WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment study background

  1. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achrekar, Meera S; Murthy, Vedang; Kanan, Sadhana; Shetty, Rani; Nair, Mini; Khattry, Navin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form. Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM). Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1) and 16 th week (A2), post introduction of SIM. Nurse's opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Majority of nurses were females (65%) in the age group 21-30 years (80%). There was a significant association ( P = 0.019) between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement ( P = 0.043) seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20) and A2 (mean: 24.26) and also in "Situation" domain ( P = 0.045) as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient's allergies and relevant past history (7%) while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76%) of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53%) to document while recommendation was the difficult (53%) part. SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  2. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera S Achrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form. Methods: Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM. Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1 and 16 th week (A2, post introduction of SIM. Nurse′s opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Results : Majority of nurses were females (65% in the age group 21-30 years (80%. There was a significant association (P = 0.019 between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement (P = 0.043 seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20 and A2 (mean: 24.26 and also in "Situation" domain (P = 0.045 as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient′s allergies and relevant past history (7% while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76% of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53% to document while recommendation was the difficult (53% part. Conclusions: SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  3. Summary of background fiscal data and analysis for the Nevada socioeconomic impact assessment study to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This study has developed models to assess the fiscal implications of a projected economic and demographic future for the State of Nevada and for its three southern countries, Clark, Lincoln and Nye. The models analyze the fiscal implications of an economic and demographic future for the State General Fund, the State Highway Fund, local government general funds, local capital requirements, the State Distributive Fund and local school districts

  4. INTRODUCTION/ BACKGROUND OF STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study was carried out in Abia State. Five out ... study area and the farmers were more of women. ... Cassava utilization, as livestock feed, is very popular in the whole world, ... In order to relieve farmers from this problem of poor yield during harvesting, the .... Also majority (54.7 percent) of the cassava farmers in the study.

  5. Background to EOHSI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granville, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs

  6. Background to EOHSI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, G. [Environmental Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs.

  7. Importance of background values in assessing the impact of heavy metals in river ecosystems: case study of Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin Grubin, Milica; Vasić, Nebojša

    2017-11-30

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how a choice of different background values may affect assessing the anthropogenic heavy metal pollution in sediments from Tisza River (Serbia). The second objective of this paper is to underline significance of using geochemical background values when establishing quality criteria for sediment. Enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were calculated using different background values. Three geochemical (average metal concentrations in continental crust, average metal concentrations in shale, and average metal concentrations in non-contaminated core sediment samples) and two statistical methods (delineation method and principal component analyses) were used for calculating background values. It can be concluded that obtained information of pollution status can be more dependent on the use of background values than the index/factor chosen. The best option to assess the potential river sediment contamination is to compare obtained concentrations of analyzed elements with concentrations of mineralogically and texturally comparable, uncontaminated core sediment samples. Geochemical background values should be taken into account when establishing quality criteria for soils, sediments, and waters. Due to complexity of the local lithology, it is recommended that environmental monitoring and assessment include selection of an appropriate background values to gain understanding of the geochemistry and potential source of pollution in a given environment.

  8. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  9. Estimation of the radiological background and dose assessment in areas with naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies—a case study in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies, representative of the several thousand recognized in the Portuguese section of the Iberian Massif and outcropping in three target areas with a total of a few thousand square metres, were subjected to a detailed study (1:1000 scale) to evaluate the radiological health-risk on the basis of a dose assessment. To reach this goal some radioactive isotopes from the uranium, thorium and potassium radioactive series were measured in 52 samples taken from different environmental compartments: soils, stream sediments, water, foodstuff (vegetables) and air; external radiation was also measured through a square grid of 10 × 10 m, with a total of 336 measurements. The results show that some radioisotopes have high activities in all the environmental compartments as well as a large variability, namely for those of the uranium decay chain, which is a common situation in the regional geological setting. Isotopic disequilibrium is also common and led to an enrichment of several isotopes in the different pathways, as is the case of 226 Ra; maximum values of 1.76 Bq L −1 (water), 986 Bq kg −1 (soils) and 18.9 Bq kg −1 (in a turnip sample) were measured. On the basis of a realistic scenario combined with the experimental data, the effective dose from exposure to ionizing radiation for two groups of the population (rural and urban) was calculated; the effective dose is variable between 8.0 and 9.5 mSv year −1 , which is 3–4 times higher than the world average. Thus, the radiological health-risk for these populations could be significant and the studied uranium anomalies must be taken into account in the assessment of the geochemical background. The estimated effective dose can also be used as typical of the background of the Beiras uranium metalogenetic province and therefore as a “benchmark” in the remediation of the old uranium mining sites. - Highlights: ► The importance of small-sized naturally occurring uranium

  10. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. Special Issue 2: Measuring Students' Family Background in Large-Scale International Education Studies. IERI Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between students' family background and achievement is often seen as an important topic in regard to equality and equity of educational provision. The results of various education studies show that the family background of students correlates with students' academic achievement at school. This paper focuses on the measurement of…

  11. Intellectual Assessment of Children from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1992-01-01

    Examines assumptions and premises of standardized tests of mental ability and reviews extant theories and research on intellectual functioning of children from culturally different backgrounds. Discusses implications of these issues and perspectives for new directions for intellectual assessment for children from culturally different backgrounds.…

  12. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN ARGENTINA: BACKGROUND AND QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism study and keeps on failing to provide data that allows for learning about the working conditions and the professional profile of the Argentinean journalists.

  13. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  14. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  15. Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy with Retinal Neurodegeneration on the Background of Diabetes Mellitus. Overview of Recent Medical Studies with an Assessment of the Impact on Healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muc, Rafał; Saracen, Agnieszka; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the biggest healthcare and financial problems worldwide. The disease is strongly associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications, causing co-existing diseases like Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Neuropathy and Diabetic Nephropathy. Annual healthcare expenditures for diabetes treatment and complications prevention cost 727 billion USD in year 2017. Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Retinal Neuropathy are closely related diseases - originating from incorrectly controlled glycemia, blood pressure and lipid levels in the course of increasing resistance of the body tissues to insulin. Irrespectively of thorough programs for Diabetes Mellitus prevention and treatment, Diabetic Retinopathy management requires targeted treatment strategies for both microvasculopathy and retinal neurodegeneration, to delay disease severity course and risk of blindness. The study and conclusions in this article are based on web-available data and officially published articles related to the diabetes mellitus and associated diseases - Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Retinal Neuropathy. The articles have been reviewed and analyzed to assess mutual relations between the discussed diseases.

  16. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  17. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  18. Assessment of country-of-origin-related and -neutral elements of mobile communication service offers: An empirical study of consumers with a Turkish migration background in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J. Gerpott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to more than three million people in Germany with a Turkish migration background country-of-origin (COO-sensitive, designs of offers directed at this customer segment have been implemented by various corporations and discussed in the management literature for quite a while. Unfortunately, to date most publications have a weak empirical foundation and refrain from simultaneously investigating preference effects of several country-of-origin-sensitive and -neutral offer characteristics among Turkish migrants living in Germany. Therefore, the present paper explores the relative impacts of three COO-sensitive offer characteristics and one COO-neutral attribute of bundled mobile communication offers on preference statements derived from a conjoint-analysis of questionnaire responses of 249 consumers in Germany with Turkish roots. The results suggest that for the offering category in question a COO-neutral feature (cell phone type/brand shapes the preferences of Turkish migrants almost to the same extent as the three remaining price- and communication-related characteristics investigated. Furthermore, we found that Turkish consumers in Germany encompass four subsegments with distinct preferences with respect to the design of mobile communication offerings. The members of these subsegments in turn differ primarily in terms of their age and gender structures as well as their level of accommodation to the German culture.

  19. The international probabilistic system assessment group. Background and results 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) devotes considerable effort to the further development of methodologies to assess the performance of radioactive waste disposal systems, and to increase confidence in their application and results. The NEA provides an international forum for the exchange of information and experience among national experts of its twenty-three Member countries and conducts joint studies of issues important for safety assessment. In 1985, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee set up the Probabilistic System Assessment Code User Group (PSAC), in order to help coordinate the development of probabilistic system assessment codes. The activities of the Group include exchange of information, code and experience, discussion of relevant technical issues, and the conduct of code comparison (PSACOIN) exercises designed to build confidence in the correct operation of these tools for safety assessment. The Group is now known simply as the Probabilistic System Assessment Group (PSAG). This report has been prepared to inform interested parties, beyond the group of specialists directly involved, about probabilistic system assessment techniques as used for performance assessment of waste disposal systems, and to give a summary of the objectives and achievements of PSAG. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD

  20. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  1. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  2. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  3. An assessment of thin cloud detection by applying bidirectional reflectance distribution function model-based background surface reflectance using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI): A case study for South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Shin, Daegeun; Choi, Sungwon; Han, Kyung-Soo; Roujean, Jean-Louis

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a new assessment of thin cloud detection with the application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance was undertaken by interpreting surface spectra characterized using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) over a land surface area. Unlike cloud detection over the ocean, the detection of cloud over land surfaces is difficult due to the complicated surface scattering characteristics, which vary among land surface types. Furthermore, in the case of thin clouds, in which the surface and cloud radiation are mixed, it is difficult to detect the clouds in both land and atmospheric fields. Therefore, to interpret background surface reflectance, especially underneath cloud, the semiempirical BRDF model was used to simulate surface reflectance by reflecting solar angle-dependent geostationary sensor geometry. For quantitative validation, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data were used to make a comparison with the proposed cloud masking result. As a result, the new cloud masking scheme resulted in a high probability of detection (POD = 0.82) compared with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (POD = 0.808) for all cloud cases. In particular, the agreement between the CALIPSO cloud product and new GOCI cloud mask was over 94% when detecting thin cloud (e.g., altostratus and cirrus) from January 2014 to June 2015. This result is relatively high in comparison with the result from the MODIS Collection 6 cloud mask product (MYD35).

  4. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  5. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  6. Study of Background Rejection Systems for the IXO Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Philippe; Limousin, O.; Tatischeff, V.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific performances of the IXO mission will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. In APC, Paris, and CEA, Saclay, we got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimising in parallel the high energy detector and the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X mission. Considering that this work may be naturally extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES a R&D project on the study of background rejection systems mainly in view the IXO project. We will detail this activity in the poster.

  7. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  8. Assessment of background particulate matter concentrations in small cities and rural locations--Prince George, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, Andreas; Jackson, Peter L; Ainslie, Bruce; Fudge, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    concentrations for small cities in sparsely populated regions like northern British Columbia. In rural areas like northern British Columbia, particulate matter (PM) monitoring stations are usually located close to emission sources and residential areas in order to assess the PM impact on human health. Thus there is a lack of accurate PM background concentration data that represent PM ambient concentrations in the absence of local emissions. The background calculation method developed in this study uses observed meteorological data as well as local source emission locations and provides annual, seasonal and precipitation-related PM background concentrations that are comparable to literature values for four out of six monitoring stations.

  9. Assessment of speech intelligibility in background noise and reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Reliable methods for assessing speech intelligibility are essential within hearing research, audiology, and related areas. Such methods can be used for obtaining a better understanding of how speech intelligibility is affected by, e.g., various environmental factors or different types of hearing...... impairment. In this thesis, two sentence-based tests for speech intelligibility in Danish were developed. The first test is the Conversational Language Understanding Evaluation (CLUE), which is based on the principles of the original American-English Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The second test...... is a modified version of CLUE where the speech material and the scoring rules have been reconsidered. An extensive validation of the modified test was conducted with both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The validation showed that the test produces reliable results for both groups of listeners...

  10. Energy: a background and guide to the assessment of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Heinz

    1986-01-01

    The question of safety and the assessment of risk to personnel has been looked at from the point of view of life underwriting in the nuclear power industry, and the oil, gas and coal industries. Following a brief history of the energy industries and techniques of energy extraction, including reactor types, the medical aspects are considered for each industry. For nuclear energy workers these are exposure to radioactive material and deafness. The accident risks are then considered. For the nuclear industry particular areas of risk are identified as walkways, road traffic accidents, human error and radiation. Accident statistics for 1981-1985 in the UK are given. Safety aspects are then considered and accidents involving increased radiation exposure are mentioned. Suggested ratings are given. For the nuclear industry there is insufficient evidence to suggest that ratings should be imposed. (UK)

  11. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ˜ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ˜ 10-3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  12. Request for Expressions of Interest for Background Studies on Three ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lindsay Empey

    The following questions have been received by the IDRC in response to our Request for Expressions of. Interest for Background Studies on Three Climate Change Hot Spots in Africa and South Asia (RFEI. #12130022). Questions#1: Any possibility that the deadline might be extended? Answer: We are not offering any ...

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COACHING USING SBAR (SITUATION, BACKGROUND, ASSESSMENT, RECOMMENDATION COMMUNICATION TOOL ON NURSING SHIFT HANDOVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitri Dyah Herawati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation method assists nurses in communicating information in nursing shift handover. Inaccurate shift handover can have a serious impact on patients due to poor communication. Optimal resource development can be done by coaching as the best guidance method from manager for directional discussion and guidance activity to learn to solve problem or do better job and build nursing leadership culture in clinical service. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of coaching method using SBAR communication tool on nursing shift handovers. Methods: This was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. Fifty-four nurses were selected using consecutive sampling, which 27 assigned in the experiment and control group. An observation checklist was developed by the researchers based on the theory of Lardner to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of coaching using SBAR on nursing shift handover. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon test were used for data analyses. Results: There was an increase in coaching ability of head nurses in the implementation of SBAR in nursing handover after 2-weeks and 4-weeks of coaching. And there was also a significant improvement of the use of SBAR on nursing shift handover in the experiment group (p <0.05 compared to the control group. Conclusion: coaching using SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation communication tool was effective on nursing shift handovers. There was a significant increase of the capability of head nurse and nursing shift handover after coaching intervention.

  14. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  15. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  16. Higgs boson events and background lep. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekspong, G.; Hultqvist, K.

    1982-06-01

    Higgs boson production at LEP using e+ e- to Z 0 to H 0 + e+ e- has been studied by Monte Carlo generation of events with realistic errors of measurement added. The results show the recoil mass (Higgs boson mass) resolution to be reasonably good for boson masses bigger than 5 Ge V. The events are found to populate a phase space region free of physical background for all boson masses below about 35 GeV. For masses above 40 GeV the Higgs boson signal merges with the physical background produced by semileptonic decays of heavy flavour quarks while diminishing in strength to low levels. The geometrical acceptance of a detector like DELPHI is about 80 per cent for Higgs boson events. (Author)

  17. Objectively assessed recess physical activity in girls and boys from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2014-02-21

    The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.

  18. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  19. Studying the muon background component in the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Dennis

    2013-03-28

    the extrapolation of the backgrounds of fast neutrons and cosmogenic βn-emitters to the other reactor neutrino experiments RENO and Daya Bay. These correlated backgrounds were measured during a period when both reactors were ''shut down'' for maintenance. As the production of these backgrounds by cosmic muons depends on muon intensity and energy which are a function of depth, a good understanding of these quantities is needed for the extrapolation. The relation between these quantities was studied and worked out in this thesis. The focus of the last theme lies on detector stability and the use of cosmic ray muons for calibration. A relative instability in detector response of 0.20%{sub rms} of the root mean square value has been found utilizing the muon rate ratio, R{sub μ}{sup IV}=R{sub μ}{sup ID}, of the IV and the ID. Monitoring the energy loss of muon, a relative instability of 0.70%{sub rms} has been found for the ID and a value of 0.22%{sub rms} for the IV. A technique to identify muons decaying inside the detector was discussed. The mean value of the resulting muon decay spectrum of the ID, 35 MeV is compatible with the expectation of 105/3 MeV from the three body decay of muons. In addition, as a regular duty, the relative timing of the IV photomultipliers was measured each week and calibration constants were extracted to correct for any difference in their relative timing.

  20. Studying the muon background component in the Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    of the backgrounds of fast neutrons and cosmogenic βn-emitters to the other reactor neutrino experiments RENO and Daya Bay. These correlated backgrounds were measured during a period when both reactors were ''shut down'' for maintenance. As the production of these backgrounds by cosmic muons depends on muon intensity and energy which are a function of depth, a good understanding of these quantities is needed for the extrapolation. The relation between these quantities was studied and worked out in this thesis. The focus of the last theme lies on detector stability and the use of cosmic ray muons for calibration. A relative instability in detector response of 0.20% rms of the root mean square value has been found utilizing the muon rate ratio, R μ IV =R μ ID , of the IV and the ID. Monitoring the energy loss of muon, a relative instability of 0.70% rms has been found for the ID and a value of 0.22% rms for the IV. A technique to identify muons decaying inside the detector was discussed. The mean value of the resulting muon decay spectrum of the ID, 35 MeV is compatible with the expectation of 105/3 MeV from the three body decay of muons. In addition, as a regular duty, the relative timing of the IV photomultipliers was measured each week and calibration constants were extracted to correct for any difference in their relative timing.

  1. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  2. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Selvan, Esai; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  3. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Tuck Jump Assessment by Health Professionals of Varied Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA, a clinical plyometric assessment, identifies 10 jumping and landing technique flaws. The study objective was to investigate TJA interrater and intrarater reliability with raters of different educational and clinical backgrounds. Methods. 40 participants were video recorded performing the TJA using published protocol and instructions. Five raters of varied educational and clinical backgrounds scored the TJA. Each score of the 10 technique flaws was summed for the total TJA score. Approximately one month later, 3 raters scored the videos again. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interrater (5 and 3 raters for first and second session, resp. and intrarater (3 raters reliability. Results. Interrater reliability with 5 raters was poor (ICC = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.33–0.62. Interrater reliability between 3 raters who completed 2 scoring sessions improved from 0.52 (95% CI 0.35–0.68 for session one to 0.69 (95% CI 0.55–0.81 for session two. Intrarater reliability was poor to moderate, ranging from 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.68 to 0.72 (95% CI 0.55–0.84. Conclusion. Published protocol and training of raters were insufficient to allow consistent TJA scoring. There may be a learned effect with the TJA since interrater reliability improved with repetition. TJA instructions and training should be modified and enhanced before clinical implementation.

  4. Problems Concerning Dose Assessments in Epidemiology of High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.X.; Yuan, Y.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study on radiation levels and dose assessments in the epidemiology of a high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA) is to respond to the needs of epidemiology in these areas, where the inhabitants are continuously exposed to low dose, low dose rate ionising radiation. A brief description is given of how the research group evaluated the feasibility of the investigation by analysing the population size and the radiation levels, how simple reliable methods were used to get the individual annual dose for every cohort member, and how the cohort members were classified into various dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. Finally, the use of dose group classification for cancer mortality studies is described. (author)

  5. Ecological risk assessment: influence of texture on background concentration of microelements in soils of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    In Russia quality standards of contaminated substances values in environment consist of ecological and sanitary rate-setting. The sanitary risk assessment base on potential risk that contaminants pose to protect human beings. The main purpose of the ecological risk assessment is to protect ecosystem. To determine negative influence on living organisms in the sanitary risk assessment in Russia we use MPC. This value of contaminants show how substances affected on different part of environment, biological activity and soil processes. The ecological risk assessment based on comparison compounds concentration with background concentration for definite territories. Taking into account high interval of microelements value in soils, we suggest using statistic method for determination of concentration levels of chemical elements concentration in soils of Russia. This method is based on determination middle levels of elements content in natural condition. The top limit of middle chemical elements concentration in soils is value, which exceed middle regional background level in three times standard deviation. The top limit of natural concentration excess we can explain as anthropogenic impact. At first we study changing in the middle content value of microelements in soils of geographic regions in European part of Russia on the basis of cartographical analysis. Cartographical analysis showed that the soil of mountainous and mountain surrounding regions is enriched with microelements. On the plain territory of European part of Russia for most of microelements was noticed general direction of increasing their concentration in soils from north to south, also in the same direction soil clay content rise for majority of soils. For all other territories a clear connection has been noticed between the distribution of sand sediment. By our own investigation and data from scientific literature data base was created. This data base consist of following soil properties: texture

  6. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Aaron Owen

    2011-01-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  7. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  8. Foreground-background segmentation and attention: a change blindness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Veronica; Turatto, Massimo; Umiltà, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    One of the most debated questions in visual attention research is what factors affect the deployment of attention in the visual scene? Segmentation processes are influential factors, providing candidate objects for further attentional selection, and the relevant literature has concentrated on how figure-ground segmentation mechanisms influence visual attention. However, another crucial process, namely foreground-background segmentation, seems to have been neglected. By using a change blindness paradigm, we explored whether attention is preferentially allocated to the foreground elements or to the background ones. The results indicated that unless attention was voluntarily deployed to the background, large changes in the color of its elements remained unnoticed. In contrast, minor changes in the foreground elements were promptly reported. Differences in change blindness between the two regions of the display indicate that attention is, by default, biased toward the foreground elements. This also supports the phenomenal observations made by Gestaltists, who demonstrated the greater salience of the foreground than the background.

  9. Microwave and theoretical studies for Cosmic Background Explorer satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.T.

    1983-07-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, its instruments, and its scientific mission are discussed. The COBE radiometer is considered, and measurement of galactic radio emission with masers is reviewed. Extragalactic radiation and zodiacal dust are mentioned briefly

  10. Comparative Study of the Influence of the Home Background on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    between parental involvement and academic achievement of children. It was found ... was a three- page questionnaire titled “Students' Home. Background on .... higher educational expectations, enrolment in gifted and talented programs, and.

  11. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  12. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  13. Impact of Sociocultural Background and Assessment Data Upon School Psychologists' Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, E. Scott; Cummings, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychologists (N=56) participated in an adapted version of Algozzine and Ysseldyke's (1981) diagnostic simulation to investigate the effects of sociocultural background (rural vs. suburban) and assessment data (normal vs. learning disabled) on educational decisions. Findings suggest school psychologists utilize multiple sources of information but…

  14. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  15. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  16. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  17. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M.; Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h -1 . Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg -1 , of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  18. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  19. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi

    2009-10-01

    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  20. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  1. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W.; Barker, D.; Beck, R.; Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J.; Cushman, P.; Dent, J.B.; De Rijck, S.; Dutta, B.; Flanagan, W.; Fritts, M.; Gao, Y.; Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C.; Iyer, V.

    2017-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  2. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Barker, D. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Beck, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cushman, P. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dent, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); De Rijck, S. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dutta, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Flanagan, W. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fritts, M. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Physics & Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit 48201 (United States); Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Iyer, V. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni - 752050 (India); and others

    2017-05-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  3. The structured communication tool SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation) improves communication in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M; Harrison, M C

    2014-12-01

    Effective communication, co-operation and teamwork have been identified as key determinants of patient safety. SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation) is a communication tool recommended by the World Health Organization and the UK National Health Service. SBAR is a structured method for communicating critical information that requires immediate attention and action, contributing to effective escalation of management and increased patient safety. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing use of SBAR in South Africa (SA). To determine the effectiveness of adopting the SBAR communication tool in an acute clinical setting in SA. In the first phase of this study, neonatal nurses and doctors at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, were gathered in a focus group and given a questionnaire asking about communication in the neonatal department. Neonatal nurses and doctors were then trained to use SBAR. A telephone audit demonstrated an increase in SBAR use by registrars from 29% to 70% when calling consultants for help. After training, the majority of staff agreed that SBAR had helped with communication, confidence, and quality of patient care. There was qualitative evidence that SBAR led to greater promptness in care of acutely ill patients. Adopting SBAR was associated with perceived improvement in communication between professionals and in the quality and safety of patient care. It is suggested that this simple tool be introduced to many other hospitals in SA.

  4. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  5. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  6. Assessment of genetically significant doses to the Sofia population from natural gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M.

    1977-01-01

    Genetically significant dose to the population of Sofia city was assessed within a program covering larger urban communities in the country. Measurements were made of gamma background exposure rates in the gonadal region. Gonad doses were estimated using a screening factor of 0.73. Based on statistical data for total number of inhabitants and number of people of reproductive age, and on the mean annual gonad doses derived, calculations were made of genetically significant dose to the Sofia population. Base-line data were thus provided for an assessment of extra radiation dose resulting from occupational radiation exposure. (author)

  7. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  8. Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

    2007-12-01

    It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Assessment of natural background radiation in one of the highest regions of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Mario; Chávez, Estefanía; Echeverría, Magdy; Córdova, Rafael; Recalde, Celso

    2018-05-01

    Natural background radiation was measured in the province of Chimborazo (Ecuador) with the following reference coordinates 1°40'00''S 78°39'00''W, where the furthest point to the center of the planet is located. Natural background radiation measurements were performed at 130 randomly selected sites using a Geiger Müller GCA-07W portable detector; these measurements were run at 6 m away from buildings or walls and 1 m above the ground. The global average natural background radiation established by UNSCEAR is 2.4 mSv y-1. In the study area measurements ranged from 0.57 mSv y-1 to 3.09 mSv y-1 with a mean value of 1.57 mSv y-1, the maximum value was recorded in the north of the study area at 5073 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.), and the minimum value was recorded in the southwestern area at 297 m.a.s.l. An isodose map was plotted to represent the equivalent dose rate due to natural background radiation. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the data of the high and low regions of the study area showed a significant difference (p < α), in addition a linear correlation coefficient of 0.92 was obtained, supporting the hypothesis that in high altitude zones extraterrestrial radiation contributes significantly to natural background radiation.

  10. The impact of situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR) on safety attitudes in the obstetrics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wan-Hua; Peng, Fu-Shiang; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies evaluating the situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR) have been shown to increase effective nurse-physician communication and collaboration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the SBAR technique on safety attitudes in the obstetrics department. This study implemented the SBAR Collaborative Communication Education course and was conducted in a medical center from February 2012 to March 2015, which included an educational session on fetal heart rate monitoring, a case-based discussion, and a video demonstration on traditional and SBAR communication. The nurses in the obstetrics department were requested to report their clinical findings and recommendations using a novel SBAR list when abnormal fetal heart beat tracings occurred. All obstetric nurses were requested to complete the Chinese-version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire before and after the SBAR educational course. The primary outcome was to evaluate the effect of the SBAR technique on the safety attitudes of the obstetrics department. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the effect of the SBAR technique on the 5-minute Apgar score for neonates. Most values, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, and working conditions, significantly improved at both postintervention surveys compared with the preintervention survey. There were no significant differences in the number of the neonates with less than seven 5-minute Apgar scores between the pre- and postintervention periods. The SBAR technique, which uses a novel structured handover list, is a feasible tool for nurse-obstetrician communication, and it may improve most dimensions of safety attitudes in the obstetrics department. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Holistic approach for automated background EEG assessment in asphyxiated full-term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Vladimir; Cherian, Perumpillichira J.; Koolen, Ninah; Naulaers, Gunnar; Swarte, Renate M.; Govaert, Paul; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To develop an automated algorithm to quantify background EEG abnormalities in full-term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Approach. The algorithm classifies 1 h of continuous neonatal EEG (cEEG) into a mild, moderate or severe background abnormality grade. These classes are well established in the literature and a clinical neurophysiologist labeled 272 1 h cEEG epochs selected from 34 neonates. The algorithm is based on adaptive EEG segmentation and mapping of the segments into the so-called segments’ feature space. Three features are suggested and further processing is obtained using a discretized three-dimensional distribution of the segments’ features represented as a 3-way data tensor. Further classification has been achieved using recently developed tensor decomposition/classification methods that reduce the size of the model and extract a significant and discriminative set of features. Main results. Effective parameterization of cEEG data has been achieved resulting in high classification accuracy (89%) to grade background EEG abnormalities. Significance. For the first time, the algorithm for the background EEG assessment has been validated on an extensive dataset which contained major artifacts and epileptic seizures. The demonstrated high robustness, while processing real-case EEGs, suggests that the algorithm can be used as an assistive tool to monitor the severity of hypoxic insults in newborns.

