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Sample records for assessment study background

  1. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera S Achrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form. Methods: Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM. Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1 and 16 th week (A2, post introduction of SIM. Nurse′s opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Results : Majority of nurses were females (65% in the age group 21-30 years (80%. There was a significant association (P = 0.019 between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement (P = 0.043 seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20 and A2 (mean: 24.26 and also in "Situation" domain (P = 0.045 as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient′s allergies and relevant past history (7% while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76% of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53% to document while recommendation was the difficult (53% part. Conclusions: SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background study: Fourth year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the results of the fourth year of the multi-year study, the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental Contaminants...

  3. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background study: Fifth year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the fifth year of the multiyear study entitled, "The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex)...

  4. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  5. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  6. Journalism studies in Argentina: background and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Amado; Natalia Pizzolo

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism stud...

  7. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  8. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  9. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  10. Pythia Jet Finding Study with Trento Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Joseph [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    We present results applying the Pythia SlowJet Finder to Pythia generated QCD and QED hard processes in the presence of simulated heavy ion backgrounds. The hard process events are generated with Pythia version 8.219 for √sNN=200 GeV proton-proton collisions and the backgrounds are generated by the Reduced Thickness Event-by-event Nuclear Topology model TRENTo for Au-Au collisions with a nucleon-nucleon cross-section of 4.23 fm2. The TRENTo model is used to calculate the initial entropy and ellipticity from which the total charged particle multiplicity and elliptic ow are determined. We report results in the form of event displays, total pT distributions, and fragmentation distributions for SlowJet applied to Pythia events with and without the simulated heavy ion backgrounds.

  11. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of…

  12. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  13. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns Among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2015-12-01

    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of the listeners' language backgrounds on their perceptions of Chinese-accented English. The results showed that the Hong Kong (HK) group performed better in unstressed syllable duration compared with the Taiwan (TW) and Beijing (BJ) groups. The results also revealed that all six listener groups achieved at least 78% intelligibility, with the native speaker accent achieving the highest rating, followed by the HK, TW, and BJ accents. A shared first language (L1) background may have little or no impact on intelligibility. The speech properties might prevail over the shared L1 effect. All listeners perceived inappropriate word-stress shift and consonant cluster simplifications to be the most unintelligible features.

  14. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  15. Assessment of speech intelligibility in background noise and reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    impairment. In this thesis, two sentence-based tests for speech intelligibility in Danish were developed. The first test is the Conversational Language Understanding Evaluation (CLUE), which is based on the principles of the original American-English Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The second test......, to measure whether the intelligibility of the test-word depends on the reverberation added to a surrounding speech carrier. It has been shown that the intelligibility of a reverberant test-word increases when the same amount of reverberation is also added to the carrier. In the literature, this observation......'s acoustic-phonetic properties. The evidence of the extrinsic compensation mechanism is therefore questionable. Overall, the results from the present study may contribute to the development of future speech intelligibility tests in Danish and other languages. The two developed sentence tests are expected...

  16. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  17. An evaluation of in vitro protein-protein interaction techniques: assessing contaminating background proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jenika M; Winstone, Tara L; Coorssen, Jens R; Turner, Raymond J

    2006-04-01

    Determination of protein-protein interactions is an important component in assigning function and discerning the biological relevance of proteins within a broader cellular context. In vitro protein-protein interaction methodologies, including affinity chromatography, coimmunoprecipitation, and newer approaches such as protein chip arrays, hold much promise in the detection of protein interactions, particularly in well-characterized organisms with sequenced genomes. However, each of these approaches attracts certain background proteins that can thwart detection and identification of true interactors. In addition, recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are also extensively used to assess protein-protein interactions, and background proteins in these isolates can thus contaminate interaction studies. Rigorous validation of a true interaction thus requires not only that an interaction be found by alternate techniques, but more importantly that researchers be aware of and control for matrix/support dependence. Here, we evaluate these methods for proteins interacting with DmsD (an E. coli redox enzyme maturation protein chaperone), in vitro, using E. coli subcellular fractions as prey sources. We compare and contrast the various in vitro interaction methods to identify some of the background proteins and protein profiles that are inherent to each of the methods in an E. coli system.

  18. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Tuck Jump Assessment by Health Professionals of Varied Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA, a clinical plyometric assessment, identifies 10 jumping and landing technique flaws. The study objective was to investigate TJA interrater and intrarater reliability with raters of different educational and clinical backgrounds. Methods. 40 participants were video recorded performing the TJA using published protocol and instructions. Five raters of varied educational and clinical backgrounds scored the TJA. Each score of the 10 technique flaws was summed for the total TJA score. Approximately one month later, 3 raters scored the videos again. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interrater (5 and 3 raters for first and second session, resp. and intrarater (3 raters reliability. Results. Interrater reliability with 5 raters was poor (ICC = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.33–0.62. Interrater reliability between 3 raters who completed 2 scoring sessions improved from 0.52 (95% CI 0.35–0.68 for session one to 0.69 (95% CI 0.55–0.81 for session two. Intrarater reliability was poor to moderate, ranging from 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.68 to 0.72 (95% CI 0.55–0.84. Conclusion. Published protocol and training of raters were insufficient to allow consistent TJA scoring. There may be a learned effect with the TJA since interrater reliability improved with repetition. TJA instructions and training should be modified and enhanced before clinical implementation.

  19. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  20. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Bat-Erdene, B.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  1. Youths’ and Adults’ Stories Related to the Background for ADHD Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Mari Hannås

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In connection with a study relating to the diagnosing of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, youths and adults represent a particularly interesting group, partly because they have lived a relatively long time with the condition but without the diagnosis. In this article, I am focusing particularly on the life stories of youths and adults before they were referred for an ADHD assessment. A narrative analysis of a body of empirical data material shows that the subjects’ stories about the background for their referral are dominated by three themes: substantial health-related disorders and problems, diffuse sensations that “something” was wrong, and experiences relating to their identification with the diagnosis. The study shows that most of the respondents had been in contact with their regular general practitioner (GP—and in many cases had tried out various diagnoses and treatments—long before the question of ADHD was raised.

  2. Study of radiation background at the north crossing point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Xiao-Hu; QIN Qing; QU Hua-Min; WANG Yi-Fang; XU Jin-Qiang; ZHANG Tian-Bao; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Qing-Jiang; Achasov Mikhail; CAI Xiao; FU Cheng-Dong; Harris Fred; LIU Qian; Muchnoi Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the radiation background at the north crossing point (NCP) in the tunnel of BEPCII is crucial for the performance safety of the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, and in turn of great significance for long-term stable running of the energy measurement system. Therefore, as the first step, a NaI(Tl) detector is constructed to continuously measure the radiation level of photons as background for future experiments. Furthermore, gamma and neutron dosimeters are utilized to explore the radiation distribution in the vicinity of the NCP where the HPGe detector will be located. Synthesizing all obtained information, the shielding for neutron irradiation is studied based on model-dependent theoretical analysis.

  3. Studying extragalactic background fluctuations with the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment 2 (CIBER-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Alicia; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Hristov, Viktor; Korngut, Phillip; Lee, Dae Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Onishi, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Zemcov, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Fluctuations in the extragalactic background light trace emission from the history of galaxy formation, including the emission from the earliest sources from the epoch of reionization. A number of recent near-infrared measure- ments show excess spatial power at large angular scales inconsistent with models of z CIBER-2) will measure spatial anisotropies in the extra- galactic infrared background caused by cosmological structure using six broad spectral bands. The experiment uses three 2048 x 2048 Hawaii-2RG near-infrared arrays in three cameras coupled to a single 28.5 cm telescope housed in a reusable sounding rocket-borne payload. A small portion of each array will also be combined with a linear-variable filter to make absolute measurements of the spectrum of the extragalactic background with high spatial resolution for deep subtraction of Galactic starlight. The large field of view and multiple spectral bands make CIBER-2 unique in its sensitivity to fluctuations predicted by models of lower limits on the luminosity of the first stars and galaxies and in its ability to distinguish between primordial and foreground anisotropies. In this paper the scientific motivation for CIBER-2 and details of its first flight instrumentation will be discussed, including detailed designs of the mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical systems. Plans for the future will also be presented.

  4. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  5. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  6. Background studies for the EDELWEISS dark matter experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Beno\\^\\it, A; Bergé, L; Bergmann, T; Blümer, J; Broniatowski, A; Brudanin, V; Censier, B; Chapellier, M; Charlieux, F; Couedo, F; Coulter, P; Cox, G A; De Jesus, M; Domange, J; Drilien, A -A; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Filosofov, D; Fourches, N; Gascon, J; Gerbier, G; Gros, M; Henry, S; Hervé, S; Heuermann, G; Holtzer, N; Juillard, A; Kleifges, M; Kluck, H; Kozlov, V; Kraus, H; Kudryavtsev, V A; Sueur, H Le; Loaiza, P; Marnieros, S; Menshikov, A; Navick, X-F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Rigaut, O; Robinson, M; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Schmidt, B; Scorza, S; Siebenborn, B; Semikh, S; Tcherniakhovski, D; Torrento-Coello, A S; Vagneron, L; Walker, R J; Weber, M; Yakushev, E; Zhang, X

    2013-01-01

    The EDELWEISS-II collaboration has completed a direct search for WIMP dark matter using cryogenic Ge detectors (400 g each) and 384 kg$\\times$days of effective exposure. A cross-section of $4.4 \\times 10^{-8}$ pb is excluded at 90% C.L. for a WIMP mass of 85 GeV. The next phase, EDELWEISS-III, aims to probe spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections down to a few $\\times10^{-9}$ pb. We present here the study of gamma and neutron background coming from radioactive decays in the set-up and shielding materials. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations for the completed EDELWEISS-II setup with GEANT4 and normalised the expected background rates to the measured radioactivity levels (or their upper limits) of all materials and components. The expected gamma-ray event rate in EDELWEISS-II at 20-200 keV agrees with the observed rate of 82 events/kg/day within the uncertainties in the measured concentrations. The calculated neutron rate from radioactivity of 1.0-3.1 events (90% C.L.) at 20-200 keV in the EDELWEIS...

  7. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  8. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  9. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor

  10. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  11. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): A Sounding Rocket Payload to Study the Near Infrared Extragalactic Background Light

    CERN Document Server

    Zemcov, M; Battle, J; Bock, J; Cooray, A; Hristov, V; Keating, B; Kim, M G; Lee, D H; Levenson, L R; Mason, P; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Nam, U W; Renbarger, T; Sullivan, I; Suzuki, K; Tsumura, K; Wada, T

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the Zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recover...

  12. Unruptured Aneurysms Italian Study (UAIS) - background and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms still represents an unsettled question in neurosurgical and neuroradiological communities. Although nowadays the indication for treatment have become relatively clear, indeed uncertainity remains for what concerns the proper treatment modality (surgical or endovascular)in terms of both the risk and the mid and long-term efficacy of the two procedures. The ''Unruptured Aneurysms Italian Study'' is a cooperative prospective study which aims to delineate the ''State of the Art'' in a nation based population. It has been designed: 1) to depict the nationwide modality of treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms, 2) to assess in the most objective way the overall treatment-related mortality and morbidity as well as the surgical and endovascular risk in the respective patient populations (it is not a surgical versus endovascular study) and 3) to asses the efficacy of the different procedures in the mid and long term periods. The study started on June 2003 and to June 2006, 637 patients have been enrolled. The study will end when the 1000th patient is enrolled.

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Learning Style and Student Background on Self-Assessment Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible…

  14. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton U.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  15. Study on a focusing, low-background neutron delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, J.; Panzner, T.; Filges, U.; Marcelot, C.; Böni, P.

    2011-04-01

    In various fields of neutron scattering there is a tendency to use smaller and smaller samples. There are various reasons for this, e.g. the limited size in high pressure cells, the restrictions given by growth methods of thin films, or the impossibility to grow larger single crystals. With conventional guides this leads to the situation that a white beam with some 50 cm2 cross-section and a broad divergence is to illuminate a sample of some mm2 area. Thus more than 99% of the neutrons leaving the guide are not needed and cause background and radiation problems.It is suggested to change the order of the optical elements and the design of the guide section to filter neutrons not intended to hit the sample as early as possible. As an example a set-up for specular reflectivity on small samples is presented. A double monochromator some meters behind the source cuts away all neutrons of the wrong wavelength even before they enter the guide. The guide itself is one branch of an ellipse. It maps the divergent beam from the monochromator to a convergent beam at the sample position. An entry aperture at the first focal point, a bit larger than the sample, guarantees that just enough neutrons enter the guide to bath the sample. There is no direct line of sight to the source and the guide ends far away from the sample position, so that there are only few spacial restrictions.Detailed McStas calculations and a design study for a down-scaled test device, both for reflectometry and diffraction, are presented.

  16. Study on a focusing, low-background neutron delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahn, J., E-mail: jochen.stahn@psi.c [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, WHGA/142, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Panzner, T.; Filges, U. [Laboratory for Development and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Marcelot, C. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, WHGA/142, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Boeni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    In various fields of neutron scattering there is a tendency to use smaller and smaller samples. There are various reasons for this, e.g. the limited size in high pressure cells, the restrictions given by growth methods of thin films, or the impossibility to grow larger single crystals. With conventional guides this leads to the situation that a white beam with some 50 cm{sup 2} cross-section and a broad divergence is to illuminate a sample of some mm{sup 2} area. Thus more than 99% of the neutrons leaving the guide are not needed and cause background and radiation problems. It is suggested to change the order of the optical elements and the design of the guide section to filter neutrons not intended to hit the sample as early as possible. As an example a set-up for specular reflectivity on small samples is presented. A double monochromator some meters behind the source cuts away all neutrons of the wrong wavelength even before they enter the guide. The guide itself is one branch of an ellipse. It maps the divergent beam from the monochromator to a convergent beam at the sample position. An entry aperture at the first focal point, a bit larger than the sample, guarantees that just enough neutrons enter the guide to bath the sample. There is no direct line of sight to the source and the guide ends far away from the sample position, so that there are only few spacial restrictions. Detailed McStas calculations and a design study for a down-scaled test device, both for reflectometry and diffraction, are presented.

  17. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  18. Holistic approach for automated background EEG assessment in asphyxiated full-term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Vladimir; Cherian, Perumpillichira J.; Koolen, Ninah; Naulaers, Gunnar; Swarte, Renate M.; Govaert, Paul; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To develop an automated algorithm to quantify background EEG abnormalities in full-term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Approach. The algorithm classifies 1 h of continuous neonatal EEG (cEEG) into a mild, moderate or severe background abnormality grade. These classes are well established in the literature and a clinical neurophysiologist labeled 272 1 h cEEG epochs selected from 34 neonates. The algorithm is based on adaptive EEG segmentation and mapping of the segments into the so-called segments’ feature space. Three features are suggested and further processing is obtained using a discretized three-dimensional distribution of the segments’ features represented as a 3-way data tensor. Further classification has been achieved using recently developed tensor decomposition/classification methods that reduce the size of the model and extract a significant and discriminative set of features. Main results. Effective parameterization of cEEG data has been achieved resulting in high classification accuracy (89%) to grade background EEG abnormalities. Significance. For the first time, the algorithm for the background EEG assessment has been validated on an extensive dataset which contained major artifacts and epileptic seizures. The demonstrated high robustness, while processing real-case EEGs, suggests that the algorithm can be used as an assistive tool to monitor the severity of hypoxic insults in newborns.

  19. Background Studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering Reactor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnolet, G; Barker, D; Beck, R; Carroll, T J; Cesar, J; Cushman, P; Dent, J B; De Rijck, S; Dutta, B; Flanagan, W; Fritts, M; Gao, Y; Harris, H R; Hays, C C; Iyer, V; Jastram, A; Kadribasic, F; Kennedy, A; Kubik, A; Ogawa, I; Lang, K; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martin, R D; Mast, N; McDeavitt, S; Mirabolfathi, N; Mohanty, B; Nakajima, K; Newhouse, J; Newstead, J L; Phan, D; Proga, M; Roberts, A; Rogachev, G; Salazar, R; Sander, J; Senapati, K; Shimada, M; Strigari, L; Tamagawa, Y; Teizer, W; Vermaak, J I C; Villano, A N; Walker, J; Webb, B; Wetzel, Z; Yadavalli, S A

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 meters) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5 to 20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  20. Comparative Study of MHD Modeling of the Background Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Gressl, C; Temmer, M; Odstrcil, D; Linker, J A; Mikic, Z; Riley, P

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about the background solar wind plays a crucial role in the framework of space weather forecasting. In-situ measurements of the background solar wind are only available for a few points in the heliosphere where spacecraft are located, therefore we have to rely on heliospheric models to derive the distribution of solar wind parameters in interplanetary space. We test the performance of different solar wind models, namely Magnetohydrodynamic Algorithm outside a Sphere/ENLIL (MAS/ENLIL), Wang-Sheeley-Arge/ENLIL (WSA/ENLIL), and MAS/MAS, by comparing model results with in-situ measurements from spacecraft located at 1 AU distance to the Sun (ACE, Wind). To exclude the influence of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), we chose the year 2007 as a time period with low solar activity for our comparison. We found that the general structure of the background solar wind is well reproduced by all models. The best model results were obtained for the parameter solar wind speed. However, the predicted ar...

  1. Background Data Measures for Predicting Security Risks: Assessment of Differential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Power Motives, Negative Life Themes, Outcome Uncertainty, Fear, Narcissism , and Low Self -Regulation. These studies have also shown that background...concepts. Prior research indicates that power motives, fear, narcissism , and self -aggrandizement contribute to the propensity for destructive acts...examining self -system constructs has shown that poor self -regulation (Pulkkineen, 1982; Trevino & Youngblood, 1990); low self - esteem (Falbo & Sheppard

  2. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): A Sounding Rocket Payload to Study the near Infrared Extragalactic Background Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, M.; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.

    2013-08-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  3. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  4. Evaluating the effect of learning style and student background on self-assessment accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible connections between student information and both self-assessment and course performance. The results show that students can place their knowledge along the taxonomy-based scale quite well and the scale seems to fit engineering students' learning style. Advanced students assess themselves more accurately than novices. The results also show that reflective students were better in programming than active. The scale used in this study gives a more objective picture of students' knowledge than general scales and with modifications it can be used in other classes than programming.

  5. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  6. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted.

  7. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  8. Study on Optical Filter Heating in Background Limited Detector Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, J.; de Visser, P. J.; Doyle, S.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Cryogenic test setups with controlled stray light environments capable of reaching ultra-low radiative background levels are required to test far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (sub-mm) wave radiation detectors for future space based observatories. In recent experiments (Nature Commun 5:3130, 2014), in which 1.54 THz radiation was coupled onto an antenna-coupled kinetic inductance detector (KID), we found a higher than expected optical loading. We show that this can be explained by assuming heating of the metal mesh IR filters and re-radiation onto the KID. Note that the total power from the cryogenic black body source used in the experiments (at T = - K) is much larger than the power inside the - THz band we use to calibrate our detector. The out-of-band radiation can have up to 5 orders of magnitude more power than inside the - THz band of interest. A strategy to mitigate the filter heating problem is presented, and when it is implemented, the validated upper limit for stray light at the detector level is down to few aW.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Breast Parenchymal Uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Background Parenchymal Enhancement, and Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Doris; Baltzer, Pascal A; Magometschnigg, Heinrich F; Wengert, Georg J; Karanikas, Georgios; Helbich, Thomas H; Weber, Michael; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Pinker, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) assessed with MRI have been implicated as sensitive imaging biomarkers for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess breast parenchymal uptake (BPU) on (18)F-FDG PET/CT as another valuable imaging biomarker and examine its correlation with BPE, FGT, and age.

  10. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France)

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  11. Infants - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic growth and development experienced in infancy is the most rapid of any age. The progression in feeding skills marks important developmental milestones that support rapid changes in food habits and nutrient intakes.

  12. Lactation - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants are well established and rates of breastfeeding have been increasing across all socioeconomic and ethnic groups in the US during the last decade.

  13. Toddlers - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This stage of development is characterized by the slowing of the growth velocity and a rapid increase in fine and gross motor skills supporting increases in independence, exploration of the environment, and language skills.

  14. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  15. Use of legal reserve areas as geochemical background in hydrosedimentology studies¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Juchen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In hydrosedimentology studies the determination of the trace element concentrations at the study site is imperative, since this background can be used to assess the enrichment of sediments with these elements. This enrichment can be the result of the natural process of geological formation or of anthropogenic activities. In the latter case, guidelines are used to indicate the concentrations at which trace elements cause ecotoxicity effects on the environment. Thus, this study used legal reserve areas in the municipality of Toledo, PR, where natural forests are maintained, with no or minimal human interference to establish background levels. The results of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma showed that the legal reserves have lower levels of trace elements than other theoretical references, but equivalent concentrations to the safety levels recommended by international guidelines. It was concluded that determining values is fundamental to recommend this background as scientific database for research in the area of hydrosedimentology of this site and also as a way of environmental management of the watershed of this municipality.

  16. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  17. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  18. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  19. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for assessing the safety of maternal vaccine trials in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A V Orenstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization has gained traction as a strategy to diminish maternal and young infant mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are crucial to interpret results of clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that calculates a clinical trial's expected number of neonatal and maternal deaths at an interim safety assessment based on the person-time observed during different risk windows. This model was compared to crude multiplication of the maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate by the number of live births. Systematic reviews of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, low birth weight (LBW, prematurity, and major congenital malformations (MCM in Sub-Saharan African countries were also performed. FINDINGS: Accounting for the person-time observed during different risk periods yields lower, more conservative estimates of expected maternal and neonatal deaths, particularly at an interim safety evaluation soon after a large number of deliveries. Median incidence of SAMM in 16 reports was 40.7 (IQR: 10.6-73.3 per 1,000 total births, and the most common causes were hemorrhage (34%, dystocia (22%, and severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (22%. Proportions of liveborn infants who were LBW (median 13.3%, IQR: 9.9-16.4 or premature (median 15.4%, IQR: 10.6-19.1 were similar across geographic region, study design, and institutional setting. The median incidence of MCM per 1,000 live births was 14.4 (IQR: 5.5-17.6, with the musculoskeletal system comprising 30%. INTERPRETATION: Some clinical trials assessing whether maternal immunization can improve pregnancy and young infant outcomes in the developing world have made ethics-based decisions not to use a pure placebo control. Consequently, reliable background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are necessary to distinguish between vaccine benefits and safety concerns. Local studies

  20. Improvement of methodological and data background for life cycle assessment of nano-metaloxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko

    that there are several challenges. Firstly the LCAs are limited to the first part of the life cycle, the cradle-to-gate. The main reason for this is that the data and approaches for assessing the remainder of the life cycle are not there. Industrial data inventories are missing, e.g. the data for production of ENMs...... technology. The aim of the PhD project was to investigate the status and improvement potential of LCA of ENMs. This was done through three sub-aims: • Review current possibilities and limitations of applying LCA on ENM products. • Improve the limitation in ENM production data inventory by presenting novel...... data from an industrial case study of metal (-oxide) ENM products. • Improve the LCA limitation of ecotoxicity assessment by developing freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factors for chosen metal (-oxide) ENMs. By reviewing the scientifically published LCA studies of ENMs it was concluded...

  1. Youths’ and Adults’ Stories Related to the Background for ADHD Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørg Mari Hannås

    2015-01-01

    In connection with a study relating to the diagnosing of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), youths and adults represent a particularly interesting group, partly because they have lived a relatively long time with the condition but without the diagnosis. In this article, I am focusing particularly on the life stories of youths and adults before they were referred for an ADHD assessment. A narrative analysi...

  2. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  4. Ethnic Background and Television Viewing Time Among 4-Year-Old Preschool Children : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Children’s television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. Method: The auth

  5. Assessment of ambient background concentrations of elements in soil using combined survey and open-source data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Hannah G; Clarke, Bradley O; Dasika, Raghava; Wallis, Christian J; Reichman, Suzie M

    2017-02-15

    Understanding ambient background concentrations in soil, at a local scale, is an essential part of environmental risk assessment. Where high resolution geochemical soil surveys have not been undertaken, soil data from alternative sources, such as environmental site assessment reports, can be used to support an understanding of ambient background conditions. Concentrations of metals/metalloids (As, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were extracted from open-source environmental site assessment reports, for soils derived from the Newer Volcanics basalt, of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A manual screening method was applied to remove samples that were indicated to be contaminated by point sources and hence not representative of ambient background conditions. The manual screening approach was validated by comparison to data from a targeted background soil survey. Statistical methods for exclusion of contaminated samples from background soil datasets were compared to the manual screening method. The statistical methods tested included the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations, the upper whisker of a normal and log transformed Tukey boxplot, the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot and the 95th percentile. We have demonstrated that where anomalous sample results cannot be screened using site information, the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations is a conservative method for derivation of ambient background upper concentration limits (i.e. expected maximums). The upper whisker of a boxplot and the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot, were also considered adequate methods for deriving ambient background upper concentration limits, where the percentage of contaminated samples is <25%. Median ambient background concentrations of metals/metalloids in the Newer Volcanic soils of Melbourne were comparable to ambient background concentrations in Europe and the United States, except for Ni, which was naturally enriched in the basalt-derived soils of

  6. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  7. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butani Yogita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment.

  8. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Olivan, M.A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.; Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Cuesta, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Martinez, M. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) scintillators produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, {sup 22}Na and {sup 3}H are the most relevant. Those from {sup 40}K and {sup 22}Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), while that from {sup 210}Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and {sup 3}H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/(keV kg day) in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/(keV kg day) by using a LSV. (orig.)

  9. Assessing The Starburst Contribution to the Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, T A; Waxman, E; Loeb, A; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot; Waxman, Eli; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    If cosmic ray protons interact with gas at roughly the mean density of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies, then pion decay in starbursts is likely to contribute significantly to the diffuse extra-galactic background in both gamma-rays and high energy neutrinos. We describe the assumptions that lead to this conclusion and clarify the difference between our estimates and those of Stecker (2006). Detection of a single starburst by GLAST would confirm the significant contribution of starburst galaxies to the extra-galactic neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  10. The language and social background questionnaire: Assessing degree of bilingualism in a diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John A E; Mak, Lorinda; Keyvani Chahi, Aram; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-09

    Research examining the cognitive consequences of bilingualism has expanded rapidly in recent years and has revealed effects on aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, these effects are difficult to find in studies investigating young adults. One problem is that there is no standard definition of bilingualism or means of evaluating degree of bilingualism in individual participants, making it difficult to directly compare the results of different studies. Here, we describe an instrument developed to assess degree of bilingualism for young adults who live in diverse communities in which English is the official language. We demonstrate the reliability and validity of the instrument in analyses based on 408 participants. The relevant factors for describing degree of bilingualism are: (1) the extent of non-English language proficiency and use at home, and (2) non-English language use socially. We then use the bilingualism scores obtained from the instrument to demonstrate their association with: (1) performance on executive function tasks, and (2) previous classifications of participants into categories of monolinguals and bilinguals.

  11. Background studies for a ton-scale argon dark matter detector (ArDM)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, L

    2006-01-01

    The ArDM project aims at operating a large noble liquid detector to search for direct evidence of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) as Dark Matter in the universe. Background sources relevant to ton-scale liquid and gaseous argon detectors, such as neutrons from detector components, muon-induced neutrons and neutrons caused by radioactivity of rock, as well as the internal $^{39}Ar$ background, are studied with simulations. These background radiations are addressed with the design of an appropriate shielding as well as with different background rejection potentialities. Among them the project relies on event topology recognition, event localization, density ionization discrimination and pulse shape discrimination. Background rates, energy spectra, characteristics of the background-induced nuclear recoils in liquid argon, as well as the shielding performance and rejection performance of the detector are described.

  12. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    CERN Document Server

    Amare, J; Cuesta, C; Garcia, E; Martinez, M; Olivan, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solorzano, A Ortiz; Puimedon, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A; Villar, P

    2016-01-01

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5-kg NaI(Tl) detectors produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from 210Pb, 40K, 22Na and 3H are the most relevant. Those from 40K and 22Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV), while that from 210Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and 3H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during...

  13. Assessing the impact of background spectral graph construction techniques on the topological anomaly detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.; Albano, James A.; Basener, William F.

    2012-06-01

    Anomaly detection algorithms have historically been applied to hyperspectral imagery in order to identify pixels whose material content is incongruous with the background material in the scene. Typically, the application involves extracting man-made objects from natural and agricultural surroundings. A large challenge in designing these algorithms is determining which pixels initially constitute the background material within an image. The topological anomaly detection (TAD) algorithm constructs a graph theory-based, fully non-parametric topological model of the background in the image scene, and uses codensity to measure deviation from this background. In TAD, the initial graph theory structure of the image data is created by connecting an edge between any two pixel vertices x and y if the Euclidean distance between them is less than some resolution r. While this type of proximity graph is among the most well-known approaches to building a geometric graph based on a given set of data, there is a wide variety of dierent geometrically-based techniques. In this paper, we present a comparative test of the performance of TAD across four dierent constructs of the initial graph: mutual k-nearest neighbor graph, sigma-local graph for two different values of σ > 1, and the proximity graph originally implemented in TAD.

  14. Assessing the Role of Business Faculty Values and Background in the Recognition of an Ethical Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The author sought to determine whether business faculty values and background can discriminate between a yes or no response to the introduction of an ethically challenged product. The results reveal that two competing views of the enterprise (stakeholder vs. stockholder) along with a faculty member's departmental membership do discriminate in the…

  15. Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpine, Hovhannisyan; Gayane, Shahnazaryan

    2016-08-01

    The determination of background values of hydrochemical parameters, to distinguish between natural concentration and anthropogenically-influenced concentrations, is highly relevant. In presented study, to estimate the background values of hydrochemical parameters in Akhuryan River Basin, log-normal probability functions on the hydrochemical parameters concentrations was applied. The study is carried out on the basis of hydrochemical data of surface water quality monitoring for the period of 2010-2013. This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources.

