrating the technical data and regulatory requirements of environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.; Garrett, B.A.; Walter, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    Current environmental regulations require that comprehensive planning be conducted before remediating a hazardous waste site to characterize the nature and extent of site contamination, calculate the risk to the public, and assess the effectiveness of various remediation technologies. Remediation of Department of Energy (DOE) sites contaminated with hazardous or mixed wastes will require the effective integration of scientific and engineering data with regulatory and institutional requirements. The information management challenge presented by waste site cleanup activities goes beyond merely dealing with the large quantity of data that will be generated. The information must be stored, managed, and presented in a way that provides some consistency in approach across sites, avoids duplication of effort, and facilitates responses to requests for information from the regulators and the public. This paper provides background information on the regulatory requirements for data gathering and analysis for environmental restoration activities, and outlines the data and information management requirements for completing the pre-remediation phases of an environmental restoration project. Information management systems for integrating the regulatory and institutional requirements of the environmental restoration process with the technical data and analysis requirements are also described. 7 refs.

  5. A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1 the site of infection, 2 the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3 the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. We have previously shown that systemic depletion of phagocytic cells allows viral spread after dermal infection with Vaccinia virus (VACV, which infects naturally through the skin. Here we use multiple depletion methodologies to define both the spatial checkpoint and the identity of the cells that prevent systemic spread of VACV. Subcapsular sinus macrophages of the draining lymph node have been implicated as critical effectors in clearance of lymph borne viruses following peripheral infection. We find that monocyte populations recruited to the site of VACV infection play a critical role in control of local pathogenesis and tissue damage, but do not prevent dissemination of virus. Following infection with virulent VACV, the subcapsular sinus macrophages within the draining lymph node become infected, but are not exclusively required to prevent systemic spread. Rather, small doses of VACV enter the bloodstream and the function of systemic macrophages, but not dendritic cells, is required to prevent further spread. The results illustrate that a systemic innate response to a peripheral virus infection may be required to prevent widespread infection and pathology following infection with virulent viruses, such as poxviruses.

  6. [The practice of development and implementation of quality management systems in medical laboratories. The GOST R ISO 15189-2009 "medical laboratories. The detailed requirements to quality and competence". Particular difficulties of global nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel', A V; Ivanov, G A; Fleganova, I N; Emanuel', V L

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses the methodological issues related to the implementation of international principles of standardization in the format of GOST R ISO 9001-2008 "Quality management systems. Requirements", GOST R ISO 15189-2009 "Medical laboratories. The detailed requirements to quality and competence" and GOST R ISO 18113.1-5 "Medical items for diagnostics in vitro. Information provided by manufacturer (marking)". This approach legibly assigns the responsibility concerning the support of metrological correctness of laboratory measurements. The lacking of both full-value public and sectorial normative documentation and coordinated positions of Rosstandard and Minzdrav of Russia on functioning of medical laboratories is noted.

  7. Requirements made on IT systems in the deregulated gas market; Anforderungen an IT-Systeme im liberalisierten Gasmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detmer, D.; Seiler, A. [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Two years after the liberalization of the electrical energy market in Germany, increased competition is also expected in the gas supply sector. Gas production, industry, and communal enterprises came to agreement with VV Gas regarding the main issues of unrestricted gas network access. In the following the expected requirements on SCADA and associated IT systems are described. In addition to expansions of existing applications, new solutions for the tasks of the liberalized gas market are developed. These systems are summarized below under the term Energy Data Management systems (EDM).

  8. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Masaharu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  9. BASIC REQUIREMENTS TO STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL MEDICAL INFORMATIVE SYSTEMS IN HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Mintser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In modern development of health care for providing proper quality of medicare there is a necessity in accumulation and analysis of data during the long period, application of electronic and consulting models. The presented work determines basic principles of construction of the informative systems for optimization of management of health care establishments, first of all, at making decisions. Basic tasks and requirements to the informative systems on regional and local levels are considered. It is proven that typical structures of the medical informative systems must have possibilities of risks monitoring for patients and decisions as to danger identification for managers.

  10. Detailed requirements document for common software of shuttle program information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette, J. M.; Bradfield, L. D.; Horton, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Common software was investigated as a method for minimizing development and maintenance cost of the shuttle program information management system (SPIMS) applications while reducing the time-frame of their development. Those requirements satisfying these criteria are presented along with the stand-alone modules which may be used directly by applications. The SPIMS applications operating on the CYBER 74 computer, are specialized information management systems which use System 2000 as a data base manager. Common software provides the features to support user interactions on a CRT terminal using form input and command response capabilities. These features are available as subroutines to the applications.

  11. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e.......g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...

  12. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries....... Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...

  13. Systemic virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 requires a functional iron assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, C; Diolez, A; Expert, D

    1988-06-01

    In Erwinia chrysanthemi, conditions of iron starvation initiate production of a catechol-type siderophore and enhance production of three outer membrane polypeptides. Twenty-two mutants affected in the different stages of this iron assimilation system were isolated by mini-Mu insertion mutagenesis. All of them failed to induce systemic soft rot on axenically grown Saintpaulia plants. From the siderophore auxotrophs and the iron uptake mutants, clones having recovered the missing function(s) were isolated by using the in vivo cloning vector pULB113 (RP4::mini-Mu). An R-prime plasmid containing a ca. 35.5-kilobase-pair DNA insert was identified. Restoration of the iron functions restored partially, if not completely, the virulence of the parental strain.

  14. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  15. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  16. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Clarke

    Full Text Available Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  17. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shannon M; Henry, Hannah M; Dodds, Ken G; Jowett, Timothy W D; Manley, Tim R; Anderson, Rayna M; McEwan, John C

    2014-01-01

    Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage) are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams) was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  18. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  19. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  20. General requirements for protein secretion by the F-like conjugation system R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Silvia; Zechner, Ellen L

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial conjugation disseminates genes among bacteria via a process requiring direct cell contact. The cell envelope spanning secretion apparatus involved belongs to the type IV family of bacterial secretion systems, which transport protein as well as nucleoprotein substrates. This study aims to understand mechanisms leading to the initiation of type IV secretion using conjugative plasmid paradigm R1. We analyze the general requirements for plasmid encoded conjugation proteins and DNA sequence within the origin of transfer (oriT) for protein secretion activity using a Cre recombinase reporter system. We find that similar to conjugative plasmid DNA strand transfer, activation of the R1 system for protein secretion depends on binding interactions between the multimeric, ATP-binding coupling protein and the R1 relaxosome including an intact oriT. Evidence for DNA independent protein secretion was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.