  12. Assessment of background gamma radiation levels using airborne gamma ray spectrometer data over uranium deposits, Cuddapah Basin, India - A comparative study of dose rates estimated by AGRS and PGRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, D; Ramesh Babu, V; Patra, I; Tripathi, Shailesh; Ramayya, M S; Chaturvedi, A K

    2017-02-01

    The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas. Further, portable gamma ray spectrometer (PGRS) was used to acquire data over two nearby locations one from Lambapur deposit, and the other from known anomalous zone and subsequently average gamma dose rates were estimated. Representative in-situ rock samples were also collected from these two areas and subjected to radio-elemental concentration analysis by gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) in the laboratory and then dose rates were estimated. Analyses of these three sets of results complement one another, thereby providing a comprehensive picture of the radiation environment over these deposits. The average absorbed area wise dose rate level is estimated to be 130 ± 47 nGy h -1 in Lambapur-Peddagattu, 186 ± 77 nGy h -1 in Chitrial and 63 ± 22 nGy h -1 in Koppunuru. The obtained average dose levels are found to be higher than the world average value of 54 nGy h -1 . The gamma absorbed dose rates in nGy h -1 were converted to annual effective dose rates in mSv y -1 as proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual average effective dose rates for the entire surveyed area is 0.12 mSv y -1 , which is much lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y -1 by International Commission on Radiation protection (ICRP). It may be ascertained here that the present study establishes a reference data set (baseline) in these areas

  13. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  14. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project

  15. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  16. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France)

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  17. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-01-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector

  18. Comparative Study of the Influence of the Home Background on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was finding out how the various home environments in which students live affect the development of their ability to continue with school academic success. It sought to establish if there was any relationship between the home front and the students' academic achievement. Within these ...

  19. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  20. Background studies: earthquake effects on underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Results of the first stage of a programme of work leading to the development of a seismicity sub-model for the TIME2 simulation code and its successor(s) are presented. Potential future seismic activity levels in Britain are presented, within the context of historic seismicity (the last 800 years), tectonic activity and the effects of glacial advance and retreat. Methodological approaches to the estimation of seismic hazard due to faulting and ground shaking are presented. Seismic effects on rock and soil properties are also reviewed. Finally, recommendations for further studies are made. (author)

  1. Exhaustive Study of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies in Quintessential Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Riazuelo, A; Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome; Riazuelo, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Recent high precision measurements of the CMB anisotropies performed by the BOOMERanG and MAXIMA-1 experiments provide an unmatched set of data allowing to probe different cosmological models. Among these scenarios, motivated by the recent measurements of the luminosity distance versus redshift relation for type Ia supernovae, is the quintessence hypothesis. It consists in assuming that the acceleration of the Universe is due to a scalar field whose final evolution is insensitive to the initial conditions. Within this framework we investigate the cosmological perturbations for two well-motivated potentials: the Ratra-Peebles and the SUGRA tracking potentials. We show that the solutions of the perturbed equations possess an attractor and that, as a consequence, the insensitivity to the initial conditions is preserved at the perturbed level. Then, we study the predictions of these two models for structure formation and CMB anisotropies and investigate the general features of the multipole moments in the presenc...

  2. Evaluating the effect of learning style and student background on self-assessment accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible connections between student information and both self-assessment and course performance. The results show that students can place their knowledge along the taxonomy-based scale quite well and the scale seems to fit engineering students' learning style. Advanced students assess themselves more accurately than novices. The results also show that reflective students were better in programming than active. The scale used in this study gives a more objective picture of students' knowledge than general scales and with modifications it can be used in other classes than programming.

  3. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  4. Infants - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic growth and development experienced in infancy is the most rapid of any age. The progression in feeding skills marks important developmental milestones that support rapid changes in food habits and nutrient intakes.

  5. Lactation - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants are well established and rates of breastfeeding have been increasing across all socioeconomic and ethnic groups in the US during the last decade.

  6. Toddlers - Background & Validation Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This stage of development is characterized by the slowing of the growth velocity and a rapid increase in fine and gross motor skills supporting increases in independence, exploration of the environment, and language skills.

  7. Double Chooz sensitivity and backgrounds studies to search for θ13 leptonic mixing angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mention, G.

    2005-06-01

    The Double Chooz experiment will study the oscillations of electron antineutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear power station to measure θ 13 mixing angle. The current knowledge on this parameter, provided ny the Chooz experiment, can be improved by reducing statistical and systematic errors. A large data sample will be collected to improve the former one. Two identical detectors will be built to cancel most of experimental systematic uncertainties involved in production and detection processes. Special care will be dedicated to backgrounds generated by natural radioactivity and cosmic ray interactions. In the hereby thesis, we describe our simulation studies to compute θ 13 sensitivity and assess the discovery potential of the experiment. We concentrated particularly on quantifying the detector related systematic errors that would limit the θ 13 sensitivity. Background related systematic errors such as the accidental events produced by the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes, correlated events from neutrons as well as a hypothetical background (mimicking the oscillation pattern) were taken into account. After 3 years, Double Chooz will be able to disentangle an oscillation signal for sin 2 (2*θ 13 ) > 0.05 (at 3*σ) or, if no oscillations were observed, to put a limit of sin 2 (2θ 13 ) < 0.03 at 90% C.L. (author)

  8. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  9. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  10. Prior academic background and student performance in assessment in a graduate entry programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P L; Gordon, J J; Clark, R M; Langendyk, V

    2004-11-01

    This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1-3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the 'USydMP'). Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be

  11. Continuous infusion thermodilution for assessment of coronary flow: Theoretical background and in vitro validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't M.; Geven, M.C.F.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Horst, van der A.; Aarnoudse, W.H.; Pijls, N.H.J.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2009-01-01

    Direct volumetric assessment of coronary flow during cardiac catheterization has not been available so far. In the current study continuous infusion thermodilution, a method based on continuous infusion of saline into a selective coronary artery is evaluated. Theoretically, volumetric flow can be

  12. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of background gamma radiation levels around Tummalapalle uranium mining and processing facility, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Dhumale, M.R.; Molla, Samim; Rao, K.B.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sahu, S.K.

    2018-01-01

    Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in the world. The dose received by the population in a region comprises of (i) external gamma radiation dose due to cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides; (ii) inhalation dose due to radon, thoron and their progeny, and (iii) ingestion dose due to the intake of radionuclides through the consumption of food, milk, water, etc. In this study, background gamma radiation level around Tummalapalle uranium mining and processing site was estimated by using radiation survey meter and deploying environmental TLDs. The generated data can be served as baseline for this area for future comparison for prolonged operation of the plant, for the upcoming adjacent projects and during decommissioning phase of the mine, mill and tailings pond

  14. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices

  15. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  16. Assessment of impact of urbanisation on background radiation exposure and human health risk estimation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Hassan, W M S W; Lee, M H; Izham, A; Said, M N; Wagiran, H; Heryanshah, A

    2017-07-01

    Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e.g. granitic aggregate, cement and red clay brick. This study was conducted to assess the urbanisation impacts on background gamma radiation in Kuala Lumpur. The study found that the mean value of measured dose rate was 251±6nGyh -1 (156-392nGyh -1 ) and 4 times higher than the world average value. High radioactivity levels of 238 U (95±12Bqkg -1 ), 232 Th (191±23Bqkg -1 ,) and 40 K (727±130Bqkg -1 ) in soil were identified as the major source of high radiation exposure. Based on statistical ANOVA, t-test, and analyses of cumulative probability distribution, this study has statistically verified the dose enhancements in the background radiation. The effective dose was estimated to be 0.31±0.01mSvy -1 per man. The recommended ICRP reference level (1-20mSvy -1 ) is applicable to the involved existing exposure situation in this study. The estimated effective dose in this study is lower than the ICRP reference level and too low to cause deterministic radiation effects. Nevertheless based on estimations of lifetime radiation exposure risks, this study found that there was small probability for individual in Kuala Lumpur being diagnosed with cancer and dying of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  18. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  19. Ethnic Background and Television Viewing Time Among 4-Year-Old Preschool Children : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Children’s television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. Method: The

  20. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 1: Introduction and background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.; Suter, G.W. II; Sain, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy initiated a remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system Superfund Site in 1989. This site, located in eastern Tennessee near Oak Ridge, consists of 70 river kilometers and 40 km 2 of surface area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, perform an ecological and human health risk assessment, and evaluate possible remedial alternatives. This introductory article summarizes the environmental setting, the contamination history, and the study approach and provides some general results of the site characterization. Subsequent papers in this series describe the ecological risks to fish, piscivorous and insectivorous wildlife, and benthic invertebrates

  1. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  2. Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Flechard, Chris; Ammann, Christof; Conen, Franz; Emmenegger, Lukas; Zeyer, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of, or between, fertilization events in agricultural systems, soils are generally assumed to emit N 2 O at a small rate, often described as the 'background' flux. In contrast, net uptake of N 2 O by soil has been observed in many field studies, but has not gained much attention. Observations of net uptake of N 2 O form a large fraction (about half) of all individual flux measurements in a long-term time series at our temperate fertilized grassland site. Individual uptake fluxes from chamber measurements are often not statistically significant but mean values integrated over longer time periods from days to weeks do show a clear uptake. An analysis of semi-continuous chamber flux data in conjunction with continuous measurements of the N 2 O concentration in the soil profile and eddy covariance measurements suggests that gross production and gross consumption of N 2 O are of the same order, and as consequence only a minor fraction of N 2 O molecules produced in the soil reaches the atmosphere

  3. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-08-01

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  5. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for assessing the safety of maternal vaccine trials in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A V Orenstein

    Full Text Available Maternal immunization has gained traction as a strategy to diminish maternal and young infant mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are crucial to interpret results of clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa.We developed a mathematical model that calculates a clinical trial's expected number of neonatal and maternal deaths at an interim safety assessment based on the person-time observed during different risk windows. This model was compared to crude multiplication of the maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate by the number of live births. Systematic reviews of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, low birth weight (LBW, prematurity, and major congenital malformations (MCM in Sub-Saharan African countries were also performed.Accounting for the person-time observed during different risk periods yields lower, more conservative estimates of expected maternal and neonatal deaths, particularly at an interim safety evaluation soon after a large number of deliveries. Median incidence of SAMM in 16 reports was 40.7 (IQR: 10.6-73.3 per 1,000 total births, and the most common causes were hemorrhage (34%, dystocia (22%, and severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (22%. Proportions of liveborn infants who were LBW (median 13.3%, IQR: 9.9-16.4 or premature (median 15.4%, IQR: 10.6-19.1 were similar across geographic region, study design, and institutional setting. The median incidence of MCM per 1,000 live births was 14.4 (IQR: 5.5-17.6, with the musculoskeletal system comprising 30%.Some clinical trials assessing whether maternal immunization can improve pregnancy and young infant outcomes in the developing world have made ethics-based decisions not to use a pure placebo control. Consequently, reliable background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are necessary to distinguish between vaccine benefits and safety concerns. Local studies that quantify population-based background rates of

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND STUDY FACILITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALOKAN, FUNMILOLA BOSEDE; OSAKINLE, EUNICE OLUFUNMILAYO; ONIJINGIN, EMMANUEL OLUBU

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background. It also investigated the influence of having study facilities at home on academic performance. The population for this study comprised all public secondary school students in Ondo St...

  7. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  8. Pilot Study on the Genetic Background of an Active Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Test in Finnish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Raivisto, Teija; Kettunen, Kaisa; Kovanen, Leena; Haukka, Jari; Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Elg, Jessica; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-05-01

    In periodontitis, genetics and smoking play important roles in host immune system response. The aim of this study is to determine whether the genetic background of initial periodontitis and caries could be detected using an active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 chairside test in Finnish adolescents. Forty-seven participants gave approval for analysis of both oral fluid collection and DNA. An aMMP-8 chairside test was performed on participants (adolescents aged 15 to 17 years), and full-mouth clinical parameters of oral health were assessed including periodontal, oral mucosal, and caries status in Eastern Finland from 2014 to 2015. DNA was extracted from oral fluid samples and genotyped for 71 polymorphisms in 29 candidate genes for periodontitis. Results were analyzed using a logistic regression model. P values were corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate (<0.05). aMMP-8 chairside test positivity and three or more ≥4 mm pockets were associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs2228570, P = 0.002, q = 0.04) and MMP3 (rs520540, rs639752, rs679620, P = 0.0009, 0.003, 0.003, q = 0.04, respectively). None of the other single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied showed a significant association with the aMMP-8 chairside test and at least one caries lesion positivity. Genetic polymorphisms of MMP3 and VDR are linked to initial periodontitis in Finnish adolescents, and the aMMP-8 chairside test can eventually detect initial periodontitis in young patients with predisposing genetic background.

  9. Assessment of the background count to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction with a nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Mayumi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki; Itoh, Haruki; Taniguchi, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: 1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, 2) Cut-off level at 75%, and 3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author)

  10. Assessment of the background count to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction with a nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Mayumi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Itoh, Haruki; Taniguchi, Koichi

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope is a newly developed device for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) with a pair of cadmium telluride detector for both left ventricular count (first channel) and background count (second channel). Although it is useful for evaluating the cardiac function during exercise, the methodology of the calculation for distinguishing the net ventricular blood count from the background count has not been established yet. In order to establish a reasonable method to calculate EF, we measured EF using a nuclear stethoscope and conventional gated blood pool scintigraphy in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent two supine ergometer exercise tests consisting of the 3 stages for the nuclear stethoscope and blood pool scintigraphy. The EF was determined with the following three methods for the nuclear stethoscope: (1) Cut-off level was fixed at 70% of first channel, (2) Cut-off level at 75%, and (3) Cut-off level was determined by the background count obtained from second channel. There was a poor relationship between the EFs obtained from gated blood scintigraphy and the EFs from the nuclear stethoscope calculated by any of these methods. Regarding the EF calculated using the background count, however, the delta values of EF between rest and any of the 3 stages during exercise correlated closely to those EF from blood scintigraphy. When we apply the EF-at-rest value obtained from blood pool scintigraphy to analysis with the nuclear stethoscope, the EFs of 3 stages indicated good correlation (Stage I r=0.91, Stage II r=0.82, Stage III r=0.69). These results suggest that detecting the background count is useful in order to measure the left ventricular EF with the nuclear stethoscope. Since the absolute value of EF does not necessarily correlate to that from blood pool scintigraphy in this mehod, it is recommended to evaluate only the changing values of the EF. (author).

  11. The language and social background questionnaire: Assessing degree of bilingualism in a diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John A E; Mak, Lorinda; Keyvani Chahi, Aram; Bialystok, Ellen

    2018-02-01

    Research examining the cognitive consequences of bilingualism has expanded rapidly in recent years and has revealed effects on aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, these effects are difficult to find in studies investigating young adults. One problem is that there is no standard definition of bilingualism or means of evaluating degree of bilingualism in individual participants, making it difficult to directly compare the results of different studies. Here, we describe an instrument developed to assess degree of bilingualism for young adults who live in diverse communities in which English is the official language. We demonstrate the reliability and validity of the instrument in analyses based on 408 participants. The relevant factors for describing degree of bilingualism are: (1) the extent of non-English language proficiency and use at home, and (2) non-English language use socially. We then use the bilingualism scores obtained from the instrument to demonstrate their association with: (1) performance on executive function tasks, and (2) previous classifications of participants into categories of monolinguals and bilinguals.

  12. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  13. Salt Repository Project site study plan for background environmental radioactivity: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Background Environmental Radioactivity describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management, and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 43 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Background and technical studies for GENIUS as a dark matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudis, L.; Heusser, G.; Majorovits, B.; Ramachers, Y.; Strecker, H.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1999-01-01

    The GENIUS project is a proposal for a new dark matter detector, with an increased sensitivity of three orders of magnitude relative to existing direct dark matter detection experiments. We performed a technical study and calculated the main background sources for the relevant energy region in a detailed detector geometry. The achieved overall background level and detector performance confirm the outstanding potential of GENIUS as a powerful tool for the direct search of WIMPs in our Galaxy

  15. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were rec...

  16. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Arunachalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5, and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales.

  17. QCD jet simulation with CMS at LHC and background studies to H to gamma gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V; Shevchenko, S; Wisniewski, N

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated and reconstructed one million of QCD jet events. This study was done with CMS full detector simulation, based on GEANT3 package, and object-oriented CMS C++ reconstruction program. The understanding of QCD jet background is important for the Higgs search in two-photon decay mode. The comparison with other types of backgrounds was also done. It was shown that the isolation tools were important ones to isolate the signal process from the huge background one. Using the isolation criteria based on the information from PbWO /sub 4/ electromagnetic calorimeter and the tracker we were able to reduce the QCD jet background to 15% of the total one. (9 refs).

  18. College Students' Goals, Plans, and Background Characteristics; A Synthesis of Three Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    This study was designed to provide longitudinal data bearing on the change and/or stability of college-bound students' educational and vocational goals, as well as their background characteristics. Data from three studies were contrasted and compared. Included in these studies were: (1) a 2-year followup of 4,009 junior college students; (2) a…

  19. [Algorithm for taking into account the average annual background of air pollution in the assessment of health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, M V

    2013-01-01

    State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University" of the Ministry of Health care and Social Development, Moscow, Russian Federation. The assessment of health risks from air pollution with emissions from industrial facilities, without the average annual background of air pollution does not meet sanitary legislation. However Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring issues official certificates for a limited number of areas covered by the observations of the full program on the stationary points. Questions of accounting average background air pollution in the evaluation of health risks from exposure to emissions from industrial facilities are considered.

  20. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    The code of practice of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the recent international standards and technical reports from ISO are widely accepted as general frameworks for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) but they are not detailed methodological references, since international...... between modelled impact and the occurrence of actual impact. This technical report aims to contribute to a solution of the poor accuracy of the assessed impact in typical LCA resulting from the present disregard of spatial information in LCA....

  1. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  2. Towards life cycle sustainability assessent of cities. A review of background knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, Jaume; Balaguera, Alejandra; Brodhag, Christian; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2017-12-31

    This article analyses whether existing LCA and sustainability methods can be used in the assessment of a city or an urban region. The approach is performed through the review of current existing LCA-based and sustainability standards and guidelines. A focus is put into those LCA-based standards specially designed for the built environment. Moreover, a review of non-LCA based standards, indices and guides for the assessment of the sustainability of countries, cities or urban regions is done. The purpose is to check if these assessment tools can provide good results in the absence of LCA-based assessments for cities and urban regions. This review demonstrates the lack of consensus in the definition of both, the city and its boundaries, which hinders the development of useful sustainability standards. Furthermore, it is concluded that current sustainability assessment tools miss, at least, one of these aspects: (i) holistic point of view, (ii) focus on various environmental impacts, (iii) a Life Cycle (LC) perspective, and (iv) the possibility to compare the results among different cities or urban regions. From the LCA perspective, the deficiencies found also include the need for a definition of the function, functional unit (FU), and reference flow (RF) of neighbourhoods, cities, and urban regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Series of Case Studies of Tinnitus Suppression With Mixed Background Stimuli in a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, A. J.; Walker, Kurt; Deshpande, Aniruddha K.; Witt, Shelley; Killian, Matthijs; Ji, Helena; Patrick, Jim; Dillier, Norbert; van Dijk, Pim; Lai, Wai Kong; Hansen, Marlan R.; Gantz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Background sounds provided by a wearable sound playback device were mixed with the acoustical input picked up by a cochlear implant speech processor in an attempt to suppress tinnitus. Method First, patients were allowed to listen to several sounds and to select up to 4 sounds that they thought might be effective. These stimuli were programmed to loop continuously in the wearable playback device. Second, subjects were instructed to use 1 background sound each day on the wearable device, and they sequenced the selected background sounds during a 28-day trial. Patients were instructed to go to a website at the end of each day and rate the loudness and annoyance of the tinnitus as well as the acceptability of the background sound. Patients completed the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (Tyler, Stocking, Secor, & Slattery, 2014) at the beginning of the trial. Results Results indicated that background sounds were very effective at suppressing tinnitus. There was considerable variability in sounds preferred by the subjects. Conclusion The study shows that a background sound mixed with the microphone input can be effective for suppressing tinnitus during daily use of the sound processor in selected cochlear implant users. PMID:26001407

  4. Assessment of Natural Exposure From Some kinds of Egyptian Gypsum Using Low Background Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity of natural gypsum and gypsum derived products are examined investigated due to their importance as element of building materials and agricultural gypsum. the natural gypsum and its product may constitute an additional source of radiation exposure to workers and members of public from radiation produced by radioactive decaying. thirty natural gypsum samples from different quarries and 32 fabricated gypsum samples from commercial companies were analyzed using low background HPGe detector. the natural concentration of Ra-226, 232 Th and 40 K activities in all samples were determined in Bq/Kg dry weight. it was found that radioactivity of natural gypsum is less than the fabricated gypsum, so it can be used as agricultural gypsum. fabricated gypsum is suitable for use as an element of building material in egypt

  5. Creative engineering design assessment background, directions, manual, scoring guide and uses

    CERN Document Server

    Charyton, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Creative Engineering Design Assessment or CEDA is a newly developed tool to assess creativity specific to engineering design which is vital for innovation. The revised CEDA assesses usefulness in addition to originality.  Both originality and usefulness are key constructs in creativity but are primarily essential and emphasized ever more in engineering design.  Since the preliminary research was presented to the National Science Foundation, further reliability and validity has been developed and established. The CEDA is different from other general creativity measures as it demonstrates discriminant validity with the Creative Personality Scale, Creative Temperament Scale, and the Cognitive Risk Tolerance Scale, and has demonstrated convergent validity with the Purdue Creativity Test and the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test- Rotations. It focuses on engineering specific measures, measuring engineering creativity and spatial skills. The aim of this book is to disseminate the CEDA tool for use in engin...

  6. Background Information on Crimes against Children Study. Information Memorandum 86-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Shaun

    This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…

  7. Study on environmental background values of uranium in water of Dongting Lake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Kang Tiesheng

    1987-01-01

    Study on environmental background values in water is the base of evaluating water quality and also is the foundational work of studying the law of distribution, accumulation and transfer of the elements. Research on background values of U in water not only can understand radioactive level but also has actual significance for the general survey of U by water. In the work uranium contents were determined by fission track analytical technique in the filtered and unfiltered specimens of river water, reservoir water and spring water taken from more than one hundred sections located in Dongting Lake system and the statistical process of data were carried out by computer. The environmental background values in water of various river system were obtained and compared with the situation of home and abroad. The seasonal variety of uranium content and the level of U in reservoir, spring water and natural reserve were discussed

  8. Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrián, S; Kuster, M.; Beltran, B.; Gomez, H.; Hartmann, R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kotthaus, R.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Struder, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) s...

  9. [Background and practical use of the assessment of identity development in adolescence (AIDA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhölzer, Marc; Goth, Kirstin; Schrobildgen, Christian; Schmeck, Klaus; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards early detection and intervention of personality disorders in adolescence to prevent persistent and chronic suffering is currently taking place. Aside further distinct areas of impaired psychosocial integrity, disturbed identity development is seen as one core component of personality disorders. Thus, the detection of early antecedents of impaired identity development is an important step to allow for early intervention. The self-report questionnaire Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) is a reliable and valid diagnostic instrument to detect disturbed identity development. This questionnaire allows for global assessment of identity and a differentiation in fundamental subdomains as well and distinguishes between identity diffusion on one side and consolidated and stable identity on the other. In clinical practice, it supports the differentiation between severely disturbed identity as the core component of personality disorders and identity crisis or stable identity development that can be found in other mental disorders.

  10. The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5): Background and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gavin A; Purcell, Laura; Schneider, Kathryn J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Gioia, Gerard A; Anderson, Vicki; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Echemendia, Ruben J; Makdissi, Michael; Sills, Allen; Iverson, Grant L; Dvořák, Jiří; McCrory, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem; Patricios, Jon; Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5). The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool was introduced in 2004, following the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport in Prague, Czech Republic. Following the 4th International Consensus Conference, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012, the SCAT 3rd edition (Child SCAT3) was developed for children aged between 5 and12 years. Research to date was reviewed and synthesised for the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport in Berlin, Germany, leading to the current revision of the test, the Child SCAT5. This article describes the development of the Child SCAT5. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial

  12. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  13. Radio ecological background for the isolation approach for the safety assessment of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, Bruno; Becker, Angela; Kindt, Anke

    2007-01-01

    A repository for radioactive waste should only be licensed if it poses no hazard to man and the environment. State of the art is the calculation of the potential radiation exposure of individuals in the surrounding area. A new concept has now been developed to assess the safe closure of radioactive waste in the isolating rock zone. Six criteria allow the quantification of the impact of the repository on the natural environmental conditions starting from the isolating rock zone over pore water and accessible water to the concentration in flora and fauna and to radiation exposure of humans placing the hitherto only criterion into a wider context. (orig.)