  16. A Study of Career Planning Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Firkola, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of career planning assessments. Background on key career concepts is first introduced. A number of career planning assessments are then examined. These assessments included reviewing ones personal history, interest inventories, values assessments, personality assessments, and aptitude tests. The importance and limitations of these career assessments is then discussed.

  17. Assessment of some experimental and image analysis factors for background oriented schlieren measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gojani, Ardian B; 10.1364/AO.51.007554

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow properties can be achieved by background oriented schlieren. In this paper it is shown that this depends on several factors. Image quality index is used to investigate the influence of the image sensor and the quality of its output. Image evaluation is applied to synthetic images which are treated with a step function, so that they simulate the sharp density jump. The gradual change of the evaluated vector shift revealed the major dependence on the interrogation window, and less so on the background features. BOS applied to shock wave reflection from a wedge in a shock tube gave qualitative results, due to large uncertainties. But, the application to cooling by natural convection gave satisfactory results, comparable to thermocouple data and theory.

  18. Creative engineering design assessment background, directions, manual, scoring guide and uses

    CERN Document Server

    Charyton, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Creative Engineering Design Assessment or CEDA is a newly developed tool to assess creativity specific to engineering design which is vital for innovation. The revised CEDA assesses usefulness in addition to originality.  Both originality and usefulness are key constructs in creativity but are primarily essential and emphasized ever more in engineering design.  Since the preliminary research was presented to the National Science Foundation, further reliability and validity has been developed and established. The CEDA is different from other general creativity measures as it demonstrates discriminant validity with the Creative Personality Scale, Creative Temperament Scale, and the Cognitive Risk Tolerance Scale, and has demonstrated convergent validity with the Purdue Creativity Test and the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test- Rotations. It focuses on engineering specific measures, measuring engineering creativity and spatial skills. The aim of this book is to disseminate the CEDA tool for use in engin...

  19. The cosmic infrared background experiment-2 (CIBER-2) for studying the near-infrared extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Enokuchi, Akito; Hristov, Viktor; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kim, Min Gyu; Korngut, Phillip; Lanz, Alicia; Lee, Dae-Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Ohnishi, Yosuke; Park, Won-Kee; Sano, Kei; Takeyama, Norihide; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (CIBER-2) project, whose goal is to make a rocket-borne measurement of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), under a collaboration with U.S.A., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The EBL is the integrated light of all extragalactic sources of emission back to the early Universe. At near-infrared wavelengths, measurement of the EBL is a promising way to detect the diffuse light from the first collapsed structures at redshift z˜10, which are impossible to detect as individual sources. However, recently, the intra-halo light (IHL) model is advocated as the main contribution to the EBL, and our new result of the EBL fluctuation from CIBER-1 experiment is also supporting this model. In this model, EBL is contributed by accumulated light from stars in the dark halo regions of low- redshift (zCIBER- 1 experiment, we are now developing a new instrument CIBER-2, which is comprised of a 28.5-cm aluminum telescope and three broad-band, wide-field imaging cameras. The three wide-field (2.3×2.3 degrees) imaging cameras use the 2K×2K HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG arrays, and cover the optical and near-infrared wavelength range of 0.5-0.9 μm, 1.0-1.4 μm and 1.5-2.0 μm, respectively. Combining a large area telescope with the high sensitivity detectors, CIBER-2 will be able to measure the spatial fluctuations in the EBL at much fainter levels than those detected in previous CIBER-1 experiment. Additionally, we will use a linear variable filter installed just above the detectors so that a measurement of the absolute spectrum of the EBL is also possible. In this paper, the scientific motivation and the expected performance for CIBER-2 will be presented. The detailed designs of the telescope and imaging cameras will also be discussed, including the designs of the mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical systems.

  20. Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yang; Kuai Shuguang; Zhou Weixi; Peng Sheng; Tian Mi; Liu Kangjun; Zhou Xingtao

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years,computers have been intensively used at home.In contrast to paper-based books and documents,computer screen is self-illuminated with larger screen-background luminance difference,which greatly induces visual discomfort.To compensate for that,one effective solution is to offer an additional background luminance.In this study,we investigated whether and to what extent additional background lighting is needed in looking at a computer display comfortably.Methods In this study,60 healthy children aged from 9 to 12 years and 58 adults aged from 21 to 39 years participated in the experiments.They were asked to choose their most preferred background luminance intensities at three screen luminance levels.The data were analyzed by Matlab (R2012b) and SPSS 20.0.Results Both children and adult participants selected a non-dark background as their comfortable lighting condition when watching a computer display (children:t (59)=22.0,P <0.01,adults:t (57)=15.5,P <0.01).Comparatively,children preferred brighter background in general (F (1,116)=7.0,P <0.01).More importantly,participants' preferred background luminance levels were linearly correlated with screen luminance intensities (children:slope=0.97,R2=0.98; adults:slope=0.38,R2=1.00).Conclusion These results indicate that varying background luminance to maintain screen-background luminance ratio is beneficial to human visual comfort.

  1. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Arunachalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5, and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales.

  2. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  3. Audit and Assessment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  4. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  5. [Background and practical use of the assessment of identity development in adolescence (AIDA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhölzer, Marc; Goth, Kirstin; Schrobildgen, Christian; Schmeck, Klaus; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards early detection and intervention of personality disorders in adolescence to prevent persistent and chronic suffering is currently taking place. Aside further distinct areas of impaired psychosocial integrity, disturbed identity development is seen as one core component of personality disorders. Thus, the detection of early antecedents of impaired identity development is an important step to allow for early intervention. The self-report questionnaire Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) is a reliable and valid diagnostic instrument to detect disturbed identity development. This questionnaire allows for global assessment of identity and a differentiation in fundamental subdomains as well and distinguishes between identity diffusion on one side and consolidated and stable identity on the other. In clinical practice, it supports the differentiation between severely disturbed identity as the core component of personality disorders and identity crisis or stable identity development that can be found in other mental disorders.

  6. Application of reconstructed background in assessing heavy metal pollution of soils near Jilin Section of the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Libo; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xinyun; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The distinguishing and evaluation of natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in soils have always been the important issues in the field of environmental science. In this research, natural sources of heavy metals in soils are calculated according to the relationships between major oxides and heavy metals. The individual sample has independent backgrounds of heavy metals, which is more reasonable. If the single environmental background is used as baseline, anomalies in regions with low background might be decreased or hided and those in regions with high background will be overstated. In this study, enrichment factor is defined as the ratio of measured concentration and reconstructed background of heavy metals, which is of specific significance in practical applications with no assumptions. The agricultural soils near Jilin section of the Songhua River are polluted by Hg seriously with more than half samples polluted greatly. And the soils are polluted by Cd moderately. A few samples are polluted by Zn moderately. The other heavy metals in soils are almost in the level of background with little human disturbance.

  7. Simulation Studies of Backgrounds for the Fermilab SeaQuest Experiment (E906)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Puyang; Aidala, Christine; E906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Fermilab SeaQuest experiment uses a 120 GeV proton beam on targets of liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and solid nuclear targets of carbon, iron, and tungsten. The experiment measures the Drell-Yan process of quark-antiquark annihilation to produce muon pairs, with the main physics goal of studying the sea quark distributions in the nucleon and nuclei. Since quark and antiquark annihilation to dimuons is a rare process, there are significant backgrounds due to muons from the decay of pions produced in the target and beam dump. These backgrounds are being studied via simulated proton interactions in a GEANT implementation of the experimental setup. Full simulation of these backgrounds has proved to be difficult because of the extensive computer time needed. Studies to speed up the simulation process will be presented. NSF.

  8. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  9. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  10. Sustainability Impact Assessment of Forest Management Alternatives in Europe: an Introductory Background and Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of forest management practices in the context of rapid climatic and socioeconomic changes is a global concern. Stakeholders in the forest-based sector as well as policy makers need improved methods and tools to assess potential impacts of changes in management on sustainability indicators. In this special feature, we introduce a methodological framework for classification of forest management approaches in European forestry and explore how changes in forest management might affect the delivery of various ecosystem goods and services and appropriate sustainability indicators over time and space from local to continental scales. The complementary papers in this special feature explore different aspects of sustainability and risks in representative European forest systems as affected by forest management. We show how a common framework plus supporting growth models and indicators can be used to examine the effects of management on ecosystem services and so provide a first step toward the development of a more integrated approach for strategic forest planning and sustainable use of forest ecosystems.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the first year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  12. Numerical study of Spherically Symmetric solutions on a Cosmological Dynamical Background using the BSSN Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Rekier, Jeremy; Fuzfa, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully relativistic numerical method for the study of cosmological problems in spherical symmetry. This involves using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formalism on a dynamical Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. The regular and smooth numerical solution at the center of coordinates proceeds in a natural way by relying on the Partially Implicit Runge-Kutta (PIRK) algorithm described in Montero and Cordero-Carri\\'on [arXiv:1211.5930]. We generalize the usual radiative outer boundary condition to the case of a dynamical background. We show the stability and convergence properties of the method in the study of pure gauge dynamics on a de Sitter background and present a simple application to cosmology by reproducing the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) solution for the collapse of pressure-less matter.

  13. A study on the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation with WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the investigation of the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation (reduced-rank ROI). Retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) algorithm which assimilates observations over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window is suggested in Song et al. (2009). The assimilation window of ROI is gradually increased. Song and Lim (2011) suggested reduced-rank ROI improved by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. In this study, the background error covariance for reduced-rank ROI algorithm is investigated with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Reduced-rank ROI is applied by incorporating eigen-decomposition of background error covariance from ensemble. The structure of the background error covariance is investigated from each eigenvectors. The data assimilation experiments with reduced-rank ROI are based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE). A regularly dense network, a regularly sparse network, and irregularly realistic network are used for observation networks. It is assumed that all observations are located at the model grid points. Analysis error with reduced-rank ROI decreases significantly. Vertical profiles of background error and analysis error shows overall analysis error reduction.

  14. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  15. Generating Links to Background Knowledge: A Case Study in Annotating Radiology Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Rijke, M. de; Sevenster, M.; Ommering, R. van; Qian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Automatically annotating texts with background information has recently received much attention. We conduct a case study in automatically generating links from narrative radiology reports to Wikipedia. Such links help users understand the medical terminology and thereby increase the value of the rep

  16. Search for Supersymmetry in ATLAS with two or three leptons: background studies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2110114

    2016-01-01

    A study of the modeling of $t\\bar{t}V (V=W$ or $ Z)$ production at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV has been conducted. This is one of the main backgrounds in the search for Supersymmetry with same-sign dileptons or three leptons final state.

  17. The EuroPrevall outpatient clinic study on food allergy : Background and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Barreales, L.; Mackie, A. R.; Fritsche, P.; Vázquez-Cortés, S.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M.; Kowalski, M. L.; Clausen, M.; Gislason, D.; Sinaniotis, A.; Kompoti, E.; Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Purohit, A.; De Blay, F.; Kralimarkova, T.; Popov, T.; Asero, R.; Belohlavkova, S.; Seneviratne, S. L.; Dubakiene, R.; Lidholm, J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Burney, P.; Crevel, R.; Brill, M.; Fernández-Pérez, C.; Vieths, S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Van Ree, R.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The EuroPrevall project aimed to develop effective management strategies in food allergy through a suite of interconnected studies and a multidisciplinary integrated approach. To address some of the gaps in food allergy diagnosis, allergen risk management and socio-economic impact and to

  18. Persistence in Japanese Language Study and Learners' Cultural/Linguistic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    Motivational characteristics of students learning Japanese as a foreign language at universities in Australia were investigated to find out what affecting factors are closely related to their intentions for continuing/discontinuing their study. The results showed that students' cultural/linguistic backgrounds have a significant impact on their…

  19. Background Study on Supernova Relic Neutrinos Search in SuperK-Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The detection of supernova relic neutrinos could provide precious information on the evolution of the universe, the formation of stars, the mechanism of supernova bursts and the related neutrino physics. Many experiments, such as Kamland, Borexino, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Super-Kamiokande have conducted searches for the supernova relic neutrinos. However, no supernova relic neutrino signal has been observed until now. This paper reports the background study on the supernova relic neutrinos search for the future neutrino experiment in SuperK-Gd project. The expected event rate for various background sources and supernova relic neutrino models are calculated, respectively.

  20. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Marin, Pierre; Castor, Jean; Warot, Guillaume; Incerti, S.; Maigne, Lydia; Sarramia, David; Breton, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1) and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1) in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  1. Comprehensive Study and Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Background Sub-traction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods proposed for Back-ground Subtraction algorithm in past years. Background subtraction algorithm is widely used for real time moving object detection in video surveillance system. In this paper we have studied and implemented different types of meth-ods used for segmentation in Background subtraction algo-rithm with static camera. This paper gives good under-standing about procedure to obtain foreground using exist-ing common methods of Background Subtraction, their complexity, utility and also provide basics which will useful to improve performance in the future . First, we have explained the basic steps and procedure used in vision based moving object detection. Then, we have debriefed the common methods of background subtraction like Sim-ple method, statistical methods like Mean and Median filter, Frame Differencing and W4 System method, Running Gaussian Average and Gaussian Mixture Model and last is Eigenbackground Model. After that we have implemented all the above techniques on MATLAB software and show some experimental results for the same and compare them in terms of speed and complexity criteria.

  2. A Monte Carlo study for the shielding of γ backgrounds induced by radionuclides for CDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; MA Hao; H.W.Wong; XUE Tao; ZENG Zhi; YUE Qian; TANG Chang-Jian; CHENG Jian-Ping; KANG Ke-Jun; LI Jian-Min; LI Jin; LI Yu-Lan; LI Yuan-Jing

    2011-01-01

    The CDEX(China Dark matter EXperiment)Collaboration will carry out a direct search for WIMPs(Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)using an Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity Germanium(ULE-HPGe)detector at the CJPL(China JinPing deep underground Laboratory).A complex shielding system was designed to reduce backgrounds and a detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation was performed to study the achievable reduction of T rays induced by radionuclides and neutron backgrounds by D(γ,n)p reaction.Furthermore,the upper level of allowed radiopurity of shielding materials was estimated under the constraint of the expected goal.Compared with the radiopurity reported by other low-background rare-event experiments,it indicates that the shielding used in the CDEX can be made out of materials with obtainable radiopurity.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family Background Factors on Mathematics Achievements Using Quantile Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-zhi Wu; Mao-zai Tian

    2008-01-01

    Quantile regression is gradually emerging as a powerful tool for estimating models of conditional quantile functions, and therefore research in this area has vastly increased in the past two decades. This paper, with the quantile regression technique, is the first comprehensive longitudinal study on mathematics participation data collected in Alberta, Canada. The major advantage of longitudinal study is its capability to separate the so-called cohort and age effects in the context of population studies. One aim of this paper is to study whether the family background factors alter performance on the mathematical achievement of the strongest students in the same way as that of weaker students based on the large longitudinal sample of 2000,2001 and 2002 mathematics participation longitudinal data set. The interesting findings suggest that there may be differential family background factor effects at different points in the mathematical achievement conditional distribution.

  4. BACKGROUND MUSIC AT THE TIME OF ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT AS STRESS BUSTER: PERCEPTION OF THE STUDENTS AT GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE , BILASPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Manoharrao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Music has numerous applications within a clinical setting. It can be in the form of background music too. It is known that some students study and learn more effectively while listening to music. METHODS: The present study was intended to evaluate the perception of the students at medical college for the innovative idea of playing of background music during examination as a stress buster and their response for including it as one of the measure for reducing the stress among medical students. RESULT: The subjects were divided into three groups on t he basis of suffering from anxiety and stress during examination – No Anxiety (N, Occasional Anxiety (O, Anxiety (A. The groups were subjected to Spearman Correlation (SPSS. When the No Anxiety (N group and Occasional Anxiety (O group were compared, it showed positive correlation (0.482, but failed to show statistical significance [0.189]. However, the comparison of the Occasional Anxiety (O group and Anxiety (A group showed positive correlation (0.873 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSI ON: This study indicates that it is the innovative idea of playing background music liked by most of students and even may reduce anxiety and stress which is likely to improve performance. We are encouraged with the positive trends and results of the study

  5. All correlations must die: Assessing the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in pulsar-timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S R; Babak, S; Brem, P; Gair, J R; Sesana, A; Vecchio, A

    2016-01-01

    We present two methods for determining the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background affecting a pulsar-timing array, where detection is based on recovering evidence for correlations between different pulsars, i.e. spatial correlations. Nulling these spatial correlations is crucial to understanding the response of our detection statistic under the null hypothesis so that we can properly assess the significance of plausible signals. The usual approach of creating many noise-only simulations is, albeit useful, undesirable since in that case detection significance is predicated on our (incomplete) understanding of all noise processes. Alternatively, destroying any possible correlations in our real datasets and using those (containing all actual noise features) is a much superior approach. In our first method, we perform random phase shifts in the signal-model basis functions, which has the effect of eliminating signal phase coherence between pulsars, while keeping the statistical properties of t...

  6. All correlations must die: Assessing the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Lentati, L.; Babak, S.; Brem, P.; Gair, J. R.; Sesana, A.; Vecchio, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present two methods for determining the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background affecting a pulsar-timing array, where detection is based on evidence for quadrupolar spatial correlations between pulsars. Rather than constructing noise simulations, we eliminate the GWB spatial correlations in the true data sets to assess detection significance with all real data features intact. In our first method, we perform random phase shifts in the signal-model basis functions. This phase shifting eliminates signal phase coherence between pulsars, while keeping the statistical properties of the pulsar timing residuals intact. We then explore a method to null correlations between pulsars by using a "scrambled" overlap-reduction function in the signal model for the array. This scrambled function is orthogonal to what we expect of a real GW background signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of these methods using Bayesian model selection on a set of simulated data sets that contain a stochastic GW signal, timing noise, undiagnosed glitches, and uncertainties in the Solar system ephemeris. Finally, we introduce an overarching formalism under which these two techniques are naturally linked. These methods are immediately applicable to all current pulsar-timing array data sets, and should become standard tools for future analyses.

  7. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise.

  8. A comparative study of background flow geometries in Schwarzschild metric with shock

    CERN Document Server

    Tarafdar, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of discontinuity in general relativistic axially symmetric background fluid flow in the Schwarzschild metric. The discontinuities, or 'shocks', are incorporated using general relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. A general shock-invariant quantity is thus derived analytically for three distinct geometric configurations of the background fluid flow, viz., constant height discs, quasi-spherical discs and discs in hydrostatic equilibrium in the vertical direction. As already pointed out in our previous works, even identical initial conditions may lead to completely different phase-space behaviour of the stationary solutions for separate flow geometries. Hence it is then useful to investigate and compare the influence of geometric configuration of the flow described by various thermodynamic equations of state, on different important properties and manifestations of such physical discontinuities.

  9. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  10. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  11. ERP investigation of study-test background mismatch during face recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Guillem, François; Tiberghien, Guy; Stip, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Old/new effects on event-related potentials (ERP) were explored in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 paired comparison subjects during unfamiliar face recognition. Extrinsic perceptual changes - which influence the overall familiarity of an item while retaining face-intrinsic features for use in structural face encoding - were manipulated between the study phase and the test. The question raised here concerns whether these perceptual incongruities would have a different effect on the sense of familiarity and the corresponding behavioral and ERP measures in the two groups. The results showed that schizophrenia patients were more inclined to consider old faces shown against a new background as distractors. This drop in face familiarity was accompanied by the disappearance of ERP old/new effects in this condition, i.e., FN400 and parietal old/new effects. Indeed, while ERP old/new recognition effects were found in both groups when the picture of the face was physically identical to the one presented for study, the ERP correlates of recognition disappeared among patients when the background behind the face was different. This difficulty in disregarding a background change suggests that recognition among patients with schizophrenia is based on a global perceptual matching strategy rather than on the extraction of configural information from the face. The correlations observed between FN400 amplitude, the rejection of faces with a different background, and the reality-distortion scores support the idea that the recognition deficit found in schizophrenia results from early anomalies that are carried over onto the parietal ERP old/new effect. Face-extrinsic perceptual variations provide an opportune situation for gaining insight into the social difficulties that patients encounter throughout their lives.

  12. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  13. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-04-24

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by {sup 214}Bi, {sup 208}Tl and {sup 42}K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from {sup 42}K and {sup 214}Bi beta-rays, and {sup 210}Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  14. U.S. -- EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  15. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  16. Poor Background or Low Returns? Why Immigrant Students in Germany Perform so Poorly in the Programme for International Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Student performance of natives and immigrants differed greatly in the Programme for International Student Assessment 2000 in Germany. This paper analyses the gap in test scores by estimating educational production functions, using an extension study with imputed data. The difference in test scores is assigned to various effects, using a…

  17. ForCent model development and testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parton, W.J.; Hanson, P. J.; Swanston, C.; Torn, M.; Trumbore, S. E.; Riley, W.; Kelly, R.

    2010-10-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool {sup 14}C signature ({Delta} {sup 14}C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the {sup 14}C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass {Delta} {sup 14}C data, and with soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experimental treatments on soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  18. Study of neutron-induced background and its impact on the search of 0$\

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Ghosh, C; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Pal, S; Bhushan, K G; Shrivastava, A

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced background has been studied in various components of the TIN.TIN detector, which is under development for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in $\\rm^{124}Sn$. Fast neutron flux $\\sim10^{6}~n~cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ covering a broad energy range ($ \\sim0.1$ to $ \\sim18$~MeV) was generated using $^{9}Be(p,n)^{9}B$ reaction. In addition, reactions with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were also studied using $^{7}Li(p,n)^{7}Be$ reaction. Among the different cryogenic support structures studied, Teflon is found to be preferable compared to Torlon as there is no high energy gamma background ($E_\\gamma >$ 1 MeV). Contribution of neutron-induced reactions in $\\rm ^{nat, 124} $Sn from other Sn isotopes (A = 112 -- 122) in the energy region of interest, namely, around the $Q_{\\beta\\beta}$ of $\\rm^{124}Sn$ ($E \\sim$ 2.293 MeV), is also investigated.

  19. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  20. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaardhøje J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  1. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  2. Top quark production background studies using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radics, Balint [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Precision measurements of top quark pair production cross section are an important test of the Standard Model and are necessary for any study of effects beyond the Standard Model. At the ATLAS detector of the Large Hadron Collider clean signals from physics processes with high branching ratios, significant missing transverse energy and isolated high transverse momentum leptons are expected to be triggered with high efficiency. Having such clean data samples accurate determination of the cross section in the t+ anti t{yields}bl{nu}{sub l}bjj semileptonic channel will be limited by the level of understanding of the shape as well as the ratio of signal to combinatorial background events, the later of which can be the result of misreconstructed (anti)top quarks and also the existence of possible additional extra partons in the final state. A study on the shape of the combinatorial background in different Alpgen and Mc {sup rate} {sup at} NLO samples for the process gg{yields}t+ anti t+N partons is performed.

  3. Review of approaches to the recording of background lesions in toxicologic pathology studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, E F; Scudamore, C L

    2014-08-17

    Pathological evaluation of lesions caused directly by xenobiotic treatment must always take into account the recognition of background (incidental) findings. Background lesions can be congenital or hereditary, histological variations, changes related to trauma or normal aging and physiologic or hormonal changes. This review focuses on the importance and correct approach to recording of background changes and includes discussion on sources of variability in background changes, the correct use of terminology, the concept of thresholds, historical control data, diagnostic drift, blind reading of slides, scoring and artifacts. The review is illustrated with background lesions in Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats.

  4. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  5. Demographic and historical backgrounds of the elderly with nonepileptic seizures: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Goksemin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Non-epileptic seizures (NES are not infrequent in the elderly. However, the data on NES in the elderly is likited. Aim : To study the demographic and historical background of eldely patients with NES and compare the same with the data in the younger patients with NES. Materials and Methods : Patients with NES over 55 years of age and the next two consecutive patients with NES between ages 18 and 45 were compared in terms of demographic and historical features, psychiatric evaluation and MMPI testing. Results : Of all the 128 patients with NES, 13 (10.6% were over 55 years of age. History of physical/sexual abuse was high in both the groups. The mean length of time for NES diagnosis was longer in the elderly (13.38 ± 15.33 vs. 6.15 ± 8.04 years; P < 0.05. Majority of the patients with NES were on AEDs without evidence of epilepsy and almost half in both the groups were using benzodiazepines. Conclusion : In demographic and historical aspects old and young patients do not display major differences; however, the diagnosis is significantly delayed in the elderly. Early diagnosis with video EEG is recommended to avoid potential long-term risks associated with inappropriate treatments.

  6. A study of raining influence on the environmental radiation background spectra with HXMT/HE

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Lu, Xue-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Yu-Peng; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full functional and performance tests were performed many times before the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) launch. During one of the tests, the count rate curves of the 18 High Energy Detectors (HED) have been found increased consistently within an interval of time. A further study on the correlation between the count rate and rainfall was carried out,and the increased net spectrum was also analyzed. The analysis results indicate that the short-lived 222Rn decay products (214Pb and 214Bi) in rainwater were responsible for the transient changes of the background radiation spectra in HEDs. The results show that the HXMT/HEDs have a good detection sensitivity on X/gamma rays, and the detector calibration results are effective.

  7. Categorization of upper gastrointestinal symptoms is useful in predicting background factors and studying effects and usages of digestive drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Yamamichi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports assessing the relationship between various upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms or evaluating each individual upper GI symptom separately. METHODS: Based on the answers to Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD from a large-scale population of healthy adults in Japan, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to categorize the typical 12 upper GI symptoms. The associations between the 12 symptoms and 13 background factors were systematically analyzed among the 18,097 digestive drug-free subjects, 364 proton-pump inhibitor (PPI users, and 528 histamine H₂-receptor antagonist (H₂RA users. RESULTS: The derived relationship between the 12 upper GI symptoms suggests the five symptom categories: heartburn (2, dyspepsia (4, acid regurgitation (3, pharyngo-upper esophageal discomfort (2, and fullness while eating (1. Among the digestive drug-free subjects, inadequate sleep, weight gain in adulthood, NSAID use, meals immediately prior to sleep, and frequent skipping of breakfast showed significant positive association with most upper GI symptoms. Compared to the digestive drug-free subjects, significantly associated factors for PPI and H₂RA users are respectively different in "4 of 5" and "5 of 5" symptoms in heartburn and acid regurgitation categories, "1 of 2" and "1 of 2" symptoms in pharyngo-upper esophageal discomfort category, and "0 of 5" and "3 of 5" symptoms in dyspepsia and fullness while eating categories. These differences between digestive drug-free subjects and gastric acid suppressant users seem to correlate with our experiences in clinical situations: heartburn and acid regurgitation category symptoms are effectively controlled with PPI and H₂RA whereas other category symptoms are not. CONCLUSIONS: The 12 upper GI symptoms can be classified into five categories, which are statistically associated with various background factors. The differences of associated factors between

  8. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  10. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  11. The hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe: background and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bygum Anette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare but serious disease marked by swelling attacks in the extremities, face, trunk, airway, or abdominal areas that can be spontaneous or the result of trauma and other triggers. It can be life-threatening due to the risk of asphyxiation. While there have been major advancements in our understanding of the immunogenetics of HAE, there are significant gaps in the literature regarding understanding of the humanistic and economic impact of the disease, particularly in Europe. The purpose of the HAE Burden of Illness Study-Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe, the development and methodology of which is described here, is to better understand the management and impact of HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. Methods/Design This is a cross-sectional study in which retrospective data were also collected being conducted in Denmark, Germany and Spain. The study is open to patients ages 12 and older with a diagnosis of HAE-I or HAE-II. Data collection includes: (i a survey on individuals’ health care resource use, direct and indirect medical costs, impact on work and school, treatment satisfaction, and emotional functioning (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and (ii one-on-one interviews to collect detailed descriptive data and patient testimonials on the impact of HAE on patients’ health-related quality of life. Discussion The present manuscript describes the development and plans for implementing a multi-country European study with the aim of characterizing the humanistic and economic burden of HAE from the patient perspective. This study will help raise awareness of HAE as a rare but debilitating condition with wide-ranging impacts.

  12. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  13. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  14. Combining natural background levels (NBLs) assessment with indicator kriging analysis to improve groundwater quality data interpretation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; de Melo, M Teresa Condesso; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Sellerino, Mariangela; Parrone, Daniele; Ribeiro, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The natural background level (NBL) concept is revisited and combined with indicator kriging method to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater quality within a groundwater body (GWB). The aim is to provide a methodology to easily identify areas with the same probability of exceeding a given threshold (which may be a groundwater quality criteria, standards, or recommended limits for selected properties and constituents). Three case studies with different hydrogeological settings and located in two countries (Portugal and Italy) are used to derive NBL using the preselection method and validate the proposed methodology illustrating its main advantages over conventional statistical water quality analysis. Indicator kriging analysis was used to create probability maps of the three potential groundwater contaminants. The results clearly indicate the areas within a groundwater body that are potentially contaminated because the concentrations exceed the drinking water standards or even the local NBL, and cannot be justified by geogenic origin. The combined methodology developed facilitates the management of groundwater quality because it allows for the spatial interpretation of NBL values.

  15. Making maps of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization for B-mode studies: the POLARBEAR example

    CERN Document Server

    Poletti, Davide; Jeune, Maude Le; Peloton, Julien; Arnold, Kam; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Ducout, Anne; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaffe, Andrew H; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Keating, Brian; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T; Leon, David; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Navaroli, Martin; Paar, Hans; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Reichardt, Christian L; Ross, Colin; Siritanasak, Praween; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Stompor, Radek; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tajima, Osamu; Teply, Grant; Whitehorn, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) datasets typically requires some filtering of the raw time-ordered data. Filtering is frequently used to minimize the impact of low frequency noise, atmospheric contributions and/or scan synchronous signals on the resulting maps. In this work we explicitly construct a general filtering operator, which can unambiguously remove any set of unwanted modes in the data, and then amend the map-making procedure in order to incorporate and correct for it. We show that such an approach is mathematically equivalent to the solution of a problem in which the sky signal and unwanted modes are estimated simultaneously and the latter are marginalized over. We investigate the conditions under which this amended map-making procedure can render an unbiased estimate of the sky signal in realistic circumstances. We then study the effects of time-domain filtering on the noise correlation structure in the map domain, as well as impact it may have on the performance of the popular pseudo...