  14. Receptor modelling and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds measured at a regional background site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, Kerneels; Vestenius, Mika; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Hellén, Heidi; Vakkari, Ville; Venter, Marcell; Josipovic, Miroslav; Hakola, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can have significant impacts on climate and human health. Certain VOCs are proven to be carcinogenic and toxic, which can affect human health directly and indirectly. In order to develop climate change reduction strategies and to assess the impacts of VOCs on human health, it is crucial to determine the sources of VOCs, which can be emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study was to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis on VOC data collected at a regional background location affected by the major sources in the interior of South Africa, which include the western- and eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex, the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation, the Vaal Triangle, the Mpumalanga Highveld and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. In addition, a risk assessment study was also performed in view of the major source regions affecting Welgegund in order to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic VOCs measured at Welgegund on human health. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station located on a commercial farm approximately 100 km west of Johannesburg for a period of more than two years. PMF analysis revealed ten meaningful factor solutions, of which five factors were associated with biogenic emissions and five with anthropogenic sources. Three of the biogenic factors were characterised by a specific biogenic species, i.e. isoprene, limonene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), while the other two biogenic factors comprised mixtures of biogenic species with different tracer species. The temporal factor contribution for the isoprene, limonene and MBO factors correlated relatively well with the seasonal wet pattern. One anthropogenic factor was associated with emissions from a densely populated anthropogenic source region to the east of Welgegund with a large number of industrial activities, while

  15. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe Nathanael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1 and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1 in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  16. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three γ-lines were identified in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. Validation was performed by absolute and relative analysis of radionuclide activities present in a marine sediment certified material. (author)

  17. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three ?-lines were fixed/identified? in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The radionuclide activities in a marine sediment standard reference material? were determined by absolute and relative methods for validation./¿absolute and relative validation? (author)

  18. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  19. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  20. Search for Supersymmetry in ATLAS with two or three leptons: background studies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2110114

    2016-01-01

    A study of the modeling of $t\\bar{t}V (V=W$ or $ Z)$ production at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV has been conducted. This is one of the main backgrounds in the search for Supersymmetry with same-sign dileptons or three leptons final state.

  1. Student Background and Teacher Effects on Achievement and Attainment in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we have studied the effect of student social background, classroom social context, classroom organisation, and teacher behaviours on mathematics achievement and attainment in English and Welsh primary schools. Data were collected over 2 years as part of a programme evaluation, for which we observed 138 teachers and tested and…

  2. Persistence in Japanese Language Study and Learners' Cultural/Linguistic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    Motivational characteristics of students learning Japanese as a foreign language at universities in Australia were investigated to find out what affecting factors are closely related to their intentions for continuing/discontinuing their study. The results showed that students' cultural/linguistic backgrounds have a significant impact on their…

  3. A Monte Carlo study for the shielding of γ backgrounds induced by radionuclides for CDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Tang Changjian; Yue Qian; Cheng Jianping; Kang Kejun; Li Jianmin; Li Jin; Li Yulan; Li Yuanjing; Ma Hao; Xue Tao; Zeng Zhi; Wong, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    The CDEX (China Dark matter EXperiment) Collaboration will carry out a direct search for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) using an Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity Germanium (ULE-HPGe) detector at the CJPL (China JinPing deep underground Laboratory). A complex shielding system was designed to reduce backgrounds and a detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation was performed to study the achievable reduction of γ rays induced by radionuclides and neutron backgrounds by D(γ,n)p reaction. Furthermore, the upper level of allowed radio purity of shielding materials was estimated under the constraint of the expected goal. Compared with the radio purity reported by other low-background rare-event experiments, it indicates that the shielding used in the CDEX can be made out of materials with obtainable radiopurity. (authors)

  4. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by 214 Bi, 208 Tl and 42 K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from 42 K and 214 Bi beta-rays, and 210 Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  5. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (SCAT5): Background and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; McCrory, Paul; Davis, Gavin A; Putukian, Margot; Leddy, John; Makdissi, Michael; Sullivan, S John; Broglio, Steven P; Raftery, Martin; Schneider, Kathryn; Kissick, James; McCrea, Michael; Dvořák, Jiří; Sills, Allen K; Aubry, Mark; Engebretsen, Lars; Loosemore, Mike; Fuller, Gordon; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Ellenbogen, Richard; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Patricios, Jon; Herring, Stanley

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (SCAT5), which is the most recent revision of a sport concussion evaluation tool for use by healthcare professionals in the acute evaluation of suspected concussion. The revision of the SCAT3 (first published in 2013) culminated in the SCAT5. The revision was based on a systematic review and synthesis of current research, public input and expert panel review as part of the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Berlin in 2016. The SCAT5 is intended for use in those who are 13 years of age or older. The Child SCAT5 is a tool for those aged 5-12 years, which is discussed elsewhere. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  7. Investigation of natural radiation background and assessment of its population dose in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the nationwide survey in 1984-1988 of environmental external radiation by integrating measurements, and the assessment of population doses from obtained data. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) model ETLD-80 with CaSO 4 : Dy were used. The survey was conducted in two different scales. In general survey, TLDs were distributed in whole area of every investigated provinces; and in local survey, one city and one village within each province were selected and investigated for the purpose of comparison of the natural radiation levels between the rural and urban areas. A marked characteristics was noted that the level of natural environmental radiation in south China seems to be higher than that in north China. It may be attributed to the geological difference in both parts. The annual individual average and collective effective dose equivalents to population of China from natural environmental radiation were estimated to be 780 μSv and 8.1 x 10 5 man. Sv, based on the model recommended by UNSCEAR 1988 Report

  8. Student Engagement and Assessment Modes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anil

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this project is to attempt a factorial analysis of the congruence amongst three layers of assessments of Oral Presentation: "Expert, Self, and Peer". Participants included graduate and undergraduate students of Asian background studying Research Writing at a technological university. The research instrument consisted of a set…

  9. Gaps in smiles and services: a cross-sectional study of dental caries in refugee-background children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Alicia; Laemmle-Ruff, Ingrid L; Polizzi, Tatiana; Paxton, Georgia A

    2015-01-22

    Refugees are reported to experience high rates of dental disease, although there are limited data on refugee children. The aim of this study was to report on oral health in refugee-background children in Australia, and to assess their follow-up at dental services. Cross-sectional study of opportunistic oral health screening and subsequent dental service use in refugee-background children attending a refugee health clinic in Victoria, Australia, between November 2006-November 2010. 350 patients (0-18 years, mean age 8 years 7 months) had oral health screening; 241 (68.9%) were born overseas, (176 Africa, 65 other countries) and 109 (31.1%) were born in Australia to African-background families. Parents were concerned about oral health in 65/341 (19.1%) children, with specific concern about caries in only 9/341 (2.6%). On assessment, 155/336 (46.1%) had visible caries and 178/345 (51.6%) had caries experience (dmft/DMFT > 0). Where parents were concerned about caries, they were likely to be present (positive predictive value = 100%), however absence of parent concern about caries was not reassuring (negative predictive value = 56.1%).Compared to Australian-born children of African background; African-born children were more likely to be referred for further dental care (adjusted PR 1.33, 95% CI [1.02-1.73]), although there was no statistically significant difference in caries prevalence. African-born children were less likely to have caries compared to other overseas-born children (adjusted PR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58 - 0.93]). Overall 187/344 (54.4%) children were referred for further dental care; 91/124 (73.4%) attended any dental appointment. Attendance rates were 90% with a phone reminder system for appointments, attendance reduced when this system lapsed. Oral health is an important public health issue in refugee-background children, despite low levels of parent concern and very few parent reported caries. Routine direct oral health assessment is important

  10. Modeling background radiation using geochemical data: A case study in and around Cameron, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Kara E; Burnley, Pamela C; Adcock, Christopher T; Haber, Daniel A; Malchow, Russell L; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2016-12-01

    This study compares high resolution forward models of natural gamma-ray background with that measured by high resolution aerial gamma-ray surveys. The ability to predict variations in natural background radiation levels should prove useful for those engaged in measuring anthropogenic contributions to background radiation for the purpose of emergency response and homeland security operations. The forward models are based on geologic maps and remote sensing multi-spectral imagery combined with two different sources of data: 1) bedrock geochemical data (uranium, potassium and thorium concentrations) collected from national databases, the scientific literature and private companies, and 2) the low spatial resolution NURE (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) aerial gamma-ray survey. The study area near Cameron, Arizona, is located in an arid region with minimal vegetation and, due to the presence of abandoned uranium mines, was the subject of a previous high resolution gamma-ray survey. We found that, in general, geologic map units form a good basis for predicting the geographic distribution of the gamma-ray background. Predictions of background gamma-radiation levels based on bedrock geochemical analyses were not as successful as those based on the NURE aerial survey data sorted by geologic unit. The less successful result of the bedrock geochemical model is most likely due to a number of factors including the need to take into account the evolution of soil geochemistry during chemical weathering and the influence of aeolian addition. Refinements to the forward models were made using ASTER visualizations to create subunits of similar exposure rate within the Chinle Formation, which contains multiple lithologies and by grouping alluvial units by drainage basin rather than age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of immune surveillance among inhabitants of high natural background radiation areas in Ramsar-Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileh, Sajad Borzouei; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Mostafazade, Amrollah; Abedian, Said

    2010-01-01

    In this study by Multi-parameter flow cytometry, immunologic analyze is performed on peripheral blood, NK cells, most effective cells in innate immune and the proportion of TCD8/TCD4 cells that is effective in cellular immune system will be determined. Lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 or CD107a) is used as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activity. Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Ramsar inhabitants will be determined. Radiation dose rate in Talesh mahalle is very high and was many times greater than Chaparsar (another region in Ramsar). Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Talesh mahalle inhabitants will be compared to Chaparsar inhabitants. If this doesn't have significant difference, we should think about some other aspects such as free radical scavengers that will study later

  12. Defect assessment benchmark studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.; Sharples, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Assessments of the resistance to fast fracture of the beltline region of a PWR vessel subjected to a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transient have been carried out using the procedures of French (RCC-M) and German (KTA) design codes, and comparisons made with results obtained using the R6 procedure as applied for Sizewell B. The example chosen for these comparisons is of a generic nature, and is taken as the PTS identified by the Hirsch addendum to the Second Marshall report (1987) as the most severe transient with regard to vessel integrity. All assessment methods show the beltline region of the vessel to be safe from the risk of fast fracture, but by varying factors of safety. These factors are discussed in terms of margins between limiting and reference defect sizes, fracture toughness and stress intensity factor, and material temperature and temperature at the onset of upper-shelf materials behaviour. Based on these studies, consideration is given to issues involved in the harmonization of those sections of the design codes which are concerned with methods for the demonstration of the avoidance of the risk of failure by fast fracture. (author)

  13. Study of the dislocation contribution to the internal friction background of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, J.; Benoit, W.

    1987-04-01

    The dislocation contribution to the internal friction (IF) background is studied in annealed gold samples containing various dilute concentrations of platinum impurities. The measurements are performed in the kHz frequency range in order to determine the loss mechanism responsible for the high IF background observed at these low frequencies. To this end, the IF background was systematically measured as a function of frequency, vibration amplitude, temperature, and impurity concentration. The experimental results show that the high dislocation contribution observed in annealed samples is strain-amplitude independent for amplitudes in the range 10-7 to 2×10-6, but rapidly decreases for amplitudes smaller than 10-7. In particular, the dislocation contribution tends to zero when the strain amplitude tends to zero. Furthermore, this contribution is frequency independent. These observations demonstrate that the dislocation contribution cannot be explained by relaxations. In particular, this contribution cannot be attributed to a viscous damping of the dislocation motion. On the contrary, the experiments show that the IF background due to dislocations must be explained by hysteretic and athermal motions of dislocations interacting with point defects. However, these hysteretic motions are not due to breakaway of dislocations from pinning points distributed along their length. The experimental results can be explained by the presence of point defects close to the dislocations, but not on them. The mechanical energy loss is attributed to hysteretic motions of dislocations between potential minima created by point defects.

  14. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  15. Gas purity analytics, calibration studies, and background predictions towards the first results of XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasterok, Constanze

    2017-10-25

    The XENON1T experiment aims at the direct detection of the well motivated dark matter candidate of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off xenon nuclei. The first science run of 34.2 live days has already achieved the most stringent upper limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections above masses of 10 GeV with a minimum of 7.7.10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} at a mass of 35 GeV. Crucial for this unprecedented sensitivity are a high xenon gas purity and a good understanding of the background. In this work, a procedure is described that was developed to measure the purity of the experiment's xenon inventory of more than three tons during its initial transfer to the detector gas system. The technique of gas chromatography has been employed to analyze the noble gas for impurities with the focus on oxygen and krypton contaminations. Furthermore, studies on the calibration of the experiment's dominating background induced by natural gamma and beta radiation were performed. Hereby, the novel sources of radioactive isotopes that can be dissolved in the xenon were employed, namely {sup 220}Rn and tritium. The sources were analyzed in terms of a potential impact on the outcome of a dark matter search. As a result of the promising findings for {sup 220}Rn, the source was successfully deployed in the first science run of XENON1T. The first WIMP search of XENON1T is outlined in this thesis, in which a background component from interactions taking place in close proximity to the detector wall is identified, investigated and modeled. A background prediction was derived that was incorporated into the background model of the WIMP search which was found to be in good agreement with the observation.

  16. Improvement of methodological and data background for life cycle assessment of nano-metaloxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko

    =0.01) to 3.20E-03 (801-1000 nm, α=1) PAF·m3 ·day/kg for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO ENMs, respectively. In terms of toxicity level the derived CFs show that Ag>ZnO>TiO2. The CFs can be applied, but should be considered interim. A LCA case study was performed on five ENM products, where novel industrial...... model was setup. The fate was based on peri-kinetic aggregation (Brownian motion), ortho-kinetic aggregation (fluid motion), differential settling (sedimentation), resuspension and dissolution of ENMs. The effect part was based on three freshwater trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish...... measurements from products. Based on the review a central part of the improvement could be done by addressing the functional unit, data inventory and ENM freshwater ecotoxicity CFs. In order to derive freshwater (European continent) ecotoxicity CFs, at midpoint level, of metal (-oxide) ENMs a fate and effect...

  17. The MOON-1 detector construction and the study of backgrounds from radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogama, T; Nakamura, H; Ejiri, H; Fushimi, K; Ichihara, K; Matsuoka, K; Nomachi, M; Hazama, R; Umehara, S; Yoshida, S; Sakiuchi, T; Hai, V H; Sugaya, Y

    2006-01-01

    MOON is a multilayer system of plastic scintillators and 100 Mo films for 100 Mo 0νββ decays. A prototype detector MOON-1 was built with 6 layers of plastic scintillators and 142g of 100Mo films for background (BG), energy and position resolution studies of the MOON detector. No serious BG from natural radioactive isotopes (RI) for 0νββ detection was found

  18. Assessment of background gamma radiation and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background gamma radiation levels vary in different locations and depended on many factors such as radiation properties of soil, building materials as well as construction types which human lives on it. People are always exposed to ionizing radiation, which could badly influence their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the background gamma-ray dose rate and the estimated annual effective dose equivalent and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the dose rate of background gamma radiation in outdoor an indoor areas, 26 stations were selected using the map of the Sabzevar City. The amount of gamma radiation was measured at 4 months (September to January in 2014 year. The dosimeter used in this study was a survey meter, that is designed for monitoring radiation of x, gamma and beta rays. Results: The obtained results show that there are significant differences between the indoor and outdoor exposures (P> 0.05. We did not observe significant differences between the time of sampling and sampling locations, (P<0.05. The minimum and maximum values of dose rate were found 66±20 nSvh-1 and 198±28 nSvh-1. The annual effective dose for Sabzevar residents was estimated to be 0.85 mSv and also the amount of excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated 3.39×10-3. Conclusion: According to the results, the excess lifetime cancer risk and the annual effective dose for the Sabzavar City residents due to the background gamma radiation was higher than the global average (0.5 mSv. The epidemiological studies have been proposed to evaluate the risk of chronic diseases associated with natural radiation exposure among residents.

  19. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Mayasandra S; Nagendra, Hongasandra; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga, compared to physical activity on the cognitive performance in 7-9 year-old schoolchildren from a socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Two hundred (200) schoolchildren from Bangalore, India, after baseline assessment of cognitive functioning were randomly allocated to either a yoga or a physical-activity group. Cognitive functions (attention and concentration, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal ability, and abstract thinking) were assessed using an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at baseline, after 3 months of intervention, and later at a 3-month follow-up. Of the 200 subjects, 193 were assessed at 3 months after the study, and then 180 were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between the two study groups (yoga versus physical activity) at postintervention, after controlling for grade levels. Improvement in the mean scores of cognitive tests following intervention varied from 0.5 (Arithmetic) to 1.4 (Coding) for the yoga group and 0.7 (Arithmetic) to 1.6 (Vocabulary) in the physical-activity group. Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance.

  20. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumi, Kusuo [Kinki Univ., Life Science Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan); Yuan Yongling [Labor Hygiene Institute of Hunan Prov. (China); Wei Luxin [Laboratory of Industorial Hygiene, Ministry of Health (China)

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. (2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  1. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. 2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  2. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  3. Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm–Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  4. Procedures for treating common cause failures in safety and reliability studies: Analytical background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Fleming, K.N.; Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Worledge, D.H.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Volume I of this report presents a framework for the inclusion of the impact of common cause failures in risk and reliability evaluations. Common cause failures are defined as that subset of dependent failures for which causes are not explicitly included in the logic model as basic events. The emphasis here is on providing procedures for a practical, systematic approach that can be used to perform and clearly document the analysis. The framework and the methods discussed for performing the different stages of the analysis integrate insights obtained from engineering assessments of the system and the historical evidence from multiple failure events into a systematic, reproducible, and defensible analysis. This document, Volume 2, contains a series of appendices that provide additional background and methodological detail on several important topics discussed in Volume I

  5. BACKGROUND MUSIC AT THE TIME OF ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT AS STRESS BUSTER: PERCEPTION OF THE STUDENTS AT GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE , BILASPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Manoharrao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Music has numerous applications within a clinical setting. It can be in the form of background music too. It is known that some students study and learn more effectively while listening to music. METHODS: The present study was intended to evaluate the perception of the students at medical college for the innovative idea of playing of background music during examination as a stress buster and their response for including it as one of the measure for reducing the stress among medical students. RESULT: The subjects were divided into three groups on t he basis of suffering from anxiety and stress during examination – No Anxiety (N, Occasional Anxiety (O, Anxiety (A. The groups were subjected to Spearman Correlation (SPSS. When the No Anxiety (N group and Occasional Anxiety (O group were compared, it showed positive correlation (0.482, but failed to show statistical significance [0.189]. However, the comparison of the Occasional Anxiety (O group and Anxiety (A group showed positive correlation (0.873 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSI ON: This study indicates that it is the innovative idea of playing background music liked by most of students and even may reduce anxiety and stress which is likely to improve performance. We are encouraged with the positive trends and results of the study

  6. Signal and background studies for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Matteo

    2013-04-24

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76, by operating bare HPGe detectors in ultra-pure liquid Ar. This dissertation presents a first decomposition of the background measured in the current data-taking phase. The background at the energy of interest was found to be dominated by {sup 214}Bi, {sup 208}Tl and {sup 42}K gamma-rays, with secondary contributions from {sup 42}K and {sup 214}Bi beta-rays, and {sup 210}Po alpha-rays. For the forthcoming upgrade of the apparatus, a new HPGe detector design (BEGe) has been studied, with focus on its capability of suppressing the identified backgrounds through pulse shape analysis. This included the development of a comprehensive modeling of the detectors and the experimental characterization of their response to surface interactions. The achieved results show that GERDA can improve the present limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life by an order of magnitude.

  7. A study on the effect of gamma background in low power startup physics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Chang Joon; Lee, Ki Bog

    1993-01-01

    Low power physics tests should be performed for the domestic pressurized light water reactors (PWRs) after refueling. The tests are performed to ensure that operating characteristics of the core are consistent with predictions and that the core can be operated as designed. But in some low power physics tests, slow but steady reactivity increasing phenomena were noticed after step reactivity insertion by the control rod movement. These reactivity increasing phenomena are due to the low flux level and the gamma backgroud because an uncompensated ion chamber (UIC) is used as the ex-core neutron detector. The gamma background may affect the results of the low power physics tests. The aims of this paper are to analyze the grounds of such phenomena, to simulate a reference bank worth measurement test and to present a resolution quantitatively. In this study, the gamma background level was estimated by numerically solving the point kinetics equations accounting the gamma background effect. The reactivity computer check test was simulated to verify the model. Also, an appropriate neutron flux level was determined by simulating the reference bank worth measurement test. The determined neutron flux level is approximately 0.3 of the nuclear heating flux. This level is about 3 times as high as the current test upper limit specified in the test procedure. Then, the findings from this work were successfully applied to Kori unit 4 cycle 7 and Yonggwang unit 1 cycle 7 physics tests. (Author)

  8. U.S. -- EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  9. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ''develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ''damages'' or ''benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed

  10. [Identification and sampling of people with migration background for epidemiological studies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, K; Makarova, N; Spallek, J; Zeeb, H; Razum, O

    2013-06-01

    In 2009, 19.6% of the population of Germany either had migrated themselves or were the offspring of people with migration experience. Migrants differ from the autochthonous German population in terms of health status, health awareness and health behaviour. To further investigate the health situation of migrants in Germany, epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can employ existing databases which provide detailed information on migration status. Otherwise, onomastic or toponomastic procedures can be applied to identify people with migration background. If migrants have to be recruited into an epidemiological study, this can be done register-based (e. g., data from registration offices or telephone lists), based on residential location (random-route or random-walk procedure), via snowball sampling (e. g., through key persons) or via settings (e. g., school entry examination). An oversampling of people with migration background is not sufficient to avoid systematic bias in the sample due to non-participation. Additional measures have to be taken to increase access and raise participation rates. Personal contacting, multilingual instruments, multilingual interviewers and extensive public relations increase access and willingness to participate. Empirical evidence on 'successful' recruitment strategies for studies with migrants is still lacking in epidemiology and health sciences in Germany. The choice of the recruitment strategy as well as the measures to raise accessibility and willingness to participate depend on the available resources, the research question and the specific migrant target group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. ForCent model development and testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parton, W.J.; Hanson, P. J.; Swanston, C.; Torn, M.; Trumbore, S. E.; Riley, W.; Kelly, R.

    2010-10-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool {sup 14}C signature ({Delta} {sup 14}C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the {sup 14}C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass {Delta} {sup 14}C data, and with soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experimental treatments on soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  12. Study of the intrinsic background noise of a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoev, A.A.; Islamov, I.M.; Khafizov, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A proper background noise of a quadrupole mass-spectrometer is studied. The main sources of the noise have been analysed as well as their contributions to the overall noise of the device. It is shown that the main contribution is made by the photocurrent of the first dynode of the secondary-electron multiplier from ultraviolet radiation. The construction of the detecting system of the mass-spectrometer is given allowing one to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of > 500

  13. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Luxin [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  14. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  15. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaardhøje J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  16. Preliminary study on the measurement of background radiation dose at Antarctica during 32nd expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, A.K.; Pal, Rupali; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Dhar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A significant proportion (10%) of the natural background radiation is of cosmic origin. Cosmic ray consists of gamma, protons, electrons, pions, muons, neutrons and low Z nuclei. Due to the geomagnetic effect, cosmic radiation levels at poles are higher. As a consequence, personnel working in Antarctica (or Arctic) are subjected to high level of cosmic radiation. The present study gives the details of the estimation of background radiation (neutrons, gamma and electrons) dose rate around the Indian station at Antarctica named 'Bharati' measured during 32 nd Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica (32 nd INSEA). The measurement was carried out by passive dosimeters such as TLDs and CR-39 and active dosimeter such as RadEye G portable gamma survey meter. Gamma and electron components were measured using TLDs and survey meter, whereas CR-39 SSNTDs and neutron sensitive TLDs were used for neutron measurements. These detectors were deployed at few selected locations around Bharati station for about 2½ months during summer expedition. The neutron detectors used in the study were pre-calibrated with 241 Am-Be fast/thermal neutron source. The fast neutron dose rate measured based on CR-39 detector was found to about 140-420 nSv/h. The gamma dose rate evaluated by TLDs/survey meter are in the range of 290-400 nSv/h. (author)

  17. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Study of Career Planning Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Firkola, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of career planning assessments. Background on key career concepts is first introduced. A number of career planning assessments are then examined. These assessments included reviewing ones personal history, interest inventories, values assessments, personality assessments, and aptitude tests. The importance and limitations of these career assessments is then discussed.

  19. Review of approaches to the recording of background lesions in toxicologic pathology studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, E F; Scudamore, C L

    2014-08-17

    Pathological evaluation of lesions caused directly by xenobiotic treatment must always take into account the recognition of background (incidental) findings. Background lesions can be congenital or hereditary, histological variations, changes related to trauma or normal aging and physiologic or hormonal changes. This review focuses on the importance and correct approach to recording of background changes and includes discussion on sources of variability in background changes, the correct use of terminology, the concept of thresholds, historical control data, diagnostic drift, blind reading of slides, scoring and artifacts. The review is illustrated with background lesions in Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the CMS RPC detector performance in high radiation background conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel Colin, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    The RPC system at the CMS Detector is operating successfully from beginning of the data taking. The high instantaneous luminosity causes an extremely high flux of ionizing particles. The long period of operation (Run1 and Run2) in a huge radiation background conditions, gives the opportunity to study the operation capability of the RPCs and also to predict a data-driven extrapolation about the expecting particle rates at HL LHC (High Luminosity) scenario. The obtained results in terms of measured rate, currents and integrated charged will be presented in the poster. When it is possible they will be compared to the relevant results obtained from the dedicated study where a set of test chambers have been irradiated at GIF++ laboratory setup.

  1. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  2. Audit and Assessment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  3. Experimental study of the molecular beam destruction by beam-beam and beam-background scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.; Dettleff, G.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of flow properties related to the molecular motion normal to stream lines of an expanding gas jet from observed intensity profiles of supersonic beams is critically assessed. The perturbation of the profile curves by various effects is studied for a helium beam. Exponential laws appear to describe scattering effects to a satisfactory degree

  4. Review of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Emerging scientific knowledge in the field of radiation biology has put into question the generic use of a simple linear extrapolation of radiation effects from high to low dose or dose rate. Though the direct information of biological effects at low dose or low dose rate has been accumulated, it is still immature to mention health effects as the consequence of biological effects. As epidemiological data have been the main sources of direct information on human health effects, studies of the health of population exposed by low dose or low dose rate ionizing radiation will help to improve our understanding. In this meaning, the epidemiological studies of residents in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which are supported by us, will provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate ionizing radiation. The epidemiological results in HBRA in China showed there are no significant increases of cancer risks caused by the high background levels of ionizing radiation. From the results which come from cytogeneticl studies, the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations have shown good correlation with cumulative doses in their lifetimes, which indicated it is a sensitive and informative biomarker. On the other hand, the frequencies of stable chromosomal aberrations have shown no significant difference and the frequency was much higher than that of unstable type aberrations. It suggests that mutagenic factors other than radiation contribute more than the elevated level of radiation to the induction of DNA rearrangements which could lead to the increase of cancer risk in HBRA in China. (author)

  5. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  6. Background-oriented schlieren for the study of large flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Buckner, Ben; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Modern digital recording and processing techniques combined with new lighting methods and relatively old schlieren visualization methods move flow visualization to a new level, enabling a wide range of new applications and a possible revolution in the visualization of very large flow fields. This paper traces the evolution of schlieren imaging from Robert Hooke, who, in 1665, employed candles and lenses, to modern digital background oriented schlieren (BOS) systems, wherein image processing by computer replaces pure optical image processing. New possibilities and potential applications that could benefit from such a capability are examined. Example applications include viewing the flow field around full sized aircraft, large equipment and vehicles, monitoring explosions on bomb ranges, cooling systems, large structures and even buildings. Objectives of studies include aerodynamics, aero optics, heat transfer, and aero thermal measurements. Relevant digital cameras, light sources, and implementation methods are discussed.

  7. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  8. Study of the muon-induced neutron background with the LVD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghetti, H.; Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    High energy neutrons, generated as a product of cosmic muon interaction in the rock or in the detector passive material, represent the most dangerous background for a large list of topics like reactor neutrino studies, the search for SN relic neutrinos, solar antineutrinos, etc.Up to now there are few measurements of the muon-produced neutron flux at large depth underground. Moreover it is difficult to reproduce the measured data with Monte Carlo simulation because of the large uncertainties in the neutron production and propagation models.We present here the results of such a measurement with the LVD detector, which is well suited for the detection of neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muons, reporting the neutron flux at various distances from the muon track, for different neutron energies (E > 20 MeV) and as a function of the muon track length in scintillator

  9. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  10. Assessment of radiation background level of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Daping; Xu Jiaang; Zhu Jianguo; Chen Yingmin; Lu Feng; Song Gang; Cao Jingli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiation background levels of Shandong basin in east line of northward rerouting of southern river. Methods: The activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were measured by national standard methods respectively. The values of the dose conversion factor given by UNSCEAR 2000 were adopted for dose estimation. Results: The average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples were pooled in order to analyze dose estimation. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U, 90 Sr, 232 Th and 137 Cs from lake water for residents are 1.46, 4.95 x 10 -1 , 1.24 x 10 -1 , 2.58 x 10 -2 and 7.93 x 10 -3 μSv per year respectively. The committed effective doses of the 226 Ra, 238 U and 90 Sr from cyprinoid fish are 5.49 x 10 -2 , 3.69 x 10 -2 and 1.77 x 10 -2 μSv per year respectively. Conclusions: The results show that the average activity concentrations of gross-alpha, gross-beta, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 226 Ra and 90 Sr in the samples from Shandong basin of northward rerouting of southern river are within the background levels. And in the main lake basin, the estimated exposures of public caused by the radionuclide in water and cyprinoid fish are so low that they can be ignored unless there ate some radioactive contamination in the future. (authors)

  11. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Moloud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002. Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  12. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  13. Historical background and overview of epidemiological studies on the effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Recognition of the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation dates from the early part of this century, when an increased frequency of skin cancer and leukemia was first reported in radiologists. In the interim, systematic epidemiological studies have disclosed additional carcinogenic effects in radiation workers, A-bomb survivors, patients exposed to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation, and other groups. The studies have provided sufficient data on dose-incidence relationships, the distribution of cancer in relation to age at irradiation and time after exposure, and organ-variations in susceptibility to enable attempts at quantitative assessment of the risks of low-level irradiation. Such assessments, although tentative and controversial, have exerted an important influence on developments in radiological protection

  14. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  15. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  16. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  17. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui

    2016-01-01

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  18. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Xu, Songfan; Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert; Park, Seungjoon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  19. The Significance of an Excess in a Counting Experiment: Assessing the Impact of Systematic Uncertainties and the Case with a Gaussian Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Giacomo

    2018-05-01

    Several experiments in high-energy physics and astrophysics can be treated as on/off measurements, where an observation potentially containing a new source or effect (“on” measurement) is contrasted with a background-only observation free of the effect (“off” measurement). In counting experiments, the significance of the new source or effect can be estimated with a widely used formula from Li & Ma, which assumes that both measurements are Poisson random variables. In this paper we study three other cases: (i) the ideal case where the background measurement has no uncertainty, which can be used to study the maximum sensitivity that an instrument can achieve, (ii) the case where the background estimate b in the off measurement has an additional systematic uncertainty, and (iii) the case where b is a Gaussian random variable instead of a Poisson random variable. The latter case applies when b comes from a model fitted on archival or ancillary data, or from the interpolation of a function fitted on data surrounding the candidate new source/effect. Practitioners typically use a formula that is only valid when b is large and when its uncertainty is very small, while we derive a general formula that can be applied in all regimes. We also develop simple methods that can be used to assess how much an estimate of significance is sensitive to systematic uncertainties on the efficiency or on the background. Examples of applications include the detection of short gamma-ray bursts and of new X-ray or γ-ray sources. All the techniques presented in this paper are made available in a Python code that is ready to use.

  20. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  1. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  2. The hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe: background and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bygum Anette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare but serious disease marked by swelling attacks in the extremities, face, trunk, airway, or abdominal areas that can be spontaneous or the result of trauma and other triggers. It can be life-threatening due to the risk of asphyxiation. While there have been major advancements in our understanding of the immunogenetics of HAE, there are significant gaps in the literature regarding understanding of the humanistic and economic impact of the disease, particularly in Europe. The purpose of the HAE Burden of Illness Study-Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe, the development and methodology of which is described here, is to better understand the management and impact of HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. Methods/Design This is a cross-sectional study in which retrospective data were also collected being conducted in Denmark, Germany and Spain. The study is open to patients ages 12 and older with a diagnosis of HAE-I or HAE-II. Data collection includes: (i a survey on individuals’ health care resource use, direct and indirect medical costs, impact on work and school, treatment satisfaction, and emotional functioning (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and (ii one-on-one interviews to collect detailed descriptive data and patient testimonials on the impact of HAE on patients’ health-related quality of life. Discussion The present manuscript describes the development and plans for implementing a multi-country European study with the aim of characterizing the humanistic and economic burden of HAE from the patient perspective. This study will help raise awareness of HAE as a rare but debilitating condition with wide-ranging impacts.

  3. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-01-01

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash

  4. Leisure sickness: a pilot study on its prevalence, phenomenology, and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Van Huijgevoort, Maaike; Van Heck, Guus L

    2002-01-01

    To explore the prevalence, phenomenology, and background of leisure sickness, i.e., the condition of people developing symptoms of sickness during weekends and/or vacations. In order to obtain an estimate of its prevalence, a representative Dutch sample consisting of 1,128 men and 765 women was asked to indicate to what extent they recognized themselves in our description of weekend and vacation sickness. For the investigation of the phenomenology and background of this condition and the characteristics of the patients suffering from it, questionnaire data were collected in new samples consisting of 114 cases and 56 controls. Questions referred to symptoms, onset, duration, appreciation of weekend and vacation activities, and appraisal of work and workload. In the case of male respondents, 3.6 and 3.2% recognized themselves in the description of the weekend and the vacation syndrome, respectively, compared with 2.7 and 3.2% women. Most frequently reported symptoms were headache/migraine, fatigue, muscular pains, and nausea. In addition, viral infections (flue-like, common cold) were often reported in relation to vacations. Cases had generally suffered from leisure sickness for over 10 years and the onset was associated with stressful conditions. They attributed their condition to difficulties with the transition from work to nonwork, stress associated with travel and vacation, as well as workload and personality characteristics. There were no significant group differences in the appreciation of weekend and leisure activities or lifestyle during days off. Most striking differences were found with respect to experienced workload, sense of responsibility, and inability to relax. Leisure sickness is a relatively common condition. Specific lifestyle factors or leisure activities seem to be less relevant for its development. Concerning risk factors, the data tend to point to high workload and person characteristics, namely, the inability to adapt to the nonworking

  5. [Being online without a purpose -- study of background variables of problematic internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prievara, Dóra Katalin; Pikó, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    These days, use of the Internet is unavoidable for the younger generations. The online world is the primary source of infomation and quick communication, and these activities can take many hours per day. The main goal of the present study was to examine the correlations among problematic internet use, social factors, stress and life satisfaction. Data collection was going online during the first semester of the year 2014 (N= 386 girls). The anonymous questionnaire contained items on perceived social support and the amount of online activites beyond sociodemographics. After descriptive statistics, factor, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect interrelationships. According to our data, 78% of the participants spent daily at least 2 hours, 40% more than 4 hours online. Using factor analysis, four factors of online activities were identified: Social networking-surfing, News-information, Risky and Lonely game factors. Only the News-information factor was not related to the problematic internet use. Based on multiple regression analyses, we may conclude that shyness, stress, loneliness and two factors, the Social networking-surfing and the Risky factors acted as background variables for problematic internet use. As a summary we may conclude that the internet has an important role in the everyday life of the participants. In case of the direct aim of the online activities the problematic use did not appear. These activities were mostly searching for information and news. In introduction of prevention, education about the correct use of the internet may be reasonable as early as possible.

  6. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS): Does the German Version of the RIAS Allow a Valid Assessment of Individuals with a Migration Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygi, Jasmin T.; Fux, Elodie; Grob, Alexander; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska

    2016-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance and latent mean differences in the German version of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) for 316 individuals with a migration background (defined as speaking German as a second language) and 316 sex- and age-matched natives. The RIAS measures general intelligence (single-factor structure) and its two components, verbal and nonverbal intelligence (two-factor structure). Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed scalar invariance for the two-factor and partial scalar invariance for the single-factor structure. We conclude that the two-factor structure of the RIAS is comparable across groups. Hence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence but not general intelligence should be considered when comparing RIAS test results of individuals with and without a migration background. Further, latent mean differences especially on the verbal, but also on the nonverbal intelligence index indicate language barriers for individuals with a migration background, as subtests corresponding to verbal intelligence require higher skills in German language. Moreover, cultural, environmental, and social factors that have to be taken into account when assessing individuals with a migration background are discussed. PMID:27846270

  8. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS: Does the German Version of the RIAS Allow a Valid Assessment of Individuals with a Migration Background?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin T Gygi

    Full Text Available This study examined measurement invariance and latent mean differences in the German version of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS for 316 individuals with a migration background (defined as speaking German as a second language and 316 sex- and age-matched natives. The RIAS measures general intelligence (single-factor structure and its two components, verbal and nonverbal intelligence (two-factor structure. Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed scalar invariance for the two-factor and partial scalar invariance for the single-factor structure. We conclude that the two-factor structure of the RIAS is comparable across groups. Hence, verbal and nonverbal intelligence but not general intelligence should be considered when comparing RIAS test results of individuals with and without a migration background. Further, latent mean differences especially on the verbal, but also on the nonverbal intelligence index indicate language barriers for individuals with a migration background, as subtests corresponding to verbal intelligence require higher skills in German language. Moreover, cultural, environmental, and social factors that have to be taken into account when assessing individuals with a migration background are discussed.

  9. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  10. Background radiation measurements at 400 meter underground for dark matter search study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Won, E.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; So, W. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Recently we have performed measurements of background radiation, which is crucial for any dark matter search experiments. We measured muons, neutrons, and gamma backgrounds at approximately 400 meter underground tunnel in the electric generating facility located about 120 km east of Seoul. We believe this may be the first measurement at this depth in Korea. The muon flux measured with triple coincidence between 3 scintillating plates was reduced by a factor of 10 4 compared with the flux at ground level as expected at this depth. The unshielded gamma background measured with 15% relative efficiency germanium detector was rather high due to the surrounding rocks. Shielded with 15 cm normal lead and 2.5 cm electrode copper gave about 0.5 counts/second. (author)

  11. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  12. Study of microbiological background of herbal ingredients and dairy-vegetable compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kharitonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rates of microbiological safety of powdery vegetables, vegetable-milk compositions, compound desserts have been studied. No pathogenic germs (incl. salmonella, Escherichia coli, yeast, nonspore-forming bacteria B cereus have been detected in powdery vegetable samples. The number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms as well as amount of molds does not exceed safety index normalized by the legislation. Proteolytic microorganisms compose the basic microflora of powdery vegetables. Microbiological background of vegetable and milk basis is characterized by the presence of microorganisms differed by different resistance to the medium conditions – рН value, presence of oxygen and high temperatures impact. Enrichment of milk base by vegetable components necessitates to adjust the thermal effect regimes prescribed for milk treatment without additional ingredients. Introduction of vegetable ingredients into milk base is accompanied by polysemantic effect of high temperatures on microorganisms of polycomponent milk – vegetable base. On the one hand introduction of vegetable raw material into milk enhances inhibitory temperature effect on microbial cells due to transition of the medium рН into sour side; on the other hand presence of vegetable raw material particles protects microorganisms against sensitive effect of high temperature. Microflora of vegetable-milk compositions after heat treatment as well as ready-made desserts on their base was presented by spore-forming bacillus the number of which is correlated by their number in the initial raw material. In order to choose the optimal regime of heat treatment all processes running during heat treatment and particularly microbiological and physical-chemical degradation of polysaccharides of vegetables cell structures.

  13. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of 238 U and 232 Th, and 40 K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for 40 K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The 40 K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and 40 K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined

  14. Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, J. Adam

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.

  15. A study on the method for cancelling the background noise of the impact signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Ham, C. S.; Park, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compared the noise canceller (time domain analysis method) to the spectral subtraction (frequency domain analysis method) for cancelling background noise when the Loose Part Monitoring System's accelerometers combined the noise signal with the impact signal if the impact signal exists. In the operation of a nuclear power plant monitoring, alarm triggering occurs due to a peak signal in the background noise, an amplitude increase by component operation such as control rod movement or abrupt pump operation. This operation causes the background noise in LPMS. Thus this noise inputs to LPMS together with the impact signal. In case that this noise amplitude is very large comparing to that of the impact signal, we may not analyze the impact position and mass estimation. We analyzed two methods for cancelling background noise. First, we evaluate the signal to noise ratio utilizing the noise canceller. Second, we evaluate the signal to noise ratio utilizing the spectral subtraction. The evaluation resulted superior the noise canceller to the spectral subtraction on the signal to noise ratio

  16. The Teaching Profession against the Background of Educationalisation: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Edith Helena; Honingh, Marlies Elisabeth; Langelaan, Berber Nadia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching profession against the background of educationalisation in the Netherlands in the sense that Dutch schools are increasingly regarded as focal points at which to address and solve social issues. Our research project concentrated on the extent to which teachers, being key figures in the school organisation,…

  17. Leisure Sickness : A pilot study on its Prevalence, Phenomenology, and Background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Huijgevoort, M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To explore the prevalence, phenomenology, and background of leisure sickness, i.e., the condition of people developing symptoms of sickness during weekends and/or vacations. Method: In order to obtain an estimate of its prevalence, a representative Dutch sample consisting of 1,128 men and 765

  18. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  19. A STUDY OF THE MASS BALANCE OF DIOXINS AND FURANS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of animal fats account for as much as 95% of the human background exposure to compounds with dioxin-like activity. Although it is generally believed that most domestic meat and dairy animals receive most of their exposure from their feed, there is limited data availa...

  20. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  1. Ethnic background and television viewing time among 4-year-old preschool children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-02-01

    Children's television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. The authors analyzed data from 3452 preschool children and their parents enrolled in the Generation R Study, a large, multiethnic, prospective birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of watching television ≥2 hours/day and ≥1 hour/day for Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese children (reference group: native Dutch children), adjusted for family socioeconomic position. Effect modification by family socioeconomic position was also assessed. After adjustment for family socioeconomic position, Turkish children (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-3.30), Moroccan children (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.76), and Surinamese children (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.16-4.50) were significantly more likely to watch television ≥2 hours/day compared with native Dutch children. Stratified analyses showed greater disparity between ethnic minority groups and native Dutch children at higher educational levels. There were no significant associations between acculturation characteristics (i.e., generational status, age at immigration, and Dutch language skills) and children's television viewing time. Children from ethnic minority groups are at an increased risk for high levels of television viewing compared with native Dutch children, independent of family socioeconomic position. Interventions aimed to reduce television viewing time should target all children from ethnic minority groups.

  2. Using Octupoles for Background Control in Linear Colliders an Exploratory Conceptual Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pitthan, R

    1999-01-01

    If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires co operation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octup...

  3. Optimization of a fluorescence X-ray source and background studies for a prospective CNNS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, Andreas; Ciemniak, Christian; Feilitzsch, Franz von; Guetlein, Achim; Haag, Nils; Hofmann, Martin; Isaila, Christian; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Oberauer, Lothar; Pfister, Sebastian; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Sivers, Moritz von; Strauss, Raimund [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, E15 (Germany); Lachenmaier, Tobias [Eberhard Karls Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is predicted by the Standard Model but hasn't been measured yet. A good background discrimination and shielding is essential for the achievement of a prospective experiment. We show the results of simulations for background discrimination and suppression using a myon veto system in combination with a shielding around a cryostat. With CNNS, the expected nuclear recoil energy for reactor anti-neutrinos is in the range of

  4. Simbol-X Background Minimization: Mirror Spacecraft Passive Shielding Trade-off Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Ferri, A.; Attinà, P.

    2009-05-01

    The present work shows a quantitative trade-off analysis of the Simbol-X Mirror Spacecraft (MSC) passive shielding, in the phase space of the various parameters: mass budget, dimension, geometry and composition. A simplified physical (and geometrical) model of the sky screen, implemented by means of a GEANT4 simulation, has been developed to perform a performance-driven mass optimization and evaluate the residual background level on Simbol-X focal plane.

  5. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Wendt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale cross-national studies designed to measure student achievement use different social, cultural, economic and other background variables to explain observed differences in that achievement. Prior to their inclusion into a prediction model, these variables are commonly scaled into latent background indices. To allow cross-national comparisons of the latent indices, measurement invariance is assumed. However, it is unclear whether the assumption of measurement invariance has some influence on the results of the prediction model, thus challenging the reliability and validity of cross-national comparisons of predicted results. Methods To establish the effect size attributed to different degrees of measurement invariance, we rescaled the ‘home resource for learning index’ (HRL for the 37 countries ( $$n=166,709$$ n = 166 , 709 students that participated in the IEA’s combined ‘Progress in International Reading Literacy Study’ (PIRLS and ‘Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study’ (TIMSS assessments of 2011. We used (a two different measurement models [one-parameter model (1PL and two-parameter model (2PL] with (b two different degrees of measurement invariance, resulting in four different models. We introduced the different HRL indices as predictors in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with mathematics achievement as the dependent variable. We then compared three outcomes across countries and by scaling model: (1 the differing fit-values of the measurement models, (2 the estimated discrimination parameters, and (3 the estimated regression coefficients. Results The least restrictive measurement model fitted the data best, and the degree of assumed measurement invariance of the HRL indices influenced the random effects of the GLMM in all but one country. For one-third of the countries, the fixed effects of the GLMM also related to the degree of assumed measurement invariance. Conclusion The

  7. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Biritwum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods: The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results: The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2% and in the highest income quintile (30.6%. Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to

  8. Background Complex angiographic lesions and clinic presentation in unstable angina. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLuberas, R.; Mallo, D.; Pouso, J.; Artucio, C.; Korytnicki; Argon, L.; Besada, E.; Tavella, N.

    2002-01-01

    Background Complex angiography lesions and intracoronary thrombus have been identified in unstable angina.Braunwalds categorization has been accepted in the last years.Identifying severe clinical classes class III (angina at rest during the last 48 hours), class C (angina postinfarction) and class c (angina with maximum therapeutic). The main objective of this study was to determine independent associations of Braunwalds classes III, C and c: complex lesions, intracoronary thrombus, total occlusion and distal flux TIMI<3 of the responsible vessel. The secondary objectives were to analyze the angiographic features of the lesion and the responsible vessel. Aprospective study of 300 patients with diagnosed unstable angina, clustered according to Braunwalds clinis classification was done. The angiographic evaluation was performed identifying the responsible lesion and the presence of the complex lesion, intracoronary thrombus, total occlusion and distal flux TIMI<3 of the responsible vessel. A univariate analysis and a multivariate model of binary logistic regression were used. In the 300 patient population, 22 patients with normal coronaries(7.3%) were identified. The responsible lesion was identified in 243 out of the remaining 278 patients (87,4%). Class III was significantly associated with the complex lesion (OR=2.74, IC95%=1,27-5,9) and intracoronary thrombus (OR=2,82 IC95=1,2-6,6). Class C was significantly associated with intracoronary thrombus (OR=3.9),IC95%=1.53-10,0).Class III was and independent predictor for the presence of the complex lesion(OR=1.98, IC 95%=1,01-3,87) and intracoronary thrombus (OR=2,47 IC95%=1,14-5,37). Class C was and independent predictor for the complex lesion (OR=5,05,IC95%=2.25-11,3), infracoronary thrombus (OR=8,04, IC 95%=3,49-18,0), total occlusion (OR=6,49, IC95%=2,67-15,7) and distal flux TIMI<3(OR=3,96,IC 95%=1,87-8,4) There was no significant association between classes III, C and c and the responsible vessel, localization of

  9. Application of nonparametric regression methods to study the relationship between NO2 concentrations and local wind direction and speed at background sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife; Misstear, Bruce; Broderick, Brian

    2011-02-15

    Background concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are not constant but vary temporally and spatially. The current paper presents a powerful tool for the quantification of the effects of wind direction and wind speed on background NO(2) concentrations, particularly in cases where monitoring data are limited. In contrast to previous studies which applied similar methods to sites directly affected by local pollution sources, the current study focuses on background sites with the aim of improving methods for predicting background concentrations adopted in air quality modelling studies. The relationship between measured NO(2) concentration in air at three such sites in Ireland and locally measured wind direction has been quantified using nonparametric regression methods. The major aim was to analyse a method for quantifying the effects of local wind direction on background levels of NO(2) in Ireland. The method was expanded to include wind speed as an added predictor variable. A Gaussian kernel function is used in the analysis and circular statistics employed for the wind direction variable. Wind direction and wind speed were both found to have a statistically significant effect on background levels of NO(2) at all three sites. Frequently environmental impact assessments are based on short term baseline monitoring producing a limited dataset. The presented non-parametric regression methods, in contrast to the frequently used methods such as binning of the data, allow concentrations for missing data pairs to be estimated and distinction between spurious and true peaks in concentrations to be made. The methods were found to provide a realistic estimation of long term concentration variation with wind direction and speed, even for cases where the data set is limited. Accurate identification of the actual variation at each location and causative factors could be made, thus supporting the improved definition of background concentrations for use in air quality modelling

  10. A prospective study on congenital malformations in the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital based epidemiological study on congenital anomalies carried out in the high level natural radiation (HLNR) areas of southern Kerala since 1995 to assess the hereditary effects, if any, of HLNR is reported here. Thorium, Uranium to a limited extent, and corresponding decay products in the natural deposits of monazite sand is the source of radiation. HLNR and normal level natural radiation (NLNR) areas are interwoven due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of monazite in the region. Areas with a mean dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and those with 1.5 mGy/year or less, as NLNR. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. The comparison of individual malformation in HLNR and NLNR areas are presented and efforts are on to accrue sufficient sample size to enable the comparison

  11. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Assessment of intercoder agreement. Community Australian football. 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.

  12. Assessment of the Influence of Background Noise on Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior and Pain Behavior in a Child with Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lacey, Claire; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the influence of background noise on levels of problem behavior and pain behavior under functional analysis conditions for a 5-year-old with Williams syndrome and hyperacusis. When the child was fitted with earplugs, there were substantial decreases in both problem and pain behavior under the background noise condition. (Contains…

  13. A longitudinal daily diary study of family assistance and academic achievement among adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    A longitudinal daily diary method was employed to examine the implications of family assistance for the academic achievement of 563 adolescents (53% female) from Mexican (n = 217), Chinese (n = 206), and European (n = 140) backgrounds during the high school years (mean age 14.9 years in 9th grade to 17.8 years in 12th grade). Although changes in family assistance time within individual adolescents were not associated with simultaneous changes in their Grade Point Averages (GPAs), increases in the proportion of days spent helping the family were linked to declines in the GPAs of students from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. The negative implications of spending more days helping the family among these two groups was not explained by family background factors or changes in study time or school problems. These results suggest that the chronicity rather than the amount of family assistance may be difficult for adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

  14. Culture and importance of backgrounds: a cross-cultural study of photograph taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Chen; Smithson, Adam; Spann, Ethan; Ruan, Fang

    2010-10-01

    To compare the focus on targeted people while taking a photograph, samples of American and Chinese college students were randomly selected and asked to take casual pictures of people around them with digital cameras. About 200 photographs were rated for the focus on the intended target in the picture. American students were more likely to focus on the targeted individual, while the Chinese students were more likely to attend to the background and the environment of the targeted individual. The findings imply that for the Chinese college students, the environment can be equally important as the person. Possibly for Americans the environment is less important due to the more individualistic culture.

  15. Scientific requirements for studying the composition of the X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of X-ray astronomy for the 21st century is to make significant contributions to observational cosmology, via the detection of objects at fluxes of 10 -19 ergs cm -2 s -1 , such as the star-forming galaxies at moderate redshift which make up the x-ray background. In order to meet this sensitivity requirement, which is at least two to three orders of magnitude deeper than AXAF, the challenge for the remainder of the present century is to develop the economical and practicable technology of very large mirror arrays

  16. A qualitative study on the role of cultural background in patients' perspectives on rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheermesser Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is one of the major concerns in health care. In Switzerland, musculoskeletal problems represent the third largest illness group with 9.4 million consultations per year. The return to work rate is increased by an active treatment program and saves societal costs. However, results after rehabilitation are generally poorer in patients with a Southeast European cultural background than in other patients. This qualitative research about the rehabilitation of patients with LBP and a Southeast European cultural background, therefore, explores possible barriers to successful rehabilitation. Methods We used a triangulation of methods combining three qualitative methods of data collection: 13 semi-structured in-depth interviews with patients who have a Southeast European cultural background and live in Switzerland, five semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with health professionals, and a literature review. Between June and December 2008, we recruited participants at a Rehabilitation Centre in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results To cope with pain, patients prefer passive strategies, which are not in line with recommended coping strategies. Moreover, the families of patients tend to support passive behaviour and reduce the autonomy of patients. Health professionals and researchers propagate active strategies including activity in the presence of pain, yet patients do not consider psychological factors contributing to LBP. The views of physicians and health professionals are in line with research evidence demonstrating the importance of psychosocial factors for LBP. Treatment goals focusing on increasing daily activities and return to work are not well understood by patients partly due to communication problems, which is something that patients and health professionals are aware of. Additional barriers to returning to work are caused by poor job satisfaction and other work

  17. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano S, A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices. (author)

  18. Using octupoles for background control in linear colliders -- An exploratory conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitthan, R.