  16. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  17. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  18. Feasibility study of SiGHT: a novel ultra low background photosensor for low temperature operation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi; Fiorillo, Giuliana; Galbiati, Cristiano; Guan, Meng-Yun; Korga, George; Pantic, Emilija; Razeto, Alessandro; Renshaw, Andrew; Rossi, Biagio; Suvorov, Yury; Wang, Hanguo; Yang, Chang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Rare event search experiments, such as those searching for dark matter and observations of neutrinoless double beta decay, require ultra low levels of radioactive background for unmistakable identification. In order to reduce the radioactive backgrounds of detectors used in these types of event searches, low background photosensors are required, as the physical size of these detectors become increasing larger, and hence the number of such photosensors used also increases rapidly. Considering that most dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are turning towards using noble liquids as the target choice, liquid xenon and liquid argon for instance, photosensors that can work well at cryogenic temperatures are required, 165 K and 87 K for liquid xenon and liquid argon, respectively. The Silicon Geiger Hybrid Tube (SiGHT) is a novel photosensor designed specifically for use in ultra low background experiments operating at cryogenic temperatures. It is based on the proven photocathode plus silicon...

  19. 22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social environment... result in the termination of the legal relationship between the child and his or her family of origin;...

  20. Study of the common genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is beginning to emerge that there may be susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that are common to both diseases. Objective To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with SLE in a UK cohort of patients with RA and controls. Methods 3962 patients with RA and 9275 controls were included in the study. Eleven SNPs mapping to confirmed SLE loci were investigated. These mapped to the TNFSF4, BANK1, TNIP1, PTTG1, UHRF1BP1, ATG5, JAZF1, BLK, KIAA1542, ITGAM and UBE2L3 loci. Genotype frequencies were compared between patients with RA and controls using the trend test. Results The SNPs mapping to the BLK and UBE2L3 loci showed significant evidence for association with RA. Two other SNPs, mapping to ATG5 and KIAA1542, showed nominal evidence for association with RA (p=0.02 and p=0.02, respectively) but these were not significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Additionally, a significant global enrichment in carriage of SLE alleles in patients with RA compared with controls (p=9.1×10−7) was found. Meta-analysis of this and previous studies confirmed the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 gene with RA at genome-wide significance levels (p<5×10−8). Together, the authors estimate that the SLE and RA overlapping loci, excluding HLA-DRB1 alleles, identified so far explain ∼5.8% of the genetic susceptibility to RA as a whole. Conclusion The findings confirm the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 loci with RA, thus adding to the list of loci showing overlap between RA and SLE. PMID:21068098

  1. Best available practice in life cycle assessment of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photo-oxidant formation, acidification, and eutrophication-Backgrounds on general issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppala J; Risbey J; Meilinger S; Norris G; Lindfors GL; Goedkoop M; Potting J; Klopffer W; SETAC Europe; KMD

    2001-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the SETAC Europe Scientific Task Group on Global And RegionaL Impact Categories (SETAC-Europe/STG-GARLIC) that is installed by the 2nd SETAC Europe working group on life cycle impact assessment (WIA-2). This document is background to a chapter written by the same aut

  2. Best available practice in life cycle assessment of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photo-oxidant formation, acidification, and eutrophication-Backgrounds on specific impact categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppala J; Risbey J; Meilinger S; Norris G; Lindfors LG; Goedkoop M; Klopffer W; Potting J; ETAC Europe; KMD

    2001-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the SETAC Europe Scientific Task Group on Global And RegionaL Impact Categories (SETAC-Europe/STG-GARLIC) that is installed by the 2nd SETAC Europe working group on life cycle impact assessment (WIA-2). This document is background to a chapter written by the same aut

  3. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Technical background and guidance for deployment in EU regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Le Pierres, S. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Del Ciello, R. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Harnych, J. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model enables national and regional authorities to assess the carbon impacts of Operational Programmes co-financed through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This document provides technical background information and guidance for deploying the model in additional EU regions.

  4. Study of electromagnetic backgrounds in the 25-300 MHz frequency band at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Auffenberg, Jan; Gaisser, Tom; Helbing, Klaus; Karg, Timo; Karle, Albrecht; Kravchenko, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are detectable by radio signals with a radio surface detector. A promising theory of the dominant emission process is the coherent synchrotron radiation emitted by e+ e- shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field (geosynchrotron effect). A radio air shower detector can extend IceTop, the air shower detector on top of IceCube. This could increase the sensitivity of IceTop to higher shower energies and for inclined showers significantly. Muons from air showers are a major part of the background of the neutrino telescope IceCube. Thus a surface radio air shower detector could act as a veto detector for this muonic background. Initial radio background measurements with a single antenna in 2007 revealed a continuous electromagnetic background promising a low energy threshold of radio air shower detection. However, short pulsed radio interferences can mimic real signals and have to be identified in the frequency range of interest. These properties of the electromagnetic background was bein...

  5. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  6. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  7. Numerical study of the chaotic N=4 problem in a background potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Taeho; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    We perform a large suite of $N=4$ numerical scattering experiments between two identical binaries consisting of identical point particles in a (continuous) background potential. For investigative purposes, albeit without loss of generality, we assume that the potential corresponds to a uniform (natal or star-forming) gas medium. We explore a range of constant gas densities, from $n=10~ {\\rm cm}^{-3}$ to $10^{5}~ {\\rm cm}^{-3}$. These densities are relevant for various astrophysical environments, including molecular clouds (i.e., star-forming regions) and denser, fragmented cores within these clouds. Our primary goal is to characterize the effects of the background potential on the subsequent stellar dynamics. We consider the outcome probabilities as well as the properties of any binaries formed during the binary-binary encounters, such as the distributions of binary binding energies and eccentricities. We also present the final velocity distributions of the ejected single stars. The background potential has t...

  8. Alternative Mechanisms of Research Support: Inventory and Assessment. Science Policy Study Background Report No 11. Report Transmitted to the Task Force on Science Policy, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 provides an inventory of past and present funding instruments in support of university research. It lists types of grants used for research-related purposes and gives information about their provisions and uses. Part 2 provides an assessment conducted by the General Accounting Office of the comparative…

  9. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  10. Loneliness, immigration background and self-identified ethnicity : a nationally representative study of adolescents in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich Madsen, Katrine; Trab Damsgaard, Mogens; Smith Jervelund, Signe; Christensen, Ulla; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Walsh, Sophie; Koushede, Vibeke; Nielsen, Line; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an increasing worldwide phenomenon that creates multicultural societies with a growing number of adolescents who have experienced a process of migration or who have an ethnic background other than that of the majority. Migration may lead to loss of social relations and create challenges

  11. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  12. The teaching profession against the background of educationalisation : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, Edith; Honingh, Marlies Elisabeth; Langelaan, Berber Nadia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching profession against the background of educationalisation in the Netherlands in the sense that Dutch schools are increasingly regarded as focal points at which to address and solve social issues. Our research project concentrated on the extent to which teachers, be

  13. Background studies of B → K{sup (*)} ν anti ν decays at Belle II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, James; Kuhr, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The B → K{sup (*)} ν anti ν decays provide some of the cleanest experimentally measurable instances of the flavour changing neutral current process b → sν anti ν, which presents an excellent opportunity to investigate physics beyond the standard model. The missing energies of the two neutrinos make the measurement experimentally challenging and require the full reconstruction of the spectator B meson in e{sup +}e{sup -} → Υ(4S) → B anti B events. Observation of the B → K{sup (*)} ν anti ν decays will only become possible with the large data set that will be collected at the upgraded Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. A challenge of this decay analysis will be the understanding and suppression of the backgrounds. New techniques will be required to identify and simulate background events in sufficient volumes for statistical analysis.

  14. Cosmic background anisotropy studies at 10 degree angular scales with a HEMT radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaier, T.; Schuster, J.; Lubin, P. (University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (USA))

    1990-01-15

    An expedition to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station was recently mounted to measure medium to large angular scale fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 15 and 25 GHz. Preliminary results are reported in this paper. No fluctuations have been detected as yet and data analysis is proceeding using likelihood ratio tests to set upper limits of {Delta}{ital T}/{ital T} for models which may be constrained by this experiment.

  15. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Biritwum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods: The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results: The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2% and in the highest income quintile (30.6%. Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to

  16. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-03-18

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective.

  17. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  18. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  19. A simulation-based study of the neutron backgrounds for NaI dark matter experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with a significance of 9.2$\\sigma$. Recently, Jonathan Davis claimed that the DAMA modulation may be interpreted on the basis of the neutron scattering events induced by the muons and neutrinos together. We tried to simulate the neutron backgrounds at the Gran Sasso and Yangyang laboratory with and without the polyethylene shielding to quantify the effects of the ambient neutrons on the direct detection experiments based on the crystals.

  20. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano S, A. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico))

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices.

  1. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  2. Migrant background and weight gain in early infancy: results from the German study sample of the IDEFICS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reeske

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. RESULTS: Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56 and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40-1.14 and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13-1.32. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy.

  3. Studying the numeration methods of signals with unstable background for in vivo flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Suo, Yuanzhen; Wei, Dan; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has been a useful technology in detecting and quantifying the circulating cells dynamically in living animals, especially in the research related to the cell tracking and the cancer metastasis. In practice, however, the unstable background signals caused by the experiment animals' respiratory movement, limb movement and photo-bleaching of tissues' auto-fluorescence exist in many IVFC data, which could affect the accuracy of cell counting results in the following post-processing procedure, making the IVFC signals less available. Here we developed a signal processing method that could effectively correct the unstable background signals by using methods combining interpolating, fitting, automatic segmenting and wavelet-based denoising. Compared with the previously used non-correction methods, i.e., the "line-gating" method or the automatic threshold method, this method showed a higher accuracy and efficiency in counting cell numbers of IVFC signals, as well as demonstrating a better statistic results in the Pearson's correlation coefficient R2 and the mean-squared error (MSE).

  4. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  5. submitter Study of Backgrounds to Black Hole Events in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang Hee

    large extra dimension model with black hole mass MBH = sˆ, where sˆ is the parton-parton Centre of Momentum System (CMS) energy squared. In the large extra dimension model, quantum gravity can become strong at a TeV energy scale in the bulk space-time, and could lead to microscopic black holes being produced and observed by the LHC experiments. Once black holes are produced in the collider, they will decay to the SM particles by Hawking evaporation. Under this scenario, an analysis was carried out to determine the significance of black hole signals above some SM backgrounds in the ATLAS detector. Five event selection criteria were app...

  6. Achievement, agency, gender, and socioeconomic background as predictors of postschool choices: a multicontext study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048) and England (N = 15,995) to explore the generalizability of the hypothesized model in 2 cultural contexts. For both countries, the results suggested that (a) socioeconomic status was a key predictor of university entry, whereas gender was a key predictor of major selection; (b) achievement and self-concept in both math and English were positive predictors of university entry; and (c) math achievement and self-concept predicted math-intensive major choice and lower likelihood of entering verbal-intensive majors (and vice versa). Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  8. Two-year study: Effect of backgrounding system on growing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-yr study evaluated growing and finishing performance, as well as carcass characteristics of spring-born calves backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 d/wk with 2.77 kg DM/head of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF), or 3) drylotting on a g...

  9. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  10. Mathematical study on the guidance of the tibiofemoral joint as theoretical background for total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Christoph; Gezzi, Riccardo; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Wachowski, Martin Michael; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Dörner, Jochen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Nägerl, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical approach presented allows main features of kinematics and force transfer in the loaded natural tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) or in loaded knee endoprostheses with asymmetric condyles to be deduced from the spatial curvature morphology of the articulating surfaces. The mathematical considerations provide the theoretical background for the development of total knee replacements (TKR) which closely reproduce biomechanical features of the natural TFJ. The model demonstrates that in flexion/extension such kinematic features as centrodes or slip ratios can be implemented in distinct curvature designs of the contact trajectories in such a way that they conform to the kinematics of the natural TFJ in close approximation. Especially the natural roll back in the stance phase during gait can be reproduced. Any external compressive force system, applied to the TFJ or the TKR, produces two joint reaction forces which--when applying screw theory--represent a force wrench. It consists of a force featuring a distinct spatial location of its line and a torque parallel to it. The dependence of the geometrical configuration of the force wrench on flexion angle, lateral/medial distribution of the joint forces, and design of the slopes of the tuberculum intercondylare is calculated. The mathematical considerations give strong hints about TKR design and show how main biomechanical features of the natural TFJ can be reproduced.

  11. High-impedence NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nones, Claudia; Benoit, Alain; Bergé, Laurent; Bideau, Aurelien; Camus, Philippe; Dumoulin, Louis; Monfardini, Alessandro; Rigaut, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology, because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based s...

  12. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Study of the background in the measuring station at the n_TOF facility at CERN: sources and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Aerts, G; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Angelopoulous, A; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Bacri, C-O; Badurek, G; Berthoumieux, E; Baumann, P; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Bondarenko, I; Borcea, C; Bos, A J J; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, P; Charpak, Georges; Chauvin, N; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Corvi, F; Cusmano, A; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; Damianoglou, D; David, S; Dimovasili, E; Domingo, C; Doroshenko, A; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Fursov, B; Garzón, J A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gledenov, Y; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haefner, P; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-martinez, A; Hollander, P; Ioannou, P; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kayukova, A; Kazakov, L; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P E; Kopach, Y; Kossionides, E; Kroshkina, I; Lacoste, V; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Leprêtre, A; Lopes, M; Lozano, M; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Meunier, R; Mezentsev, A J; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Mitrofanov, V; Moreau, C; Müller, A; Nicolis, N; Nikolenkov, V; Oberhummer, Heinz; Pakou, A; Pancin, J; Papadopoulous, K; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Paradelis, T; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrez-Parra, A; Perriale, L; Perlado, J M; Peskov, Vladimir; Piksaikin, V; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Popov, A; Popov, Y P; Pretel, C; Quesada, J M; Radermacher, E; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Samylin, B; Savvidis, I; Savvidis, S; Sedyshev, P; Stéphan, C; Szalanski, P; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Terchychnyi, R; Tsabaris, C; Tsangas, N; van Eijk, C W E; Vannini, G; Ventura, A; Villamarin, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voinov, A; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L; Zeinalov, S; Zhuravlev, B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    A background roughly two orders of magnitude higher than tolerable was found in the n_TOF facility at CERN during the first measurements [1]. This note describes a series of additional measurements performed in the n_TOF experimental area to study the origin and the characteristics of the background. The program of these measurements was determined taking into account the results from the simulations carried out by the EET group [2]. A first phase of measurements confirmed what was expected from the simulations, namely that the dominant source of background was due to neutrons generated by negative muon capture. Actions to reduce the background were taken according to the results from both measurements and simulations. An iron shielding wall 3.2 m thick was then placed in between the sweeping magnet and the second collimator, with the purpose of stopping most of the muons. In a second phase of measurements, results showed that the additional shielding reduced the main component of the background by about a fa...

  14. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Study on spatial resolution of micromegas as a neutron detector under condition of high neutron flux and γ ray background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Xin; ZHANG Yi; WANG Ji-Jin; HU Bi-Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper Micromegas has been designed to detect neutrons. The simulation of the spatial reso-lution of Micromegas as neutron detector is carried out by GEANT4 toolkit. The neutron track reconstruction method based on the time coincidence technology is employed in the present work. The influence of the flux of incident 14 MeV neutron and high gamma background on the spatial resolution is carefully studied. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the detector is sensitive to the neutron flux, but insensitive to the intensity of γ background if the neutron track reconstruction method proposed by our group is used. The γ insensitivity makes it possible for us to use the Micromegas detector under condition which has high γ-rays background.

  16. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  18. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  19. High-impedance NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, C.; Marnieros, S.; Benoit, A.; Bergé, L.; Bideaud, A.; Camus, P.; Dumoulin, L.; Monfardini, A.; Rigaut, O.

    2012-12-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. The CMB has a thermal blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, i.e. the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9-mm wavelength. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel array of NbxSi1-x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and a cleanroom lithography process. To validate the application of this device to CMB measurements, we have performed an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench. We have demonstrated a light absorption close to 20% and an optical noise equivalent power of about 7×10-16 W/√Hz, which is highly

  20. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Environmental contaminants background survey: Second year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the second year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  1. Connecting the disconnected: Background, practices and motives of labour brokers in Isan, Thailand - An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamaratana, T.; Ayuwat, D.; Knippenberg, L.W.J.; Jong, E.B.P. de

    2010-01-01

    International labour migration is one of the major issues of our time. Nowadays around 192 million people work outside their country of birth, about three percent of the world’s population. This rapidly increasing phenomenon is examined in a large number of studies on migration. Most of these studie

  2. Some Background Considerations to the Establishment of an External Studies Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hopeton L. A.

    A study was made of how conventional, face-to-face teaching methods might be used in conjunction with correspondence study (CS), programed instruction (PI), educational television (ETV) and radio broadcasts, and other approaches to make higher education more widely available throughout the region served by the University of the West Indies. These…

  3. Background research paper : township of East Garafraxa utilities and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-11

    This paper established the foundation for future policies in Ontario's Township of East Garafraxa regarding renewable energy facilities and utilities. The paper provided research which included a summary of policy and regulatory best practices; a lexicon for renewable energy and wind power terminology; a baseline for scales of facilities; identification of constraints and land use issues; a discussion on alternative energy sources and their impacts; a summary of discussions with stakeholders and interest groups; and an opportunity and constraints analysis. Specifically, the report provided an overview of the Township of East Garafraxa and discussed regulations such as the Environmental Assessment Act and Environmental Protection Act. The forms of renewable energy that were discussed included wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal energy. A jurisdictional analysis was then presented. Scale options for each renewable energy system were presented along with recommended scales for each renewable energy system. It was concluded that the Township of East Garafraxa has an opportunity to proactively accommodate new renewable energy land uses in a manner that reflects the local characteristics and aspirations of its residents. 50 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools.

  5. Study on Assessment of Mine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; LI Wei; LI Ruijun

    2008-01-01

    Mine environmental evaluation is the key to mine environmental study. On the basis of the characteristics of the mine environmental problems, they are classified into (1) three wastes problem, (2) ground distortion, (3) contradiction among mine drainage, water supply, ecological environment,(4) desertification, and (5) soil erosion. The evaluation is the basis of mine environmental problem classification and investigation, mine environmental rehabilitation, and the information system constructed can be used for subsequent research of evaluation techniques. A synthetic assessment of the 5 kinds of mine environmental problems can be divided into single-factor or multi-factor synthetic assessments; while by the viewpoint of time, the mine environmental assessment can be classified as the historical assessment, the current status assessment and the forecasting assessment.

  6. United States citizens studying medicine abroad. Their backgrounds and test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D G; Swanson, A G; Jolly, P; Teich, J; Asper, S P

    1986-12-11

    To acquire information about the characteristics of U.S. citizens who had recently studied medicine abroad, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) and the Association of American Medical Colleges merged independently collected data on a study group of 10,460 U.S. citizens who attended 359 medical schools in 75 foreign countries and who took their first ECFMG examination between 1978 and 1982. The study group was markedly heterogeneous: 21 percent were not U.S. citizens at birth, 32 percent did not have English as a native language, and 12 percent had two or more years of undergraduate college education in Puerto Rico. Sixty-seven percent resided in New York, New Jersey, California, Florida, or Puerto Rico, and 74 percent studied medicine in Mexico or the Caribbean. Forty-six percent passed the ECFMG examination on their first attempt, and 22 percent passed a subsequent examination. Only 45 percent had applied to a U.S. medical school, and 65 percent had taken the Medical College Admission Test. The means of the college grade-point averages, known for 39 percent of the study group, and of the scores on the admission test, known for 65 percent, were lower than those of both accepted and unaccepted applicants to U.S. medical schools in the 1976 and 1978 entering classes. The finding that 55 percent of the study group did not apply to a U.S. medical school does not support the widely held belief that most, if not all, U.S. citizens who attend foreign medical schools do so only after several unsuccessful attempts to gain admission to a U.S. school.

  7. Sensitivity of the distribution of mutational fitness effects to environment, genetic background, and adaptedness: a case study with Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alethea D; Sharp, Nathaniel P; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in the fitness effects of individual mutations has been found across different environmental and genetic contexts. Going beyond effects on individual mutations, how is the distribution of selective effects, f(s), altered by changes in genetic and environmental context? In this study, we examined changes in the major features of f(s) by estimating viability selection on 36 individual mutations in Drosophila melanogaster across two different environments in two different genetic backgrounds that were either adapted or nonadapted to the two test environments. Both environment and genetic background affected selection on individual mutations. However, the overall distribution f(s) appeared robust to changes in genetic background but both the mean, E(s), and the variance, V(s) were dependent on the environment. Between these two properties, V(s) was more sensitive to environmental change. Contrary to predictions of fitness landscape theory, the match between genetic background and assay environment (i.e., adaptedness) had little effect on f(s).

  8. Rural/urban background, depression and suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins' Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R. Associations between rural vs. urban background, depression and suicidal ideation were estimated by multivariable linear regression-based β coefficients, logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The magnitude of indirect effect and bias-corrected 95% CIs were obtained through bootstrap techniques. RESULTS: Rural background was positively associated with depression, which was in turn associated with suicidal ideation. The OR for rural status and suicidal ideation equaled 2.15 (95% CI = 1.36-3.41. This OR was slightly, though significantly (p<0.05 attenuated by additional adjustment for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15-3.44. CONCLUSION: Having a rural background is a determinant of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Depression may only marginally mediate this association.

  9. Study of the material photon and electron background and the liquid argon detector veto efficiency of the CDEX-10 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Jian; MA, Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, Yo-Chun; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Yuan-Jing; Liao, Heng-Yi; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lü, Lan-Chun; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Soma, Arun Kumar; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong, Henry Tsz-King; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping underground laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the WIMP flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (<10^-2 events kg-1 day-1 keV-1 (cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1 cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible.

  10. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  11. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Background Information Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    coulees is too saline for most plants. Roadsides and tracts maintained as prairie provide the "classic" wildflower habitat. Sedges and coarse grasses...bird habitat are found in the study area: croplands, wetlands, tallgrass prairie , fencerows and roadsides, shelter- belts, floodplain forest, and...secondary bird species of the tallgrass prairie , including the plovers, western meadowlark, cowbird, and bobolink, are listed in table 18. 89 I. TABLE 18

  12. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  13. The Study of the Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. the State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…

  14. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  15. 14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-01-01

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  16. Background and Energy Deposition Studies for the CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L C; Gschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    After the interaction point, the 1.5 TeV, 14MW CLIC electron/positron beams must be transported safely to the main beam dump. In designing the CLIC post-collision line detailed simulations must be carried out in order to ensure that losses are kept within reasonable limits. Results for back-scattered photon flux arriving at the detector are recalculated after updates and enhancements to the geometry description used in the study presented in [1]. Initial results of neutron fluxes are presented. Additionally, energy deposition calculations are carried out, showing that, when the full electromagnetic showers are included, in the current design the standard magnet coils would have a short lifetime due to radiation damage to conventional insulation material. Changing the magnet mask material from graphite to iron and lengthening the intermediate dump by 2m of iron are shown to substantially lessen the energy deposition in the magnet coils and thereby extend magnet lifetimes.

  17. Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Background Studies and Recent Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona L Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors’ research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors’ group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research.

  18. Genome-wide association study of serum minerals levels in children of different ethnic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chang

    Full Text Available Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus are the major dietary minerals involved in various biological functions and are commonly measured in the blood serum. Sufficient mineral intake is especially important for children due to their rapid growth. Currently, the genetic mechanisms influencing serum mineral levels are poorly understood, especially for children. We carried out a genome-wide association (GWA study on 5,602 European-American children and 4,706 African-American children who had mineral measures available in their electronic medical records (EMR. While no locus met the criteria for genome-wide significant association, our results demonstrated a nominal association of total serum calcium levels with a missense variant in the calcium -sensing receptor (CASR gene on 3q13 (rs1801725, P = 1.96 × 10(-3 in the African-American pediatric cohort, a locus previously reported in Caucasians. We also confirmed the association result in our pediatric European-American cohort (P = 1.38 × 10(-4. We further replicated two other loci associated with serum calcium levels in the European-American cohort (rs780094, GCKR, P = 4.26 × 10(-3; rs10491003, GATA3, P = 0.02. In addition, we replicated a previously reported locus on 1q21, demonstrating association of serum magnesium levels with MUC1 (rs4072037, P = 2.04 × 10(-6. Moreover, in an extended gene-based association analysis we uncovered evidence for association of calcium levels with the previously reported gene locus DGKD in both European-American children and African-American children. Taken together, our results support a role for CASR and DGKD mediated calcium regulation in both African-American and European-American children, and corroborate the association of calcium levels with GCKR and GATA3, and the association of magnesium levels with MUC1 in the European-American children.

  19. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for proton decay to positron and neutral pion searches in water Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mine, S; Andringa, S; Aoki, S; Argyriades, J; Asakura, K; Ashie, R; Berghaus, F; Berns, H; Bhang, H; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Bouchez, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, D; Catala, J; Cavata, C; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Chen, S M; Cho, K O; Choi, J H; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Fechner, M; Fernández, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gomez-Cadenas, J; Gran, R; Hara, T; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hiraide, K; Hosaka, J; Ichikawa, A K; Iinuma, M; Ikeda, A; Ishida, T; Ishihara, K; Ishii, T; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Iwashita, T; Jang, H I; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Jover, G; Jung, C K; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kato, I; Kearns, E; Kim, C O; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Konaka, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Yu; Kuno, Y; Kurimoto, Y; Kutter, T; Learned, J; Likhoded, S; Lim, I T; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maesaka, H; Mallet, J; Mariani, C; Matsuno, S; Matveev, V; McConnel, K; McGrew, C; Mikheyev, S; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriguchi, Y; Moriyama, S; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Namba, T; Nambu, R; Nawang, S; Nishikawa, K; Nitta, K; Nova, F; Novella, P; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Pierre, F; Rodríguez, A; Saji, C; Sakuda, M; Sánchez, F; Scholberg, K; Schroeter, R; Sekiguchi, M; Shiozawa, M; Shiraishi, K; Sitjes, G; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stone, J; Sulak, L; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, T; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Taki, K; Takubo, Y; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Terri, R; T'Jampens, S; Tornero-Lopez, A; Totsuka, Y; Vagins, M; Whitehead, L; Walter, C W; Wang, W; Wilkes, R J; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, S; Yanagisawa, C; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, H; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, M; Zalipska, J

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino background for proton decay to positron and neutral pion in ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors is studied with an artificial accelerator neutrino beam for the first time. In total, about 314,000 neutrino events corresponding to about 10 megaton-years of atmospheric neutrino interactions were collected by a 1,000 ton water Cherenkov detector (KT). The KT charged-current single neutral pion production data are well reproduced by simulation programs of neutrino and secondary hadronic interactions used in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) proton decay search. The obtained proton to positron and neutral pion background rate by the KT data for SK from the atmospheric neutrinos whose energies are below 3 GeV is about two per megaton-year. This result is also relevant to possible future, megaton-scale water Cherenkov detectors.

  20. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  1. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  2. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790424

  3. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-09-03

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors.

  4. Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.; Tyler, N.; Montrosse, B.E.; Young, C.; Robb, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment Study (SEFNA). Actions taken after the release of The 2001 Faculty Shortage Study demonstrate that supply-and-demand imbalances can be improved. The projected shortage of special education faculty will directly and negatively affect students with disabilities and…

  5. Long-term study on the impact of new particle formation on CCN in an urban background location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameto de Espana, María del Carmen; Wonaschuetz, Anna; Demattio, Anselm; Steiner, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-04-01

    New Particles Formation (NPF) events and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) have been investigated intensively over the last years. Measurements have been performed at many different locations. Several studies suggest that NPF significantly enhance atmospheric CCN concentrations. Only few studies, however, linked nucleation measurements directly to increases in measured CCN concentrations. Most of these studies were performed in remote or background locations. There is a lack of continuous long-term measurements of CCN concentrations in the urban background. In order to provide more information about NPF acting as a source of CCN, a long term study was started in June 2014 in the urban background of Vienna and is planned to continue for the foreseeable future. The measurements are performed at the aerosol laboratory located on the rooftop (35m above ground) of the Physics building of the University of Vienna, located in central Vienna. Concentrations as well as seasonal characteristics of CCN concentrations and NPF events will be investigated. A CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) designed at the University of Vienna operating on the principle of a static thermal diffusion chamber (Giebl et al., 2002), is used to measure CCN concentrations and activation ratios for low supersaturations (0,5%). NPF events are determined with a Vienna-type DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Winkelmayr et al., 1991) and classified using the criteria of Dal Maso et al., (2005). NPF events cannot always be identified completely clearly because of local pollution plumes. Traffic emissions could additionally increase the concentration of organic particles during a NPF event. A Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) measuring black carbon concentration is therefore used to monitor the contribution of traffic emissions to the aerosol at the station.

  6. Simulation of a low-background proton detector for studying low-energy resonances relevant in thermonuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Loureiro, D

    2016-01-01

    A new detector is being developed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to measure low energy charged-particles from beta-delayed particle emission. These low energy particles are very important for nuclear astrophysics studies. The use of a gaseous system instead of a solid state detector decreases the sensitivity to betas while keeping high efficiency for higher mass charged particles like protons or alphas. This low sensitivity to betas minimizes their contribution to the background down to 150 keV. A detailed simulation tool based on \\textsc{Geant4} has been developed for this future detector.

  7. Prototype of GRID infrastructure for H yields gammagamma study with full QCD background simulation and reconstruction for CMS at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V; Shevchenko, S; Koranda, S; Loftis, B; Towns, J; Livny, M; Couvares, P; Tannenbaum, T; Frey, J

    2003-01-01

    CMS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will begin taking data in 2007. Along with the Petabytes of data expected to be collected, CMS will also generate an enormous amount of Monte Carlo simulation data. This paper describes solutions developed at Caltech to address the issue of controlled generation of large amounts of Monte Carlo simulation data using distributed Alliance resources. We will report on the results of production using Grid tools (Globus, Condor-G) to knit together resources from various institutions within Alliance in NPACI framework. The results of this effort have been used for the study of the H yields gammagamma decay channel with full background simulation.