    2000-01-01

    If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires cooperation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octupoles right before the final focusing Quadrupoles is proposed in order to enlarge the effective beam stay clear by a factor of 2--3, thus reducing the requirements for collimation. This concept would reduce the requirement for collimation but simulation have not been carried out here in detail. To further explore and implement this concept will require a considerable effort in manpower, possibly comparable to, although less in scope, than the effort to develop the NLC RF or the CLIC RF schemes

  19. Cytogenetic study of stable chromosome aberrations in residents of a high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Chen Deqing; Wei Lvxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of high background radiation on the induction of stable chromosome aberrations. Methods: By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique chromosome Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were painted using specific biotin-labeled whole chromosome painting probes. Peripheral blood specimens were taken from 31 individuals living in the high background radiation area (HRBA) and 29 individuals in the control area. Results: No significant difference was found in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control (P>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) for both children and elderly individuals. On the other hand, correlation between age and translocation frequencies was significant at the 1% level (r s =0.388 with 56DF). Conclusion: There are no differences in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control area. The present result indicates that the contribution of an elevated level of natural radiation in HBRA in China to the induction rate of stable type aberrations (translocations) dose not have a significant effect compared with the contributions from all other sources such as chemical mutagens and(or) metabolic factors. (authors)

  20. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Design Assessment of intercoder agreement. Setting Community Australian football. Participants 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Main outcome measurements Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). Results The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific ‘X’ code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Conclusions Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise. PMID:22919021

  1. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Technical background and guidance for deployment in EU regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Le Pierres, S. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Del Ciello, R. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Harnych, J. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model enables national and regional authorities to assess the carbon impacts of Operational Programmes co-financed through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This document provides technical background information and guidance for deploying the model in additional EU regions.

  2. Radio source counts: comments on their convergence and assessment of the contribution to fluctuations of the microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; Mandolesi, N.

    1982-01-01

    We point out that statistically estimated high frequency counts at milli-Jansky levels exhibit a slower convergence than expected on the basis of extrapolations of counts at higher flux densities and at longer wavelengths. This seems to demand a substantial cosmological evolution for at least a sub-population of flat-spectrum sources different from QSO's, a fact that might have important implications also in connection with the problem of the origin of the X-ray background. We also compute the discrete source contributions to small scale fluctuations in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic microwave background and we show that they set a serious limit to the searches for truly primordial anisotropies using conventional radio-astronomical techniques

  3. A qualitative study on the role of cultural background in patients' perspectives on rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheermesser, Mandy; Bachmann, Stefan; Schämann, Astrid; Oesch, Peter; Kool, Jan

    2012-01-23

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the major concerns in health care. In Switzerland, musculoskeletal problems represent the third largest illness group with 9.4 million consultations per year. The return to work rate is increased by an active treatment program and saves societal costs. However, results after rehabilitation are generally poorer in patients with a Southeast European cultural background than in other patients. This qualitative research about the rehabilitation of patients with LBP and a Southeast European cultural background, therefore, explores possible barriers to successful rehabilitation. We used a triangulation of methods combining three qualitative methods of data collection: 13 semi-structured in-depth interviews with patients who have a Southeast European cultural background and live in Switzerland, five semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with health professionals, and a literature review. Between June and December 2008, we recruited participants at a Rehabilitation Centre in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. To cope with pain, patients prefer passive strategies, which are not in line with recommended coping strategies. Moreover, the families of patients tend to support passive behaviour and reduce the autonomy of patients. Health professionals and researchers propagate active strategies including activity in the presence of pain, yet patients do not consider psychological factors contributing to LBP. The views of physicians and health professionals are in line with research evidence demonstrating the importance of psychosocial factors for LBP. Treatment goals focusing on increasing daily activities and return to work are not well understood by patients partly due to communication problems, which is something that patients and health professionals are aware of. Additional barriers to returning to work are caused by poor job satisfaction and other work-related factors. LBP rehabilitation can be improved by addressing

  4. [Establishment and assessment of QA/QC method for sampling and analysis of atmosphere background CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-xin; Zhou, Ling-xi; Xia, Ling-jun; Wang, Hong-yang; Fang, Shuang-xi

    2014-12-01

    To strengthen scientific management and sharing of greenhouse gas data obtained from atmospheric background stations in China, it is important to ensure the standardization of quality assurance and quality control method for background CO2 sampling and analysis. Based on the greenhouse gas sampling and observation experience of CMA, using portable sampling observation and WS-CRDS analysis technique as an example, the quality assurance measures for atmospheric CO,sampling and observation in the Waliguan station (Qinghai), the glass bottle quality assurance measures and the systematic quality control method during sample analysis, the correction method during data processing, as well as the data grading quality markers and data fitting interpolation method were systematically introduced. Finally, using this research method, the CO2 sampling and observation data at the atmospheric background stations in 3 typical regions were processed and the concentration variation characteristics were analyzed, indicating that this research method could well catch the influences of the regional and local environmental factors on the observation results, and reflect the characteristics of natural and human activities in an objective and accurate way.

  5. Assessing variability in results in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; Ochodo, Eleanor A; Van Enst, Wynanda A; de Groot, Joris A H; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To describe approaches used in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies for assessing variability in estimates of accuracy between studies and to provide guidance in this area. METHODS: Meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies published between May and September

  6. submitter Study of Backgrounds to Black Hole Events in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang Hee

    large extra dimension model with black hole mass MBH = sˆ, where sˆ is the parton-parton Centre of Momentum System (CMS) energy squared. In the large extra dimension model, quantum gravity can become strong at a TeV energy scale in the bulk space-time, and could lead to microscopic black holes being produced and observed by the LHC experiments. Once black holes are produced in the collider, they will decay to the SM particles by Hawking evaporation. Under this scenario, an analysis was carried out to determine the significance of black hole signals above some SM backgrounds in the ATLAS detector. Five event selection criteria were app...

  7. On the Use of Sibiling Data to Estimate the Effects of Family Background, Cognitive Skills, and Schooling: Results from the Kalamazoo Brothers Study. Discussion Papers 374-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    Sibling data drawn from the Kalamazoo Brothers sample are used in this report to assess the adequacy of conventional sociological variables for measuring family background, to estimate the overall effects of family background on test scores, education, occupational status, and earning, and to control family background when estimating the effects…

  8. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Issues in the Assessment of Literacy-Related Difficulties across Language Backgrounds: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, John; Smythe, Ian; Ocampo, Dina; Gyarmathy, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of phonological skills amongst children with developmental dyslexia. Findings from assessments of English and Hungarian monolingual children with and without literacy deficits and bilingual Filipino children with and without literacy deficits in English indicated that performance on phonological-based tasks…

  10. Assessment of Soil Water Composition in the Northern Taiga Coniferous Forests of Background Territories in the Industrially Developed Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Gorbacheva, T. T.; Orlova, M. A.; Isaeva, L. G.; Teben'kova, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of soil water under coniferous forests of Murmansk oblast—an industrially developed region of northern Russia—was investigated. The studied objects were dwarf-shrub-green-moss spruce forests and dwarf-shrub-lichen pine forests on Al-Fe-humus podzols ( Albic Rustic Podzols) that are widespread in the boreal zone. The concentrations and removal of organic carbon performing the most important biogeochemical and pedogenic functions were estimated. The results proved significant intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability in the composition of atmospheric depositions and soil water. Carbon removal with soil water from organic and mineral horizons within elementary biogeoareas (EBGA) under tree crowns was 2-5 and 2-3 times (in some cases, up to 10 times) greater than that in the intercrown areas, respectively. The lowest critical level of mineral nitrogen (0.2 mg/L) was, as a rule, exceeded in tree EBGAs contrary to intercrown areas. Concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals in water of tree EBGA were 3-5 times greater than those in inter-crown areas. Significant inter-biogeocenotic variations related to differences in the height of trees and tree stand density were found. It is argued that adequate characterization of biochemical cycles and assessment of critical levels of components in soil water of forest ecosystems should be performed with due account for the intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability.

  11. Alternative Mechanisms of Research Support: Inventory and Assessment. Science Policy Study Background Report No 11. Report Transmitted to the Task Force on Science Policy, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 provides an inventory of past and present funding instruments in support of university research. It lists types of grants used for research-related purposes and gives information about their provisions and uses. Part 2 provides an assessment conducted by the General Accounting Office of the comparative…

  12. The effects of background noise on dichotic listening to consonant-vowel syllables: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Sequeira, Sarah; Specht, Karsten; Moosmann, Matthias; Westerhausen, Rene; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2010-11-01

    The present fMRI study attempts to identify brain areas that may underlie the effect of different background noises on functional brain asymmetry in a dichotic listening task. Previous studies have shown that the prominent right ear advantage in dichotic listening to consonant-vowel syllables is affected by background noise. To explore the underlying neuronal processes, haemodynamic brain responses using fMRI were recorded while participants performed the dichotic listening task in two different noisy backgrounds (conversational "babble" and traffic noise). The behavioural results showed a reduction of the right ear advantage in the background noise conditions, especially in the traffic noise condition. The behavioural results are discussed in terms of alertness-attentional mechanisms. The effects of background noise on brain activation involved significant activations in a speech-processing network. Specifically the changes in activations in the peri-Sylvian region of the superior temporal gyrus and in the temporo-parietal junction part in the left hemisphere, as well as in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus area in the right hemisphere may mirror the effects of noise on behavioural performance. The effects of noise on brain activation are discussed with regard to pre-activation mechanisms.

  13. Multicultural Education: Learners with Diverse Linguistic and Cultural Background : A Case Study of one Primary School in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tosic, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate how a primary school in Norway addresses learners with diverse linguistic and cultural background, in this study referred as culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD learners). The study is founded on the premises of multicultural education (MCE) which is considered essential to address the education of CLD learners. Therefore, the scope of the study is based on a five- category theoretical framework comprising: understanding the concept ...

  14. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore high school students’ motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Design Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. Setting One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March–December 2015. Participants Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. Methods The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. Results The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students’ autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students’ expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students’ interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. Conclusions The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students’ motivation decreases. Medical schools

  15. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  16. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  17. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  18. Study of thorium uptake by inhabitants of a high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Juliao, L.M.Q.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lauria, D.

    2002-01-01

    Buena, located in the North of Rio de Janeiro, is characterized by its high natural radiation background, due to large deposits of monazite sand. The foodstuffs consumed by the population are basically composed of local products, which contain significant amounts of thorium. The analysis of complete cooked meals have shown an average daily intake of 18 mBq.d -1 of 232 Th and 189 mBq.d -1 of 228 Th. The average urine to feces ratio of 232 Th from samples of volunteers was found equal to 7.5x10 -2 . The comparison of the experimental data with the predicted urine to feces ratios derived using the biokinetic model for thorium described by the ICRP publication 69 and simulating inhalation and ingestion separately, lead to the conclusion that the thorium intake is a combination of inhalation and ingestion. The clearance rate of thorium of monazite in lungs has apparently behaved as Type M compound. Inhalation is the biggest contributor for the committed effective dose due to thorium internal exposure. (author)

  19. The study of infrared target recognition at sea background based on visual attention computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-wei; Zhang, Tian-xu; Shi, Wen-jun; Wei, Long-sheng; Wang, Xiao-ping; Ao, Guo-qing

    2009-07-01

    Infrared images at sea background are notorious for the low signal-to-noise ratio, therefore, the target recognition of infrared image through traditional methods is very difficult. In this paper, we present a novel target recognition method based on the integration of visual attention computational model and conventional approach (selective filtering and segmentation). The two distinct techniques for image processing are combined in a manner to utilize the strengths of both. The visual attention algorithm searches the salient regions automatically, and represented them by a set of winner points, at the same time, demonstrated the salient regions in terms of circles centered at these winner points. This provides a priori knowledge for the filtering and segmentation process. Based on the winner point, we construct a rectangular region to facilitate the filtering and segmentation, then the labeling operation will be added selectively by requirement. Making use of the labeled information, from the final segmentation result we obtain the positional information of the interested region, label the centroid on the corresponding original image, and finish the localization for the target. The cost time does not depend on the size of the image but the salient regions, therefore the consumed time is greatly reduced. The method is used in the recognition of several kinds of real infrared images, and the experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the algorithm presented in this paper.

  20. Study of v interactions and background estimation in the OPERA emulsion film detector

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus ) experiment or CNGS1 was approved in 2001 by CERN and presently is under construction. Data-taking is expected to start in 2006. The experiment is designated to the νμ  ντ oscillation search. OPERA is a hybrid detector comprising a number of electronic detectors and a specially designed nuclear emulsion stack interlaced with lead plates. The total target mass of the detector will be about 1.8 kt. This impressive mass needed for neutrino detection is combined with an even more impressive spatial resolution of about a m , characteristic of the nuclear emulsion technique. The detection of ντ is based on the observation of the decay of the τ lepton. The fine grained structure of nuclear emulsions offers the possibility to directly observe such a decay and by the means of kinematical analysis can be clearly separated from background events. Nuclear emulsions will be produced and processed in industrial quantities and the readout will be don...

  1. The preliminary study of MR diffusion weighted imaging with background body signal suppression on pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huawei; Cheng Jiejun; Xu Jianrong; Lu Qing; Ge Xin; Li Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate maximum intensity projection (MIP) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of MR diffusion weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) on pulmonary diseases. Methods: Sixty-one patients with pulmonary diseases underwent DWlBS. The findings in three dimensional(3D) MIP image were observed and the ADC values of diseased region were measured. The diagnostic value of DWIBS on pulmonary diseases was evaluated. Results: Lung cancer and inflammatory disease were all demonstrated as dense intensity area on DWIBS. The mean ADC value of central lung cancer was (1.05±0.23) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value of peripheral lung cancer was (1.10 ± 0.17) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value of the inflammatory disease was (1.69 ± 0.29) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value had significant difference between peripheral lung cancer and the inflammatory disease (P<0.05). The MR sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosing the pulmonary diseases with DWIBS (86.84%, 82.60%, 85.24%, respectively) was higher than conventional MRI(78.94%, 78.26%, and 78.68%, respectively). Conclusion: DWIBS can demonstrate clearly the lesion's shape with 3D display. The quantitative measurement of ADC values is feasible. DWIBS may be a potential diagnostic method for differentiation on pulmonary diseases. (authors)

  2. Study of the background in the measuring station at the n_TOF facility at CERN: sources and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Aerts, G; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Angelopoulous, A; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Bacri, C-O; Badurek, G; Berthoumieux, E; Baumann, P; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Bondarenko, I; Borcea, C; Bos, A J J; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, P; Charpak, Georges; Chauvin, N; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Corvi, F; Cusmano, A; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; Damianoglou, D; David, S; Dimovasili, E; Domingo, C; Doroshenko, A; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Fursov, B; Garzón, J A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gledenov, Y; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haefner, P; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-martinez, A; Hollander, P; Ioannou, P; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kayukova, A; Kazakov, L; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P E; Kopach, Y; Kossionides, E; Kroshkina, I; Lacoste, V; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Leprêtre, A; Lopes, M; Lozano, M; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Meunier, R; Mezentsev, A J; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Mitrofanov, V; Moreau, C; Müller, A; Nicolis, N; Nikolenkov, V; Oberhummer, Heinz; Pakou, A; Pancin, J; Papadopoulous, K; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Paradelis, T; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrez-Parra, A; Perriale, L; Perlado, J M; Peskov, Vladimir; Piksaikin, V; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Popov, A; Popov, Y P; Pretel, C; Quesada, J M; Radermacher, E; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Samylin, B; Savvidis, I; Savvidis, S; Sedyshev, P; Stéphan, C; Szalanski, P; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Terchychnyi, R; Tsabaris, C; Tsangas, N; van Eijk, C W E; Vannini, G; Ventura, A; Villamarin, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voinov, A; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L; Zeinalov, S; Zhuravlev, B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    A background roughly two orders of magnitude higher than tolerable was found in the n_TOF facility at CERN during the first measurements [1]. This note describes a series of additional measurements performed in the n_TOF experimental area to study the origin and the characteristics of the background. The program of these measurements was determined taking into account the results from the simulations carried out by the EET group [2]. A first phase of measurements confirmed what was expected from the simulations, namely that the dominant source of background was due to neutrons generated by negative muon capture. Actions to reduce the background were taken according to the results from both measurements and simulations. An iron shielding wall 3.2 m thick was then placed in between the sweeping magnet and the second collimator, with the purpose of stopping most of the muons. In a second phase of measurements, results showed that the additional shielding reduced the main component of the background by about a fa...

  3. Progress in the Inductive Strategy-Use of Children from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: A Study Employing Dynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Touw, Kirsten W. J.; Veerbeek, Jochanan; Elliott, Julian G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in inductive behavioural and verbal strategy-use between children (aged 6-8 years) from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. This was effected by the use of an electronic device that could present a series of tasks, offer scaffolded assistance and record children's responses. Children from…

  4. Creating Unity through Celebrating Diversity: A Case Study That Explores the Impact of Music Education on Refugee Background Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the impact of music education on students in an F-12 school in Victoria, Australia that is considered as having a high percentage of young people with a refugee background. Key findings from this research indicated that music education had a positive impact on this group of young…

  5. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  6. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year

  7. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  8. Pilot study of quantitative analysis of background enhancement on breast MR images: association with menstrual cycle and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Fleming, Rachel; Jacks, Lindsay M; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Crystal, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    To perform semiautomated quantitative analysis of the background enhancement (BE) in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and to correlate it with mammographic breast density and menstrual cycle. Informed consent was waived after the research ethics board approved this study. Results of 177 consecutive preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed from February to December 2009 were reviewed; 147 female patients (median age, 48 years; range, 26-86 years) were included. Ordinal values of BE and breast density were described by two independent readers by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The BE coefficient (BEC) was calculated thus: (SI2 · 100/SI1) - 100, where SI is signal intensity, SI2 is the SI enhancement measured in the largest anteroposterior dimension in the axial plane 1 minute after the contrast agent injection, and SI1is the SI before contrast agent injection. BEC was used for the quantitative analysis of BE. Menstrual cycle status was based on the last menstrual period. The Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative assessment groups. Cohen weighted κ was used to evaluate agreement. Of 147 patients, 68 (46%) were premenopausal and 79 (54%) were postmenopausal. The quantitative BEC was associated with the menstrual status (BEC in premenopausal women, 31.48 ± 20.68 [standard deviation]; BEC in postmenopausal women, 25.65 ± 16.74; P = .02). The percentage of overall BE was higher when the MR imaging was performed in women in the inadequate phase of the cycle (quantitative BE than postmenopausal women. No association was found between BE and breast density.

  9. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  10. Candidate Genes Detected in Transcriptome Studies are Strongly Dependent on Genetic Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same...

  11. Exploring Anti-Semitism in the Classroom: A Case Study among Norwegian Adolescents from Minority Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores high school students' views of Jews in one minority-dominated school in Oslo, Norway. Employing a qualitative approach, semistructured interview guides and classroom-based discussions teased out attitudes toward Jews drawing on questions from a nationwide research conducted by The Center for Studies of the Holocaust and…

  12. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-02

    To explore high school students' motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March-December 2015. Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students' autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students' expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students' interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students' motivation decreases. Medical schools should be aware of this and could create opportunities to acquire healthcare

  13. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  14. Japan Environment and Children's Study: backgrounds, activities, and future directions in global perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazue; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kishi, Reiko; Mori, Chisato; Yamagata, Zentaro; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2017-07-14

    There is worldwide concern about the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development. The Miami Declaration was signed at the G8 Environment Ministers Meeting in 1997 to promote children's environmental health research. The following ministerial meetings continued to emphasize the need to foster children's research. In response to such a worldwide movement, the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE), launched a nationwide birth cohort study with 100,000 pairs of mothers and children, namely, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), in 2010. Other countries have also started or planned large-scale studies focusing on children's environmental health issues. The MOE initiated dialogue among those countries and groups to discuss and share the various processes, protocols, knowledge, and techniques for future harmonization and data pooling among such studies. The MOE formed the JECS International Liaison Committee in 2011, which plays a primary role in promoting the international collaboration between JECS and the other children's environmental health research projects and partnership with other countries. This review article aims to present activities that JECS has developed. As one of the committee's activities, a workshop and four international symposia were held between 2011 and 2015 in Japan. In these conferences, international researchers and government officials, including those from the World Health Organization, have made presentations on their own birth cohort studies and health policies. In 2015, the MOE hosted the International Advisory Board meeting and received constructive comments and recommendations from the board. JECS is a founding member of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group, and has discussed harmonization of exposure and outcome measurements with member parties, which will make it possible to compare and further combine data from different studies, considering the diversity in the

  15. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation areas its potential contribution to evaluating risk of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Nair, R.K.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Mizuno, Shoich

    2008-01-01

    The health effect of low-level ionizing radiation is yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. Its evaluation requires epidemiological studies of scale-large cohorts (ICRP 99, 2005) such of atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation (HBR) areas are also expected to make a significant contribution toward this end. Among several HBR areas in the world, Yangjiang, Guangdong Province in China, Karunagappally in Kerala State of India, Manawalakurichi and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu of India, and Ramsar in Iran are important areas where epidemiological studies are possible, because of their relatively high background radiation levels and large population sizes. (author)

  16. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Komili, Abdulhay

    2012-03-15

    Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls) in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002). Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  17. Reforestation and Climate Change Mitigation. A background Study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin; Naess, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O` Brien, Karen L

    1998-12-01

    This report studies the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper institutional settings in host countries. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of property rights. The relationship between various stakeholders, such as governments, non-governmental organisations, the private sector, and international aid agencies is analysed. Discussed aspects include conflicts among stakeholders, long-term security or stability of property rights regimes, distribution of property rights, and information exchange. The forest situation in China and Indonesia is used as an example. The study outlines a number of conflicts in the property rights regime that need a better understanding. Some important issues that need further study are listed. 66 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Background and status of clinical study is determine effects of in utero exposure Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hrubec, Zdenek, Finch, S.C.

    1964-07-02

    The mortality experience of a cohort of approximately 100,000 persons selected from survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings and a comparison of persons who were not in the cities at the time of bombing (ATB) was studied for the period 1 October 1950-30 September 1959.

  19. A Case Study of Chinese Mongolian Students in ELT under the Background of MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In response to the current reform of college English teaching, a case study of Chinese Mongolian students in English language teaching under the influence of MOOCs is carried out in an attempt to examine the efficacy of the integration of information technology into English language teaching. After a brief introduction of the teaching mode of…

  20. The Influence of Cultural Background on Parental Perceptions of Adolescent Gambling Behaviour: A Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin A.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Meerkamper, Eric; Cutajar, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has begun to address youth gambling issues from a bio-psycho-social perspective. The current Canadian national study adds to this body of knowledge by examining the cultural influences impacting parent's attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of youth gambling. A total of 3,279 parents with a child between the ages of 13 and 18…

  1. Studying Computer Science in a Multidisciplinary Degree Programme: Freshman Students' Orientation, Knowledge, and Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Kofoed, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    Teachers at universities are facing an increasing disparity in students' prior IT knowledge and, at the same time, experience a growing disengagement of the students with regard to involvement in study activities. As computer science teachers in a joint programme in computer science and business administration, we made a number of similar…

  2. Study of the material photon and electron background and the liquid argon detector veto efficiency of the CDEX-10 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jian; Zeng Zhi; Ma Hao

    2015-01-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (< 10 -2 events·kg 1 ·day -1 ·keV -1 (cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of the CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible. (authors)

  3. The hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe): background and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygum, Anette; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Caballero, Teresa; Beusterien, Kathleen; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Musingarimi, Patience; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik

    2012-04-26

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but serious disease marked by swelling attacks in the extremities, face, trunk, airway, or abdominal areas that can be spontaneous or the result of trauma and other triggers. It can be life-threatening due to the risk of asphyxiation. While there have been major advancements in our understanding of the immunogenetics of HAE, there are significant gaps in the literature regarding understanding of the humanistic and economic impact of the disease, particularly in Europe. The purpose of the HAE Burden of Illness Study-Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe), the development and methodology of which is described here, is to better understand the management and impact of HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. This is a cross-sectional study in which retrospective data were also collected being conducted in Denmark, Germany and Spain. The study is open to patients ages 12 and older with a diagnosis of HAE-I or HAE-II. Data collection includes: (i) a survey on individuals' health care resource use, direct and indirect medical costs, impact on work and school, treatment satisfaction, and emotional functioning (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); and (ii) one-on-one interviews to collect detailed descriptive data and patient testimonials on the impact of HAE on patients' health-related quality of life. The present manuscript describes the development and plans for implementing a multi-country European study with the aim of characterizing the humanistic and economic burden of HAE from the patient perspective. This study will help raise awareness of HAE as a rare but debilitating condition with wide-ranging impacts.

  4. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...

  5. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  6. Acute myeloid leukemia and background radiation in an expanded case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.; Axelson, O.

    1990-01-01

    A case-referent study that investigated possible associations between environmental and occupational exposures and acute myeloid leukemia was performed on 86 cases and 172 referents, all of whom were living. Exposure information was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to each subject. An association was found between time spent in concrete buildings at home and work and leukemia morbidity. In addition, extensive x-ray examinations that occurred more than 5 y prior to diagnosis were more common among cases than referents

  7. Studies of geothermal background and isotopic geochemistry of thermal waters in Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Sun Zhanxue; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun

    1996-10-01

    The terrestrial heat flow measurement, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in Jiangxi Province. Results show that the thermal waters in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature convective geothermal system, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with deep magmatic heat sources. It has been proven that the isotope and geochemical techniques are very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. (13 refs., 14 tabs., 8 figs.)

  8. A case study of pedagogy of mathematics support tutors without a background in mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the pedagogical skills and knowledge of three tertiary-level mathematics support tutors in a large group classroom setting. This is achieved through the use of video analysis and a theoretical framework comprising Rowland's Knowledge Quartet and general pedagogical knowledge. The study reports on the findings in relation to these tutors' provision of mathematics support to first and second year undergraduate engineering students and second year undergraduate science students. It was found that tutors are lacking in various pedagogical skills which are needed for high-quality learning amongst service mathematics students (e.g. engineering/science/technology students), a demographic which have low levels of mathematics upon entering university. Tutors teach their support classes in a very fast didactic way with minimal opportunities for students to ask questions or to attempt problems. It was also found that this teaching method is even more so exaggerated in mandatory departmental mathematics tutorials that students take as part of their mathematics studies at tertiary level. The implications of the findings on mathematics tutor training at tertiary level are also discussed.