  8. LA-ICP/MS Analysis of Plastics as a Method to Support Polymer Assay in the Assessment of Materials for Low Background Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Bliss, Mary; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP; Liezers, Martin

    2016-03-12

    Ultra low-background radiation measurements are essential to several large-scale physics investigations, such as those involving neutrinoless double-beta decay, dark matter detection (such as SuperCDMS), and solar neutrino detection. There is a need for electrically and thermally insulating dielectric materials with extremely low-background radioactivity for detector construction. This need is best met with plastics. Most currently available structural plastics have milliBecquerel-per-kilogram total intrinsic radioactivity. Modern low-level detection systems require a large variety of plastics with low microBecquerel-per-kilogram levels. However, the assay of polymer materials for extremely low levels of radioactive elements, uranium and thorium in particular, presents new challenges. It is only recently that any certified reference materials (CRMs) for toxic metals such as lead or cadmium in plastics have become available. However, there are no CRMs for uranium or thorium in thermoplastics. This paper discusses our assessment of the use of laser ablation (LA) for sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for analysis of polyethylene (PE) samples, with an emphasis on uranium determination. Using a CRM for lead in PE, we examine LA and ICP-MS parameters that determine whether the total atom efficiencies for uranium and lead are similar, and explore methods to use the lead content in a plastic as part of the process of estimating or determining the uranium content by LA-ICP-MS.

  9. Probabilistic intake assessment and body burden estimation of dioxin-like substances in background conditions and during a short food contamination episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, B; De Henauw, S; Dewettinck, K; Talloen, W; Goeyens, L; De Backer, G; Willems, J L

    2002-07-01

    The objective was to perform a dioxin body burden estimate based on a probabilistic intake assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs because of the so-called 1999 'Belgian dioxin incident'. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to combine detailed 7-day food intake data on the individual level from a sample of 14-18-year-old adolescents with 'background' and 'incident-related' food contamination data. In background conditions, 3% of the adolescents had an intake dioxin-like contaminants, while fish constituted the main source at the higher percentiles of intake. During the dioxin incident, the estimated median dioxin intake showed a moderate increase. At the 99th percentile, the highest intake level, and the 95% upper bound uncertainty level, peak body burden-23.73 ng TEQ kg(-1) bw-remained below body burdens that in the experimental animal or in man are accompanied by a population-based observable increase in the incidence of adverse effects. The 1999 Belgian dioxin incident most likely did not affect public health in Belgium in a measurable way, although exceptions remain possible on the individual level.

  10. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  11. Study of hadron and gamma-ray acceptance of the MAGIC telescopes: towards an improved background estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, E; Da Vela, P; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Colin, P; Fruck, C; Strzys, M; Vovk, Ie

    2015-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are an array of two imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) studying the gamma ray sky at very high-energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). The observations are performed in stereoscopic mode, with both telescopes pointing at the same position in the sky. The MAGIC field of view (FoV) acceptance for hadrons and gamma rays has a complex shape, which depends on several parameters such as the azimuth and zenith angle of the observations. In the standard MAGIC analysis, the strategy adopted for estimating this acceptance is not optimal in the case of complex FoVs. In this contribution we present the results of systematic studies intended to characterise the acceptance for the entire FoV. These studies open the possibility to apply improved background estimation methods to the MAGIC data, useful to investigate the morphology of extended or multiple sources.

  12. Nai Kun wind farm environmental impact assessment study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, S.; Shum, M.; Embley, E. [Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Uniterre Resources Ltd., ABB New Ventures and ABB Inc. propose the Nai Kun Wind Farm project, and the firm Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants LTD. (PGL) was commissioned to conduct an environmental impact assessment for the project. A description of the studies considered as a requirement for the environmental impacts assessment of the project is included in this draft report. Before proceeding with the detailed studies, it was decided to present this draft report to the stakeholders and regulatory authorities to obtain feedback and a review. Nowadays in electricity markets, wind energy is becoming a differentiated and highly valued product. The Nai Kun Wind Farm project, as proposed, would entail the development, construction and operation of a 700 megawatt (MW) wind generation facility located off the northeast coast of Graham Island (Haida Gwaii) in Hecate Strait in British Columbia. It is expected that the project will generate greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. The information about the site and the project, as was known on May 24, 2002, was used for the preparation of this draft report. The present document includes an introduction in Chapter 1, followed by background information in Chapter 2. The Environmental impact assessment framework was reviewed in Chapter 3, and the public consultation plan was described in Chapter 4. The environmental impact assessment designs are discussed in Chapter 5 and a schedule for environmental studies provided in Chapter 6. The next steps are detailed in Chapter 7 of the document. 10 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  13. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  14. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, J; Cooray, A R; Kawada, M; Keating, B; Lange, A; Lee, D H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Pak, S; Renbarger, T; Sullivan, I; Tsumura, K; Wada, T; Watabe, T; Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 times fainter than IRTS/DIRBE. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local (z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a de...

  16. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  17. Childhood obesity prevention in rural settings: background, rationale, and study design of ‘4-Health,’ a parent-only intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Wesley C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent–child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program or a “best-practices” (Healthy Living Information control group. Discussion This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents’ ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587

  18. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  19. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  20. Study of efficiency of Likoprofit Potential-Formula biologically active additive (BAA in the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction against the background of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the action of Likoprofit Potential biologically active additive (BAA on microcirculation of penis in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED against the background of arterial hypertension has been studied. All the patients have passed the laser Doppler flowmetry, assessment of the index of male copulatory function and the international index of erectile function. The course of administration was three months. All the patients in 100% of cases had mild arterial hypertension. The patients of the main group had decreased libido (50%, lack of self-confidence (7%, weak spontaneous and adequate erections (21%, ejaculatory component (7%, orgasmic dysfunction (28%, increased period of sexual stimulation, decreased number and quality of coiti (100%. In patients with erectile dysfunction against the background of arterial hypertension, Likoprofit Potential produces the stimulating effect on CNS, spasmolytic action on penis vessels, and improves hemodynamics in cavernous bodies of penis. The number of patients’ complains have decreased, the psycho-emotional state has improved, and the satisfaction of the sex life has appeared. The patients’ microcirculation has improved as well.

  1. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  2. Risk Assessment Study for Storage Explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Azhar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, there has been rapidly increasing usage in amount of explosives due to widely expansion in quarrying and mining industries. The explosives are usually stored in the storage where the safety precaution had given high attention. As the storage of large quantity of explosive can be hazardous to workers and nearby residents in the events of accidental denotation of explosives, a risk assessment study for storage explosive (magazine had been carried out. Risk assessment study had been conducted in Kimanis Quarry Sdn. Bhd, located in Sabah. Risk assessment study had been carried out with the identification of hazards and failure scenarios and estimation of the failure frequency of occurrence. Analysis of possible consequences of failure and the effects of blast waves due to the explosion was evaluated. The risk had been estimated in term of fatalities and eardrum rupture to the workers and public. The average individual voluntary risk for fatality to the workers at the quarry is calculated to be 5.75 x 10-6 per person per year, which is much lower than the acceptable level. Eardrum rupture risk calculated to be 3.15 x 10-6 per person per year for voluntary risk. There is no involuntary risk found for fatality but for eardrum rupture it was calculated to be 6.98 x 10-8 per person per year, as given by Asian Development Bank.

  3. Study of the Kroll-process to produce ultra-pure Ti for the low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhevitina, Elena [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Chepurnov, Alexander [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow 119234 (Russian Federation); Chub, Alexander [Solikamsk Magnesium Plant, Solikamsk,618541 (Russian Federation); Avetissov, Igor [ARMOLED Ltd, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Glebovsky, Vadim [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Nisi, Stefano; Di Vacri, Maria Laura [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, SS 17 bis km 18+910, 6010 Assergi (Italy); Suvorov, Yury [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, U.S.A (United States); National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-17

    To construct G2 & G3 low background experiments for direct Dark Matter search, a lot of ultra-pure construction materials will be needed. Our study of various Ti samples shows that the levels of contaminations of commercially available industrial Ti can varies from 0.2 to 100 mBq/kg for U/Th. It means that the metal Ti is such a promising material for future experiments if the way of production in bulk quantities with very low level of contaminations (below ∼1 mBq/kg of {sup 238}U /{sup 232}Th) would be developed. Our study of the industrial Kroll-process is focused on the possible sources of U and Th and their migration during the multistage Kroll process. To understand migration of U and Th during the Kroll process the set of other impurities available due to precise ICP-MS analysis have been studied. Preliminary results confirm that the Kroll process could be used for the ultra pure Ti sponge production while the following stages of the metal Ti production of from the Ti sponge with necessary mechanical properties need to be additionally studied.

  4. Long-term ELF background noise measurements, the existence of window regions, and applications to earthquake precursor emission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Jack Y.; Hansen, Peder M.; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1993-04-01

    A Low Frequency Monitoring Network has been under development at Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC), Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division (RDT & E), San Diego, CA, for the last 2 years. Originally developed to monitor space vehicle induced signatures in the 5-12 Hz region, the network now includes monitoring of anomolous broadband signals in the 0.1-20 Hz region that often precede the occurrence of nearby earthquakes. Observations of such events have led to a hypothesis that geological signals are normally present in the ULF (ultra-low frequency, less than 3 Hz) and ELF (extremely low frequency, 3-3000 Hz) bands in addition to the generally accepted signals from micropulsations and lightning discharges. In Southern California, the geological signals are best observed in the 'polarimetric window' regions of (i) 2-5 Hz using horizontally oriented magnetic sensors and, (ii) 2-20 Hz using vertically oriented magnetic sensors. To determine the significance of anomalous events, we conducted a statistical study of the background noise levels. Observations of daily records over a span of several months indicated that the background level in the 1-20 Hz region is stationary. Stationarity is not true below 1 Hz. The APD (amplitude probability density) of 2-12 Hz signals was found to be surprisingly close to a Gaussian distribution. These two results indicated that a determination of long-term averages and variances would be meaningful. Long-term averages and variances were obtained and were used to develop alert-level criteria. Typical deviations over the course of several hours are 1 to 2 dB. The alert-level criteria are used as input parameters in our Automated Monitoring System (AMS), a computerized monitoring and real-time analysis system. The alert levels warn the operator when unusual events are occurring. High alert-levels in conjunction with the fulfilment of several other conditions often presage the occurrence of an

  5. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Borzoueisileh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don′t have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells.

  6. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers′ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59% of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1% was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%, too many speed breakers (41%, rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42% and bad weather (36%. Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  7. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  8. Search for baryon and lepton number violation in heavy baryon decays and the background studies for exotic searches

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    The thesis describes searches for baryon and lepton number violation in $X_{b} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} (X_{b} = \\Lambda^0_{b}, \\Xi_{b}^{0})$ decays. The study is performed in the \\mbox{LHC\\textit{b}} experiment using data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $7$TeV $8$TeV, collected in 2011 (2012), respectively. No statistically significant signal of the decays in question has been found. As a result, the upper limits have been set: $\\cal B ( \\Lambda^0_{b} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} ) < 3.6 \\times 10^{-9}$ and $\\cal B (\\Xi_{b}^{0} \\rightarrow K^{-} \\mu^{+} ) < 1.8 \\times 10^{-8}$ at the $95\\%$ confidence level. The second part of the thesis presents the background studies for exotic searches. The measurement of $\\sigma(b\\overline b)$ and $\\sigma(c\\overline c)$ production cross-sections with $b- (c-)$ hadron inclusive final states has been performed with data collected by the \\mbox{LHC\\textit{b}} experiment in 20...

  9. [Genetic background in common forms of obesity - from studies on identical twins to candidate genes of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendlová, Běla; Lukášová, Petra; Vaňková, Markéta; Vejražková, Daniela; Bradnová, Olga; Včelák, Josef; Stanická, Soňa; Zamrazilová, Hana; Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Dušátková, Lenka; Kunešová, Marie; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Common obesity is a result of interaction between genes and environmental/lifestyle factors, with heritability estimates 40-70%. Not only the susceptibility to obesity but also the success of weight management depends on the genetic background of each individual. This paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on genetic causes of common obesities. Introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to an identification of a total of 32 variants associated with obesity/BMI and 14 with body fat distribution. Further, a great progress in revealing the mechanisms regulating the energy balance was also noted. However, the proportion of explained variance for BMI is still low, suggesting other mechanisms such as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, rare gene variants, copy number variants polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications and microRNAs regulating gene transcription. In summary, we present results of our studies on obesity risk variants in Czech adults, children and adolescents including those evaluating the influence of selected gene variants on the outcomes of weight management.

  10. Heart-type Fatty acid-binding protein in Acute Myocardial infarction Evaluation (FAME: Background and design of a diagnostic study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doevendans Pieter A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently used biomarkers for cardiac ischemia are elevated in blood plasma after a delay of several hours and therefore unable to detect acute coronary syndrome (ACS in a very early stage. General practitioners (GPs, however, are often confronted with patients suspected of ACS within hours after onset of complaints. This ongoing study aims to evaluate the added diagnostic value beyond clinical assessment for a rapid bedside test for heart-type fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP, a biomarker that is detectable as soon as one hour after onset of ischemia. Methods Participating GPs perform a blinded H-FABP rapid bedside test (Cardiodetect® in patients with symptoms suggestive of ACS such as chest pain or discomfort at rest. All patients, whether referred to hospital or not, undergo electrocardiography (ECG and venapunction for a plasma troponin test within 12–36 hours after onset of complaints. A final diagnosis will be established by an expert panel consisting of two cardiologists and one general practitioner (blinded to the H-FABP test result, using all available patient information, also including signs and symptoms. The added diagnostic value of the H-FABP test beyond history taking and physical examination will be determined with receiver operating characteristic curves derived from multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Reasons for presenting the design of our study include the prevention of publication bias and unacknowledged alterations in the study aim, design or data-analysis. To our knowledge this study is the first to assess the diagnostic value of H-FABP outside a hospital-setting. Several previous hospital-based studies showed the potential value of H-FABP in diagnosing ACS. Up to now however it is unclear whether these results are equally promising when the test is used in primary care. The first results are expected in the end of 2008.

  11. A study of the galaxy redshift distribution toward the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubiño-Martín, José Alberto; Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Rebolo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies toward the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of -230 muK, and deviates 4.4-sigma from the Gaussian CMB (G\\'enova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25$^+21_-18% of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a Warm/Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05

  12. Simulation studies of muon-produced background events deep underground and consequences for double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic radiation creates a significant background for low count rate experiments. The Majorana demonstrator experiment is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at a depth of 4850ft below the surface but it can still be penetrated by cosmic muons with initial energies above the TeV range. The interaction of muons with the rock, the shielding material in the lab and the detector itself can produce showers of secondary particles, like fast neutrons, which are able to travel through shielding material and can produce high-energy γ-rays via capture or inelastic scattering. The energy deposition of these γ rays in the detector can overlap with energy region of interest for the neutrino-less double beta decay. Recent studies for cosmic muons penetrating the Majorana demonstrator are made with the Geant4 code. The results of these simulations will be presented in this talk and an overview of the interaction of the shower particles with the detector, shielding and veto system will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  13. Environmental and school influences on physical activity in South Asian children from low socio-economic backgrounds: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L; Cox, Val

    2015-09-01

    South Asian (SA) children are less active but have enhanced metabolic risk factors. Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Evidence suggests that environmental factors and socio-economic status influence PA behaviour. The purpose of this study was to understand PA environments, barriers and facilitators of PA in deprived environments for children from SA backgrounds. Focus groups were conducted with 5 groups of children aged 7-9 years (n = 33; male = 16, female = 17; SA = 17, White = 8 and Black = 8) from two schools in deprived wards of Coventry, England. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes and subthemes across all transcripts. From the results, emergent themes included school and home environment, outdoor activity, equipment, weather, parental constraints and safety. Ethnic differences were apparent for sources of beliefs and knowledge and religious practice as constraints for PA. The findings suggest that school provides a good foundation for PA attitude, knowledge and behaviour, especially for SA children. To increase PA, multi-component interventions are needed, which focus on changing the home environment (i.e. junk food and media time), encouraging outdoors activity, changing perceptions of safety and weather conditions, which provide parental constraints for children. Interventions also need to be considerate to religious practices that might constrain time.

  14. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent resp

  15. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respi

  16. Monitoring of reported sudden emission rate changes of major radioxenon emitters in the northern and southern hemispheres in 2008 to assess their contribution to the respective radioxenon backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, P. R. J.; Auer, M.; Becker, A.; Colmanet, S.; Hoffmann, E.; Nikkinen, M.; Schlosser, C.; Sonck, M.

    2009-04-01

    the station at Melbourne, 700 km SW from the facility. This paper confirms the hypothesis that radiopharmaceutical production facilities are the major emitters of radioxenon first of all. Moreover it demonstrates how the temporal shut down of these facilities indicates the scale of their contribution to the European radioxenon background, which decreased 6 fold. Finally we have studied the contribution of the start-up of a renewed RFP to the buildup of a radioxenon background across Australia and the southern hemisphere. Disclaimer The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission or any of the participating institutions.

  17. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  18. A novel assessment of adolescent mobility: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Duncan, Scott; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    . The recent development of VERITAS - a web-based application nested within a computer-assisted personal interview - allows researchers to assess daily mobility, travel to regular destinations, and perceived neighbourhood boundaries using interactive mapping technology. The aims of this pilot study were to (1......BACKGROUND:The accurate measurement of daily mobility and travel to destinations beyond the residential neighbourhood has been identified as an important but almost systematically overlooked factor when investigating the relationship between exposure to the built environment and physical activity......) demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of using VERITAS in an adolescent sample, and (2) compare urban form characteristics and geometric features of the perceived neighbourhood with traditional neighbourhood delimitations.METHODS:Data were collected and analysed for twenty-eight participants (14 male...

  19. The Age of Studies and Reports: Selected Elements Concerning the Background of Encounters Defining the Power of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tašner and Slavko Gaber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we discuss the time before the “age of reports”. Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959 and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on the period after the World War II, which was marked by rising economic nationalism, on the one hand, and by the second wave of mass education, on the other, bearing the promise of more equality and a reduction of several social inequalities, both supposed to be ensured by school. It was a period of great expectations related to the power of education and the rise of educational meritocracy. On this background, in the second part of the paper, the authors attempt to explore the phenomenon of the aforementioned reports, which significantly questioned the power of education and, at the same time, enabled the formation of evidence-based education policies. In this part of the paper, the central place is devoted to the case of socialist Yugoslavia/Slovenia and its striving for more equality and equity through education. Through the socialist ideology of more education for all, socialist Yugoslavia, with its exaggerated stress on the unified school and its overemphasised belief in simple equality, overstepped the line between relying on comprehensive education as an important mechanism for increasing the possibility of more equal and just education, on the one hand, and the myth of the almighty unified school capable of eradicating social inequalities, especially class inequalities, on the other. With this radical approach to the reduction of inequalities, socialist policy in the then Yugoslavia paradoxically reduced the opportunity for greater equality, and even more so for more equitable education.

  20. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  1. Long-term comparative study of columnar and surface mass concentration aerosol properties in a background environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, Y. S.; Cachorro, V. E.; Mateos, D.; Burgos, M. A.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between columnar and surface aerosol properties is not a straightforward problem. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE), and ground-level Particulate Matter (PMX, x = 10 or 2.5 μm) data have been studied from a climatological point of view. Despite the different meanings of AOD and PMx both are key and complementary quantities that quantify aerosol load in the atmosphere and many studies intend to find specific relationships between them. Related parameters such as AE and PM ratio (PR = PM2.5/PM10), giving information about the predominant particle size, are included in this study on the relationships between columnar and surface aerosol parameters. This study is based on long measurement records (2003-2014) obtained at two nearby background sites from the AERONET and EMEP networks in the north-central area of Spain. The climatological annual cycle of PMx shows two maxima along the year (one in late-winter/early-spring and another in summer), but this cycle is not followed by the AOD which shows only a summer maximum and a nearly bell shape. However, the annual means of both data sets show strong correlation (R = 0.89) and similar decreasing trends of 40% (PM10) and 38% (AOD) for the 12-year record. PM10 and AOD daily data are moderately correlated (R = 0.58), whereas correlation increases for monthly (R = 0.74) and yearly (R = 0.89) means. Scatter plots of AE vs. AOD and PR vs. PM10 have been used to characterize aerosols over the region. The PR vs. AE scatterplot of daily data shows no correlation due to the prevalence of intermediate-sized particles. As day-to-day correlation is low (especially for high turbidity events), a binned analysis was also carried out to establish consistent relationships between columnar and surface quantities, which is considered to be an appropriate approach for environmental and climate studies. In this way the link between surface concentrations and columnar remote sensing data is shown to

  2. Study of radiation background at the north crossing point of the BEPC Ⅱ in collision mode%Study of radiation background at the north crossing point of the BEPC Ⅱ in collision mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫晓虎; 秦庆; 屈化民; 王贻芳; 徐金强; 张天保; 张建勇; 张清江; Achasov Mikhail; 蔡啸; 傅成栋; Harris Fred; 刘倩; Muchnoi Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the radiation background at the north crossing point (NCP) in the tunnel of BEPCII is crucial for the performance safety of the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, and in turn of great significance for long-term stable running of the ener

  3. Detecting background values of potentially toxic metals by integrated sedimentological and geochemical studies: an example from the Cecina River basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Sammartino, I.; Sarti, G.; Zannetti, P.

    2013-05-01

    In order to assess unambiguously legislation limits and levels of concern for potentially toxic metals in sediments, natural concentrations (background values) should be established accurately. Through an example from the Cecina River basin, in central Tuscany (Italy), where natural Cr and Ni concentrations may locally exceed, up to 20 times, the threshold values designated for contaminated areas (150 mg/kg for Cr and 120 mg/kg for Ni), we show to what extent background metal concentrations can be accurately determined by means of integrated sedimentological and geochemical studies. XRF analyses of 76 samples collected at depths of 1 m from fluvial-channel, overbank, backswamp and beach-ridge deposits reveal distinctive sediment compositions that enable geochemical fingerprinting of individual depositional facies based upon diagnostic metal contents. Sediment provenance is the major factor controlling spatial heavy-metal distribution across the study area. Specifically, sediment supplied by Cecina River and its tributaries is characterized by remarkably high natural Cr and Ni concentrations, which reflect erosion of ultramafic complexes cropping out patchily in the drainage basin. In contrast, significantly lower contents are recorded where sediment is supplied by ophiolite-free source areas. At the basin scale, Cr and Ni may serve as valuable indicators of sediment pathways through distinct segments of the routing system. A stepwise increase in Cr concentration is recorded along the 75 km-long Cecina River, from source (100 mg/kg) to mouth (400 mg/kg). The major shifts in metal concentration are documented close to the tributaries-trunk junctions, reflecting increased supply of ultramaphic detritus conveyed by the tributaries into the main river. Where headwater streams flow through large ophiolitic outcrops, very high Cr (900-1600 mg/kg) and Ni (800-1100 mg/kg) concentrations are delivered to the upstream reaches of the tributaries. Conversely, a remarkable

  4. Combined study of evaporation from liquid surface by background oriented schlieren, infrared thermal imaging and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaksina Yu.Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature fields in evaporating liquids are measured by simultaneous use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS technique for the side view and IR thermal imaging for the surface distribution. Good agreement between the two methods is obtained with typical measurement error less than 0.1 K. Two configurations of surface layer are observed: thermocapillary convection state with moving liquid surface and small thermal cells, associated with Marangoni convection, and “cool skin” with negligible velocity at the surface, larger cells and dramatic increase of velocity within 0.1 mm layer beneath the surface. These configurations are shown to be formed in various liquids (water with various degrees of purification, ethanol, butanol, decane, kerosene, glycerine depending rather on initial conditions and ambient parameters than on the liquid. Water, which has been considered as the liquid without observable Marangoni convection, actually can exhibit both kinds of behavior during the same experimental run. Evaporation is also studied by means of numerical simulations. Separate problemsin air and liquid are considered, with thermal imaging data of surface temperature making the separation possible. It is shown that evaporation rate can be predicted by numerical simulation of the air side with appropriate boundary conditions. Comparison is made with known empirical correlations for Sherwood-Rayleigh relationship. Numerical simulations of water-side problem reveal the issue of velocity boundary conditions at the free surface, determining the structure of surface layer. Flow field similar to observed in the experiments is obtained with special boundary conditions of third kind, presenting a combination of no-slip and surface tension boundary conditions.

  5. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  6. Study of linearity and internal background for LaBr3(Ce) γ-ray scintillation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.; Scarfone, A.

    2013-08-01

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide, LaBr3(Ce), crystal is the latest among the scintillation counters and shows same attracting properties for γ spectroscopy that makes it a suitable solution for security, medical, geophysics and high energy physics applications. LaBr3(Ce) exhibits a proportional light yield response to γ-ray energy. Very good linearity was seen up to 2 MeV. LaBr3(Ce) has also relatively high intrinsic radiation background due to naturally occurring 138La and 227Ac radioisotopes. A good use of LaBr3(Ce) needs an accurate determination of the self-activity, particularly when low background is required or when events are collected at very low trigger rates. The impact of internal background on energy resolution and linearity is discussed.

  7. A Study of Chinese Commercial Banks’ Credit Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been a long time that Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs have difficulties in dealing with financial problems. As a result of the imperfect financial environment in China, SMEs cannot find the effective way to obtain the funding, especially from Chinese commercial banks. In practice, the existing credit risk assessment and management policies cannot adapt to the requirements of SMEs, which means that developing new mechanisms and management policies is necessary. Based on the previous studies and the economic realities, this paper analyzes the credit status of commercial banks and sorts out the complex background to make a valuable conclusion. In the section of credit risk assessment mechanisms for SMEs, the author compares three classical models and introduces a parameter selection method which measures the financial and non-financial factors together. Besides the theoretical section, a case of Agricultural Bank of China will be studied and the paper will focus on the credit rating system and explore the innovative service for SMEs.

  8. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  9. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  10. A Study of English Acquisition of Pre-college Ethnic Minority Students under the Multi-Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Chun

    2015-01-01

    The multi-cultural background of pre-college ethnic minority students provides with a living model for developing second language teach-ing and related research.An investigation of the re-lationship between having a multi-cultural back-ground and English acquisition,and an analysis of its negative and positive influences will be helpful for improving the quality of teaching.In recent years,the research on college English teaching has been of concern both at home and abroad, and many books and articles related to this field have been published.These publications have provided an analysis on the status and main problems of col-lege English teaching with regard to course ar-rangement,teaching models,teaching methods,sys-tems of evaluation,and the specific needs of Eng-lish in society, etc.Some suggestions for English teaching reform have been proposed in order to solve some outstanding problems,such as the short-age of providing speaking-listening opportunities in English teaching,or the relatively poor communica-tion abilities of the students.In recent years, the cultural background of the students has been ex-plored ,which could have an important influence on English teaching.However, most of the research has focused on theoretical issues,and less on prac-tical useage.Moreover, there has been much less research on the influence and role of the pre-col-lege ethnic students'multi-cultural background. Hence,this article intends to start with the English level of the pre-college ethnic minority students, and,based upon an analysis of the different cultur-al backgrounds of the various students,explores the effect of English teaching within this background of cultural diversity.The purpose is to propose practi-cal and valuable solutions of these questions—how do teachers teach? And, how do students learn?The influence of the diversified cultural background of the pre-college ethnic minority students on their second language ( English) acquisition is obvious.

  11. Changes in total concentrations and assessed background concentrations of heavy metals in moss in Lithuania and the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalys, J; Kvietkus, K; Sucharová, J; Suchara, I; Valiulis, D

    2009-06-01

    Data on concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in moss collected on the lightly industrialized territory of Lithuania and on the highly industrialized territory of the Czech Republic in 1995, 2000 and 2005 is used to separate the background and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal concentrations in moss. The distribution of the concentration logarithms allowed us to determine a background mode, and to estimate the background concentration of heavy metals from this mode. The method was then applied for an estimation of the contribution of local sources to the total pollution level in both countries. The average concentrations and the background modes of heavy metals in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic were very similar, except in the case of vanadium, where the background concentration was higher in Lithuania than in the Czech Republic. For most elements, the background concentration in moss had a decreasing tendency in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005, though the concentration of Cu and Hg increased in Lithuania. The variability of chromium concentration in moss differed from the remaining investigated elements in the Czech Republic, and it was expressed as a bimodal lognormal distribution. This variability may be due to simultaneous contamination of moss by chromium from soil and from industrial sources of pollution.

  12. An updated assessment of Symbiodinium spp. that associate with common scleractinian corals from Moorea (French Polynesia) reveals high diversity among background symbionts and a novel finding of clade B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecellier, Gaël J.; Saulnier, Denis; Planes, Serge; Gueguen, Yannick; Wirshing, Herman H.; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The adaptative bleaching hypothesis (ABH) states that, depending on the symbiotic flexibility of coral hosts (i.e., the ability of corals to “switch” or “shuffle” their algal symbionts), coral bleaching can lead to a change in the composition of their associated Symbiodinium community and, thus, contribute to the coral’s overall survival. In order to determine the flexibility of corals, molecular tools are required to provide accurate species delineations and to detect low levels of coral-associated Symbiodinium. Here, we used highly sensitive quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) technology to analyse five common coral species from Moorea (French Polynesia), previously screened using only traditional molecular methods, to assess the presence of low-abundance (background) Symbiodinium spp. Similar to other studies, each coral species exhibited a strong specificity to a particular clade, irrespective of the environment. In addition, however, each of the five species harboured at least one additional Symbiodinium clade, among clades A–D, at background levels. Unexpectedly, and for the first time in French Polynesia, clade B was detected as a coral symbiont. These results increase the number of known coral-Symbiodinium associations from corals found in French Polynesia, and likely indicate an underestimation of the ability of the corals in this region to associate with and/or “shuffle” different Symbiodinium clades. Altogether our data suggest that corals from French Polynesia may favor a trade-off between optimizing symbioses with a specific Symbiodinium clade(s), maintaining associations with particular background clades that may play a role in the ability of corals to respond to environmental change. PMID:28168100

  13. An updated assessment of Symbiodinium spp. that associate with common scleractinian corals from Moorea (French Polynesia) reveals high diversity among background symbionts and a novel finding of clade B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzé, Héloïse; Lecellier, Gaël J; Saulnier, Denis; Planes, Serge; Gueguen, Yannick; Wirshing, Herman H; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The adaptative bleaching hypothesis (ABH) states that, depending on the symbiotic flexibility of coral hosts (i.e., the ability of corals to "switch" or "shuffle" their algal symbionts), coral bleaching can lead to a change in the composition of their associated Symbiodinium community and, thus, contribute to the coral's overall survival. In order to determine the flexibility of corals, molecular tools are required to provide accurate species delineations and to detect low levels of coral-associated Symbiodinium. Here, we used highly sensitive quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) technology to analyse five common coral species from Moorea (French Polynesia), previously screened using only traditional molecular methods, to assess the presence of low-abundance (background) Symbiodinium spp. Similar to other studies, each coral species exhibited a strong specificity to a particular clade, irrespective of the environment. In addition, however, each of the five species harboured at least one additional Symbiodinium clade, among clades A-D, at background levels. Unexpectedly, and for the first time in French Polynesia, clade B was detected as a coral symbiont. These results increase the number of known coral-Symbiodinium associations from corals found in French Polynesia, and likely indicate an underestimation of the ability of the corals in this region to associate with and/or "shuffle" different Symbiodinium clades. Altogether our data suggest that corals from French Polynesia may favor a trade-off between optimizing symbioses with a specific Symbiodinium clade(s), maintaining associations with particular background clades that may play a role in the ability of corals to respond to environmental change.

  14. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Niemi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m−3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east, intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-east and clean period (PM1~2 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-west/north. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2–1 samples were 1 soot and 2 (ammoniumsulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2–1 samples were 0–12% and 83–97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26–48% in the PM1–3.3 and PM3.3–11 samples, while the PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22–33%, metal oxides/hydroxides (1–9% and tar balls (1–4%. These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1–3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67–89% with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3−. During the intermediate period, the PM1–3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like Na-rich particles (35% with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments

  15. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  16. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  17. The Alberta population-based prospective evaluation of the quality of life outcomes and economic impact of bariatric surgery (APPLES study: background, design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCargar Linda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme obesity affects nearly 8% of Canadians, and is debilitating, costly and ultimately lethal. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment available; is associated with reductions in morbidity/mortality, improvements in quality of life; and appears cost-effective. However, current demand for surgery in Canada outstrips capacity by at least 1000-fold, causing exponential increases in already protracted, multi-year wait-times. The objectives and hypotheses of this study were as follows: 1. To serially assess the clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes in patients wait-listed for bariatric care over a 2-year period. We hypothesize deterioration in these outcomes over time; 2. To determine the clinical effectiveness and changes in quality of life associated with modern bariatric procedures compared with medically treated and wait-listed controls over 2 years. We hypothesize that surgery will markedly reduce weight, decrease the need for unplanned medical care, and increase quality of life; 3. To conduct a 3-year (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective economic assessment of bariatric surgery compared to medical and wait-listed controls from the societal, public payor, and health-care payor perspectives. We hypothesize that lower indirect, out of pocket and productivity costs will offset increased direct health-care costs resulting in lower total costs for bariatric surgery. Methods/design Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference

  18. A grounded theory study of attitudes towards mental illness and help-seeking amongst police officers with a military background.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Both police and Armed Forces personnel are at increased risk of encountering psychological trauma with the prevalence of mental health problems higher than in the general population. Appropriate and effective mental health services are crucial but there is a marked lack of take-up of services. This research considered how the attitudes of police officers with a military background affected their help-seeking for mental health problems.Methodology: A phenomenological approach was...

  19. Large-scale pathway-based analysis of bladder cancer genome-wide association data from five studies of European background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idan Menashe

    Full Text Available Pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS offer a unique opportunity to collectively evaluate genetic variants with effects that are too small to be detected individually. We applied a pathway analysis to a bladder cancer GWAS containing data from 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European background (n = 5 studies. Thirteen hundred and ninety-nine pathways were drawn from five publicly available resources (Biocarta, Kegg, NCI-PID, HumanCyc, and Reactome, and we constructed 22 additional candidate pathways previously hypothesized to be related to bladder cancer. In total, 1421 pathways, 5647 genes and ∼90,000 SNPs were included in our study. Logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, study, DNA source, and smoking status was used to assess the marginal trend effect of SNPs on bladder cancer risk. Two complementary pathway-based methods (gene-set enrichment analysis [GSEA], and adapted rank-truncated product [ARTP] were used to assess the enrichment of association signals within each pathway. Eighteen pathways were detected by either GSEA or ARTP at P≤0.01. To minimize false positives, we used the I(2 statistic to identify SNPs displaying heterogeneous effects across the five studies. After removing these SNPs, seven pathways ('Aromatic amine metabolism' [P(GSEA = 0.0100, P(ARTP = 0.0020], 'NAD biosynthesis' [P(GSEA = 0.0018, P(ARTP = 0.0086], 'NAD salvage' [P(ARTP = 0.0068], 'Clathrin derived vesicle budding' [P(ARTP = 0.0018], 'Lysosome vesicle biogenesis' [P(GSEA = 0.0023, P(ARTP<0.00012], 'Retrograde neurotrophin signaling' [P(GSEA = 0.00840], and 'Mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition' [P(GSEA = 0.0040] remained. These pathways seem to belong to three fundamental cellular processes (metabolic detoxification, mitosis, and clathrin-mediated vesicles. Identification of the aromatic amine metabolism pathway provides support for the ability of this approach to identify pathways

  20. Cosmological Backgrounds of Gravitational Waves and eLISA

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    We review cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves with a particular attention to the scientific potential of the eLISA/NGO mission. After an overview of cosmological backgrounds and detectors, we consider different cosmological sources that could lead to an observable signal. We then study the backgrounds produced by first-order phase transitions and networks of cosmic strings, assessing the prospects for their detection.

  1. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  2. An Assessment of Different Educational Background of Students Performance in Engineering Mathematics and on the Class of Award Obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) Level at Cape Coast Polytechnic, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirifi, Michael Kwabena; Mensah, Kweku Abeeku; Amoako, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to find out an assessment of different educational background of students performance in engineering mathematics and on the class of award obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) level at Cape Coast Polytechnic. A descriptive survey was conducted on students of the Electricals/Electronics Department…

  3. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  4. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years.

  5. 独立学院转型背景下英语听说读写评价策略%Assessment Strategy of Written and Spoken English Under Transition Background of Independent College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春华; 李宝红

    2015-01-01

    我国独立院校的发展在近些年尤为突出,独立学院在目前转型阶段对英语的听说读写评价策略的提高十分重视。通过对我国现阶段转型背景下独立院校英语教学的研究,提出了提升听说读写评价策略的基本措施,使我国独立院校教育水平有所提高。%Independent Colleges of our country have developed a lot in recent years, independent colleges have paid great attention to improve the assessment strategy of English listening, speaking, reading and writing in the current transition phase. Through the study of English Teaching in independent colleges under the background of the transition stage, this paper proposed the basic measures to enhance assessment strategy of literacy, so that the level of education of independent colleges can increase.

  6. Teachers’ use of classroom assessment techniques in primary mathematics education - An explorative study with six Chinese teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Veldhuis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on the use of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) by primary school mathematics teachers in China. CATs are short, focused assessment activities that can reveal students’ understanding of specific mathematical subjects. The study involved six female third-grade mathe

  7. Spectroscopic studies of the parameters of plasma jets during their propagation in the background plasma on the PF-3 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of neon and helium plasma parameters in axial jets generated in plasma focus discharge. They were obtained in the course of experiments on laboratory modeling of astrophysical jets performed at the PF-3 facility. The plasma concentration was determined according to Stark broadening of spectral lines; the ionization temperature was determined by the average ion charge. The values of the concentration and temperature of jet plasma and background plasma at two distances from the pinch are also presented. In addition, an estimation was made of the heat content losses of the neon and helium jets during their movement through the surrounding medium.

  8. Assessing English proficiency for university study

    CERN Document Server

    Read, John

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.

  9. High temporal resolution measurements of ozone precursors in a rural background station. A two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazo, M; Durana, N; Alonso, L; Gómez, M C; García, J A; Ilardia, J L; Gangoiti, G; Iza, J

    2008-01-01

    We present a very complete database of individual non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements with high temporal resolution (hourly) in a rural background atmosphere. We show their use to characterize the biogenic NMHC as well as to identify the transport and impact of anthropogenic NMHC on rural areas. In January 2003 an automatic GC-FID analyzer of volatile organic compounds between 2 and 10 carbon atoms (C2-C10 VOCs) was placed in the centre of the Valderejo Natural Park in northern Iberia (42.87 degrees N, 3.22 degrees W), far away from important cities. The system operated continuously until December 2004. Data coverage was higher than 70% for a total of 59 VOC of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin, with detection limits in the range of pptv. Our results allow for the description of the behaviour of these compounds, in order to identify external impacts arriving to the sampling site which has been recognized to be highly representative of a rural background atmosphere. Biogenic VOC concentrations have been compared also with the calculated emissions, using Guenther's algorithm, and the discrepancies interpreted in terms of the different reactivity of such compounds.

  10. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  11. Energy security assessment framework and three case-studies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a novel framework for assessing energy security and illustrates its application by the Global Energy Assessment, the IEA Model for Short-term energy security and in several studies of long-term global energy security.

  12. Self-assessment and students' study strategies in a community of clinical practice: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Al-Takroni, H.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of sel

  13. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  14. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isola...

  15. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhaman Mulchand Jain; Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa; Arun Suresh Dodamani; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  16. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTI CULTURAL BACKGROUND The Studies of Minority Regions in the Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China is a country with many nationalities. Each of them has formed its own special culture, which is different from the mainstream of majority Han nationality, by adapting to geo-environment during history. Due to different backgrounds, the regional developmental model of minorities in the western China is different from the Han nationality and western countries. Combining a knowledge-based civilization and sustainable development, the minority areas can seek the systematic integration of culture-economy-ecology. Based on this, the paper suggests that the minority areas in western China should take the way of emphasizing developmental quality rather than developmental quantity for a har monious system of culture-economy-ecology. Some approaches for developing minority areas in western China have been put foreword.

  17. Comparison of tools for assessing the methodological quality of primary and secondary studies in health technology assessment reports in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care policy background: Findings from scientific studies form the basis for evidence-based health policy decisions. Scientific background: Quality assessments to evaluate the credibility of study results are an essential part of health technology assessment reports and systematic reviews. Quality assessment tools (QAT for assessing the study quality examine to what extent study results are systematically distorted by confounding or bias (internal validity. The tools can be divided into checklists, scales and component ratings. Research questions: What QAT are available to assess the quality of interventional studies or studies in the field of health economics, how do they differ from each other and what conclusions can be drawn from these results for quality assessments? Methods: A systematic search of relevant databases from 1988 onwards is done, supplemented by screening of the references, of the HTA reports of the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment (DAHTA and an internet search. The selection of relevant literature, the data extraction and the quality assessment are carried out by two independent reviewers. The substantive elements of the QAT are extracted using a modified criteria list consisting of items and domains specific to randomized trials, observational studies, diagnostic studies, systematic reviews and health economic studies. Based on the number of covered items and domains, more and less comprehensive QAT are distinguished. In order to exchange experiences regarding problems in the practical application of tools, a workshop is hosted. Results: A total of eight systematic methodological reviews is identified as well as 147 QAT: 15 for systematic reviews, 80 for randomized trials, 30 for observational studies, 17 for diagnostic studies and 22 for health economic studies. The tools vary considerably with regard to the content, the performance and quality of operationalisation. Some tools do not only include the

  18. Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylde Vikki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over

  19. Students' and teachers' perceptions of clinical assessment program: A qualitative study in a PBL curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten Cees

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Examinations drive students' learning." This statement refers to what is assumed to be one of the strongest relationships in education. We explored in this research how and why students differ in their approaches to learning, how assessment affects deep learning, and which barriers stand in the way of good assessment and learning in the clinical years of a Problem Based Learning (PBL graduate entry medical curriculum. Findings Method: We conducted a qualitative, phenomenological study using semi-structured group interviews with students and semi-structured individual interviews with teachers and students. The transcripts were analyzed, and themes were identified. Setting: The research was conducted at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from November 2007 to March 2008. Results: A total of 28 students participated in 7 focus group interviews. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 12 teachers and 12 students. The analysis yielded four themes: summative assessment, formative assessment, continuous assessment of clinical attachments, and learning objectives. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that assessment affects students' perceptions of learning and how they learn. These effects are not uniformly positive. According to the students, the predominantly summative assessment program offers little inducement to engage in deep learning. They express a clear preference for formative assessment, which may foster a deeper approach to learning. Efforts to achieve more clinically relevant assessment with adequate balance between the various types of assessment are required. Research is needed to decide this balance.

  20. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  1. Quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice according to patients' ethnic background: a cross-sectional study from Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkeland Kåre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades immigration to Norway from Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has increased rapidly. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients from these ethnic minority groups compared with the care received by Norwegians. Methods In 2006, electronic medical record data were screened at 11 practices (49 GPs; 58857 patients. 1653 T2DM patients cared for in general practice were identified. Ethnicity was defined as self-reported country of birth. Chi-squared tests, one-way ANOVAs, multiple regression, linear mixed effect models and generalized linear mixed models were used. Results Diabetes was diagnosed at a younger age in patients from the ethnic minority groups (South Asians (SA: mean age 44.9 years, Middle East/North Africa (MENA: 47.2 years, East Asians (EA: 52.0 years, others: 49.0 years compared with Norwegians (59.7 years, p 85% of patients in all groups with minor differences between minority groups and Norwegians. A greater proportion of the minority groups were prescribed hypoglycaemic medications compared with Norwegians (≥79% vs. 72%, p 9% was higher in minority groups (SA: 19.6%, MENA: 18.9% vs. Norwegians: 5.6%, p Conclusions Mean age at the time of diagnosis of T2DM was 8-15 years younger in minority groups compared with Norwegians. Recording of important processes of care measures is high in all groups. Only one in four of most patient groups achieved all four treatment targets and prescribing habits may be sub-optimal. Patients from minority groups have worse glycaemic control than Norwegians which implies that it might be necessary to improve the guidelines to meet the needs of specific ethnic groups.

  2. Radiological assessment of radioactive waste-disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 3: Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, T. W.; Ohnesorge, W. F.; Wagner, E. B.; Chaudhry, M. Y.

    1981-12-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to determine dose equivalent rates in the ORNL solid waste disposal areas. The dosimeters were exchanged and read approximately quarterly during 1979 and 1980. The data were reviewed to detect trends in dose equivalent rates, but no trends were detected other than increased radiation levels in some areas due to the lowering of White Oak Lake. The rates at the disposal site were compared with TLD readings taken in areas on the DOE reservation perimeter, as well as in remote areas that represent natural background for East Tennessee.

  3. Pupil Home Background Characteristics and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Kitwe District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumbi, Zonic; Samuel, Elizabeth B.; Mulendema, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate pupil background characteristics and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Kitwe district with a view of recommending on how to improve pupils' performance. The study was conducted in Kitwe district because in the past years pupils' performance in senior secondary schools has been…

  4. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ok Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Health Insurance Service (NHIS recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI system for the benefit of Korean researchers.MethodsThe NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI.ResultsMetabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining.ConclusionThe NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform.

  5. Wilsonian flows and background fields

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We study exact renormalisation group flows for background field dependent regularisations. It is shown that proper-time flows are approximations to exact background field flows for a specific class of regulators. We clarify the role of the implicit scale dependence introduced by the background field. Its impact on the flow is evaluated numerically for scalar theories at criticality for different approximations and regularisations. Implications for gauge theories are discussed.

  6. On the contribution of Aitken mode particles to cloud droplet populations at continental background areas – a parametric sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aitken mode particles are potentially an important source of cloud droplets in continental background areas. In order to find out which physico-chemical properties of Aitken mode particles are most important regarding their cloud-nucleating ability, we applied a global sensitivity method to an adiabatic air parcel model simulating the number of cloud droplets formed on Aitken mode particles, CD2. The technique propagates uncertainties in the parameters describing the properties of Aitken mode to CD2. The results show that if the Aitken mode particles do not contain molecules that are able to reduce the particle surface tension more than 30% and/or decrease the mass accommodation coefficient of water, α, below 10−2, the chemical composition and modal properties may have roughly an equal importance at low updraft velocities characterized by maximum supersaturations <0.1%. For larger updraft velocities, however, the particle size distribution is clearly more important than the chemical composition. In general, CD2 exhibits largest sensitivity to the particle number concentration, followed by the particle size. Also the shape of the particle mode, characterized by the geometric standard deviation (GSD, can be as important as the mode mean size at low updraft velocities. Finally, the performed sensitivity analysis revealed also that the chemistry may dominate the total sensitivity of CD2 to the considered parameters if: 1 the value of α varies at least one order of magnitude more than what is expected for pure water surfaces (10−2–1, or 2 the particle surface tension varies more than roughly 30% under conditions close to reaching supersaturation.

  7. Wound assessment tools and nurses’ needs: an evaluation study

    OpenAIRE

    Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses’ needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermin...

  8. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  9. Study of a Multivariate Approach for the Background Rejection in the Scattering of Two Like-Charge $W^{\\pm}$ Bosons with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100403; Kobel, Michael; Straessner, Arno

    This thesis presents the study of a multivariate approach for the background rejection in the scattering of two like-charge $W^{\\pm}$ bosons with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The scattering process can be accessed through the measurement of purely electroweak production of two like-charge $W^{\\pm}$ bosons and two jets in the fully leptonic decay channel of the $W^{\\pm}$ bosons. Although the characteristic signature of the final state of this production process already reduces most Standard Model backgrounds, other processes exist that leave the same experimental signature in the detector. QCD-initiated production of a $W^{\\pm}$ boson and a $Z$ boson in association with two jets with leptonic decay of the $W^{\\pm}$ and the $Z$ boson accounts for the largest background contribution. Thus, the focus of this thesis is set on the rejection of this background. As a very promising technique for this classification problem, boosted decision trees are studied in this thesis. The variable ranking of...

  10. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were c

  11. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTI CULTURAL BACKGROUND The Studies of Minority Regions in the Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; La-chang

    2001-01-01

    [1]HE Jing-xin, 1997. The problem studies of sustainable development in minority region of west China [J]. National Studies,(2): 39-48. (in Chinese)[2]LU La-chang, Huang RU, 1995. Ecological civilization and sustainable development [J]. Future and Development, (1):52-54. (in Chinese)[3]LU La-chang, 1995. Cultural ecologist and development in China minority region[J]. Geography and Territory Studies, (4):56-59. (in Chinese)[4]LU La-chang, 1997. The man-earth relationship and sustainable development in minority of west China [J]. Economic Geography, 17(3): 100-104. (in Chinese)[5]LU La-chang, 1999. On Naxi national cultural ecology [J].Human Geography, (2): 22-26. (in Chinese)

  12. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  13. Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

  14. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin s

  15. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  16. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: An assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor′s milk were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. Results: The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Conclusion: Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  17. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women part

  18. Policy assessment and policy development for physical activity promotion: results of an exploratory intervention study in 15 European Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Abu-Omar, K.; Gelius, P.; Dinan-Young, S.; Frändin, K.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Young, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Purpose of the study was to test a theoretical model to assess and develop policies for the promotion of physical activity among older people as part of an international intervention study. Methods 248 semi-standardized interviews with policy-makers were conducted in 15 European nations.

  19. Risk factors for asthma and allergy associated with urban migration: background and methodology of a cross-sectional study in Afro-Ecuadorian school children in Northeastern Ecuador (Esmeraldas-SCAALA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Renato T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergic diseases are becoming increasingly frequent in children in urban centres of Latin America although the prevalence of allergic disease is still low in rural areas. Understanding better why the prevalence of asthma is greater in urban migrant populations and the role of risk factors such as life style and environmental exposures, may be key to understand what is behind this trend. Methods/design The Esmeraldas-SCAALA (Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America study consists of cross-sectional and nested case-control studies of school children in rural and urban areas of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. The cross-sectional study will investigate risk factors for atopy and allergic disease in rural and migrant urban Afro-Ecuadorian school children and the nested case-control study will examine environmental, biologic and social risk factors for asthma among asthma cases and non-asthmatic controls from the cross-sectional study. Data will be collected through standardised questionnaires, skin prick testing to relevant aeroallergen extracts, stool examinations for parasites, blood sampling (for measurement of IgE, interleukins and other immunological parameters, anthropometric measurements for assessment of nutritional status, exercise testing for assessment of exercise-induced bronchospasm and dust sampling for measurement of household endotoxin and allergen levels. Discussion The information will be used to identify the factors associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergies in migrant and urbanizing populations, to improve the understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma prevalence and to identify potentially modifiable factors to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risk of allergy in urban populations in Latin America.

  20. The association between coronary calcification assessed by electron beam computed tomography and measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, HHS; Vliegenthart, R; Hak, AE; del Sol, AI; Hofman, A; Oudkerk, M; Witteman, JCM

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The present study was designed to examine the associations of coronary calcification assessed by electron beam computed tomography (CT) with measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND Although measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis have been used to predict coronary events,

  1. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  2. Wound assessment tools and nurses' needs: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses' needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and an audit tool was developed to evaluate the selected tools based on how well they met the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. The results provide a measure of how well the selected wound assessment tools meet the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. No tool was identified which fulfilled all the criteria, but two (the Applied Wound Management tool and the National Wound Assessment Form) met the most criteria of the optimal tool and were therefore considered to best meet nurses' needs in wound assessment. The study provides a mechanism for the appraisal of wound assessment tools using a set of optimal criteria which could aid practitioners in their search for the best wound assessment tool.

  3. Risk of falls in Brazilian elders with and without low back pain assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment: BACE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayza M. B. Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Low back pain (LBP is a common musculoskeletal condition among elders and is associated with falls. However, the underlying biological risk factors for falling among elders with LBP has been poorly investigated. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA is a validated fall-risk assessment tool that involves the direct assessment of sensorimotor abilities and may contribute to the understanding of risk factors for falls among elders with LBP. Objective To assess fall risk using the PPA in elders with and without LBP. Method This is an observational, comparative, cross-sectional study with elders aged ≥65 years. The present study was conducted with a subsample of participants from the Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE - Brazil study. Fall risk was assessed using the PPA, which contains five tests: visual contrast sensitivity, hand reaction time, quadriceps strength, lower limb proprioception, and postural sway. Results Study participants included 104 individuals with average age of 72.3 (SD=4.0 years, divided into two groups: GI 52 participants with LBP; GII 52 participants without LBP. The participants with LBP had a significantly higher fall risk (1.10 95% CI 0.72 to 1.48, greater postural sway (49.78 95% CI 13.54 to 86.01, longer reaction time (58.95 95% CI 33.24 to 84.65, and lower quadriceps strength (–4.42 95% CI –8.24 to –0.59 compared to asymptomatic participants. There was no significant difference for vision and proprioception tests between LBP and non-LBP participants. Conclusion Elders with LBP have greater risk for falls than those without LBP. Our results suggest fall-risk screening may be sensible in elders with LBP.

  4. Electroweak corrections to $pp \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-e^+e^- + X$ at the LHC -- a Higgs background study

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, B; Dittmaier, S; Hofer, L; Jäger, B

    2016-01-01

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state $\\mu^+\\mu^-e^+e^-$, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs-boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W/Z-boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular a sign change between the regions of resonant Z-pair production and the Higgs signal.

  5. Electroweak Corrections to pp→μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}+X at the LHC: A Higgs Boson Background Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, B; Denner, A; Dittmaier, S; Hofer, L; Jäger, B

    2016-04-22

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state μ^{+}μ^{-}e^{+}e^{-}, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W- or Z-boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular, a sign change between the regions of resonant Z-pair production and the Higgs signal.

  6. Electroweak Corrections to p p →μ+μ-e+e-+X at the LHC: A Higgs Boson Background Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, B.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Hofer, L.; Jäger, B.

    2016-04-01

    The first complete calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to four-lepton production at the LHC is presented, where all off-shell effects of intermediate Z bosons and photons are taken into account. Focusing on the mixed final state μ+μ-e+e-, we study differential cross sections that are particularly interesting for Higgs boson analyses. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak corrections. The former exhibit patterns familiar from similar W - or Z -boson production processes with very large radiative tails near resonances and kinematical shoulders. The weak corrections are of the generic size of 5% and show interesting variations, in particular, a sign change between the regions of resonant Z -pair production and the Higgs signal.

  7. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2......, 1990 until December 31, 1997; the control group comprised 231 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, along with a neuromotor test battery (CATSYS Test System) and a psychological health status questionnaire, the SCL...... associations were found for ratings of the obsessive-compulsive dimension and of the depression dimension. No associations were found with respect to phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. INTERPRETATION: The increased psychological distress found among Danish GW veterans seemed rather due...

  8. Study of the correlation between columnar aerosol burden, suspended matter at ground and chemical components in a background European environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EstelléS, VíCtor; MartíNez-Lozano, José A.; Pey, Jorge; Sicard, MichaëL.; Querol, Xavier; Esteve, Anna R.; Utrillas, MaríA. P.; Sorribas, Mar; Gangoiti, Gotzon; Alastuey, AndréS.; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2012-02-01

    Although routinely monitored by ground based air quality networks, the particulate matter distribution could be eventually better described with remote sensing techniques. However, valid relationships between ground level and columnar ground based quantities should be known beforehand. In this study we have performed a comparison between particulate matter measurements at ground level at different cut sizes (10, 2.5 and 1.0 μm), and the aerosol optical depth obtained by means of a ground based sunphotometer during a multiinstrumental field campaign held in El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) from 28 June to 4 July 2006. All the PM fractions were very well correlated with AOD with correlation coefficients that ranged from 0.71 to 0.81 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. Furthermore, the influence of the mixing layer height in the correlations was explored. The improvement in the correlation when the vertical distribution is taken into account was significant for days with a homogeneous mixing layer. Moreover, the chemical analysis of the individual size fractions allowed us to study the origin of the particulate matter. Secondary components were the most abundant and also well correlated in the three size fractions; but for PM10 fraction, chemical species related to marine origin were best correlated. Finally, we obtained a relationship between MODIS L3 AOD from collection 5.1 and the three PM cut sizes. In spite of being a relatively clean environment, all the techniques were able to capture similar day to day variations during this field campaign.

  9. Quality of assessments within reach: Review study of research and results of the quality of assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, N.A.M.; Otter, den D.; Wools, S.; Hemker, B.T.; Straetmans, G.J.J.M.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Educational tests and assessments are important instruments to measure a student’s knowledge and skills. The question that is addressed in this review study is: “which aspects are currently considered as important to the quality of educational assessments?” Furthermore, it is explored how this infor

  10. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McJeon, Haewon C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Marty J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jennie S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  12. The Interaction of Local Context and Cultural Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Holmqvist, Emma; Dhalman, Hanna;

    2015-01-01

    : Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo and Stockholm. The approach is an interview study based on immigrants' own explanations of what they strive for and how they assess the impact of local conditions and cultural background for their possibilities. We found that local context and cultural background intertwine......Immigrants' housing position is often explained by (lack of) resources or differences in cultural backgrounds. Recent studies have included the importance of local context. The aim of this paper is to examine Somalis' perceptions of their possibilities in four Nordic capitals' housing markets...

  13. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  14. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  15. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  16. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  17. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Lell, B.; Ariawan, I.; Uh, H.W.; Wibowo, H.; Djuardi, Y.; Wahyuni, S.; Sutanto, I.; May, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Supali, T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infect

  18. Development of the music therapy assessment Tool for advanced Huntington’s disease: A pilot validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Bodak, Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Case studies of people with Huntington's disease (HD) report that music therapy provides a range of benefits that may improve quality of life; however, no robust music therapy assessment tools exist for this population. Objective: Develop and conduct preliminary psychometric testing o...... patient responses to music therapy interventions across psychological, physical, social, and communication domains of functioning in patients with advanced HD.......Background: Case studies of people with Huntington's disease (HD) report that music therapy provides a range of benefits that may improve quality of life; however, no robust music therapy assessment tools exist for this population. Objective: Develop and conduct preliminary psychometric testing...... of a music therapy assessment tool for patients with advanced HD. Methods: First, we established content and face validity of the Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Advanced HD (MATA-HD) through focus groups and field testing. Second, we examined psychometric properties of the resulting MATA-HD in terms...

  19. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  20. Dynamic assessment versus static assessment: A study of reading comprehension ability in Iranian EFL learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, Behzad; Mansouri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This study extends traditional or static assessment of reading comprehension in foreign language contexts and applies dynamic assessment (DA) to the development of learners’ reading ability. To homogenize the research population (N= 250), an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) was administered. On the basis of the test results, the population was sorted into three groups of reading-low, reading-mid, and reading-high students. The participants of this study were a sample of 30 participants with the lo...

  1. GEANT4 simulation of the neutron background of the C$_6$D$_6$ set-up for capture studies at n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Žugec, P.; Bosnar, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D.G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L.S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martìnez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron sensitivity of the C$_6$D$_6$ detector setup used at n_TOF for capture measurements has been studied by means of detailed GEANT4 simulations. A realistic software replica of the entire n_TOF experimental hall, including the neutron beam line, sample, detector supports and the walls of the experimental area has been implemented in the simulations. The simulations have been analyzed in the same manner as experimental data, in particular by applying the Pulse Height Weighting Technique. The simulations have been validated against a measurement of the neutron background performed with a $^\\mathrm{nat}$C sample, showing an excellent agreement above 1 keV. At lower energies, an additional component in the measured $^\\mathrm{nat}$C yield has been discovered, which prevents the use of $^\\mathrm{nat}$C data for neutron background estimates at neutron energies below a few hundred eV. The origin and time structure of the neutron background have been derived from the simulations. Examples of the neutron backg...