  9. Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Complex Interaction of a Fast Ion Beam Pulse with a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, high energy physics, etc. Comprehensive analytical, numerical, and experimental studies are underway to investigate the complex interaction of a fast ion beam with a background plasma. The positively charged ion beam attracts plasma electrons, and as a result the plasma electrons have a tendency to neutralize the beam charge and current. A suite of particle-in-cell codes has been developed to study the propagation of an ion beam pulse through the background plasma. For quasi-steady-state propagation of the ion beam pulse, an analytical theory has been developed using the assumption of long charge bunches and conservation of generalized vorticity. The analytical results agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The visualization of the data obtained in the numerical simulations shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry into and ex it from the plasma

  10. The Role of Adolescents From a Low Socioeconomic Background in Household Food Preparation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Aasand, Taylor A; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents' from low-income households perceptions of their involvement in home food preparation, reasons underlying the extent to which they were involved, and positive and negative consequences associated with their involvement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 19 adolescents (13-18 years). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Eight adolescents described cooking as a primary responsibility due to adult work and family schedules, age, gender, and/or cultural expectations. They were typically preparing food for themselves and their family without assistance, and making decisions about what was prepared. They identified positive and negative consequences including enjoyment and satisfaction, as well as stress and less time for other activities. Eleven adolescents mostly assisted the primary food preparer, with little input in deciding what was prepared. They identified benefits such as enjoyment and family interaction. Foods prepared by many adolescents tended to be quick and easy to prepare foods. Future studies should investigate the relationship between adultified cooking responsibilities, diet quality, and health. Also, cooking education for adolescents needs to address how to prepare a healthy family meal on a budget.

  11. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  12. Diet and growth in infancy: relationship to socioeconomic background and to health and development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and socioeconomic background, all publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) covering breastfeeding, diet and growth in infancy, and the associations of these factors with socioeconomic background and later health and developmental outcomes were reviewed. Diet was assessed by parent-completed food records and parent-completed food frequency questionnaires covering infant feeding practices. Infancy growth was monitored through routine screening and by standardized measurements. Indicators of socioeconomic background were obtained by parent-completed questionnaires. Childhood outcomes were measured by standardized procedures. Rapid early weight gain was associated with later obesity. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower body fat, but not lower body mass index, and with higher IQ in mid-childhood. Breastfed infants were better at regulating their energy intake than bottle-fed infants. In bottle-fed infants, energy intake at 4 months was associated with greater weight gain up to 5 years of age. Feeding cow's milk as a main drink in infancy was associated with anemia and high salt intake. Maternal education was a strong determinant of dietary differences: low education was associated with never breastfeeding and not following feeding guidelines. ALSPAC has provided unique insights into the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and later developmental outcomes. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W.; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon. - Highlights: • Pollution assessment in areas with geochemical anomalies needs local reference values. • A new method for the determination of background values (BGV) was established. • Geochemical data from unpolluted samples of sediment cores were used. • Statistics and geochronology were applied to recognize unpolluted sediments. • Anthropogenically influenced samples were not considered for BGV determination. - A method including multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating is proposed for determining local background values for trace elements using analytical data form sediment cores

  14. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  15. Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Varadharajan, Geetha; Punekar, M.P.; Chougaokar, M.P.; Ayappan, P.

    2010-01-01

    In India, the personnel monitoring service of ∼ 70,000 radiation workers is being provided using indigenously developed TLD system comprising three CaSO 4 :Dy embedded Teflon discs. In order to remove TL and reset the distribution of defects/trapping centres, all TLD cards are subjected to an annealing treatment at elevated temperature prior to their next use. As per the standardized protocol annealing is carried out in a hot air circulating oven at 230 deg C for 4 hr, which is sufficient to reset the TL dosemeters for dose levels upto 100 mSv. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards namely A, B, C and D series, exposed to various dose levels

  16. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: background studies and recent research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors' research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors' group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research.

  17. Study of rare neutron induced processes and coincidence analyses to identify and reduce background contributions in the COBRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, Jan Horst Karl

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay, primarily of the isotope 116 Cd. The applied semiconductor detectors of cadmium zinc telluride that are 90% to be enriched enable both the detection and the source of this decay. The half-lives of decays of this kind are expected in the range of more than 10 26 years. Therefore, the reduction of contributions to the background is of decisive importance. The main subjects of this work are, on the one hand, the time synchronization of the data, which provides the basis for coincidence analysis. This analysis method has access not only to identification of contributions to the background, but also to observe decays involving positron annihilation and decays into excited states. In this study, the intrinsic detector contamination of some decay products of 238 U and 232 Th was measured and sensitivities to the half-lives of the decays like 120 Te and 128 Te in each case to the first excited state of daughter products are given. On the other hand, qualitative studies on the importance of neutrons in the COBRA experiment were conducted. These have shown that fast neutrons, thus with energies greater than 10 keV, only result in an insignificant contribution to the background for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 116 Cd. Previous studies have also shown that the thermal neutron flux can be in situ determined by coincidence analysis.

  18. Conflict management of mothers and daughters belonging to individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, N P

    1999-12-01

    Research on the mother-daughter relationship during adolescence is mostly conducted in Western and European cultures where individualism is stressed. To examine ethnic/cultural differences and similarities in this relationship, 80 dyads of British (white) and Pakistani mothers and their adolescent daughters were studied. On the basis of the theories of cultural variability dimension and conflict face negotiation, it was hypothesized that mothers and daughters from the two cultures would use different styles of handling disagreements/conflicts. That is, Pakistani mothers and daughters would use an avoiding style, whereas British mothers and daughters would use either a dominating or compromising style, to a greater degree. It was also argued that Pakistani daughters and mothers will express more intimacy and relational harmony, will exhibit greater connectedness and mutuality and demonstrate lesser individuality and self-assertion compared to their British counterparts. However, it appeared that both the groups used an avoiding style equally, although the British group used a dominating style more than Pakistani group. As hypothesized, Pakistani mothers and daughters expressed more intimacy, relational harmony, connectedness and mutuality and lesser individuality than British mothers and daughters. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  19. Background Rejection of Charged Particles in the Simbol-X Telescope: Preliminary Study of Protons Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orto, E.; Barbera, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Mineo, T.; Pareschi, G.; Rigato, V.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    X-ray telescopes equipped with focusing optics in high eccentric orbit, as e.g. Newton-XMM and Chandra, showed a degradation of the detector performance and an important increase of the noise due to soft protons with energy between a few tens of keV and a few MeV, that are focused on the detector through the mirror module. It should be noted that the focusing of the protons by Wolter optics was an unexpected phenomenon. In Simbol-X a magnetic diverter will be implemented to deflect protons, in order to reduce the flux of charged particles impinging upon the focal plane. Obviously the design of the diverter should take into consideration the protons distribution at the exit of the mirror module; for this reason a detailed simulation about the interaction of particles with the mirror surface is necessary. Here we will present the scattering protons models currently under consideration, suggesting a preliminary solution for the design of the magnetic diverter. We will also discuss an ad hoc experiment to study this problem.

  20. Background Rejection of Charged Particles in the Simbol-X Telescope: Preliminary Study of Protons Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orto, E.; Barbera, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Mineo, T.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Rigato, V.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray telescopes equipped with focusing optics in high eccentric orbit, as e.g. Newton-XMM and Chandra, showed a degradation of the detector performance and an important increase of the noise due to soft protons with energy between a few tens of keV and a few MeV, that are focused on the detector through the mirror module. It should be noted that the focusing of the protons by Wolter optics was an unexpected phenomenon. In Simbol-X a magnetic diverter will be implemented to deflect protons, in order to reduce the flux of charged particles impinging upon the focal plane. Obviously the design of the diverter should take into consideration the protons distribution at the exit of the mirror module; for this reason a detailed simulation about the interaction of particles with the mirror surface is necessary. Here we will present the scattering protons models currently under consideration, suggesting a preliminary solution for the design of the magnetic diverter. We will also discuss an ad hoc experiment to study this problem.

  1. SOCIAL SKILLS AND ACADEMIC BACKGROUND: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG STUDENTS AND PSYCHOLOGY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diêgo Ferreira de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as an objective the comparison of Social Skills (SS on psychology course undergraduates' and professionals working in the area with at least one year of work performance. Three groups participated in this study: 63 students at the beginning of the course (1st, 2nd and 3rd semesters; 54 students at the end of the course (8th, 9th and 10th semesters; and 25 psychologists. For the data collect it was used a Social Skills Inventory (SSI that was applied at the university places of work or availability, or via e-mail, with the professionals. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the overall score of Social Skills, neither between the students at the beginning and the end of the course (p=0.319 nor between students at the end of the course and the psychologists (p= 0,70. There was a significant difference in the comparison of students at the beginning of the course and psychologists (p= 0.009. From the manual, it was possible to verify that the majority, of students and professionals, presented a good repertory of SS in its different factors. It was considered still relevant, the development of activities that could enable a major learning of these SS still during graduation, evaluating that they are fundamental to the psychologists' performance. Keywords: Social skills. Psychology. Psychology students. Psychologists.

  2. Price-structure of electricity and district-heating. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present report deals with the pricing and price-structure of electricity and district-heating with their effects on energy saving. It constitutes part of the groundwork for the new Government Energy Conservation Programme. The report describes principles for the pricing of electricity and district-heating in Finland, and gives some examples of tariffs in foreign countries, which are interesting from the point of view of energy saving. Different utilities apply quite similar pricing principles but there are big differences in price levels between the utilities. The difference in consumer prices can be almost 100 % in the case of electricity and over 150 % as concerns district-heating. The change in retail prices in the last ten years has not had a big general impact on the consumption of electricity or on energy saving. On the other hand, when the price increases of individual utilities are studied, the impact on energy saving at least in the short term can be seen. It seems that an increase of the fixed charges in relation to energy rates has been as a general trend after 1990. To promote energy saving the changing energy rates should be given special emphasis in determining electricity and district-heating tariffs. The opening of the electricity market means that the electricity suppliers face a new situation also when pricing their products. Customers and their expectations will play an increasingly role. (orig.)

  3. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-06-11

    Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18-49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at

  4. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hempler NF

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nana F Hempler,1 Sara Nicic,1 Bettina Ewers,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; 2Nutrition and Food Services Department, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark Background: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion: Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. Keywords: dietary diabetes

  6. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who comprise

  7. Assessing Verbal Functioning in South African School Beginners from Diverse Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate; Bloch, Lauren; Moolla, Azra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether measures of verbal working memory are less sensitive to children's socioeconomic background than traditional vocabulary measures. Participants were 120 school beginners, divided into high and low socioeconomic groups. The groups contained equal numbers of English first-language and second-language speakers. All were…

  8. Procedures for treating common cause failures in safety and reliability studies: Volume 2, Analytic background and techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Fleming, K.N.; Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Worledge, D.H.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents a framework for the inclusion of the impact of common cause failures in risk and reliability evaluations. Common cause failures are defined as that subset of dependent failures for which causes are not explicitly included in the logic model as basic events. The emphasis here is on providing procedures for a practical, systematic approach that can be used to perform and clearly document the analysis. The framework and the methods discussed for performing the different stages of the analysis integrate insights obtained from engineering assessments of the system and the historical evidence from multiple failure events into a systematic, reproducible, and defensible analysis. This document, Volume 2, contains a series of appendices that provide additional background and methodological detail on several important topics discussed in Volume 1

  9. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay.

  10. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  11. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontchos, Brian N.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Korde, Larissa A.; Lam, Diana L.; Scheel, John R.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Results Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Conclusion Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. © RSNA

  12. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  13. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  14. Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Farai, I.P.; Alausa, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226 Ra and 232 Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 μSv, 8.1 μSv and 8.8 μSv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 μSv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

  15. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven; Eskola, Juhani; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Halsey, Neal; MacDonald, Noni; Law, Barbara; Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Stowe, Julia; Salmon, Daniel; Vannice, Kirsten; Izurieta, Hector S; Akhtar, Aysha; Gold, Mike; Oselka, Gabriel; Zuber, Patrick; Pfeifer, Dina; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Because of the advent of a new influenza A H1N1 strain, many countries have begun mass immunisation programmes. Awareness of the background rates of possible adverse events will be a crucial part of assessment of possible vaccine safety concerns and will help to separate legitimate safety concerns from events that are temporally associated with but not caused by vaccination. We identified background rates of selected medical events for several countries. Rates of disease events varied by age, sex, method of ascertainment, and geography. Highly visible health conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, spontaneous abortion, or even death, will occur in coincident temporal association with novel influenza vaccination. On the basis of the reviewed data, if a cohort of 10 million individuals was vaccinated in the UK, 21·5 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and 5·75 cases of sudden death would be expected to occur within 6 weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. In female vaccinees in the USA, 86·3 cases of optic neuritis per 10 million population would be expected within 6 weeks of vaccination. 397 per 1 million vaccinated pregnant women would be predicted to have a spontaneous abortion within 1 day of vaccination. PMID:19880172

  16. Are conventional statistical techniques exhaustive for defining metal background concentrations in harbour sediments? A case study: The Coastal Area of Bari (Southeast Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Ungaro, Nicola; Belviso, Claudia; Fiore, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses significant risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic for dredging operations. The determination of the background values of metal and metalloid distribution based on site-specific variability is fundamental in assessing pollution levels in harbour sediments. The novelty of the present work consists of addressing the scope and limitation of analysing port sediments through the use of conventional statistical techniques (such as: linear regression analysis, construction of cumulative frequency curves and the iterative 2σ technique), that are commonly employed for assessing Regional Geochemical Background (RGB) values in coastal sediments. This study ascertained that although the tout court use of such techniques in determining the RGB values in harbour sediments seems appropriate (the chemical-physical parameters of port sediments fit well with statistical equations), it should nevertheless be avoided because it may be misleading and can mask key aspects of the study area that can only be revealed by further investigations, such as mineralogical and multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  18. Assessing Civic Competency and Engagement in Higher Education: Research Background, Frameworks, and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-15-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Cabrera, Julio C.; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Civic learning is increasingly recognized as important by the higher education and workforce communities. The development of high-quality assessments that can be used to evaluate students' civic learning during the college years has become a priority. This paper presents a comprehensive review of existing frameworks, definitions, and assessments…

  19. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  20. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among inhabitants in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to confirm and explore main risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in cohort members of the investigated areas, and evaluate effects of confounding factors on cancer risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. Methods: The deceased cases of NPC during the period of 1987-1995 were selected as study subjects for each of whom two controls were randomly selected from potential control subjects who died from causes other than malignant tumors and external causes, and matched for sex and years of birth and death (within 5 years). Using structure questionnaire, the relevant information including socioeconomic status, dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, history of illness, agricultural use of pesticide, medical X-ray exposure and familial history of NPC were collected. The odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of association between NPC and the risk factors. Results: 102 cases and 202 controls were successfully investigated. Single factor conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of NPC was closely positively associated with intake of salted fish, pickles, fermented soybeans, cured meats, history of chronic rhinitis and familial history of NPC. Further multiple conditional logistic regression analysis turned out that intake of salted fish, history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC were the independent risk factors of NPC. After controlling for history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC, the results based on multiple conditional logistic regression analysis from high background radiation, intake of salted fish and fermented soybeans, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption showed that only intake of salted fish was a significant risk factor (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.52-5.18), tobacco smoking (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.65-2.22), alcohol consumption (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.38-1.78) and exposure to high background radiation (OR= 0.86, 95% CI 0.44-1.68) did not

  1. Nested case-control study on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted based on 106517 subjects. 98 cases that died of NPC were detected during a follow-up program for 9 years. Univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression were used to analyze associations between the exposure factors and NPC. Results: Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels, salted fish intake, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study was 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion: Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC

  2. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  3. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  4. The interplay of gender and social background: A longitudinal study of interaction effects in reading attitudes and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele

    2017-11-15

    Researchers often report and discuss gender differences. However, recent research has drawn attention to interaction effects between gender and other social categories. This study analysed the development of disparities in students' reading-related self-concept, intrinsic motivation, and behaviour, as they relate to differences in gender and socio-economic family background. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we regarded reading-related self-concept, motivation, and behaviour as key to explaining the growing differences between boys and girls in adolescence. Specifically, we focused on the interaction between gender and socio-economic background in children, which has been discussed in the context of moderating gender differences but not in the context of reading-related attitudes and behaviour. The investigation is based on a longitudinal sample of N = 717 German students between third and sixth grades. We used questionnaire data from both students and parents. To compare students' development across time, we applied multigroup latent growth curve models. We found evidence of increasing gender differences, which were also moderated by the socio-economic status (SES) of parents: a gender gap either already existed (intrinsic motivation and reading behaviour) or intensified (reading self-concept and reading behaviour) between third and sixth grades. The interaction of gender and SES seemed particularly important for reading self-concept, with the gender gap growing less substantially for higher-SES children. Moreover, this pattern persisted for reading self-concept, even when controlling for achievement differences. The results provide evidence that gender, social background, and the interaction of the two are relevant for development in the domain of reading, even in young children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  6. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru [Guangdong Inst. of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou (China); Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death ({+-}5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish

  7. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (±5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was

  8. Risk-assessments Environmental Impact Statement. NESHAPs (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) for radionuclides. Background information document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The publication contains a chapter on each radionuclide source category studied. The chapters include an introduction, category description, process description, control technology, health impact assessment, supplemental control technology, and cost. It has an appendix which contains the inputs to all the computer runs used to generate the risk assessment

  9. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  10. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. V. Seasonal drought characteristics division and assessment in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-10-01

    Zoning seasonal drought based on the study of drought characteristics can provide theoretical basis for formulating drought mitigation plans and improving disaster reduction technologies in different arid zones under global climate change. Based on the National standard of meteorological drought indices and agricultural drought indices and the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, this paper analyzed the climatic background and distribution characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China, and made a three-level division of seasonal drought in this region by the methods of combining comprehensive factors and main factors, stepwise screening indices, comprehensive disaster analysis, and clustering analysis. The first-level division was with the annual aridity index and seasonal aridity index as the main indices and with the precipitation during entire year and main crop growing season as the auxiliary indices, dividing the southern China into four primary zones, including semi-arid zone, sub-humid zone, humid zone, and super-humid zone. On this basis, the four primary zones were subdivided into nine second-level zones, including one semi-arid area-temperate-cold semi-arid hilly area in Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau, three sub-humid areas of warm sub-humid area in the north of the Yangtze River, warm-tropical sub-humid area in South China, and temperate-cold sub-humid plateau area in Southwest China, three humid areas of temperate-tropical humid area in the Yangtze River Basin, warm-tropical humid area in South China, and warm humid hilly area in Southwest China, and two super-humid areas of warm-tropical super-humid area in South China and temperate-cold super-humid hilly area in the south of the Yangtze River and Southwest China. According to the frequency and intensity of multiple drought indices, the second-level zones were further divided into 29 third-level zones. The distribution of each seasonal drought zone was

  11. [Supportive amblyopia treatment by means of computer games with background stimulation; a placebo controlled pilot study of 10 days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, U; Muchamedjarow, F; Seiler, T

    2001-04-01

    Computer programmes for visual stimulation may give new impulses to the field of amblyopia treatment by offering an option to shift the apparative visual training into the domestic sphere. Regarding this aspect we report on a placebo controlled study on a newly developed vision training consisting of a background stimulation by a drifting sinusoidal grating combined with a foreground game aimed to maintain the attention. Fourteen amblyopia patients aged from 6 to 13 years participated in the study. Seven were allocated to a placebo and seven to a treatment group. Both groups had to train at the computer for a period of 10 working days by two sessions of about 20 minutes daily. Whilst the placebo group played in front of a neutral background, the treatment group did this with a drifting sinusoidal grating in the background. The treatment condition resulted in a greater increase of visual acuity than the placebo condition. Near vision improved in the treatment group from 0.20 (SD +/- 4.51 steps) to 0.39 (SD +/- 3.06 steps), i.e. by 3.0 steps of visual acuity (SD +/- 1.8 steps), in the placebo group from 0.14 (SD +/- 6.02 steps) to 0.17 (SD +/- 5.85 steps), i.e. by 0.8 steps of visual acuity (SD +/- 1.6 steps). Far vision improved in the treatment group from 0.29 (SD +/- 2.57 steps) to 0.44 (SD +/- 3.16 steps), i.e. by 1.9 steps of visual acuity (SD +/- 1.3 steps), in the placebo group from 0.24 (SD +/- 5.20 steps) to 0.28 (SD +/- 5.51 steps), i.e. by 0.7 steps of visual acuity (SD +/- 1.1 steps). Stimulation with drifting sinusoidal gratings improves the visual acuity of amblyopic eyes in a specific way. The effect might be accounted for by a synergy of spatial and temporal frequency in form vs. motion channels. A preliminary hypothesis is discussed and will be the subject of ongoing research. The presented method has been developed for the treatment of "delayed" amblyopia in the elder child. It is aimed to support and complement occlusion therapy. However, the

  12. Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo San-Cristobal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS, based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers.

  13. Knowing One's Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students' satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students' impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students' first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students' social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  14. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  15. Study of the natural radiation background affected on the human body in some areas of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Van Thanh

    2008-01-01

    The author had studied the natural radiation background in 68 districts belong 40 provinces and cities of Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. The estimated results clearly show that the average external irradiation dose levels and the average annual external radiation equivalent dose affected on the human body are 0.181± 0.0189 μSv/h and 1599 ± 171.8 μSv/year respectively, both are in normal limit; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Buon Ma Thuot city (DakLak province), Phuoc Son district (Quang Nam province), Tan An district (Long An province). The radon concentration in the human being and the average annual internal inhalation irradiation equivalent dose affected on the human beings are 26.9 ± 15.89 Bq/m 3 and 392.88 ± 231.99 μSv/year respectively; the maximums are in Nha Trang city (Khanh Hoa province), Bac Binh district (Binh Phuoc province); the minimums are in Vung Tau city (Ba Ria- Vung Tau province), Tan An district (Long An province), Rach Gia district (Kien Giang province). The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations in the cereals, foodstuffs (rice, meat, vegetables), water, earth and the average annual internal irradiation equivalent dose are 829.2 ± 38.06 Bq/kg and 229.3 ± 67.70 μSv/year respectively; the highest levels are in Phong Tho district (Lai Chau province), Dien Bien city; the lowest levels are in Dong Xoai district (Binh Phuoc province), Tan An district (Long An province). The average total annual natural radiation background effective equivalent dose level affected on the human body is 2206.9 ± 529.30 μSv/year; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Tan An district (Long An province). The 14 maps of Natural Radiation Background in several localized regions belong 40 provinces and cities of Viet Nam had been set up. These results can reserve for serviceman and public health in the both wartime and peacetime. (author)

  16. submitter Study of possible Supersymmetric processes and Mini Black Hole production and comparison to background events with high transverse energy in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed-Katz, Arie

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, which was installed at one of the interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has the capability to discover 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model (SM) already during its first year of operation. In this work an assessment of ATLAS capabilities regarding the detection of some 'new physics' signals is performed. In the course of this research all relevant SM background sources were produced. These sources were studied with several simulation tools and the results are compared. In the scope of these background studies, a verification procedure that relies on expected SM production rates was developed. This procedure is able to distinguish between new physics and a faked one originating in malfunctioning detector. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the best candidates for the theory 'beyond the Standard Model'. It predicts the existence of new symmetry between bosons and fermions, and assumes a new fermion partner for each SM boson and a new boson partner for each SM fermion. A maj...

  17. Primary language and cultural background as factors in resident burnout in medical specialties: a study in a bilingual US city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khalid I; Khan, Farhan M; Mulla, Zuber; Akins, Ralista; Ledger, Elizabeth; Giordano, Frank L

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the degree of burnout among resident physicians enrolled in seven postgraduate training programs at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC), Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, as it related to residents' age, gender, marital status, number of hours worked per week, primary language, race/ethnicity, and cultural background. : The Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI) was administered to measure the level of burnout according to the prevalence of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). : Eighty-one percent of the residents at TTUHSC participated in the study. Residents raised in the United States or Canada comprised 28% and 35% of the study, and all reported English as their primary language. The EE scale was significant for obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) residents (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 13.55, P = 0.02) and psychiatry (PSY) residents (POR = 6.50, P = 0.03). Emergency medicine (EM) residents (POR = 23.35, P = 0.002), OB/GYN (POR = 10.89, P = 0.02), and general surgery (GS) (POR = 6.24, P = 0.03) residents had high DP. Internal medicine (IM) residents (primarily Spanish-speaking) reported significantly low EE (POR = 0.22, P = 0.03) and PA (POR = 0.09, P = 0.001) scores. Residents from the United States or Canada who reported English as their primary language and noted their race as white, had high EE (POR = 3.06, P = 0.03; POR = 5.61, P = 0.0001; POR = 2.91, P = 0.004), DP (POR = 3.19, P = 0.02; POR = 8.34, P burnout and residents' race/ethnicity, primary language, and cultural background. Larger studies with similar focus would be necessary to generalize these findings. At-risk residents in bilingual locations should be provided with cultural awareness workshops, language assistance programs, as well as senior resident and faculty mentors.

  18. The willingness to participate in health research studies of individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds: barriers and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingoyan, D; Schulz, H; Mösko, M

    2012-06-01

    Lower participation rates of ethnic minorities in health research studies and potential participation barriers are commonly reported. Four semi-structured focus groups of individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds living in Germany were conducted to identify potential participation barriers. Documented statements and superscripted presentation cards by the participants were evaluated with a qualitative content analysis. The following eight potential reasons for the lower participation rates were identified: role of women, lack of knowledge, lack of interest, German-Turkish interactions, mistrust, anxiety, data privacy protection and benefits of the study. Additionally, the following recruitment strategies to enhance participation rates were found: public relations, especially word-of-mouth promotion and contacting Turkish key figures, (non-) tangible incentives and trust building through transparent communication of the project and its conditions. The findings provide a wide range of potential participation barriers and implications that should be considered to enhance the participation rates of minority populations. The willingness to participate in health research studies can be increased through particular efforts, which should be tailored to the recruitment of the underrepresented target population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of radiation background at various high altitude locations in preparation for rare event search in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Dey, S.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, D., E-mail: rupamoy@gmail.com, E-mail: dey_s2001@yahoo.com, E-mail: sanjay@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: atanu.maulik@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: sibaji.raha@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: syam.debapriyo@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block-EN, Sector-V, Kolkata-700091 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Various phenomenological models presented over the years have hinted at the possible presence of strangelets, which are nuggets of Strange Quark Matter (SQM), in cosmic rays. One way to search for such rare events is through the deployment of large area Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) arrays at high mountain altitudes. Before the deployment of any such array can begin, a detailed study of the radiation background is essential. Also, a proper understanding of the response of detectors exposed to extreme weather conditions is necessary. With that aim, pilot studies were carried out at various high altitude locations in India such as Darjeeling (2200 m a.m.s.l), Ooty (2200 m a.m.s.l) and Hanle (4500 m a.m.s.l). Small arrays of CR-39 as well as high threshold Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detectors were given open air exposures for periods ranging from three months to two years. The findings of such studies are reported in this paper.