  2. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  4. Development of an integral assessment approach of health status in patients with obstructive airway diseases: the CORONA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, E.F. van den; Hul, A.J. van 't; Chavannes, N.H.; Braunstahl, G.J.; Bruggen, A. van; Rutten-van Molken, M.P.; Veen, J.C. In 't

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional assessment of patients with obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD) relies on physiological tests. The COPD and Asthma Rotterdam Integrated Care Approach (CORONA) study aims to develop a diagnostic pathway with a more comprehensive a

  5. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...... with a decrease in organic carbon, interpreted as representing a deterioration in the climate, correlates with the start of the 'Little Ice Age' about 850-700 cal. yr BP. A change dated to ad 1950-1960 is probably an effect of increased nutrient availability in the open Baltic Sea. This effect of eutrophication...... was probably caused by increased discharge of nutrients deriving from fertilizers, as the responding diatom species partly indicate a cold climate rather than a warm one, as would have been expected if this had been only a response to the warmer climate documented during the last 100 years or so....

  6. Assessing possible selection bias in a national voluntary MS longitudinal study in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Bruce V; Palmer, Andrew; Simpson, Steve;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surveying volunteer members of a multiple sclerosis registry is a very cost-effective way of assessing the impact of the disease on life outcomes. However, whether the data from such a study can be generalised to the whole population of persons living with MS in a country or region...... representative of the MS population. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore with some minor caveats, the AMSLS data can be generalised to the whole Australasian MS population. Volunteer disease registries such as this can be highly representative and provide an excellent convenience sample when studying rare conditions...

  7. Assessing dance: A phenomonological study of formative assessment in dance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninnie Andersson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a study that examines how formative assessment in dance education is constituted in three Swedish upper secondary schools. The starting-point for the study is life-world phenomenology.  A phenomenological way of thinking entails that the human being is intersubjective, linked with and within the world and that learning requires the bodily subject´s active experience. To turn towards the things themselves and to be open and adherent to things in the world is a basic rule and the starting point for research within phenomenology. This study is based on empirical material from observations of the phenomenon formative assessment in dance. Spiegelberg´s philosophical method was used as a base for phenomenological analysis. The analysis results in three themes: modes of communication, dance-related knowledge and function of formative assessment. Formative assessment was observed in the study to commonly involve teachers´ verbal communication and visualisation. The assessment practice is a continuous activity and very rarely involves any kind of self-assessment or tests. The results were discussed and related to a life-world phenomenological view of learning and earlier research.

  8. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so

  9. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  11. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  12. Adolescents Background - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within any 24-hour period in the life of a teenager, eating may be a positive or a negative experience. It may involve a quick snack or a grazing process. Eating for teens may be a group decision, an interaction, or an independent endeavor.

  13. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  14. CHASE assessment of the North Sea – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, N.; Andersen, Jesper; Høgåsen, T.;

    In this pilot study, hazardous substances in the North Sea were assessed and classified using the HELCOM Chemical Substances Status Assessment Tool (CHASE). The study was based on monitoring by Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Together, 1350...... assessment and classification of “hazardous substances status”. This can be in particular advantageous for use in remedial action plan and, in particular, for the sciencebased evaluation of whether the North Sea is undisturbed by hazardous substances....... locations (1155 for sediment and 195 for biota) were used resulting in 966 matrices sampled in the open-sea and 506 in coastal areas. CHASE is a multi-metric indicator-based tool developed for the HELCOM integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. CHASE produces an integrated...

  15. Recommendations by Cochrane Review Groups for assessment of the risk of bias in studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gøtzsche Peter C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the risk of bias in individual studies in a systematic review can be done using individual components or by summarizing the study quality in an overall score. Methods We examined the instructions to authors of the 50 Cochrane Review Groups that focus on clinical interventions for recommendations on methodological quality assessment of studies. Results Forty-one of the review groups (82% recommended quality assessment using components and nine using a scale. All groups recommending components recommended to assess concealment of allocation, compared to only two of the groups recommending scales (P Conclusion We found that recommendations by some groups were not based on empirical evidence and many groups had no recommendations on how to use the quality assessment in reviews. We suggest that all Cochrane Review Groups refer to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, which is evidence-based, in their instructions to authors and that their own guidelines are kept to a minimum and describe only how methodological topics that are specific to their fields should be handled.

  16. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  17. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  18. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  19. Study of a dual frequency capacitively coupled rf discharge in the background of multi-component plasma and its validation by a simple analytical sheath model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Heman; Saikia, Partha; Favre, Mario; Wyndham, Edmundo; Veloso, Felipe

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of a phase-locked dual frequency capacitively coupled rf discharges (2f-CCRF) in the background of multi-component plasma is experimentally studied by rf current-voltage measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The multi-component plasma is produced by adding hydrogen to the argon CCRF discharge. Variation of experimental parameters, like working pressure, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) rf power indicate significant changes in the electron density and temperature as well as the DC self-bias developed on the power electrode. It is observed that the electron density decreases as the percentage of hydrogen increases in the argon plasma while the electron temperature follows opposite trend. An analytical sheath model for the 2f-CCRF discharge in the background of multi-component plasma is developed and its prediction on the observed variation of DC self-bias is well agreed with the experimental observations. Authors acknowledge Proyecto Puente No P1611 and FONDECYT 3160179.

  20. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo C.M.; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E.; Wheeler, James R.; Henry, Tala R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of d

  1. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  2. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  3. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  4. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices towards Swine flu: A cross-sectional study among rural housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Kumari; Rajiv Kumar Gupta; Bhavna Langer; Aruna Verma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Swine flu is an emerging public health problem in various countries including India and was declared a “Phase 6 Pandemic” by WHO in 2009. India ranks as 3rd most affected country for cases and deaths of swine flu globally.Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practices regarding Swine flu among rural housewives of Jammu and to find out the association between the two.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the month of April 2015 using a pre-tested and sem...

  5. An action research study of secondary science assessment praxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas Gerald

    This practical participatory action research study illuminates the assessment praxes of four Ontario secondary level science teachers at one school using a facilitative approach. Participants were joined by a thematic concern, that is, a commitment to inform and improve assessment. Hence, two distinct sets of research questions emerged. The first involves the nature of assessment as we asked, what was the current state of assessment practice in secondary science? What were participants' initial understandings of assessment and actual practices at the onset of this research? To what extent did these initial understandings and actual practices change due to the illumination of assessment praxes through action research involvement? What was their level of awareness of current Ontario government pronouncements and in what ways did they implement this knowledge? The second theme, concerning the nature of action research, was realised by asking what did participants learn about action research? What other learning and professional gains were realised during this study? And, what did I learn about action research and assessment through my involvement in this study? Data were collected via supportive discussion groups, individual interviews, classroom visitations, journals and documentation. This professional development experience facilitated 'interactive professionalism' as teachers worked in a small group and interacted frequently in the course of planning, testing new ideas, attempting to solve different problems, and assess the effectiveness of those ideas. In addition, this action research effort was strategic and systematic, to attain a high degree of specific interactions, (personal interviews, group meetings, classroom observations, evidence collection). This series of deliberate and planned intentions helped participants solve assessment dilemmas. We developed an awareness and understanding of the need for more preservice and inservice assessment training

  6. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  7. Environmental risk assessment of ivermectin: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Markus; Fernandez, Alvaro Alonso; Blübaum-Gronau, Elke; Boxall, Alistair; Brinke, Marvin; Carbonell, Gregoria; Egeler, Philipp; Fenner, Kathrin; Fernandez, Carlos; Fink, Guido; Garric, Jeanne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Knacker, Thomas; Krogh, Kristine A; Küster, Anette; Löffler, Dirk; Cots, Miguel Angel Porcel; Pope, Louise; Prasse, Carsten; Römbke, Jörg; Rönnefahrt, Ines; Schneider, Manuel K; Schweitzer, Natascha; Tarazona, José V; Ternes, Thomas A; Traunspurger, Walter; Wehrhan, Anne; Duis, Karen

    2010-07-01

    The veterinary parasiticide ivermectin was selected as a case study compound within the project ERAPharm (Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals). Based on experimental data generated within ERAPharm and additional literature data, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed mainly according to international and European guidelines. For the environmental compartments surface water, sediment, and dung, a risk was indicated at all levels of the tiered assessment approach. Only for soil was no risk indicated after the lower tier assessment. However, the use of effects data from additional 2-species and multispecies studies resulted in a risk indication for collembolans. Although previously performed ERAs for ivermectin revealed no concern for the aquatic compartment, and transient effects on dung-insect populations were not considered as relevant, the present ERA clearly demonstrates unacceptable risks for all investigated environmental compartments and hence suggests the necessity of reassessing ivermectin-containing products. Based on this case study, several gaps in the existing guidelines for ERA of pharmaceuticals were shown and improvements have been suggested. The action limit at the start of the ERA, for example, is not protective for substances such as ivermectin when used on intensively reared animals. Furthermore, initial predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of ivermectin in soil were estimated to be lower than refined PECs, indicating that the currently used tiered approach for exposure assessment is not appropriate for substances with potential for accumulation in soil. In addition, guidance is lacking for the assessment of effects at higher tiers of the ERA, e.g., for field studies or a tiered effects assessment in the dung compartment.

  8. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  9. A study on first intake assessments of in-patient referrals to psychiatric rehabilitation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an important component in mental health services. The rehabilitation needs of patients with mental illness have been highlighted in various studies. The studies on in-patient referrals to rehabilitation services however are sparse. This study describes the clinical and demographic details and the reasons for referrals to rehabilitation services during the in-patients stay. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured pro forma was used for the assessment of in-patients referred for the psychiatric rehabilitation services. The pro forma included socio-demographic details such as background, family resources, illness related details such as symptom status, risk assessment, medication details. The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was collected and coded. Results: The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was 216 and there were 197 forms available for the study. The mean age of the sample was 31.48 ± 10.46 years. Vocational rehabilitation was the commonest reason for referral to the in-patient services. Severe mental disorders were the most common diagnosis of patients refereed to the services. Conclusions: Patients with severe mental illness were most often referred to the in-patient services. This indicates that we need include to rehabilitation in the management plan at the earliest. Vocational rehabilitation is the most common reason for referrals and there is a need to develop services to cater to these needs.

  10. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; hereafter the Act) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress1 that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. Specifically, the Act calls for “…an assessment of the extent of salt cedar and Russian olive infestation on public and private land in the western United States,” which shall“A) consider existing research on methods to control salt cedar and Russian olive trees; B) consider the feasibility of reducing water consumption by salt cedar and Russian olive trees; C) consider methods of and challenges associated with the revegetation or restoration of infested land; and D) estimate the costs of destruction of salt cedar and Russian olive trees, related biomass removal, and revegetation or restoration and maintenance of the infested land.”Finally, the Act calls for discussion of“(i) long-term management and funding strategies…that could be implemented by Federal, State, tribal, and private land managers and owners to address the infestation by salt cedar and Russian olive; (ii) any deficiencies in the assessment or areas for additional study; and (iii) any field demonstrations that would be useful in the effort to control salt cedar and Russian olive.”The primary intent of this report is to provide the science assessment called for under the Act. A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. In addition to relying on the direction provided under Section C of the Act, the authors of this report also drew upon the detailed list of considerations presented in Section E of the Act to guide development of more expansive discussions of topics relevant to saltcedar and Russian olive control

  11. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -cultural construction of identity, and, as a matter of fact, that their role might be quite important. I argue that the DDAs are backgrounded but not peripheral, i.e. marginal or insignificant. And I introduce the notion of “contextualization cue” in this argument (Levinson, 2003a, Gumperz, 1992)....

  12. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  13. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I

    2014-08-19

    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance.

  14. Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Together: Reflective Assessments for Middle and High School English and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Arthur K.; Evans, Laurynn

    2010-01-01

    This book offers easy-to-use classroom strategies for middle and high school English and Social Studies classrooms. They demonstrate how teaching, learning, and assessment are inseparable and seamless. Each strategy will engage your students in activity and reflection, consuming little class time, costing nothing, and uniting the three dimensions…

  15. Assessing Middle and High School Social Studies & English: Differentiating Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of social studies and English, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  16. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  17. Study on the Impact Assessment of Human Activities on Soil under the Law in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    BODA Dana-Mioara; V. MICLE

    2010-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment aims to investigate complex scientific effects arising from the impact ofcertain activities on the environment in general, or on the social, cultural, economical or political background.

  18. Comparative health technology assessment of robotic-assisted, direct manual laparoscopic and open surgery: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Ilaria; Manetti, Stefania; Freschi, Cinzia; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite many publications reporting on the increased hospital cost of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) compared to direct manual laparoscopic surgery (DMLS) and open surgery (OS), the reported health economic studies lack details on clinical outcome, precluding valid health technology assessment (HTA). Methods The present prospective study reports total cost analysis on 699 patients undergoing general surgical, gynecological and thoracic operations between 2011 and 2014 in the Italia...

  19. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  20. LiteBIRD: a small satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic background radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.

  1. A Study of Sustainable Assessment Theory in Higher Education Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert J.; Skinner, William F.; Schwabrow, Lynsey A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of sustainable assessment theory in nine tutorial courses at four colleges demonstrated that three long-term learning outcomes improved: Independence, Intellectual Maturity and Creativity. Eight of 10 traits associated with these outcomes were validated through internal reliability, faculty and student rubrics, and faculty case studies…

  2. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  3. Literary Study, Measurement, and the Sublime: Disciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Donna, Ed.; Rosenthal, Laura J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of essays, "Literary Study, Measurement, and the Sublime: Disciplinary Assessment," edited by Donna Heiland and Laura J. Rosenthal, represents an important new venture in the Foundation's communication program. The book is the product of many authors, including the editors, both of whom have written essays for it. But it is the…

  4. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  5. Studies on the risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.; Dufrenne, J.; Teunis, P.; Chackraborty, T.

    1998-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to Listeria monocytogenes, and high numbers may be ingested during consumption of certain types of food. However, epidemiological investigations show that listeriosis is a rare disease. Risk assessment studies using an animal mouse model indicate that almost all L. mono

  6. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  7. Safety assessment for hair-spray resins: risk assessment based on rodent inhalation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthew, Philip; Griffiths, Heather; Keech, Stephen; Hartop, Peter

    2002-04-01

    The methods involved in the safety assessment of resins used in hair-spray products have received little peer review, or debate in the published literature, despite their widespread use, in both hairdressing salons and the home. The safety assessment for these resins currently involves determining the type of lung pathology that can be caused in animal inhalation exposure studies, and establishing the no-observable-effect level (NOEL) for these pathologies. The likely human consumer exposure is determined by techniques that model the simulated exposure under "in use" conditions. From these values it is then possible to derive the likely safety factors for human exposure. An important part of this process would be to recognize the intrinsic differences between rodents and humans in terms of the respiratory doses that each species experiences during inhalation exposures, for the purpose of the safety assessment. Interspecies scaling factors become necessary when comparing the exposure doses experienced by rats, compared to humans, because of basic differences between species in lung clearance rates and the alveolar area in the lungs. The rodent inhalation data and modeled human exposure to Resin 6965, a resin polymer that is based on vinyl acetate, has been used to calculate the safety factor for human consumer exposure to this resin, under a range of "in use" exposure conditions. The use of this safety assessment process clearly demonstrates that Resin 6965 is acceptable for human consumer exposure under the conditions considered in this risk assessment.

  8. Geriatric Nursing Assessment and Intervention in an Emergency Department – a Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Wagner, Lis; Henriksen, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    assessment the nurse made relevant referrals to the geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, general practitioner or made arrangements with next-of-kin. Results One hundred and fifty people participated, mean age was 81.7. At discharge they had a mean of 1.9 unresolved problems, after 1 month 0......Aim To describe and test a model for structured nursing assessment and intervention to older people discharged from Emergency Department (ED). Background Older people recently discharged from hospital are at high risk of readmission. This risk may increase when they are discharged straight home...... from an ED as time pressure requires staff to focus on the presenting problem although many have complex, unresolved, care needs. Method A prospective descriptive study was conducted. Older people aged 70 and over and at risk of adverse health and functional outcome were included. Intervention...

  9. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  10. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  11. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  12. Bayesian hierarchical models combining different study types and adjusting for covariate imbalances: a simulation study to assess model performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth McCarron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to combine evidence from different types of study designs. However, when combining evidence from randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, imbalances in patient characteristics between study arms may bias the results. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a proposed Bayesian approach to adjust for imbalances in patient level covariates when combining evidence from both types of study designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simulation techniques, in which the truth is known, were used to generate sets of data for randomised and non-randomised studies. Covariate imbalances between study arms were introduced in the non-randomised studies. The performance of the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for imbalances was assessed in terms of bias. The data were also modelled using three other Bayesian approaches for synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies. The simulations considered six scenarios aimed at assessing the sensitivity of the results to changes in the impact of the imbalances and the relative number and size of studies of each type. For all six scenarios considered, the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for differences within studies gave results that were unbiased and closest to the true value compared to the other models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where informed health care decision making requires the synthesis of evidence from randomised and non-randomised study designs, the proposed hierarchical Bayesian method adjusted for differences in patient characteristics between study arms may facilitate the optimal use of all available evidence leading to unbiased results compared to unadjusted analyses.

  13. Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Candas, Bernard; Desmartis, Marie; Gagnon, Johanne; Roche, Daniel La; Rhainds, Marc; Coulombe, Martin; Dipankui, Mylène Tantchou; Légaré, France

    2014-01-01

    Background Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. ...

  14. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of transport, dispersion, and infiltration. The theoretical solution for the relationship between the time-dependent indoor PM concentration and the initial PM concentration at the outdoor source was obtained. The theoretical models and solutions helped us to identify important parameters in the

  15. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Kadri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice.: We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored.: The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies.: This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed.

  16. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  17. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-10-22

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations.

  18. "Assessment of different bioequivalent metrics in Rifampin bioequivalence study "

    OpenAIRE

    "Rouini MR; Tajer Zadeh H; Valad Khani M "

    2002-01-01

    The use of secondary metrics has become special interest in bioequivalency studies. The applicability of partial area method, truncated AUC and Cmax/AUC has been argued by many authors. This study aims to evaluate the possible superiority of these metrics to primary metrics (i.e. AUCinf, Cmax and Tmax). The suitability of truncated AUC for assessment of absorption extent as well as Cmax/AUC and partial AUC for the evaluation of absorption rate in bioequivalency determination was investigated ...

  19. Reading Engagement in Social Studies: Exploring the Role of a Social Studies Literacy Intervention on Reading Comprehension, Reading Self-Efficacy, and Engagement in Middle School Students with Different Language Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Buehl, Michelle M.; Kidd, Julie K.; Sturtevant, Elizabeth G.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Beck, Jori

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the role of an intervention designed to increase reading comprehension, reading self-efficacy beliefs, and engagement in social studies for middle school students of varying language backgrounds. Thirteen sixth- and seventh-grade teachers implemented the United States History for Engaged Reading (USHER) program with their…

  20. Study Progress and Trends of Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Chunmiao; Shang Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in China has developed rapidly since it was introduced into China in the 1990s.Chinese government promulgated the Environmental Impact As-sessment Law of China (hereinafter referred to as the EIA Law) in 2002.In this law, it is stipulated clearly that regional and sector plans should be assessed.Through investigating materials and ana-lyzing literatures, this article analyses the practical and academic study achievements of SEA in China that have been achieved since the EIA Law was implemented, probes into the current situation of the main level of SEA in China--plan EIA, then summarizes the development characteristics, and eventually, puts forward the development trends of SEA in China.The research conclusions can offer the foundations for comprehending systematically the progress of SEA in China.

  1. Report of the Study Group on Assessment and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, R; Netter, K; Crouch, Richard; Gaizuaskas, Robert; Netter, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    This is an interim report discussing possible guidelines for the assessment and evaluation of projects developing speech and language systems. It was prepared at the request of the European Commission DG XIII by an ad hoc study group, and is now being made available in the form in which it was submitted to the Commission. However, the report is not an official European Commission document, and does not reflect European Commission policy, official or otherwise. After a discussion of terminology, the report focusses on combining user-centred and technology-centred assessment, and on how meaningful comparisons can be made of a variety of systems performing different tasks for different domains. The report outlines the kind of infra-structure that might be required to support comparative assessment and evaluation of heterogenous projects, and also the results of a questionnaire concerning different approaches to evaluation.

  2. Backgrounds in Boundary String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartl, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the role of closed string backgrounds in boundary string field theory. Background independence requires the introduction of dual boundary fields, which are reminiscent of the doubled field formalism. We find a correspondence between closed string backgrounds and collective excitations of open strings described by vertex operators involving dual fields. Renormalization group flow, solutions and stability are discussed in an example.

  3. Study of ammonium molybdate to minimize the phosphate interference in the selenium determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela

    2002-02-01

    The use of ammonium molybdate to minimize the phosphate interference when measuring selenium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with deuterium background correction was evaluated. Ammonium molybdate did not produce a selenium thermal stabilization; however, the presence of ammonium molybdate decreased the phosphate interference. The study was carried out with mussel acid digests and mussel slurries. Pd-Mg(NO 3) 2 was used as a chemical modifier at optimum concentrations of 300 and 250 mg l -1, respectively, yielding optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures of 1200 and 2100 °C, respectively. A yellow solid (ammonium molybdophosphate) was obtained when adding ammonium molybdate to mussel acid digest solutions. This precipitate can be removed after centrifugation prior to ETAAS determination. Additionally, studies on the sampling of the solid ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) together with the liquid phase, as a slurry, were also developed. The volatilization of the solid AMP was not reached at temperatures lower than 2500 °C. By this way, phosphate, as AMP, is not present in the vapor phase at the atomization temperature (2100 °C), yielding a reduction of the spectral interference by phosphate. The proposed method was validated analyzing three reference materials of marine origin (DORM-1, DOLT-1 and TORT-1). Good agreement with the certified selenium contents was reached for all cases.

  4. Alcohol email assessment and feedback study dismantling effectiveness for university students (AMADEUS-1: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCambridge Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol causes huge problems for population health and for society, which require interventions with individuals as well as populations to prevent and reduce harms. Brief interventions can be effective and increasingly take advantage of the internet to reach high-risk groups such as students. The research literature on the effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly and is confronted by methodological challenges common to other areas of e-health including attrition and assessment reactivity and in the design of control conditions. Methods/design The study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief online intervention, employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity, and other possible effects of the research process. Outcomes will be evaluated after 3 months both among student populations as a whole including for a randomized no contact control group and among those who are risky drinkers randomized to brief assessment and feedback (routine practice or to brief assessment only. A three-arm parallel groups trial will also allow exploration of the magnitude of the feedback and assessment component effects. The trial will be undertaken simultaneously in 2 universities randomizing approximately 15,300 students who will all be blinded to trial participation. All participants will be offered routine practice intervention at the end of the study. Discussion This trial informs the development of routine service delivery in Swedish universities and more broadly contributes a new approach to the study of the effectiveness of online interventions in student populations, with relevance to behaviors other than alcohol consumption. The use of blinding and deception in this study raise ethical issues that warrant further attention. Trial registration ISRCTN28328154

  5. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA.

  6. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. PURPOSE: To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. RESULTS: For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. CONCLUSION: The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.

  7. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  8. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  9. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Christian R; Strizich, Garrett; Seeman, Teresa E; Isasi, Carmen R; Gallo, Linda C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; Penedo, Frank J; Arguelles, Willian; Sanders, Anne E; Lipton, Richard B; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Allostatic load (AL), an index of biological "wear and tear" on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18-74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18-44, 45-54, 55-74 years), by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years) and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years) were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years), and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years) (P <0.0001 for increasing trend). Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5). Our findings support both a "healthy immigrant" pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages.

  10. Human serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Uyghurs from Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China: background levels study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Xian, Hong; Elder, Keith; Rodemich, Eugene; Bao, Jia; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in blood samples of humans and wildlife have become a growing concern. Despite PFOS and PFOA having been found in human blood and tissue samples from occupationally exposed workers and the general worldwide population, little systematic knowledge has accrued with respect to exposure levels in Uyghurs in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of China, which is predominantly agricultural and pastoral. Our goal was to provide background data for biological monitoring in the general population of this region. In this study, 110 self-reported healthy human serum samples were collected from nonoccupationally exposed Uyghurs volunteers and analyzed by microbore HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 110 blood specimens, PFOS was detected in 102 samples (93%) and ranged from the lower limit of quantification of 0.01 to 22.63 μg/L with a median of 1.93 μg/L (interquartile range 1.00-3.43 μg/L). The median was higher among males (2.39 μg/L; interquartile range 1.23-4.40 μg/L) than that among females (1.20 μg/L; interquartile range 0.83-2.77 μg/L). No significant difference was observed with respect to age. The concentration of PFOA was lower than that of PFOS and was found only in seven samples (6%) at concentrations above the limit of quantification. This study is the first investigation to reveal serum PFOS and PFOA levels in the general population of Uyghurs. PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in the present investigation were lower than those found in recent studies consisting of subjects from different geographic locations (PFOS 5.0-44.7 μg/L, PFOA 1.5-10 μg/L).

  11. RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta GARG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.

  12. The consequences of using advanced physical assessment skills in medical and surgical nursing: A hermeneutic pragmatic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambas, Shelaine I.; Smythe, Elizabeth A.; Koziol-Mclain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to explore the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills on medical and surgical wards. Background Appropriate, accurate, and timely assessment by nurses is the cornerstone of maintaining patient safety in hospitals. The inclusion of “advanced” physical assessment skills such as auscultation, palpation, and percussion is thought to better prepare nurses for complex patient presentations within a wide range of clinical situations. Design This qualitative study used a hermeneutic pragmatic approach. Method Unstructured interviews were conducted with five experienced medical and surgical nurses to obtain 13 detailed narratives of assessment practice. Narratives were analyzed using Van Manen's six-step approach to identify the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills. Results The consequences of using advanced assessment skills include looking for more, challenging interpretations, and perseverance. The use of advanced assessment skills directs what the nurse looks for, what she sees, interpretation of the findings, and her response. It is the interpretation of what is seen, heard, or felt within the full context of the patient situation, which is the advanced skill. Conclusion Advanced assessment skill is the means to an accurate interpretation of the clinical situation and contributes to appropriate diagnosis and medical management in complex patient situations. Relevance to clinical practice The nurse's use of advanced assessment skills enables her to contribute to diagnostic reasoning within the acute medical and surgical setting. PMID:27607193

  13. 苹果产地土壤环境与地质背景研究%A Study on Soil Environment and Geological Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安永龙; 黄勇; 刘清俊; 孙朝; 邓凯文; 李迪; 黄丹

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive study has been carried out in terms of landform, geology, and soil geochemistry in the apple production areas. Factors that may inlfuence the quality and productivity of apple have been analyzed, which include soil background value, elements effective state, environmental safety, and mineral elements in apple. We conclude that Changping district is located on an alluvial fan, which has advantageous temperature, humidity and rich mineral elements facilitating the growth of apple. Rich resources of mineral elements are available in this area due to excellent local geological conditions. By comparing the indexes of measured surface soil with the background values of the plain, we investigated the degrees of enrichment and depletion in relevant indexes, and revealed the relationship between several effective state elements and their total content, pH, and organic matter. It suggests that this area is characterized by low effective Mo. In addition, we compared the concentrations of mineral elements in the two apple areas to provide scientiifc basis for further improving the quality of apple and add brand values.%通过对苹果产地的地貌、地质以及土壤地球化学特征等方面的研究,分析了可能影响苹果品质和产量的因素——土壤背景值、元素有效态、环境安全性、苹果矿质元素等方面特征。认为苹果产地位于利于苹果生长的特定温度、湿度以及富含较多矿质元素的洪积扇上,优良的地质环境为其提供了丰富的矿质资源。将所测表层土壤指标与平原区背景值进行对比,明确了相关指标的贫化与富集程度,同时了解到部分有效态元素与其全量、pH、有机质的相关关系,并掌握到产地具有低有效钼的特点。此外,对比了两个产区苹果果实矿质的含量特征,为进一步提高苹果质量和品牌附加值提供了科学依据。

  14. Assessment of Confounding in Studies of Delay and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter; Frydenberg, Morten

    of the influence of delay on survival have been subject to great uncertainties due to unmeasured confounding and measurement error. Systematic evaluation of confounding is needed. AIM: The purpose of this project is to assess confounding in studies of delay and survival in breast cancer patients. We aim to: 1......) Clarify which factors are considered confounders or intermediate variables in the literature. 2) Assess how and to what extent these factors bias survival estimates. CONSIDERATIONS: As illustrated in Figure 1, symptoms of cancer may alert patients, GP's, and hospital doctors differently and influence both...... delay and survival time in different ways. We therefore assume that the impact of confounding factors depends on the type of delay studied (e.g., patient delay, GP delay, referral delay, or treatment delay). MATERIALS & METHODS: The project includes systematic review and methodological developments...

  15. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  16. Feasibility studies for assessing internal exposure to {sup 233}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, D.J.; Sharma, R.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Haridasan, T.K.; Sawant, P.D.; Rathinam, M

    2003-07-01

    The potential internal occupational exposure encountered as a consequence of the {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle are likely to arise predominantly from the inhalation of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U and ({sup 232}Th + {sup 233}U) compounds of absorption Types M and S. In the past, although direct and indirect methods for assessments of internal exposure to {sup 232}Th and its daughters were developed, standardised and employed, no such attempts have been made with regard to {sup 233}U and {sup 233}U+{sup 232}Th. Therefore, feasibility studies for assessing internal exposures to {sup 233}U have been conducted using three methods: urine bioassay, in vivo counting and measurement of thoron gas in the exhaled breath of a worker. This paper describes details of these studies and discusses the results obtained. (author)

  17. Alflutop clinical efficacy assessment in osteoarthritis (two-years study)

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Chodyrev; N I Znaisheva; G M Lobanova; L M Ridnyak

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess alflutop clinical efficacy and safety during long-term course treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods. 51 pts with definite knee osteoarthritis of I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification were included in an open controlled study. 20 pts received 6 intra-articular injections of alflutop 2 ml with subsequent intramuscular treatment during 3 months. Such courses were repeated 6 months apart for 2 years. 31 pts of control group received nonsteroidal anti-i...

  18. Thorium assessment study quarterly progress report, third quarter fiscal 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Bartine, D. E.; Burns, T. J.; Cleveland, J. C.; Thomas, W. E.; White, J. R.

    1977-09-30

    The objective of the program described is to contribute to the ongoing assessment of the potential role of thorium fuel cycles for alleviating safeguards concerns. Scenarios include (1) no fuel recycle permitted, (2) fuel recycle permitted only in secure regions (''energy parks'') with denatured (chemically non-separable) fuels only outside these regions, and (3) no limits on fuel recycle. A further objective is to provide nuclear mass balance data on HTGRs required by ERDA contractors for comparative cost-benefit studies.

  19. Lumbar segmental instability: a criterion-related validity study of manual therapy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapple Cathy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal physiotherapists routinely assess lumbar segmental motion during the clinical examination of a patient with low back pain. The validity of manual assessment of segmental motion has not, however, been adequately investigated. Methods In this prospective, multi-centre, pragmatic, diagnostic validity study, 138 consecutive patients with recurrent or chronic low back pain (R/CLBP were recruited. Physiotherapists with post-graduate training in manual therapy performed passive accessory intervertebral motion tests (PAIVMs and passive physiological intervertebral motion tests (PPIVMs. Consenting patients were referred for flexion-extension radiographs. Sagittal angular rotation and sagittal translation of each lumbar spinal motion segment was measured from these radiographs, and compared to a reference range derived from a study of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Motion beyond two standard deviations from the reference mean was considered diagnostic of rotational lumbar segmental instability (LSI and translational LSI. Accuracy and validity of the clinical assessments were expressed using sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio statistics with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Only translation LSI was found to be significantly associated with R/CLBP (p Conclusion This study provides the first evidence reporting the concurrent validity of manual tests for the detection of abnormal sagittal planar motion. PAIVMs and PPIVMs are highly specific, but not sensitive, for the detection of translation LSI. Likelihood ratios resulting from positive test results were only moderate. This research indicates that manual clinical examination procedures have moderate validity for detecting segmental motion abnormality.

  20. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  1. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  2. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  3. A study to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition attending a tertiary care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Gupta; Shaily Agarwal; Neetu Singh; Rimjhim Jain; Arti Katiyar; Almas siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is the fundamental pillar of human life. All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of body system. Inadequate nutrition during pregnancy has a negative impact on the pregnant mother as well as short and long term consequences on the newborn. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition in pregnancy and highlights the need of interventions aimed at promoting awareness about healthy diet duri...

  4. A Quality Assurance Study to Assess the One-Day Prevalence of Delirium in Elderly Hospitalized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    McAiney, Carrie A.; Patterson, Christopher; Coker, Esther; Pizzacalla, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Research indicates that 40% of hospital-acquired delirium cases may be preventable. However, despite its clinical significance, delirium often goes unrecognized or is misdiagnosed. The purpose of this study was to assess the need for delirium education in acute care hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario. Methods Approximately 100 health professionals were trained as delirium screeners. On ‘Delirium Day’, all patients ≥ 65 years of age in non-critical care areas in all acute care sites in ...

  5. Improving Biomarker Development and Assessment: Standards for Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziding FENG

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), NCI funded and investigator driven, has the mission to evaluate biomarkers for their clinical utilities in cancer risk prediction, diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis. Abundant cancer biomarkers reported in literature yet few are used in clinics. Therefore, the emphasis of the EDRN is biomarker validation. Although schema for a phased approach to development exists and guidelines are available for study reporting, a coherent and comprehensive set of guideline for a definitive biomarker validation study design have not been delineated.Methods: We proposed PROBE study design, Prospective specimen collec-tion and Retrospective Blinded Evaluation, for pivotal definitive evaluation of the accuracy of a classification biomarker. A detailed formulation of all aspects of the design is provided. Four tables itemize aspects that relate to (i) the Clinical Context; (ii) Performance Criteria; (iii) the Biomarker test; and (iv) Study power and termination. Alternative designs and strategies were contrasted to illustrate the merit of PROBE design.Results: The ideas are applied to studies of biomarkers the intended use of which is for disease diagnosis, screening, or prognosis. Two EDRN valida-tion studies (breast cancer and prostate cancer) were used as examples to elucidate PROBE design.Conclusion: Common biases that pervade the biomarker research literaturewould be eliminated if these rigorous standards were followed closely. We urge the adoption of the design as standard of practice for pivotal evaluation of the classification accuracy ofbiomarkers.

  6. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  7. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  8. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  9. AN ASSESSMENT STUDY OF FELT NEEDS OF PLWHA ATTENDING AN URBAN HEALTH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global HIV pandemic has shown signs of slowing. Advent of Anti - retroviral drugs have increased the longevity of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Increase in Longevity brings forth multiple issues like stigma , discrimination , lack of accessibility to basics facilities and health care. The needs of PLWHA differ from the general population , so the study was conducted to assess the felt needs of PLWHA. OBJECTIVES: 1 Study the socio - demographic profile of PLWHA. 2 Identify the epidemiological factors that influence their HIV status. 3 Assess and prioritize the felt needs of the PLWHA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a descriptive cross sectional Study conducted on PLWHA in ICTC of an urban health centre of a tertiary care institute during June 200 9 to May 2010. 200 PLWHA were interviewed using a semi structured open ended questionnaire. Data was sought on socio demographic profile , discrimination , priority needs and access to care and support services. Chi - square was applied as the Test of signific ance at appropriate places. RESULTS: 96% of Study subjects had disclosed their HIV status to their spouse and near relatives. 38 % gave history of discrimination by family , 22% were told to leave the house and 20% respondents were forced to eat of other ut ensils. Comparison between male , female showed no discrimination based on gender (p > 0.05. 47% of respondents felt financial as a priority need , 34% as psychosocial , and 17% had multiple needs. 12% of study respondents had access to free treatment servic es

  10. Offshore risk assessment principles, modelling and applications of QRA studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2007-01-01

    attempt has been made to capture the new trends in the regulations, to the extent they are known. There have over the last 10-15 years been published a few textbooks on risk assessment, most of them are devoted to relatively generic topics. Some are also focused on the risk management aspects, in general and with offshore applicability. None are known to address the needs and topics of the use of QRA studies by the offshore industry in particular. The present work is trying to bridge this gap. The use of QRA studies is somewhat special in Northern Europe, and par- cularly in Norway. The use of

  11. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

    2004-12-01

    A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr

  12. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  13. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  14. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  15. A two-year study of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM2.5 at a regional background site for western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Hongfei; Zhao, Yu; Yin, Lina; Lu, Yan; Wang, Qingeng

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of regional background carbonaceous aerosols in western Yangtze River Delta (YRD), hourly organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in fine particular matter (PM2.5) were measured with a semi-continuous carbon analyzer at a suburban site in upwind Nanjing from June 2013 to May 2015. Relatively low OC, EC and OC/EC were observed compared to other studies conducted in Nanjing. The reasons include the limited primary emissions around the observation site, the improved emission controls in recent years, and the use of denuder to reduce positive artifact in OC measurement. Resulting from the stable atmosphere conditions and emission variations, the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were found in both winters, with average OC and EC observed at 11.8 ± 10.0 and 5.9 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for the first one, and 8.1 ± 5 and 4.5 ± 2.4 μg/m3 for the second one, respectively. Compared to 2013, reduced OC and EC were found in summer and autumn 2014, demonstrating the benefits of emission control polices implemented for the Nanjing Youth Olympic, while elevated OC observed in spring 2015 was attributed probably to the increased biomass burning. For the hazy event in winter 2013, the back trajectories of air masses suggested that heavy pollution were from eastern Jiangsu, northern Anhui and Jiangsu, downtown Nanjing, and Shanghai. Secondary aerosol formation played an important role indicated by the larger mass fraction of OC and increased OC/EC in PM2.5 during the heavy pollution period. In the harvest season, biomass burning was estimated to contribute 51% and 16% of OC and EC concentrations, respectively.

  16. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  17. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  18. Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Melissa J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between exposure to cleaning products with asthma and other respiratory disorders. Thus far, these studies have conducted only limited quantitative exposure assessments. Exposures from cleaning products are difficult to measure because they are complex mixtures of chemicals with a range of physicochemical properties, thus requiring multiple measurement techniques. We conducted a pilot exposure assessment study to identify methods for assessing short term, task-based airborne exposures and to quantitatively evaluate airborne exposures associated with cleaning tasks simulated under controlled work environment conditions. Methods Sink, mirror, and toilet bowl cleaning tasks were simulated in a large ventilated bathroom and a small unventilated bathroom using a general purpose, a glass, and a bathroom cleaner. All tasks were performed for 10 minutes. Airborne total volatile organic compounds (TVOC generated during the tasks were measured using a direct reading instrument (DRI with a photo ionization detector. Volatile organic ingredients of the cleaning mixtures were assessed utilizing an integrated sampling and analytic method, EPA TO-17. Ammonia air concentrations were also measured with an electrochemical sensor embedded in the DRI. Results Average TVOC concentrations calculated for 10 minute tasks ranged 0.02 - 6.49 ppm and the highest peak concentrations observed ranged 0.14-11 ppm. TVOC time concentration profiles indicated that exposures above background level remained present for about 20 minutes after cessation of the tasks. Among several targeted VOC compounds from cleaning mixtures, only 2-BE was detectable with the EPA method. The ten minute average 2- BE concentrations ranged 0.30 -21 ppm between tasks. The DRI underestimated 2-BE exposures compared to the results from the integrated method. The highest concentration of ammonia of 2.8 ppm occurred

  19. Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

  20. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....... expertise, the involvement in the process leading to this the book including a number of workshops, and a literature review of the development of their disciplinary fields: Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) Marketing. Findings: The difference...... in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to organisations...

  1. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  2. 云南省黑木耳重金属背景值及质量安全风险评估%Background Levels of Heavy Metal Contents and Risk Assessment of Safety of Black Fungus Quality in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪禄祥; 和丽忠; 严红梅; 陈锦玉; 杜丽娟; 黎其万

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metals of Pb, Cd in different samples of Yunnan black fungus were determined and analyzed by atomic absorption spec-trometry. The results indicated that the contents of Pb, Cd in black fungus from different markets and places of production showed high variation coefficients (2.20 % -64.6 %), the background level of Pb was 3.00 mg/kg and Cd was 0.176 mg/kg. The degree of risk of Pb in black fungus was greater than that of Cd. The consumption quantity of black fungus affected the overall health hazard ( IFS) of Pb and Cd in a large extent. The value of IFS was nearly less than 1 when average quantity of black fungus was consumed and the value of IFS was greater than 1 when maximum quantity of black fungus was consumed. The article provided much reference date for background levels of heavy metal contents and risk assessment of the safety of black fungus quality in Yunnan Province.%采用原子吸收光谱仪对云南省黑木耳56份材料的重金属元素铅、镉进行测定与分析.结果表明,不同市场和不同产地的黑木耳重金属铅、镉含量变异大(2.20%~64.6%);云南省黑木耳的重金属铅的背景值为3.00 mg/kg,镉的背景值为0.176 mg/kg;云南省黑木耳中铅的安全指数大于镉,铅的风险大于镉的风险.黑木耳的消费量在很大程度上影响着重金属铅、镉对消费者的整体危害程度(—)(IFS),食用黑木耳为平均消费量时,(—)IFS几乎均小于1;食用黑木耳为最大消费量时,IFS均大于1.本研究为探讨云南省黑木耳重金属背景值及质量安全风险评估提供了有益的参考数据.

  3. Alflutop clinical efficacy assessment in osteoarthritis (two-years study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chodyrev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess alflutop clinical efficacy and safety during long-term course treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods. 51 pts with definite knee osteoarthritis of I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification were included in an open controlled study. 20 pts received 6 intra-articular injections of alflutop 2 ml with subsequent intramuscular treatment during 3 months. Such courses were repeated 6 months apart for 2 years. 31 pts of control group received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID only. Pain on visual analog scale, Leken functional score, changes of NSAID treatment and radiological picture were used for assessment of efficacy. Clinical examination was performed before and after every treatment course and 3 months after the last course. Results. Every alflutop treatment course provided significant stepwise decrease of pain with improvement of mobility, reduction of NSAID requirement and absence of osteoarthritis radiological progression. Doctor and pts clinical efficacy and safety assessment coincided. Conclusion. Alflutop is an effective drug for knee osteoarthritis treatment. It has anti-inflammatory and probably chondroprotective activity with good safety.

  4. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  5. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliuto, Carmelo; De Gregori, Manuela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Compagnone, Christian; Visai, Livia; Petrini, Paola; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Muscoli, Carolina; Viganò, Jacopo; Calabrese, Francesco; Dominioni, Tommaso; Allegri, Massimo; Cobianchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. PMID:24855386

  6. The FIND-CKD study-a randomized controlled trial of intravenous iron versus oral iron in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients : background and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdougall, Iain C.; Bock, Andreas; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Cushway, Timothy; Roger, Simon D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rigorous data are sparse concerning the optimal route of administration and dosing strategy for iron therapy with or without concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy for the management of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney dis

  7. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Introduction, Background and Conclusions (Chapters 1-5, 18, 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    schizotypal, somatoform. psychotic thinking, and psychotic depression scores; neýative: histrionic and narcissistic scores). Most of these variables...background current dioxin category had significantly higher mean schizoid and schizotypal scores and a significanldy lower mean histrionic score. I

  8. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  9. Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Selective Attention in Children from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at…

  10. Social Mobility or Social Reproduction? A Case Study of the Attainment Patterns of Students According to Their Social Background and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew; Collins, Gemma; Butt, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores levels of achievement amongst boys who attended a selective school in Birmingham, UK through consideration of their attainment, social background and ethnicity. It seeks to answer three main questions. Firstly, to what extent does academic attainment vary between students from different socio-economic groups and ethnic…

  11. Daily living pain assessment in children with autism: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Michelon, C; Rattaz, C; Zabalia, M; Baghdadli, A

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc.). Behaviours more specific to the symptomology and disturbances of ASD are also displayed. A four-factor solution (negative emotional reaction, idiosyncratic expression, hyper-vigilance reaction, pain expression) emerges from an exploratory factor analysis that explains 54.4% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients show good psychometric qualities in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity and discriminant validity. This study provides new data about pain expression in daily life situations and shows that the French version of NCCPC adjusted to ASD children is relevant to assess pain in daily life situations.

  12. Ecosystemic needs assessment for children with developmental coordination disorder in elementary school: multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Tétreault, Sylvie; Joly, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the needs of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) from an ecosystemic viewpoint as part of a theory-driven program evaluation process. A multiple case study needs assessment was conducted. Participants included ten children with DCD, their parents (n = 12), teachers (n = 9), and service providers (n = 6). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, validated questionnaires, and a review of the children's records. The results support the relevance of using an ecosystemic model to assess the needs of children with DCD in their life and social contexts. More specifically, the results highlight the need to provide additional services at school, such as occupational therapy and special education, as well as information and training regarding DCD for parents and teachers. The results also point to the relevant variables to consider in an intervention program based on theory-driven evaluations. This study shows how employing an ecosystemic frame of reference provides a better understanding of the needs of children with DCD. Future research should document the ecosystemic profiles and evolution of the needs of children with DCD with a larger sample from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds using a longitudinal study design.

  13. Assessment and study of changes psychosomatic state of the vegetative nervous system of patients with rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova A.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aims. The study aimed an identifying of signs of the vegetative nervous system and detailed study of the psychological characteristics of patients with rosacea. Materials and methods. The study included 60 patients with different clinical forms of rosacea at the age from 26 to 56 years and a control group of 60 relatively healthy persons. The assessment of emotional status is carried out with the survey, Test of accentuations of temperament, Diagnostic Questionnaire Quality of Life Index (DILQ, The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, reduced multifactorial questionnaire for the study of personality. Vegetative nervous system was investigated using vegetative Kerdo index, Wayne and Solovyova tables and a special questionnaire for signs of vegetative disorders. Conclusions. Syndrome revealed the presence of vegetative-vascular dysfunction in patients with rosacea with a predominance of parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. Severity of psychoemotional disorders had no direct relationship to the severity of rosacea. But patients with advanced disease had a tighter self-control on the background of increased excitability and stronger internal emotional stress. Those patients were compared with a group of patients with earlier stage disease, which may provoke functional impairments and in case of long existence-the formation of psychosomatic disorders. This comprehensive assessment of vegetative and emotional status is included in the algorithm for evaluation of patients with rosacea and will successfully complement traditional therapy.

  14. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  15. Study on Spectral Fatigue Assessment of Trimaran Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Huilong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents fatigue strength assessment of the trimaran platform by the spectral approach. Spectral fatigue calculations are based on complex stress transfer functions established through direct wave load analysis combined with stress response analysis. In this study, ANSYS software with 3 dimensional linear sea-keeping code AQWA is used to compute frequency response functions of the vessel at zero forward speed. Finite element analysis of global trimaran structure is performed in ANSYS software utilizing hydrodynamic wave loads. Hot spot stress approach is used to compute stress transfer functions of the selected critical details. A MATLAB program, based on direct calculation procedure of spectral fatigue is developed to calculate total fatigue damage using wave scatter data of North Atlantic. Damage incurred during individual heading direction is also calculated and presented by means of polar diagrams to study its contribution towards cumulative fatigue damage.

  16. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a crosssectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students

  17. Medico-legal reasoning in disability assessment: A focus group and validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rus M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions on disability pensions are based, among others, on medical reports. The way these medical assessments are performed is largely unclear. The aim of the study was to determine which grounds are used by social insurance physicians (SIPs in these assessments and to determine if the identification of these grounds can help improve the quality of assessments in social insurance practice. The article describes a focus group study and a questionnaire study with SIPs in four different countries. Method Using focus group discussions of SIPs discussing the same case in Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia (N = 29 we determined the arguments and underlying grounds as used by the SIP's. We used a questionnaire study among other SIPs (N = 60 in the same countries to establish a first validation of these grounds. Results Grounds in the focus groups were comparable between the countries studied. The grounds were also recognized by SIPs who had not participated in the focus groups. SIPs agreed most on grounds with regard to the claimant's health condition, and about the claimant's duty to explore rehabilitation and work resumption, but less on accepting permanent incapacity when all options for treatment were exhausted. Conclusion Grounds that SIPs use refer to a limited group of key elements of disability evaluation. SIPs interpret disability in social insurance according to the handicapped role and strive at making their evaluation fair trials. ICF is relevant with regard to the health condition and to the process of evaluation. Identification of grounds is a valuable instrument for controlling the quality of disability evaluation. The grounds also appear to be internationally comparable which may enhance scientific study in this area.

  18. REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings (RESTORE: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology—Participatory Learning and Action—to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. Methods This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders—migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory’s four constructs—coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co

  19. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  20. Assessment of learning, memory and attention in developmental neurotoxicity regulatory studies: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Susan L; Vorhees, Charles V

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, that alter neurobehavior following developmental exposure and guidelines for the conduct of studies to detect such effects by statute in the United States and Europe. Guidelines for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) studies issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under prevailing law and European Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recommendations to member countries provide that such studies include a series of neurobehavioral and neuropathological assessments. Among these are assessment of cognitive function, specifically learning and memory. After reviewing 69 DNT studies submitted to the EPA, tests of learning and memory were noted to have detected the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAELs) less frequently than behavioral tests of locomotor activity and acoustic/auditory startle, but slightly more than for the developmental Functional Observational Battery (devFOB; which is less extensive than the full FOB), but the reasons for the lower LOAEL detection rate for learning and memory assessment could not be determined. A major concern identified in the review, however, was the adequacy of the methods employed in these studies rather than on the importance of learning and memory to the proper assessment of brain function. Accordingly, a symposium was conducted to consider how the guidelines for tests of learning and memory might be improved. Four laboratories with established histories investigating the effects of chemical exposures during development on learning, memory, and attention, were invited to review the topic and offer recommendations, both theoretical and practical, on approaches to improve the assessment of these vital CNS functions. Reviewers were asked to recommend methods that are grounded in functional importance to CNS integrity, well-validated, reliable, and amenable to the context of regulatory studies as well as to basic

  1. OBJECTIVE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT METHODS IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheba K.U

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the primary and most reliable technique for detection of breast cancer. Mammograms are examined for the presence of malignant masses and indirect signs of malignancy such as micro calcifications, architectural distortion and bilateral asymmetry. However, Mammograms are X-ray images taken with low radiation dosage which results in low contrast, noisy images. Also, malignancies in dense breast are difficult to detect due to opaque uniform background in mammograms. Hence, techniques for improving visual screening of mammograms are essential. Image enhancement techniques are used to improve the visual quality of the images. This paper presents the comparative study of different preprocessing techniques used for enhancement of mammograms in mini-MIAS data base. Performance of the image enhancement techniques is evaluated using objective image quality assessment techniques. They include simple statistical error metrics like PSNR and human visual system (HVS feature based metrics such as SSIM, NCC, UIQI, and Discrete Entropy

  2. An inter-rater reliability study for the rorschach performance assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, Donald J; Blume-Marcovici, Amy C; Miller, Heidi L; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Based on available research findings, the Rorschach performance assessment system (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ) was recently developed in an attempt to ground the administration, coding, and interpretation of the Rorschach in its evidence base, improve its normative foundation, integrate international findings, reduce examiner variability, and increase utility. This study sought to establish inter-rater reliability for the coding decisions in this new system. We randomly selected 50 Rorschach records from ongoing research projects using R-Optimized administration. The records were administered by 16 examiners and came from a diverse sample in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, educational background, and patient status. Results demonstrated a mean intraclass correlation of .88 and median of .92. Overall, the findings indicate good to excellent inter-rater reliability for the great majority of codes and are consistent with previous findings of strong inter-rater reliability for alternative Rorschach systems and scores.

  3. A study to assess burnout among nurses of maternity department in Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marami Baishya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout in healthcare workers, especially among nurses, can have an impact on overall healthcare delivery system. For health in general and maternal health in particular, wellbeing of healthcare workers, including nurses, is of paramount importance. Material and methods: This study aimed to assess burnout among nurses working in the maternity department. One hundred nurses of a tertiary care centre, selected by non-purposive convenient sampling, were examined by a standardised questionnaire. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics. Results: Burnout in depersonalisation was moderate while that in emotional exhaustion and personal achievement were of low-levels. Conclusion: Understanding the nature of the problem of burnout can guide in better management.

  4. Studies of the Machine Induced Background, simulations for the design of the Beam Condition Monitor and implementation of the Inclusive $\\phi$ Trigger at the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lieng, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments of the LHC at CERN, built to perform precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays. In order to protect the sensitive elements of the experiment from adverse beam conditions the Beam Condition Monitor has been created. Such conditions increase the particle flux arriving from the LHC, known as Machine Induced Background. These particles interfere with the experiment, for example through the physics trigger. In this thesis software development and simulations for the design and validation of the Beam Condition Monitor is shown, ranging from LHCb-specific algorithm implementation to beam dump threshold determination. Furthermore, software development in order to attain a complete simulation chain of machine induced background is shown. The results of these simulations are compared to early data collected at LHCb. Lastly, the development and implementation of the Inclusive $\\phi$ trigger line for the High Level Trigger is presented. This line aims to reconstruct ...

  5. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dashper Stuart; Gussy Mark; Calache Hanny; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Gibson Jane; Waters Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a ...

  6. Promoting a healthy diet in antenatal care: Qualitative studies of barriers to nutrition communication among women of different ethnic backgrounds in the Oslo Area

    OpenAIRE

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and weight status of the mother influences not only her own health and foetal growth, but also the offspring’s future risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Given the rise in the proportion of pregnant women globally with overweight and diet-related chronic diseases, efforts to promote a healthy diet and weight management in pregnancy are urgently needed. Pregnant women may be motivated to eat healthily and be more receptive for nutrition-related information. Howev...

  7. assessing contributions of jgofs; previewing Studies in Ocean Ecology, Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Bowles, Margaret C.

    Despite impediments to travel imposed by global political and health concerns, 332 scientists and students from 32 countries gathered in Washington, D.C. in early May to celebrate the conclusion of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and to assess both its accomplishments and the future course of research in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry.Launched in 1987 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), JGOFS became the first core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) 2 years later as its first field studies were getting underway. Global in scope and multinational and interdisciplinary from its inception, JGOFS adopted two major goals: to understand the processes controlling the cycling of carbon and other biogenic elements in the ocean and their exchange with the atmosphere and the sea floor, and to advance our capacity to predict the response of ocean systems to anthropogenic perturbations.

  8. "Assessment of different bioequivalent metrics in Rifampin bioequivalence study "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouini MR

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of secondary metrics has become special interest in bioequivalency studies. The applicability of partial area method, truncated AUC and Cmax/AUC has been argued by many authors. This study aims to evaluate the possible superiority of these metrics to primary metrics (i.e. AUCinf, Cmax and Tmax. The suitability of truncated AUC for assessment of absorption extent as well as Cmax/AUC and partial AUC for the evaluation of absorption rate in bioequivalency determination was investigated following administration of same product as test and reference to 7 healthy volunteers. Among the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained, Cmax/AUCinf was a better indicator or absorption rate and the AUCinf was more sensitive than truncated AUC in evaluation of absorption extent.

  9. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  10. "It comes down to just how human someone can be": A qualitative study with young people from refugee backgrounds about their experiences of Australian mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valibhoy, Madeleine C; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2017-02-01

    While much literature documents the mental health needs of young people from refugee backgrounds, and the barriers they face in accessing mental health services, researchers have yet to document the perspectives of service users from this population about their contacts with clinicians and services. We therefore individually interviewed 16 young people (aged 18-25 years) who were refugees about their experiences of seeing mental health professionals. Participants were born in 9 different countries and had lived in Australia for an average of 5.2 years. They placed most emphasis on in-session factors, and particularly on interpersonal considerations. Among the main themes identified via thematic analysis were the practitioner's sensitivity to the young person's cultural background and to the stressors affecting him or her, including traumatic refugee experiences, and the therapeutic relationship-especially the qualities of trust, understanding, respect, and a caring connection. The participants had diverse reactions to treatment strategies. They emphasised the role of their preconceptions around mental health services, and called for systematic mental health awareness-raising for young people from refugee backgrounds. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed with a focus on findings that may guide efforts to improve service acceptability, accessibility, and effectiveness. In particular, there is a need for practitioners to attend to their clients' experiences of sessions, to adopt an attuned, contextualised, systemic approach, and especially to take a nuanced approach to cultural sensitivity.

  11. Particle propagation in cosmological backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum propagation of particles in cosmological backgrounds, by considering a doublet of massive scalar fields propagating in an expanding universe, possibly filled with radiation. We focus on the dissipative effects related to the expansion rate. At first order, we recover the expected result that the decay rate is determined by the local temperature. Beyond linear order, the decay rate has an additional contribution governed by the expansion parameter. This latter contribution is present even for stable particles in the vacuum. Finally, we analyze the long time behaviour of the propagator and briefly discuss applications to the trans-Planckian question.

  12. PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS: protocol for a matched pair cluster trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS is a national clinical quality improvement initiative designed to improve the assessment and management of perineal trauma. Perineal trauma affects around 85% of women who have a vaginal birth in the UK each year and millions more world-wide. Continuous suturing techniques compared with traditional interrupted methods are more effective in reducing pain and postnatal morbidity, however they are not widely used by clinicians despite recommendations of evidence based national clinical guidelines. Perineal suturing skills and postnatal management of trauma remain highly variable within and between maternity units in the UK as well as worldwide. Implementation of a standardised training package to support effective perineal management practices could reduce perineal pain and other related postnatal morbidity for a substantial number of women. Methods/Design PEARLS is a matched pair cluster trial, which is being conducted in maternity units across the UK. Units within a matched pair will be randomised to implement the study intervention either early or late in the study period. The intervention will include the cascading of a multi-professional training package to enhance midwifery and obstetric skills in the assessment, repair and postnatal management of perineal trauma. Women who have had an episiotomy or second degree perineal tear will be eligible for recruitment. Prior to developing the intervention and deciding on study outcomes, a Delphi survey and a consensus conference were held to identify what women, who previously suffered perineal trauma during childbirth, considered to be important outcomes for them. Findings from this preliminary work (which will be reported elsewhere and other outcomes including women's experiences of perineal pain and pain on activity, breastfeeding uptake and duration and psychological well-being as assessed using the Edinburgh

  13. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradies Yin C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID study completed a validated instrument assessing interpersonal racism and a separate item on discrimination-related stress. Self-assessed health status was measured using the SF-12. Stress, optimism, lack of control, social connections, cultural identity and reactions/responses to interpersonal racism were considered as mediators and moderators of the relationship between racism/discrimination and self-assessed health status. Results After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, interpersonal racism was significantly associated with the SF-12 mental (but not the physical health component. Stress, lack of control and feeling powerless as a reaction to racism emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between racism and general mental health. Similar findings emerged for discrimination-related stress. Conclusions Racism/discrimination is significantly associated with poor general mental health among this indigenous population. The mediating factors between racism and mental health identified in this study suggest new approaches to ameliorating the detrimental effects of racism on health. In particular, the importance of reducing racism-related stress, enhancing general levels of mastery, and minimising negative social connections in order to ameliorate the negative consequences of racism.