  20. Childhood obesity prevention in rural settings: background, rationale, and study design of ‘4-Health,’ a parent-only intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Wesley C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent–child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program or a “best-practices” (Healthy Living Information control group. Discussion This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents’ ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587

  1. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gangdong, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Xu, Songfan [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert [University of California-San Francisco, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center and the Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Park, Seungjoon [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University, Department of Pharmacology and the Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to ROS and the Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  2. A Study of Background Conditions for Sphinx—The Satellite-Borne Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available SPHiNX is a proposed satellite-borne gamma-ray burst polarimeter operating in the energy range 50–500 keV. The mission aims to probe the fundamental mechanism responsible for gamma-ray burst prompt emission through polarisation measurements. Optimising the signal-to-background ratio for SPHiNX is an important task during the design phase. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit is used in this work. From the simulation, the total background outside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA is about 323 counts/s, which is dominated by the cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma rays, which contribute ∼60% and ∼35% of the total background, respectively. The background from albedo neutrons and primary and secondary cosmic rays is negligible. The delayed background induced by the SAA-trapped protons is about 190 counts/s when SPHiNX operates in orbit for one year. The resulting total background level of ∼513 counts/s allows the polarisation of ∼50 GRBs with minimum detectable polarisation less than 30% to be determined during the two-year mission lifetime.

  3. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the nee...

  4. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  5. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C.G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  6. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent

  7. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent

  8. Simulation studies of muon-produced background events deep underground and consequences for double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic radiation creates a significant background for low count rate experiments. The Majorana demonstrator experiment is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at a depth of 4850ft below the surface but it can still be penetrated by cosmic muons with initial energies above the TeV range. The interaction of muons with the rock, the shielding material in the lab and the detector itself can produce showers of secondary particles, like fast neutrons, which are able to travel through shielding material and can produce high-energy γ-rays via capture or inelastic scattering. The energy deposition of these γ rays in the detector can overlap with energy region of interest for the neutrino-less double beta decay. Recent studies for cosmic muons penetrating the Majorana demonstrator are made with the Geant4 code. The results of these simulations will be presented in this talk and an overview of the interaction of the shower particles with the detector, shielding and veto system will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  9. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  10. Violence against the adolescents of Kolkata: A study in relation to the socio-economic background and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Ray, Mrinalkanti; Bhattacharyya, Banhishikha; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to understand the nature of violence suffered by the adolescents of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) and to identify its relation with their socio-economic background and mental health variables such as anxiety, adjustment, and self-concept. It is a cross-sectional study covering a total of 370 adolescents (182 boys and 188 girls) from six higher secondary schools in Kolkata. The data was gathered by way of a semi-structured questionnaire and three standard psychological tests. Findings revealed that 52.4%, 25.1%, and 12.7% adolescents suffered psychological, physical, and sexual violence in the last year. Older adolescents (aged 17-18 years) suffered more psychological violence than the younger ones (15-16 years) (pviolence between adult members in the family. More than three-fifth (61.9%) adolescents experienced at least one type of violence, while one-third (32.7%) experienced physical or sexual violence or both. Whatever its nature is, violence leaves a scar on the mental health of the victims. Those who have been through regular psychological violence reported high anxiety, emotional adjustment problem, and low self-concept. Sexual abuse left a damaging effect on self-concept (pviolence or the witnessing of violence prompted high anxiety scores (pconcept (p<0.05). This study stresses the need to provide individual counselling services to the maltreated adolescents of Kolkata so that their psychological traumas can heal and that they can move on in life with new hopes and dreams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New perspectives on occupational health and safety in immigrant populations: studying the intersection between immigrant background and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; De Moortel, Deborah; Malmusi, Davide; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigating health inequalities pay attention to the intersection between several social determinants of health. The purpose of this article is to examine the relation between perceptions of work-related health and safety risk (WHSR) and (1) immigrant background and (2) gender in the EU-15. The effects are controlled for educational attainment, the quality of work (QOW) and occupation. Pooled data from the European Social Survey 2004 and 2010 are used in this study. The sample is restricted to respondents of working age (16-65 years) (N = 17,468). The immigrants are divided into two groups according to their country of origin: (semi-)periphery and core countries. Both groups of immigrants are compared to natives. Additionally, the research population is stratified by gender. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses are used. Core immigrants (both men and women) do not differ from natives in terms of QOW. (Semi-)periphery immigrants (both men and women) are employed in jobs with lower QOW. While no differences in WHSR are found among men, female immigrants (both (semi-)periphery and core) have significantly more WHSR compared to native women. Although WHSR is generally lower in women, (semi-)periphery women have a similar prevalence of WHSR as men. (Semi-)periphery immigrants are employed in lower quality jobs, while core immigrants do not differ from natives in that regard. Female immigrant workers--especially those from (semi-)periphery countries--have higher WHSR compared to native women. Our findings highlight the importance of an intersectional approach in the study of work-related health inequalities.

  12. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  13. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  14. Documentation of technical background for realize a comparison study of the current state of four optical and photonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Alpizar, Cristian; Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres; Goldini Garcia, Luis Diego; Ruiz Campos, David

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of four application systems of the optics and photonics is proposes, which are considered important for local disclosure. These four systems can appear in components, techniques, instruments or equipment, but from the standpoint of the analytical approach you want to work, are considered systems and will be studied all its constitutive parts. A thorough job is requested that includes not only the objective search, collecting and analysis of technical background to understand the development of these systems and their initial limitations, but to study improvements, the current state, applications, rules in force of quality control, utilization and maintenance, for its later use in LAFTLA. The four optical and photonic systems proposed are: 1. Meter the optical spectrum, the subject of physical optics, the application of interferometry and diffraction, optoelectronics and spectroscopy. The utilization to obtain optical spectra and the application in calibrations and trials is analyzed. 2. In radiometry, the application of photodetectors in a calibrated meter of radiant power and radiant energy for use with laser devices. The utilization for measuring of power or radiant energy of a laser beam, for calibrations and trials is analyzed, either in free space beam or optical fiber. 3. In optoelectronics, the development of LED and application of white LED, OLED, IRED and UVED. Infinity of applications are performed, but will analyze indicators and lighting as luminescent source and for flat screen projection, research in UV and IR radiometry. 4. In photometry, the measurement of the photopic spectral luminous efficiency V (λ) CIE 1924 of photometric normalized observer. To the photometry and calibration of photometric magnitudes has been vital. (author) [es

  15. The Age of Studies and Reports: Selected Elements Concerning the Background of Encounters Defining the Power of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tašner and Slavko Gaber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we discuss the time before the “age of reports”. Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959 and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on the period after the World War II, which was marked by rising economic nationalism, on the one hand, and by the second wave of mass education, on the other, bearing the promise of more equality and a reduction of several social inequalities, both supposed to be ensured by school. It was a period of great expectations related to the power of education and the rise of educational meritocracy. On this background, in the second part of the paper, the authors attempt to explore the phenomenon of the aforementioned reports, which significantly questioned the power of education and, at the same time, enabled the formation of evidence-based education policies. In this part of the paper, the central place is devoted to the case of socialist Yugoslavia/Slovenia and its striving for more equality and equity through education. Through the socialist ideology of more education for all, socialist Yugoslavia, with its exaggerated stress on the unified school and its overemphasised belief in simple equality, overstepped the line between relying on comprehensive education as an important mechanism for increasing the possibility of more equal and just education, on the one hand, and the myth of the almighty unified school capable of eradicating social inequalities, especially class inequalities, on the other. With this radical approach to the reduction of inequalities, socialist policy in the then Yugoslavia paradoxically reduced the opportunity for greater equality, and even more so for more equitable education.

  16. Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centuori, S.; Hermosín, P.; Martín, J.; De Zaiacomo, G.; Colin, S.; Godfrey, A.; Myles, J.; Johnson, H.; Sachdev, T.; Ahmed, R.

    2018-04-01

    Current paper presents the results of ESA funded activity "Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study" carried-out by DEIMOS Space, Lockheed Martin UK Ampthill, and MDA Corporation, where more than 500 mission design options have been studied.

  17. Assessment of environmental 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in the region of elevated radiation background in Segamat District, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq

    2013-01-01

    Extensive environmental survey and measurements of gamma radioactivity in the soil samples collected from Segamat District were conducted. Two gamma detectors were used for the measurements of background radiation in the area and the results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate and mean weighted dose rate, which are 276 nGy h −1 and 1.169 mSv y −1 , respectively. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used in the assessment of activity concentrations of 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K. The results of the gamma spectrometry range from 11 ± 1 to 1210 ± 41 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th, 12 ± 1 to 968 ± 27 Bq kg −1 for 226 Ra, and 12 ± 2 to 2450 ± 86 Bq kg −1 for 40 K. Gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations range from 170 ± 50 to 4360 ± 170 Bq kg −1 and 70 ± 20 to 4690 ± 90 Bq kg −1 , respectively. These results were used in the plotting of digital maps (using ARCGIS 9.3) for isodose. The results are compared with values giving in UNSCEAR 2000. -- Highlights: • Assessment of the activities in region of elevated radiation in Segamat District. • The average dose rate found to be six times higher than the world average. • The activity of 232 Th is six times world average. • The activity of 226 Ra is four times and 40 K is lower than world average. • A digital map plotted for isodose

  18. Assessment of environmental (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in the region of elevated radiation background in Segamat District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq

    2013-10-01

    Extensive environmental survey and measurements of gamma radioactivity in the soil samples collected from Segamat District were conducted. Two gamma detectors were used for the measurements of background radiation in the area and the results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate and mean weighted dose rate, which are 276 nGy h(-1) and 1.169 mSv y(-1), respectively. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used in the assessment of activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K. The results of the gamma spectrometry range from 11 ± 1 to 1210 ± 41 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, 12 ± 1 to 968 ± 27 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 12 ± 2 to 2450 ± 86 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations range from 170 ± 50 to 4360 ± 170 Bq kg(-1) and 70 ± 20 to 4690 ± 90 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These results were used in the plotting of digital maps (using ARCGIS 9.3) for isodose. The results are compared with values giving in UNSCEAR 2000. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  20. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: Development of a Health Background Study Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Bursey, Gayle E; Neumann, Jana; Leeming, Daniel H; Gutmann, Christine E; Sivanand, Bhavna; Mowat, David L

    2014-09-12

    This project involved development of a Health Background Study (HBS) Framework to support consideration of health impacts within municipalities' approval process for land use development. Peel Public Health and Toronto Public Health led the project with the participation of planners, urban designers, engineers, public health staff and development industry representatives. Historical growth in the Region of Peel and suburban Toronto has resulted in extensive low-density development, creating car-dependent communities with disconnected streets and segregated land uses. The inclusion of an HBS in developers' applications to municipalities is one approach by which health-related expectations for the built environment can be established within the approval process. Development of the HBS Framework used the six core elements of the built environment with the strongest evidence for impact on health and was informed by analysis of the provincial and local policy contexts, practices of other municipalities and stakeholder interviews. The Framework's contents were refined according to feedback from multidisciplinary stakeholder workshops. The HBS Framework identifies minimum standards for built environment core elements that developers need to address in their applications. The Framework was created to be simple and instructive with applicability to a range of development locations and scales, and to various stages of the development approval process. Peel Public Health is leading several initiatives to support the use of the HBS as a part of the development application process. The HBS Framework is a tool that public health and planning can use to support the consideration of health impacts within municipalities' land use development processes.

  1. A qualitative study of the background and in-hospital medicolegal response to female burn injuries in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruwalla, Nayreen; Belur, Jyoti; Kumar, Meena; Tiwari, Vinay; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tilley, Nick; Osrin, David

    2014-11-30

    Most burns happen in low- and middle-income countries. In India, deaths related to burns are more common in women than in men and occur against a complex background in which the cause - accidental or non-accidental, suicidal or homicidal - is often unclear. Our study aimed to understand the antecedents to burns and the problem of ascribing cause, the sequence of medicolegal events after a woman was admitted to hospital, and potential opportunities for improvement. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 women admitted to two major burns units, their families, and 26 key informant doctors, nurses, and police officers. We used framework analysis to examine the context in which burns occurred and the sequence of medicolegal action after admission to hospital. Interviewees described accidents, attempted suicide, and attempted homicide. Distinguishing between these was difficult because the underlying combination of poverty and cultural precedent was common to all and action was contingent on potentially conflicting narratives. Space constraint, problems with cooking equipment, and inflammable clothing increased the risk of accidental burns, but coexisted with household conflict, gender-based violence, and alcohol use. Most burns were initially ascribed to accidents. Clinicians adhered to medicolegal procedures, the police carried out their investigative requirements relatively rapidly, but both groups felt vulnerable in the face of the legal process. Women's understandable reticence to describe burns as non-accidental, the contested nature of statements, their perceived history of changeability, the limited quality and validity of forensic evidence, and the requirement for resilience on the part of clients underlay a general pessimism. The similarities between accident and intention cluster so tightly as to make them challenging to distinguish, especially given women's understandable reticence to describe burns as non-accidental. The contested status of

  2. Breast cancer diagnosis and mortality by tumor stage and migration background in a nationwide cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Sandelin, Kerstin; Moradi, Tahereh

    2017-02-01

    Survival in breast cancer patients has steadily increased over the years, but with considerable disparities between individuals with different migration background and social position. We explored differences in diagnosis and all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients by stage of disease at the time of diagnosis and by country of birth, while considering the effect of comorbidity, regional and socio-demographic factors. We used Swedish national registers to follow a cohort of 35,268 patients (4232 foreign-born) with breast cancer between 2004 and 2009 in Sweden. We estimated relative risk ratio (RRR) for diagnosis, hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality and relative excess rate (RER) for breast cancer mortality using multinomial logistic regression models, multivariable Cox proportional hazard, and Poisson regression, respectively. We observed 4178 deaths due to any causes. Among them 418 women were born abroad. Foreign-born patients were on average 3 years younger at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and had higher risk of stage II tumors compared with Sweden-born women (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19). Risk of dying was 20% higher in foreign-born compared with Sweden-born breast cancer patients, if the tumor was diagnosed at stages III-IV after adjustment for age at diagnosis, education, county of residence and Charlson's comorbidity index (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.95-1.51 and RER = 1.21, 95% CI 0.95-1.55). The worse prognosis in foreign-born patients with advanced tumors compared with Sweden-born patients is not explained by educational level or comorbidity. The reasons behind the observed disparities should be further studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  4. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  5. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight), health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance. We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test). Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child. The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education) and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education). The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance. Children's school performance was affected only slightly by a

  6. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  7. Studying the ICM in clusters of galaxies via surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2018-02-01

    We study surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) using Chandra data of XBOOTES. After masking out resolved sources we compute the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB for angular scales from {≈ } 2 arcsec to ≈3°. The non-trivial large-scale structure (LSS) signal dominates over the shot noise of unresolved point sources on angular scales above {˜ } 1 arcmin and is produced mainly by the intracluster medium (ICM) of unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies, as shown in our previous publication. The shot-noise-subtracted power spectrum of CXB fluctuations has a power-law shape with the slope of Γ = 0.96 ± 0.06. Their energy spectrum is well described by the redshifted emission spectrum of optically thin plasma with the best-fitting temperature of T ≈ 1.3 keV and the best-fitting redshift of z ≈ 0.40. These numbers are in good agreement with theoretical expectations based on the X-ray luminosity function and scaling relations of clusters. From these values we estimate the typical mass and luminosity of the objects responsible for CXB fluctuations, M500 ∼ 1013.6 M⊙ h-1 and L0.5-2.0 keV ∼ 1042.5 erg s-1. On the other hand, the flux-weighted mean temperature and redshift of resolved clusters are T ≈ 2.4 keV and z ≈ 0.23 confirming that fluctuations of unresolved CXB are caused by cooler (i.e. less massive) and more distant clusters, as expected. We show that the power spectrum shape is sensitive to the ICM structure all the way to the outskirts, out to ∼few × R500. We also searched for possible contribution of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) to the observed CXB fluctuations. Our results underline the significant diagnostic potential of the CXB fluctuation analysis in studying the ICM structure in clusters.

  8. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sheila A

    2014-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  10. Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann-type spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Mellone, O. A.; Bianco, L. M.; Ceppi, S. A.; Goncalves Honnicke, M.; Stutz, G. E.

    2018-06-01

    A study of the background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on an analytical model is presented. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann-type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths (air and helium), analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied. The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. In the case of XES, a strong non-linear behaviour of the background radiation intensity was predicted for energy analysis very close to the backdiffraction condition, with a rapid increase in intensity as the analyser Bragg angle approaches π / 2. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra. Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation. The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation indices in soil samples from the high background radiation area, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Ajithra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of natural radioactivity is very important from different points of view, especially for assessment of radiation exposure to human. In the present study, natural radionuclide concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K were measured by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector in soil samples collected from Southwest coast of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu. The radiological index parameters due to natural radionuclides such as radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, external hazard index, internal hazard index, and gamma index were calculated for the soil samples. All the calculated radiological index values are higher than world average values and the recommended safety limits. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were applied to know the relation between radionuclides and radiological parameters and to study the spatial distribution of radionuclides.

  12. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Niemi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m−3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east, intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-east and clean period (PM1~2 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-west/north. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2–1 samples were 1 soot and 2 (ammoniumsulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2–1 samples were 0–12% and 83–97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26–48% in the PM1–3.3 and PM3.3–11 samples, while the PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22–33%, metal oxides/hydroxides (1–9% and tar balls (1–4%. These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1–3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67–89% with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3−. During the intermediate period, the PM1–3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like Na-rich particles (35% with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments

  13. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  14. Background studies: climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research into some climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land disposal environments for radioactive wastes in Britain. The work has supported development of the TIME2 simulation code. Modelling approaches are presented and discussed, along with supporting data, for climatic change, ice sheet growth and decay, groundwater effects and denudation. The potential effects of periglacial processes on a repository are also briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi , J. V.; Saarikoski , S.; Tervahattu , H.; Mäkelä , T.; Hillamo , R.; Vehkamäki , H.; Sogacheva , L.; Kulmala , M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m−3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were st...

  16. HERMES probabilistic risk assessment. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, F.; Munoz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed in 1989 of the contribution of probabilistic analysis for the optimal construction of system safety status in aeronautical and European nuclear industries, shows the growing trends towards incorporation of quantitative safety assessment and lead to an agreement to undertake a prototype proof study on Hermes. The main steps of the study and results are presented in the paper

  17. Study of cancer mortality among inhabitants in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China (1979-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Sun Quanfu; Li Jia; Liu Yusheng; Wei Lvxin; Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Yuan Yongling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to explore cancer risk associated with the low-level radiation exposure of average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv occurring in the high background radiation area (HBRA) in Yangjiang of Guangdong Province, China. Methods: The data of cancer mortality for period of 1979-1986 were collected in prospective follow-up survey of dynamic populations and those of 1987-1998 were obtained from a fixed cohort in the same method. Record linkage was used to combine the two data sets. The external dose received by the inhabitants was estimated on the basis of hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-age-specific occupancy factors, and the fixed values of internal dose regardless of sex and age was assumed. Relative risk (RR) and excess relative risk coefficient (ERR/Sv) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the AMFIT in Epicure. Results: During the period of 1979-1998, the follow-up for 125 079 subjects accumulated 1 992 940 person-years and identified 12 444 deaths, including 1202 cancer deaths. The RR of mortality of all cancers in whole HBRA was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.14) showing no statistical difference between the HBRA and the control area (CA). The RRs of all cancers in low, intermediate and high dose groups in the HBRA did not show statistical difference from the control group, either. The region (Yangdong and Yangxi) and the follow-up period(1979-1986 and 1987-1998) did not evidently modify the results, and the restriction of cancer cases to those with pathology information made no statistically significant change in RRs. In site-specific cancer analysis, only the RR of esophageal cancer showed statistical excess in the HBRA, the others did not show statistical difference between the HBRA and the CA. The comparison of RRs of site-specific cancer mortality among different dose groups and the dose-response analysis of site-specific cancer mortality related to cumulative individual lifetime dose did not give

  18. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  19. Heterogeneity in the background and earnings of nurses in India: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Katyayni

    2017-11-01

    It is important to understand the service conditions of nurses because these influence nurses' motivations and ability to provide care. Although nurses are estimated to constitute 30% of India's health workforce, limited empirical information is available about them. This paper attempts to address this gap in research. A cross-sectional survey of 266 nurses in the state of Gujarat was conducted to understand the demographic characteristics, qualifications and employment features of nurses working in India's private and public health sectors. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed using the collected information. A multivariate regression model was also estimated with monthly earnings as the dependent variable, and workplace, type of employment contract, caste background and years in the nursing workforce as independent variables. The three main findings presented in this article highlight considerable heterogeneity in the background and employment of nurses in India. First, 49% of nurses working in private hospitals and as temporary employees in public facilities belonged to historically disadvantaged social groups (deemed Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) and were estimated to earn 9% less than similarly qualified and practiced nurses from general caste categories (P = 0.02). Second, 18% of nurses working in private hospitals did not have formal nursing qualifications. Third, nurses working in private hospitals and as temporary employees in public facilities earned less than the minimum wage stipulated by the Government of India. Permanent public sector nurses were estimated to earn 105% more than private sector nurses with the same qualifications, years of work and caste background (P nursing workforce, coupled with the failure of governmental agencies to regulate the health sector, might help explain the low wages and lack of job security that most nurses in India contend with. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in

  20. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  1. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Takroni, Habib; Roberts, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice. Methods We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored. Results The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies. Conclusion This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed. PMID:22355241

  2. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  3. Dietary assessment in elderly people: experiences gained from studies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In selecting a dietary assessment method, several aspects such as the aim of the study and the characteristics of the target population should be taken into account. In elderly people, diminished functionality and cognitive decline may hamper dietary assessment and require

  4. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like problems–and the neurodevelopmental disorders–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD–and to investigate underlying genetic effects.Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism–Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting.Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%–62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%. Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls.Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  5. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  6. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  7. The Study of Radiation of Gamma-Ray Background at Sedimentology Laboratorium, P3TIR, BATAN, Using Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Ali Arman; Aliyanta, Barokah; Darman

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of background radiation of gamma-ray has been done at Sedimentology Laboratory, SDAL building, P3TIR, BATAN using gamma spectrometer. The measurement was done without shielding with the range of energy between 50 keV and 1500 keV. The identified radiations are coming from environmental radionuclide and man-made radionuclide as well with 32 energy peaks. The environmental radionuclides are from Uranium series, Thorium series, and 4 0 K having dose rate of 12.510 ± O.980, 36.408 ± 3.243, 9.455 ±O.016 n Sv/day, respectively, whilst man-made radionuclide is 6 O C o having dose rate of O.136 ±O.078 n Sv/day

  8. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  9. The Alberta population-based prospective evaluation of the quality of life outcomes and economic impact of bariatric surgery (APPLES study: background, design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCargar Linda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme obesity affects nearly 8% of Canadians, and is debilitating, costly and ultimately lethal. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment available; is associated with reductions in morbidity/mortality, improvements in quality of life; and appears cost-effective. However, current demand for surgery in Canada outstrips capacity by at least 1000-fold, causing exponential increases in already protracted, multi-year wait-times. The objectives and hypotheses of this study were as follows: 1. To serially assess the clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes in patients wait-listed for bariatric care over a 2-year period. We hypothesize deterioration in these outcomes over time; 2. To determine the clinical effectiveness and changes in quality of life associated with modern bariatric procedures compared with medically treated and wait-listed controls over 2 years. We hypothesize that surgery will markedly reduce weight, decrease the need for unplanned medical care, and increase quality of life; 3. To conduct a 3-year (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective economic assessment of bariatric surgery compared to medical and wait-listed controls from the societal, public payor, and health-care payor perspectives. We hypothesize that lower indirect, out of pocket and productivity costs will offset increased direct health-care costs resulting in lower total costs for bariatric surgery. Methods/design Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference

  10. Assessment of radioactivity and estimation of effective dose received by villagers residing at natural high background areas of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaiselvan, K.; Rajagopal, R.; Sreekumar, K.; Harikumar, M.; AllenGnanaraj, G.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received by villagers residing at seven villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu were studied; five houses in each village were selected. The NHBRA villages were Chinnavilai, Periavilai, Kottilpadu, Puthoor Colachel, Kodimunai and Midalam. The houses were of similar construction pattern (brick wall-tiled roof, cement flooring). Measurements of radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their progeny, produced by the decay of naturally occurring radioisotopes uranium and thorium in dwellings are the largest contributor to the average internal effective dose received by human beings. Internal doses due to radon/thoron and their progeny were estimated using, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), LR-115, as the detector. External doses were estimated by gamma measurement using scintillometer and Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD). TLDs were exposed for one year, on a quarterly basis, inside the house at a height of 3 meters and about 1 meter away from the walls. The SSNTD cups were exposed adjacent to the TLDS, and the exposure was for a period of three months each. The SSNTDs were developed by standard procedures (10% NaOH, etching for 90 min at 60 deg C) and counted in a spark counter. Earlier the SSNTDs were calibrated using U and Th sources and calibration factors were obtained. Inhalation dose due to 232 Th and Th (B) in mWL were estimated by collecting air samples from each house, for one hour each, during the replacement time of TLD and SSNTD Cups. For inhalation dose estimation the occupancy factor was assumed to be 0.8. The soil samples were also collected from each sampling point. (author)

  11. Cosmological Backgrounds of Gravitational Waves and eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    We review cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves with a particular attention to the scientific potential of the eLISA/NGO mission. After an overview of cosmological backgrounds and detectors, we consider different cosmological sources that could lead to an observable signal. We then study the backgrounds produced by first-order phase transitions and networks of cosmic strings, assessing the prospects for their detection.