  14. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  15. Strategic risk assessment: A case study of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, T. [CSIRO, Mordialloc, Victoria (Australia). Div. of Atmospheric Research

    1996-12-31

    The philosophical basis for the on-going international and Australian action on climate change is the precautionary principle. The version of this relevant to Australia is that agreed to by the Australian States and by the Commonwealth of Australia as expressed in the Inter-Governmental Agreement on the Environment (IGAE). This study addresses the following questions: 1. What form of assessment of the risk-weighted consequences of climate change has been undertaken, as required under the precautionary principle? This paper claims that the IPCC process constitutes the risk-weighted assessment that is needed to justify the use of the precautionary principle. 2. Reducing the risk due to climate change requires actions on the basis of some combination of environmental integrity, equity, and economic efficiency as measured by cost-benefit analysis. Is the concept of intergenerational equity consistent with cost-benefit analysis? This paper claims that the problems of valuation over future time-scales, which may range from decades to centuries, make it difficult to apply cost-benefit analysis to the problem.

  16. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliuto C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carmelo Gigliuto,1 Manuela De Gregori,2 Valentina Malafoglia,3 William Raffaeli,3 Christian Compagnone,4 Livia Visai,5,6 Paola Petrini,7 Maria Antonietta Avanzini,9 Carolina Muscoli,8 Jacopo Viganò,11 Francesco Calabrese,11 Tommaso Dominioni,11 Massimo Allegri,2,10 Lorenzo Cobianchi111Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Pavia, Pavia, 2Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 3ISAL Foundation, Institute for Research on Pain, Torre Pedrera, Rimini, 4Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Parma, University of Parma, Parma, 5Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Pavia, 6Department of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomy and Disability, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Veruno, 7Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica 'G Natta' and Unità di Ricerca Consorzio INSTM, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 8Department of Health Science, University Magna Grecia of Catanzaro and Centro del Farmaco, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Roma, 9Laboratory of Transplant Immunology/Cell Factory, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", Pavia, 10Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 11University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Clinical, Paediatric and Diagnostic Science, General Surgery 1, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus

  17. Assessment in child protection : A comparative study Norway - England

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonsen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the phenomenon of assessment in child protection by comparing two different assessment practices, the Norwegian and the English. Additional aims have been to generate knowledge by interpreting findings from the perspectives of professionals and parents who have experienced assessment, and to contribute to identify central aspects of the use of professional judgement in child protection assessments. The guiding research ques...

  18. Assessments of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making: a systematic review of studies using the OPTION instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couet, N.; Desroches, S.; Robitaille, H.; Vaillancourt, H.; Leblanc, A.; Turcotte, S.; Elwyn, G.; Legare, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies t

  19. Determinants and impact of suboptimal asthma control in Europe: The INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Braido (Fulvio); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); D. Guastalla (Daniele); E. Ingrassia (Eleonora); G. Nicolini (Gabriele); D. Price (David); N. Roche (Nicolas); J.B. Soriano (Joan B.); H. Worth (Heinrich)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: According to the Global Initiative of Asthma, the aim of asthma treatment is to gain and maintain control. In the INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study, we evaluated the level of asthma control and quality of life (QoL), a

  20. A Study on the Social Background of the Members of Parliament in South Korea%韩国国会议员社会背景管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继永

    2012-01-01

    韩国国会议员的社会背景是其政策决策的社会源流。韩国的内外政策从宏观看存在着左右分野,而从微观看则明显带有个人的影响。韩国社会是一个人情社会,社会标签与网络决定了个人的情绪与政策喜好。在对议员社会背景的分析中,性别与血型、血缘与地域、教育经历、职业生涯、特别经历等因素决定了议员本人的活动与价值观,从而决定了政策的基本走向。这些基本的社会背景因素对国会议员的议政活动和议会政治发展产生了种种影响。%In R.OK, the social background of the members of parliament i,,; the social origins of its pohcy decisions. Although South Korea's domestic and foreign policy from the macro exists differences between the Left and Right distinction, from the micro policies it is obviously influenced by personal impacts. Because Korean society is a classic human society; the social labeling and the network determine the individual's emotional and policy pret~:rences. In the analysis of Members' social backgrounds, such as gender and blood type, blood and geography, education, experience, career, special experiences and other factors determine the activities and values of the Members, these factors finally determine the basic direction of policy- making. These social background factors multidimensional influenced the legislative activities of Members and parliamentary political development in R.OK.

  1. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  2. Preliminary Study on Paperless Examination under the Background of Informatization Era%信息化时代背景下无纸化考试初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国庆; 李斌

    2013-01-01

    南京市特检院考试中心使用无纸化考试已有一年,文章从无纸化考试的背景、必要性、优势以及存在的问题及解决对策等问题进行了探讨.%Examination center in Nanjing Special Equipment Vessel Supervisory Institute has used paperless examination for one year. This article discussed the background, necessity and advantage of paperless examination as well as the problems and countermeasures.

  3. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  4. An assessment of the solar irradiance record for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopp Greg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total solar irradiance, the spatially and spectrally integrated radiant output from the Sun at a mean Sun-Earth distance of 1 astronomical unit, provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system. Variations in this energy, particularly over long time scales, contribute to changes in Earth’s climate and have been linked to historical glaciation and inter-glacial periods as well as having a small effect on more recent global warming. Accurate measurements of solar irradiances require measurements above the Earth’s atmosphere. The total solar irradiance spaceborne record began in 1978 and has been uninterrupted since, with over a dozen instruments contributing to the present solar climate data record. I assess the required and achieved accuracies of this record with a focus on its value for climate studies.

  5. Integrated assessment in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.; Agnew, M. D.; Hemming, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.

    2012-04-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the Mediterranean environment, combined with a wide diversity of economic, social and cultural identities, make this region particularly amenable to integrated research on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptive response. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CIRCE project, eleven case-study locations were selected to reflect three generic environments (urban, rural and coastal), to quantify current and future climate change and to assess the potential consequences to human communities and ecosystems at the regional to local scale. The case studies (Athens, Beirut, Alexandria, Tuscany, Apulia, Tel Hadya, Judean Foothills, Gulf of Valencia, Gulf of Oran, Gulf of Gabes, West Nile Delta) were chosen to reflect the east-west and north-south contrasts across the Mediterranean, using common selection criteria. A rigorous common framework, referred to as the CIRCE Case studies Integrating Framework was developed to facilitate a structured and systematic basis for identifying and selecting indicators. Within this framework, climate dynamics is viewed as a key driver of changes in social and biogeophysical systems and is modulated by the inherent dynamics of these systems. The top-down, indicator-based approach was complemented by a bottom-up approach involving local and regional stakeholders. A participatory level of involvement was aimed for, with stakeholder dialogue on an informal basis throughout the project, culminating in a series of more formal regional stakeholder workshops. Identification and construction of physical and socio-economic indicators was the most challenging and time-consuming aspect of the case-study work. A detailed set of selection criteria was defined and the process of reviewing and refining indicators was iterative. Nonetheless, a number of data and methodological challenges were encountered. Despite these issues, indicator linkages diagrams provided a useful preparatory stage for structuring the integrated

  6. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  7. Light on curved backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Batic, D; Nowakowski, M

    2014-01-01

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other, a general relativistic Dark Matter metric, a dirty Black Hole and a Worm Hole metric, the last two inspired by non-commutative geometry. The lensing in a Holographic Screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behaviour in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regime.

  8. Light on curved backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, D.; Nelson, S.; Nowakowski, M.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other items, a general relativistic dark matter metric, a dirty black hole, and a worm hole metric, the last two inspired by noncommutative geometry. The lensing in a holographic screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behavior in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases, we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regimes.

  9. Evaluation of QUADAS, a tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Patrick NM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, named QUADAS, has recently been developed. Although QUADAS has been used in several systematic reviews, it has not been formally validated. The objective was to evaluate the validity and usefulness of QUADAS. Methods Three reviewers independently rated the quality of 30 studies using QUADAS. We assessed the proportion of agreements between each reviewer and the final consensus rating. This was done for all QUADAS items combined and for each individual item. Twenty reviewers who had used QUADAS in their reviews completed a short structured questionnaire on their experience of QUADAS. Results Over all items, the agreements between each reviewer and the final consensus rating were 91%, 90% and 85%. The results for individual QUADAS items varied between 50% and 100% with a median value of 90%. Items related to uninterpretable test results and withdrawals led to the most disagreements. The feedback on the content of the tool was generally positive with only small numbers of reviewers reporting problems with coverage, ease of use, clarity of instructions and validity. Conclusion Major modifications to the content of QUADAS itself are not necessary. The evaluation highlighted particular difficulties in scoring the items on uninterpretable results and withdrawals. Revised guidelines for scoring these items are proposed. It is essential that reviewers tailor guidelines for scoring items to their review, and ensure that all reviewers are clear on how to score studies. Reviewers should consider whether all QUADAS items are relevant to their review, and whether additional quality items should be assessed as part of their review.

  10. Assessment of nutritional status among adolescents: a hospital based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence, a period of transition between childhood and adulthood, occupies a crucial position in the life of human beings. The primary causes of under nutrition in India are its large population, socio-economic differences and inadequate access to health facilities. Nutritional assessments among adolescents are important as they are the future parents and constitute a potentially susceptible group. Studies on the assessment of nutritional status of adolescents are less in number and a National database has not yet been developed. Methods: The present hospital based cross sectional study was conducted in year 2013 among 344 rural adolescents of 10-19 years age (166 boys and 178 girls attending the outpatient department at rural health training centre (RHTC Dhaura Tanda, district Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, belonging to the Muslim and Hindu caste communities. The nutritional status was assessed in terms of under nutrition (weight-for-age below 3rd percentile, stunting (Height-for-age below 3rd percentile and thinness (BMI-for-age below 5th percentile. Diseases were accepted as such as diagnosed by pediatrician, skin specialist and medical officer. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 32.8%, 19.5% and 26.7% respectively. The maximum prevalence of malnutrition was observed among early adolescents (28%-47% and the most common morbidities were URTI (38.6%, diarrhea (16.8%, carbuncle / furuncle (16% and scabies (9.30%. Conclusion: The study concluded that the most common morbidities among adolescents were related to nutrition and personal hygiene. Regular health programmes should focus to educate and promote health among adolescent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 620-624

  11. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...

  12. A subjective study to evaluate video quality assessment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadrinathan, Kalpana; Soundararajan, Rajiv; Bovik, Alan C.; Cormack, Lawrence K.

    2010-02-01

    Automatic methods to evaluate the perceptual quality of a digital video sequence have widespread applications wherever the end-user is a human. Several objective video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms exist, whose performance is typically evaluated using the results of a subjective study performed by the video quality experts group (VQEG) in 2000. There is a great need for a free, publicly available subjective study of video quality that embodies state-of-the-art in video processing technology and that is effective in challenging and benchmarking objective VQA algorithms. In this paper, we present a study and a resulting database, known as the LIVE Video Quality Database, where 150 distorted video sequences obtained from 10 different source video content were subjectively evaluated by 38 human observers. Our study includes videos that have been compressed by MPEG-2 and H.264, as well as videos obtained by simulated transmission of H.264 compressed streams through error prone IP and wireless networks. The subjective evaluation was performed using a single stimulus paradigm with hidden reference removal, where the observers were asked to provide their opinion of video quality on a continuous scale. We also present the performance of several freely available objective, full reference (FR) VQA algorithms on the LIVE Video Quality Database. The recent MOtion-based Video Integrity Evaluation (MOVIE) index emerges as the leading objective VQA algorithm in our study, while the performance of the Video Quality Metric (VQM) and the Multi-Scale Structural SIMilarity (MS-SSIM) index is noteworthy. The LIVE Video Quality Database is freely available for download1 and we hope that our study provides researchers with a valuable tool to benchmark and improve the performance of objective VQA algorithms.

  13. LCTL Teachers’ Assessment Knowledge and Practices: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Montee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Language assessment allows teachers to gather information about student learning and adjust their instructional practices accordingly. When integrated with instruction, assessment can support student-centered teaching by helping instructors understand what students have learned or are able to do and what they still need to know (Shepard, 2000. However, language teachers often receive limited pre-service training in assessment and testing (Malone, 2008. To date, limited empirical work has been conducted about LCTL teacher education and language assessment literacy. This paper explores a teacher training program designed to address the assessment needs of LCTL educators. This program provides a model of evidence-based assessment training that may be useful to other teacher educators. Furthermore, data generated from the project contributes to research about LCTL teacher education and assessment literacy and suggests future directions for work in this area.

  14. Assessing fluvial flood risk in urban environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, floods are among the most impactful calamities regarding costs. Looking at the natural hazards damage data collected in the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT, it is observable a significant increase over the past four decades of both frequency of floods and associated costs. Similarly, dramatic trends are also found by analyzing other types of flood losses, such as the number of people affected by floods, homeless, injured or killed.To deal with the aforementioned rise of flood risk, more and more efforts are being made to promote integrated flood risk management, for example, the Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. The main goals of this research are the estimation of flood damages using the KULTURisk methodology and the comparing of the projected costs with the observed one. The case study is the 2002 flood in Eilenburg. According to KULTURisk methodology, two major classes of data are considered to evaluate flood risk damage: hydraulic data as regards Hazard and economic information to assess Exposure and Vulnerability This study shows the possibility to extend the lesson learned with the Eilenburg case study in other similar contexts.

  15. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Irma M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In

  16. Policy assessment and policy development for physical activity promotion: results of an exploratory intervention study in 15 European Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rütten Alfred

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of the study was to test a theoretical model to assess and develop policies for the promotion of physical activity among older people as part of an international intervention study. Methods 248 semi-standardized interviews with policy-makers were conducted in 15 European nations. The questionnaire assessed policy-makers' perceptions of organizational goals, resources, obligations, as well as organizational, political and public opportunities in the area of physical activity promotion among older people. In order to develop policies, workshops with policy-makers were conducted. Workshop outputs and outcomes were assessed for four nations nine months after the workshops. Results Policy assessment: Results of the policy assessment were diverse across nations and policy sectors. For example, organizational goals regarding actions for physical activity promotion were perceived as being most favorably by the sports sector. Organizational obligations for the development of such policies were perceived as being most favorably by the health sector. Policy development: The workshops resulted in different outputs: a national intersectoral action plan (United Kingdom, a national alliance (Sweden, an integrated policy (the Netherlands, and a continuing dialogue (Germany. Conclusions Theory-driven policy assessment and policy-maker workshops might be an important means of scientific engagement in policy development for health promotion.

  17. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Malagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI - Ennever J 1961 who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO ® - (DENTSPLY with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147 a . Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception.

  18. Assessing conifer ray parenchyma for ecological studies: pitfalls and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg evon Arx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features.Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris. The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR, a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm2 showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95, and 20 samples of 4 mm2 showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18% and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92% and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial

  19. Study of creep cavity growth for power plant lifetime assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Rui; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    This report aims to the sub project lifetime assessment by creep (livslaengdspredikteringar vid kryp), which is involved in the project package strength in high temperature power plant, KME 708. The physical creep damage includes mainly cavities and their development. Wu and Sandstroem have observed that cavity size increases linearly with increasing creep strain in a 12%Cr steel. Sandstroem has showed that, based on the relations between the nucleation and growth of creep cavities with creep strain, the physical creep damage can be modelled as a function of creep strain. In the present paper the growth of creep cavity radius R in relation to time t and strain {epsilon} in low alloy and 12%Cr steels as well as a Type 347 steel has been studied. The results exhibit that the power law cavity radius with creep time (R-t) and with creep strain (R-{epsilon}) relations are found for these materials at various testing conditions. The power law R-t and R-{epsilon} relations are in most cases dependent and independent on testing conditions, respectively. The empirical power law R-{epsilon} relations give a description of cavity evolution, which can be used for lifetime assessment. Experimental data have also been compared to the estimations by the classical models for cavity growth, including the power law growth due to Hancock, the diffusion growth due to Speight and Harris, the constrained diffusion growths due to Dyson and due to Rice and the enhanced diffusion growth due to Beere. It appears that the constraint diffusion growth models give a reasonable estimation of R-{epsilon} relation in many cases. The diffusion growth model is only applicable for limited cases where the power over t in R-t relation takes about 1/3. The power law and the enhanced diffusion models are found in most cases to overestimate the cavity growth.

  20. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  1. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  2. Covariate balance assessment, model selection and bias in propensity score matching: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Belitser, S.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Hoes, Arno W.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In building propensity score (PS) model, inclusion of interaction/square terms in addition to the main terms and the use of balance measures has been suggested. However, the impact of assessing balance of several sets of covariates and their interactions/squares on bias/precision is not

  3. 胶东金矿成矿构造背景探讨%Study on Tectonic Background of Gold Mineralization in Jiaodong Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪奎; 禚传源; 耿科; 梁太涛

    2012-01-01

    在编制1∶50万山东省大地构造相图基础上,通过对大地构造相研究显示:胶东微地块是经多期增生和碰撞而形成的,其漫长的板块构造演化明显具有阶段性。侏罗纪是该区板块构造演化史上的一个重要转换期,构造演化由原来的南、北分异转变为东、西分异,胶东地区NE向新生构造起了主要作用。胶东地区中生代有2次重要的碰撞造山事件,印支造山作用主要表现为扬子板块向华北板块俯冲,形成苏鲁高压-超高压变质带及同造山花岗岩及后造山高碱正长岩;燕山造山作用的大陆动力学环境起源于中亚-特提斯构造域向滨太平洋构造域转化和太平洋板块的俯冲,在胶东地区表现为3次造山和3次伸展。晚侏罗世造山早期玲珑片麻状花岗岩组合是区域构造挤压导致地壳增厚引起地壳重熔的产物,代表了大陆弧花岗岩特征;早白垩世造山中期郭家岭花岗闪长岩-花岗岩组合代表了造山期大陆弧花岗岩的特点;造山晚期伟德山闪长岩-花岗闪长岩-花岗岩组合表现为大陆弧花岗岩,后造山A型崂山晶洞过碱性碱长花岗岩-正长花岗岩组合为大陆造陆隆升花岗岩与后造山花岗岩,代表燕山构造的结束。胶东地区构造-岩浆事件和金矿成矿作用受控于特提斯、古亚洲洋和太平洋三大构造域的相互作用,金矿形成的动力学背景是中生代构造体制转折和岩石圈减薄,起因与太平洋板块向华北板块的俯冲机制有关。%On the basis of making "Shandong tectonic phase diagram with the scale of 1 ∶ 500000",through study on tectonic phase,it is showed that Jiaodong block was formed by multi-phase proliferation and collision.Its long plate tectonic evolution had obvious stages.Jurassic plate tectonic evolution in the history in this area was an important transition period.Tectonic evolution changed from north and south differentiation to east and west

  4. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  5. 云背景下的数据库安全性研究%The Study of Database Security under Cloud Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凃云杰

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of cloud technology, the security system needs corresponding development, causing us to enter the cloud world better and faster. The security problems of cloud computing deserves the concerns of all the countries. The thesis discusses the technology and methods that can realize the database security based on the background of cloud.%随着云技术飞速发展,云安全体系也要相应地发展,使得我们可以更快更好地进入云的世界。云计算带来的数据安全问题值得世界各国关注。本文从云背景下的数据库安全性出发,探讨了实现数据库安全的技术与方法。

  6. 复杂背景的快速人脸检测研究%Study on Fast Face Detection in Complex Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨稀; 杨帆; 李岩; 唐红梅

    2011-01-01

    Human faces need to be detected from the input images with complex background. To deal with the problem of massive adherent resemble skin color and color zones in color images, the algorithms including light and illumination compensation, skin color segmentation are both discussed. According to these, an improved method inosculating both the projection method and GVL is proposed, which can greatly reduce the number of skin color zones. Finally, a method of locating face by hair on a human head is proposed based on skin color segmentation and connected area segmentation. The experiment demonstrates that this method is competent to detect human faces of various expressions rotated within 45 angles in complex background quickly. This method can apply widely.%对于彩色图片,为了能够快速地在复杂背景中检测出多姿态人脸,解决肤色分割后大量粘连的类肤色和肤色区域等问题,在阐述光照和色彩补偿、肤色分割等算法的同时,提出了利用投影法和GLV法相结合的改进算法及利用人的头发来定位人脸的方法.实验结果表明,该方法能够在很短的时间内较为准确地检测出复杂环境中旋转不超过45°的多姿态人脸.因此,具有很好的应用前景.

  7. Nurses' perceptions of personal attributes required when working with people with a learning disability and an offending background: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A; Bailey, J

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Learning disability nursing in the area of people with a learning disability and an offending background has developed considerably over recent years, particularly since the publication of the Bradley (). There has been limited work into the competencies nurses require to work in this area, and even less about the personal attributes of learning disability nurses. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Learning disability nursing's specific contribution to the care of this population lies in their knowledge of the interaction between the learning disability, an individual's, sometimes abusive, personal history and an understanding of the subsequent offending behaviour. The knowledge base of nurses working with people with learning disabilities and an offending background needs to reflect the changing service user group. This is particularly in relation to substance misuse, borderline personality disorder, and mental health and the way such factors inter-relate with the learning disability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further research is required into the relationship among decision making, risk taking or reluctance to do this, and the personal attributes required by nurses to work in secure learning disability care. Learning disability secure services are likely to continue to undergo change as circumstances alter and the offending population demonstrate greater complexity; nursing competencies and personal attributes need similarly to adapt to such changes. Mental health nursing has a great deal to contribute to effective working with this population, specifically with regard to developing strong relationships when concerns around borderline personality disorder or substance misuse are particularly in evidence.

  8. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance.

  9. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  10. Sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality: The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; van Rooij, Frank J A; Kocevska, Desana; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, which are prone to reporting error. We examined the association between sedentary time assessed by actigraphy and mortality among 1839 participants, aged 45-98years, from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Participants wore an actigraph around the wrist for seven days. Sedentary time was evaluated continuously, per 1h/day increase, and categorically in three groups (sedentary behavior and mortality over and beyond other activity measures (including physical activity (PA) and activities of daily living (ADL)) in a final model. During 11years of follow-up (median: 7.5years, interquartile range: 6.6-8.3years), 212 participants (11.5%) died. In the multivariable model, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per 1 more hour/day sedentary time was 1.09 (1.00, 1.18). The HR (95% CI) after adjustment for PA and ADL was 1.04 (0.96, 1.13). Participants sedentary for ≥11h/day had a higher mortality risk (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.84) than those sedentary sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality. Further investigation is needed to examine whether this association is distinct from the effect of other measures of activity.

  11. Comparative study for environmental assessment by program characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Suk Soon; Chung, Kyung Tae; Cho, Hong Yun; Chae, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Chan Ho; Choi, Joon Kyu; Kim, Kang Joo; Chung, Won Moo; Jin, Jae Yool [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The level of environmental assessment in Korea was diagnosed by examining the situation of its model for the entire environmental assessment implemented. Also, it proposed an improvement scheme for its problems to be able to advance. It is expected to be utilized as developing optimum model for Korea and establishing a systematic and concrete guideline for environmental assessment modeling. 244 refs., 65 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Translating tools for better parent-based assessment: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abdoola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current speech language assessment and intervention measures are not always culturally valid, as they are not standardised specifically for the various cultural groups within the South African population; and thus need to be adapted.Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the appropriateness and utility of translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ instrument (60 month age group from English to the Hindi language and culture, which is represented in South Africa. Methods: Biographical questionnaires, ASQ and evaluation thereof were translated in Hindi and completed by parents of 15 typically developing South African preschool children of Indian origin, at the 60 month age level (including children between 57 and 66 months. Results: Participants reported that the questions were well phrased, and that illustrations and tips helped them to complete the questionnaires quickly and accurately. They preferred to be questioned in Hindi, which helped them understand the questions and made it easier to provide the necessary information to answer the questions. Conclusions: In conclusion, it is evident that this translation of the ASQ (60 month age group from English to Hindi served as an appropriate tool for use with the middle socioeconomic class Hindi (Indian language and culture. The results of this study would assist to determine the functionality of culturally and linguistically valid assessment tools for different populations, and would contribute to the development of Early Childhood Intervention as a whole in South Africa. It would also contribute to the development of multilingual informal school-readiness screening questionnaires appropriate for the South African context. This is particularly relevant, as school-readiness assessments take place at 60 months to ensure that the child is ready to learn by school age (6–7 years.[PDF to follow

  13. No short-cut in assessing trial quality: a case study

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    Hirji Karim F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the quality of included trials is a central part of a systematic review. Many check-list type of instruments for doing this exist. Using a trial of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media, Burke et al., BMJ, 1991, as the case study, this paper illustrates some limitations of the check-list approach to trial quality assessment. Results The general verdict from the check list type evaluations in nine relevant systematic reviews was that Burke et al. (1991 is a good quality trial. All relevant meta-analyses extensively used its data to formulate therapeutic evidence. My comprehensive evaluation, on the other hand, brought to the surface a series of serious problems in the design, conduct, analysis and report of this trial that were missed by the earlier evaluations. Conclusion A check-list or instrument based approach, if used as a short-cut, may at times rate deeply flawed trials as good quality trials. Check lists are crucial but they need to be augmented with an in-depth review, and where possible, a scrutiny of the protocol, trial records, and original data. The extent and severity of the problems I uncovered for this particular trial warrant an independent audit before it is included in a systematic review.

  14. A study to assess the domestic violence in mental illness & normal married women

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    Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today. According to UNiTE to End Violence against Women (2009 by UN Women, In the United States, one-third of women murdered each year are killed by intimate partners. In South Africa, a woman is killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner. The Objective: To assess the magnitude and causes of domestic violence with mental illness & normal women. Material & Methods: The sample of study comprised of 50 women with mental illness and 50 normal women. Mental illness patients diagnosed according to with Axis one psychiatric Disorder DSM IV-TR, who were selected from the Psychiatry OPD and ward of the S.S. Hospital, BHU and normal women were be selected from the accompany with patients of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital. The patients were assessed on the structured questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Results – The domestic violence present in married women with mental illness was 72% and normal women were 36%. Perceived causes of domestic violence in married women with mental illness were more compared to those with normal women. The health care personnel should be given an opportunity to update their knowledge regarding domestic violence and there is need education for domestic violence and cessation, so that they can help the women to protect/prevent domestic violence.

  15. Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study

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    Wang Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health services in China have developed over the last few decades. In order to use limited health resources more effectively, we conducted a community health needs assessment. This aimed to provide an understanding of the community's health problems and the range of potential factors affecting risk behaviours for the priority health problems. Methods We used the precede-proceed model for the needs assessment. Triangulation of data, methods and researchers were employed in data collection. Results Main findings include: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs were identified as the priority health problems in the study communities; risk factors associated with CVDs included smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly amongst male residents with low education level; factors negatively affecting behaviours were classified into predisposing factors (limited knowledge, beliefs and lack of perceived needs, enabling factors (limited access to health promotion activities, unawareness of health promotion, lack of work-site and school health promotion, absence of health promotion related policy and reinforcing factors (culture. Policies and organization were not perfect; there were limited staff skilled in providing health promotion in the community. Conclusion CVDs were identified by the communities as priority health problems. Future health programs should focus on smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours. Behaviour change strategies should take predisposing factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors into consideration. Policies, organization and human resource need strengthening.

  16. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

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    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  17. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of

  18. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

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    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  19. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a two-center study

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    Chalavi Sima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-center magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. However, brain measurements derived from MR-images are susceptible to differences in MR-sequence parameters. It is therefore necessary to determine whether there is an interaction between the sequence parameters and the effect of interest, and to minimise any such interaction by careful choice of acquisition parameters. As an exemplar of the issues involved in multi-center studies, we present data from a study in which we aimed to optimize a set of volumetric MRI-protocols to define a protocol giving data that are consistent and reproducible across two centers and over time. Methods Optimization was achieved based on data quality and quantitative measures, in our case using FreeSurfer and Voxel Based Morphometry approaches. Our approach consisted of a series of five comparisons. Firstly, a single-center dataset was collected, using a range of candidate pulse-sequences and parameters chosen on the basis of previous literature. Based on initial results, a number of minor changes were implemented to optimize the pulse-sequences, and a second single-center dataset was collected. FreeSurfer data quality measures were compared between datasets in order to determine the best performing sequence(s, which were taken forward to the next stage of testing. We subsequently acquired short-term and long-term two-center reproducibility data, and quantitative measures were again assessed to determine the protocol with the highest reproducibility across centers. Effects of a scanner software and hardware upgrade on the reproducibility of the protocols at one of the centers were also evaluated. Results Assessing the quality measures from the first two datasets allowed us to define artefact-free protocols, all with high image quality as assessed by FreeSurfer. Comparing the quantitative test and retest measures, we found high within

  20. Variability in vulnerability assessment of older people by individual general practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

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    Yvonne M Drewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, GPs appeared to have an internalized concept of "vulnerability." This study investigates the variability between general practitioners (GPs in their vulnerability-assessment of older persons. METHODS: Seventy-seven GPs categorized their 75-plus patients (n = 11392 into non-vulnerable, possibly vulnerable, and vulnerable patients. GPs personal and practice characteristics were collected. From a sample of 2828 patients the following domains were recorded: sociodemographic, functional [instrumental activities in daily living (IADL, basic activities in daily living (BADL], somatic (number of diseases, polypharmacy, psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS-15 and social (De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale; DJG. Variability in GPs' assessment of vulnerability was tested with mixed effects logistic regression. P-values for variability (pvar were calculated by the log-likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Participating GPs assessed the vulnerability of 10,361 patients. The median percentage of vulnerable patients was 32.0% (IQR 19.5 to 40.1%. From the somatic and psychological domains, GPs uniformly took into account the patient characteristics 'total number of diseases' (OR 1.7, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1, 'polypharmacy' (OR 2.3, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1 and 'GDS-15' (OR 1.6, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1. GPs vary in the way they assessed their patients' vulnerability in the functional domain (IADL: median OR 2.8, 90% range 1.6, p var < 0.001, BADL: median OR 2.4, 90% range 2.9, p var < 0.001 and the social domain (DJG: median OR 1.2, 90% range  = 1.2, p var < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: GPs seem to share a medical concept of vulnerability, since they take somatic and psychological characteristics uniformly into account in the vulnerability-assessment of older persons. In the functional and social domains, however, variability was found. Vulnerability assessment by GPs might be a