  12. Ethnic background and differences in health care use: a national cross-sectional study of native Dutch and immigrant elderly in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foets Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant elderly are a rapidly growing group in Dutch society; little is known about their health care use. This study assesses whether ethnic disparities in health care use exist and how they can be explained. Applying an established health care access model as explanatory factors, we tested health and socio-economic status, and in view of our research population we added an acculturation variable, elaborated into several sub-domains. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the "Social Position, Health and Well-being of Elderly Immigrants" survey, conducted in 2003 in the Netherlands. The study population consisted of first generation immigrants aged 55 years and older from the four major immigrant populations in the Netherlands and a native Dutch reference group. The average response rate to the survey was 46% (1503/3284; country of origin: Turkey n = 307, Morocco n = 284, Surinam n = 308, the Netherlands Antilles n = 300, the Netherlands n = 304. Results High ethnic disparities exist in health and health care utilisation. Immigrant elderly show a higher use of GP services and lower use of physical therapy and home care. Both self-reported health status (need factor and language competence (part of acculturation have high explanatory power for all types of health services utilisation; the additional impact of socio-economic status and education is low. Conclusion For all health services, health disparities among all four major immigrant groups in the Netherlands translate into utilisation disparities, aggravated by lack of language competence. The resulting pattern of systematic lower health services utilisation of elderly immigrants is a challenge for health care providers and policy makers.

  13. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part I: Background, emission scenarios and evaluation of meteorological predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010) for national environmental protection by the Chinese government, the overarching goal for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) controls is to achieve a total national emissions level of SO 2 in 2010 10% lower than the level in 2005. A similar nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions control plan is currently under development and could be enforced during the 12th FYP (2011-2015). In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) modeling system was applied to assess the air quality improvement that would result from the targeted SO 2 and NO x emission controls in China. Four emission scenarios — the base year 2005, the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the 2010 SO 2 control scenario, and the 2010 NO x control scenario—were constructed and simulated to assess the air quality change from the national control plan. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to generate the meteorological fields for the CMAQ simulations. In this Part I paper, the model performance for the simulated meteorology was evaluated against observations for the base case in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. It is shown that MM5 model gives an overall good performance for these meteorological variables. The generated meteorological fields are acceptable for using in the CMAQ modeling.

  14. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  15. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  16. LA-ICP-MS analysis of plastics as a method to support polymer assay in the assessment of materials for low-background detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, J.W.; Bliss, Mary; Farmer III, O.T.; Thomas, M.L.P.; Liezers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ultra low-background radiation measurements are essential to several large-scale physics investigations. Assay of solid polymer materials for extremely low levels of radioactive elements, such as uranium, presents challenges. This paper describes an initial investigation into the use of laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for screening a solid plastic, polyethylene, for gross uranium levels. (author)

  17. Contribution to the G0 experiment about parity violation: calculation and simulation of radiative corrections, study of the background noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guler, H.

    2003-12-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics, the nucleon is made of three valence quarks surrounded by a sea of gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. Only the only lightest quarks (u, d and s) contribute significantly to the nucleon properties. In G 0 we use the property of weak interaction to violate parity symmetry, in order to determine separately the contributions of the three types of quarks to nucleon form factors. The experiment, which takes place at Thomas Jefferson laboratory (USA), aims at measuring parity violation asymmetry in electron-proton scattering. By doing several measurements at different momentum squared of the exchanged photons and for different kinematics (forward angle when the proton is detected and backward angle it will be the electron) will permit to determine separately strange quarks electric and magnetic contributions to nucleon form factors. To extract an asymmetry with small errors, it is necessary to correct all the beam parameters, and to have high enough counting rates in detectors. A special electronics was developed to treat information coming from 16 scintillator pairs for each of the 8 sectors of the G 0 spectrometer. A complete calculation of radiative corrections has been done and Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT program has permitted to determine the shape of the experimental spectra including inelastic background. This work will allow to do a comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the Standard Model. (author)

  18. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ok Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Health Insurance Service (NHIS recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI system for the benefit of Korean researchers.MethodsThe NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI.ResultsMetabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining.ConclusionThe NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform.

  19. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  20. A longitudinal study on determinants of HPV vaccination uptake in parents/guardians from different ethnic backgrounds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina J. Alberts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination coverage in the Netherlands is low (~60% compared to other childhood vaccinations (>90%, and even lower among ethnic minorities. The aim of this study was to explore the possible impact of ethnicity on the determinants of both HPV vaccination intention and HPV vaccination uptake among parents/guardians having a daughter that is invited for the HPV vaccination. Methods In February 2014, parents/guardians living in Amsterdam were invited to complete a questionnaire about social-psychological determinants of their decision making process regarding the HPV vaccination of their daughter and socio-demographic characteristics. This questionnaire was sent approximately one month before the daughter was scheduled to receive her first HPV vaccine dose. Their daughters’ HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the national vaccination database. We distinguished four ethnic groups: Dutch (NL, Surinamese, Netherlands Antillean, and Aruban (SNA, Middle-Eastern and North-African (MENA, and Other. To assess the impact of determinants on both intention and uptake, linear and logistic regression analyses were used respectively. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equation. Results In total 1,309 parents/guardians participated (33% participation rate. In all groups we found the mothers’ intention to be the strongest predictor of their daughters’ HPV vaccination uptake. Explained variance of uptake was highest in the NL-group (pseudo-R2:0.56 and lower in the other ethnic groups (pseudo-R2 varied between 0.23 and 0.29. The lower explained variance can be attributed to the relative large proportion of participants with a positive intention that finally did not go for vaccination in the SNA-group (11% and MENA-group (30%. Explained variance (R2 of intention varied between 0.66 and 0.77 across ethnic groups, and was best explained by the proximal social

  1. A cross-sectional descriptive study of the family functioning, health and social support of hospital patients with family violence backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Salla; Leppäkoski, Tuija; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-12-19

    Family violence (FV) has serious effects on the health and well-being of the family. The health sector plays a vital role in FV prevention by helping to identify abuse early, providing victims with the necessary treatment and referring patients to appropriate care. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence of FV among hospital patients, as well as to assess the association between family functioning, health and social support, considering patients as the perpetrators or victims of violence. The data were collected using a Family Functioning, Health and Social Support (FAFHES) questionnaire that was given to patients who visited a Finnish central hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. As a result, the data (N = 188) were contributed by the patients who returned the questionnaire and gave permission for a follow-up survey. The participation rate was 47%, of which 73% were women and 27% were men. Their ages ranged from 18 to 89 years. The data were analysed with quantitative methods using the unadjusted analyses and linear regression model. In total, 24% of both the male and female participants had experienced or used violence at home or in the family. Of these, 22 had been the perpetrators, and 23 had been the victims. Participants in relationships and who were living together had less violence than singles and those who were not living together. The family functioning and health of the participants who had experienced or used FV were worse than those of the participants who had not. Various patients can have an FV background, and nursing professionals are on the front line to identify and intervene in FV situations. The results of this study can be utilised in the treatment of FV victims and perpetrators by training healthcare workers to identify and intervene in violence. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Study of natural background radiation levels with special reference to the granite industries and quarries in some places of Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.; Srilatha; Ningappa, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is present all around us which may be also called natural background radiation. It is divided into natural and anthropogenic. The sources of natural radiation are extra terrestrial (cosmic ray) radiation and terrestrial radiation; it arises due to naturally occurring radionuclides present in soil, rocks and building materials. Whereas anthropogenic radiation sources includes X rays used for medical diagnosis nuclear weapon testing nuclear power plants radioisotopes used in varies fields, other industry applications and scientific research. Out of the total radiation exposure nearly 97.7% is from natural sources and remaining 2.3% is due to artificial sources. Nature has gifted several geological material to mankind for building purposes. The granite rocks are used as building material, these rocks are quite rich in radioactive nuclides. The radiation from these nuclides are exposed to mankind and the rocks are exploited and extracted by miners to construct the buildings. Natural radiation is of importance because it accounts for the largest contributor of radiation exposure to the world population from all natural sources (UNSCEAR 2008). Understanding the magnitude of natural sources of radiation and their distribution in the living environment may help any one to develop a pragmatic approach towards radiation and its effects. This article provides a radiation levels measured in granite quarries and industries and assessment of health effects to the workers and publics of the study area. The total occupational dose to the workers is lower than ICRP recommended value and the total dose for the public is slightly higher than the global average value. There is no regulation control for the granite mining. As per the IAEA report regulatory control is needed for mining and processing of granite rocks The study area is granite region of Bangaluru rural district, Tumkur and Mysore. (author)

  3. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  4. Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1986-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe

  5. Radiological assessments, environmental monitoring, and study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.R.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of transuranic elements in the environment form the basic data for applied programs in radiological assessment, environmental monitoring, derivation of radiation-protection standards, and environmental impact statements. This chapter introduces some of the major information requirements of these applications of transuranic research data. Characteristics of the source terms from nuclear activities usually are needed for an analysis of environmental pathways or deployment of monitoring systems. Major inhalation and ingestion pathways are considered in assessments of hazards from transuranics and are discussed from the viewpoint of research needed

  6. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  7. The Impact of Social Referencing on Social Acceptance of Children with Disabilities and Migrant Background: An Experimental Study in Primary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Gerullis, Anita; Gebhardt, Markus; Schwab, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This computer-based study evaluates whether teacher feedback can have an effect on the acceptance of children with and without disabilities in inclusive, special and regular schools. The social acceptance of four children shown in photo vignettes (child with Down Syndrome, child in a wheelchair, child with migrant background and child with no…

  8. Appropriating Scientific Vocabulary in Chemistry Laboratories: A Multiple Case Study of Four Community College Students with Diverse Ethno-Linguistic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cink, Ruth B.; Song, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how college students with diverse ethno-linguistic backgrounds used chemistry vocabulary as a way to look at their discursive identities and cultural border crossings during first semester general chemistry laboratories. The data were collected in two major forms: video-taped laboratory observations and…

  9. Who Studies STEM Subjects at a Level and Degree in England? An Investigation into the Intersections between Students' Family Background, Gender and Ethnicity in Determining Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiroli Mcmaster, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    The relative lack of students studying post-compulsory STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects is a key policy concern. A particular issue is the disparities in uptake by students' family background, gender and ethnicity. It remains unclear whether the relationship between student characteristics and choice can be…

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  11. Pupil Home Background Characteristics and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Kitwe District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumbi, Zonic; Samuel, Elizabeth B.; Mulendema, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate pupil background characteristics and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Kitwe district with a view of recommending on how to improve pupils' performance. The study was conducted in Kitwe district because in the past years pupils' performance in senior secondary schools has been…

  12. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  13. Estimating nitrogen loading and far-field dispersal potential from background sources and coastal finfish aquaculture: A simple framework and case study in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, R.; Milewski, I.; Loucks, R.; Smith, R.

    2018-05-01

    Far-field nutrient impacts associated with finfish aquaculture have been identified as a topic of concern for regulators, managers, scientists, and the public for over two decades but disentangling aquaculture impacts from those caused by other natural and anthropogenic sources has impeded the development of monitoring metrics and management plans. We apply a bulk, steady-state nitrogen loading model (NLM) framework to estimate the annual input of Total Dissolved Nitrogen (TDN) from point and non-point sources to the watershed surrounding Port Mouton Bay, Nova Scotia (Canada). We then use the results of the NLM together with estimates of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loading from a sea-cage trout farm in the Bay and progressive vector diagrams to illustrate potential patterns of DIN dispersal from the trout farm. Our estimated anthropogenic nitrogen contribution to Port Mouton Bay from all terrestrial and atmospheric sources is ∼211,703 kg TDN/year with atmospheric deposition accounting for almost all (98.6%). At a stocking level of ∼400,000 rainbow trout, the Port Mouton Bay sea-cage farm increases the annual anthropogenic TDN loading to the bay by 14.4% or 30,400 kg. Depending on current flow rates, nitrogen flux from the trout farm can be more than double the background concentrations of TDN near the farm site. Although it is unlikely that nitrogen loading from this single fish farm is saturating the DIN requirements of the entire bay, progressive vector diagrams suggest that the dispersal potential may be insufficient to mitigate potential symptoms of eutrophication associated with nitrogen fluxes. We present an accessible and user-friendly tool for managers to estimate baseline nutrient loading in relation to aquaculture and our use of progressive vector diagrams illustrate a practical and simple method for characterizing potential nutrient dispersal based on local conditions and spatial scales. Our study joins numerous studies which have highlighted

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  15. Quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice according to patients' ethnic background: a cross-sectional study from Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkeland Kåre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades immigration to Norway from Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has increased rapidly. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients from these ethnic minority groups compared with the care received by Norwegians. Methods In 2006, electronic medical record data were screened at 11 practices (49 GPs; 58857 patients. 1653 T2DM patients cared for in general practice were identified. Ethnicity was defined as self-reported country of birth. Chi-squared tests, one-way ANOVAs, multiple regression, linear mixed effect models and generalized linear mixed models were used. Results Diabetes was diagnosed at a younger age in patients from the ethnic minority groups (South Asians (SA: mean age 44.9 years, Middle East/North Africa (MENA: 47.2 years, East Asians (EA: 52.0 years, others: 49.0 years compared with Norwegians (59.7 years, p 85% of patients in all groups with minor differences between minority groups and Norwegians. A greater proportion of the minority groups were prescribed hypoglycaemic medications compared with Norwegians (≥79% vs. 72%, p 9% was higher in minority groups (SA: 19.6%, MENA: 18.9% vs. Norwegians: 5.6%, p Conclusions Mean age at the time of diagnosis of T2DM was 8-15 years younger in minority groups compared with Norwegians. Recording of important processes of care measures is high in all groups. Only one in four of most patient groups achieved all four treatment targets and prescribing habits may be sub-optimal. Patients from minority groups have worse glycaemic control than Norwegians which implies that it might be necessary to improve the guidelines to meet the needs of specific ethnic groups.

  16. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  17. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  18. The Age of Studies and Reports: Selected Elements Concerning the Background of Encounters Defining the Power of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašner, Veronika; Gaber, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we discuss the time before the "age of reports". Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959) and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on…

  19. Study of the background neutron and gamma components of the ββ(0ν) decay in the NEMO2 prototype detector. Consequences for the NEMO3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ββ(0ν) is a test of physics beyond the Standard Model by involving the existence of a massive Majorana neutrino (ν = ν-bar). To try to observe such a process with a sensitivity of 0.1 eV on the neutrino effective mass ( ν >), NEMO collaboration build the NEMO3 detector, able to measure half-lives greater than 10 24 years, corresponding to a few detected events per year. For that, it is necessary to know and master all background sources. This work was first dedicated to the study of external (to the double beta source) background with crossing electrons recorded with NEMO2 prototype detector and then to the simulation of this background in NEMO3 detector. Comparison between NEMO2 data and results of gamma and neutron simulations for different shieldings, with and without neutron source, has allowed to determine background contributions of radon, thoron, 208 Tl contaminations in materials, photon flux produced in laboratory and neutrons. This study, which has required improvements in the MICAP neutron simulation code by developing a photon generator, proved that radiative capture of fast neutrons thermalized in the detector was the source of events in the energy domain of the ββ(0ν) signal. In order to reach the required sensitivity on ν > mass, it has been shown that both a neutron shielding and magnetic field are necessary for NEMO3 detector. (author) [fr

  20. Study of a Multivariate Approach for the Background Rejection in the Scattering of Two Like-Charge $W^{\\pm}$ Bosons with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100403; Kobel, Michael; Straessner, Arno

    This thesis presents the study of a multivariate approach for the background rejection in the scattering of two like-charge $W^{\\pm}$ bosons with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The scattering process can be accessed through the measurement of purely electroweak production of two like-charge $W^{\\pm}$ bosons and two jets in the fully leptonic decay channel of the $W^{\\pm}$ bosons. Although the characteristic signature of the final state of this production process already reduces most Standard Model backgrounds, other processes exist that leave the same experimental signature in the detector. QCD-initiated production of a $W^{\\pm}$ boson and a $Z$ boson in association with two jets with leptonic decay of the $W^{\\pm}$ and the $Z$ boson accounts for the largest background contribution. Thus, the focus of this thesis is set on the rejection of this background. As a very promising technique for this classification problem, boosted decision trees are studied in this thesis. The variable ranking of...

  1. Assessment of Confounding in Studies of Delay and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter; Frydenberg, Morten

    BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies of the i......BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies......) Clarify which factors are considered confounders or intermediate variables in the literature. 2) Assess how and to what extent these factors bias survival estimates. CONSIDERATIONS: As illustrated in Figure 1, symptoms of cancer may alert patients, GP's, and hospital doctors differently and influence both...... delay and survival time in different ways. We therefore assume that the impact of confounding factors depends on the type of delay studied (e.g., patient delay, GP delay, referral delay, or treatment delay). MATERIALS & METHODS: The project includes systematic review and methodological developments...

  2. Superfund risk assessment in soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddinott, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 30-31, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on risk assessment associated with soil contamination. The conference included presentations in the following categories: site characterization; fate and transport; toxicity, exposures, and receptors; risk characterization/case studies; and establishing cleanup levels. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However,

  4. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  5. The Assessment of Current Biogeographic Patterns of Coral Reef Fishes in the Red Sea by Incorporating Their Evolutionary and Ecological Background

    KAUST Repository

    Robitzch Sierra, Vanessa S. N.

    2017-03-01

    The exceptional environment of the Red Sea has lead to high rates of endemism and biodiversity. Located at the periphery of the world’s coral reefs distribution, its relatively young reefs offer an ideal opportunity to study biogeography and underlying evolutionary and ecological triggers. Here, I provide baseline information on putative seasonal recruitment patterns of reef fishes along a cross shelf gradient at an inshore, mid-shelf, and shelf-edge reef in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. I propose a basic comparative model to resolve biogeographic patterns in endemic and cosmopolitan reef fishes. Therefore, I chose the genetically, biologically, and ecologically similar coral-dwelling damselfishes Dascyllus aruanus and D. marginatus as a model species-group. As a first step, basic information on the distribution, population structure, and genetic diversity is evaluated within and outside the Red Sea along most of their global distribution. Second, pelagic larval durations (PLDs) within the Red Sea environmental gradient are explored. For the aforementioned, PLDs of the only other Red Sea Dascyllus, D. trimaculatus, are included for a more comprehensive comparison. Third, to further assess ongoing pathways of connectivity and geneflow related to larval behavior and dispersal in Red Sea reef fishes, the genetic composition and kinship of a single recruitment cohort of D. aruanus arriving together at one single reef is quantified using single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs). Genetic diversity and relatedness of the recruits are compared to that of the standing population at the settlement reef, providing insight into putative dispersal strategies and behavior of coral reef fish larvae. As a fourth component to study traits shaping biogeography, the ecology and adaptive potential of the cosmopolitan D. aruanus is described by studying morphometric-geometrics of the body structure in relation to the stomach content and prey type from specimen along the cross

  6. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  7. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin

  8. Electricity's effect on gender equality in rural Zanzibar, Tanzania : case study for Gender and Energy World Development Report Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This anthropological case study on the introduction of electricity in rural Zanzibar around 1990 discusses to what extent and how women became empowered in the process. What factors contributed to increased gender equality during the uptake of electricity and related appliances – and what were the

  9. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  11. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  12. A prospective study assessing agreement and reliability of a geriatric evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Isabella; Monod, St?fanie; Cornuz, Jacques; B?la, Christophe J.; Senn, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study takes place within a geriatric program, aiming at improving the diagnosis and management of geriatric syndromes in primary care. Within this program it was of prime importance to be able to rely on a robust and reproducible geriatric consultation to use as a gold standard for evaluating a primary care brief assessment tool. The specific objective of the present study was thus assessing the agreement and reliability of a comprehensive geriatric consultation. Method...

  13. Evolutionary aspects of non-cell-autonomous regulation in vascular plants: structural background and models to study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia I. Evkaikina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD serve for the exchange of information in form of miRNA, proteins and mRNA between adjacent cells in the course of plant development. This fundamental role of PD is well established in angiosperms but has not yet been traced back to the evolutionary ancient plant taxa where functional studies lag behind studies of PD structure and ontogenetic origin. There is convincing evidence that the ability to form secondary (post-cytokinesis PD, which can connect any adjacent cells, contrary to primary PD which form during cytokinesis and link only cells of the same lineage, appeared in the evolution of higher plants at least twice: in seed plants and in some representatives of the Lycopodiophyta. The (inability to form secondary PD is manifested in the symplastic organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM which in most taxa of seedless vascular plants differs dramatically from that in seed plants. Lycopodiophyta appear to be suitable models to analyze the transport of developmental regulators via PD in SAMs with symplastic organization both different from, as well as analogous to, that in angiosperms, and to understand the evolutionary aspects of the role of this transport in the morphogenesis of vascular plant taxa.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Traits by Hispanic/Latino Background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...

  15. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms, potentially as a result of neurotoxic exposure during deployment. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) GW veterans...... of neuropsychological symptoms, and stratified according to SCL-90-R score, no trends were found suggesting reduced motor function with increasing symptoms. Of nine dimensions constructed on the basis of the SCL-90-R items, six were significantly associated with being a Gulf War veteran. Statistically, the strongest...... would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2...

  16. Juvenile delinquency, social background and suicide--a Swedish national cohort study of 992,881 young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2011-12-01

    As the suicide rates in young adults do not show a clear decline, it is important to elucidate possible risk factors. Juvenile delinquency has been pointed out as a possible risk behaviour. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1972 and 1981 in Sweden. We followed 992,881 individuals from the age of 20 years until 31 December 2006, generating 10 210 566 person-years and 1482 suicides. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of a crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide were calculated as incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounding by their own and their parents' mental illness or substance abuse, parental education, single parenthood, social assistance, adoption and foster care. Among females, 5.9%, and among males, 17.9%, had at least one conviction between the ages 15 and 19 years. In the fully adjusted model, females with one conviction had a suicide risk of 1.7 times higher (95% CI 1.2-2.4), the corresponding IRR for men was 2.0 (95% CI 1.7-2.4) and 5.7 (95% CI 2.5-13.1) and 6.6 (95% CI 5.2-8.3), for women and men with five or more convictions. The effect of severe delinquency on suicide was independent of parental educational level. This study supports the hypothesis that individuals with delinquent behaviour in late adolescence have an increased risk of suicide as young adults. Regardless of causality issues, repeated juvenile offenders should be regarded by professionals in health, social and correctional services who come into contact with this group as a high-risk group for suicide.

  17. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ''WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4)

  19. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Biswas, S.K.; Islam, A.

    1994-01-01

    The trace element constituents of aerosols such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cu, Zn, Cr, V, etc. are permanent pollutants affecting the biosphere and the general ecosystem. The measurements of these elements collected on air filters, in rainwater, and also in some bioindicators such as moss and lichen, can yield very significant information on the origin, transport, removal and deposition of these pollutants. A set of sensitive and precise nuclear-related and chemical methods such as PIXE, EDXRF, FAAS and DPASV have, therefore, been developed and applied to analyze a number of trace and minor elements in air particulates, coal fly ash, plant materials, moss and water. Further analytical developments would include INAA and TRXRF. Some of the results from air particulates (integral), coal fly ash and moss analyses are presented to illustrate the experience level of the Laboratory. A core programme of study on the trace element composition of aerosols from urban and rural atmosphere in Bangladesh has been planned for implementation within the framework of this CRP. 10 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, H Maiju; Salonen, Minna K; Häkkinen, Antti; Olkkola, Maarit; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-08-18

    Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95). They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  1. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  2. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  3. V.I. Vernadskiy study of biochemical cycles and role of biocenoses trophic structure in their stabilization under background conditions and at chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezel, V.S.; Bel'skij, E.A.; Bel'skaya, E.A.; Zhujkova, T.V.; Mukhacheva, S.V.; Nesterkov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present report the participation of different trophic belonging organisms in biogeochemical cycles at the pollution of the environment by aerogenic emissions of metallurgical enterprises are discussed. Investigation in and around southern taiga of Middle Ural in liable to heavy metals contamination areas was made. Several areas with different level of soil contamination from background uncontaminated (at a distance 20-30 km from emission source) to buffer (4-7 km) and impact (1-2 km) were separated out. Mechanism of chemical elements accumulation by different components of terrestrial ecosystems that the aggregate of trophic levels present: depository environment (soil), producers (plants), consumers of several levels (phytophages, zoophages) was studied. Accumulation of chemical elements was considered in biomass of trophic levels both with content of chemical elements in the soil on a regional background level and by their intensive contamination. The findings enable to evaluate the quantity of chemical elements involved in biogenic cycles by different trophic belonging organisms

  4. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  5. Assessing the itching intensity using visual analogue scales in atopic dermatitis patients against the background of a therapy with calcineurin inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chikin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the effect of topical treatment of atopic dermatitis patients with the 0.1% tacrolimus ointment on the itching intensity and skin expression level of growth factor proteins affecting the intensity of cutaneous innervation. Materials and methods. Fifteen patients suffering from atopic dermatitis underwent treatment with the 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. The SCORAD index was calculated to assess the severity of clinical manifestations. The itching intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. The skin expression of nerve growth factors, amphiregulin, semaphorin 3A and PGP9.5 protein (a nerve fiber marker was assessed by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Results. An increased expression of the nerve growth factor and reduced semaphorin 3A expression levels were noted in the patients’ epidermis; there was an increase in the quantity, mean length and fluorescence intensity of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers. As a result of the treatment, the disease severity and itching intensity were reduced, the nerve growth factor expression level was reduced while semaphorin 3A expression level increased in the epidermis, and the mean length and fluorescence intensity of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers was also reduced. A positive correlation among the itching intensity and nerve growth factor expression level, quantity and mean length of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers in the epidermis was revealed, and negative correlation between the itching intensity and semaphorin 3A expression level in the epidermis was established. Conclusion. Topical treatment with the 0.1% Tacrolimus ointment reduces the itching intensity in atopic dermatitis patients, which is related to the therapy-mediated reduction in the epidermis innervation level, decreased expression of epidermal nerve growth factor and increased semaphorin 3A expression level.

  6. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  7. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  8. CARIAA Background Studies Biophysical Impacts

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Garrett Kilroy

    Services Framework. – Focus on topics in red box. • Entry points to link with social vulnerability. – Ecosystem Services (state and impact), i.e. degraded services impact ... ecosystems (e.g. mangroves). – Impacts on fisheries and other food production systems. A delta in the Ganges, Bangladesh. Picture: SPL / Barcroft Media ...

  9. Methods to assess intended effects of drug treatment in observational studies are reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, Olaf H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Martens, Edwin P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088859010; Psaty, Bruce M; Grobbee, Diederik E; Sullivan, Sean D; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; de Boer, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To review methods that seek to adjust for confounding in observational studies when assessing intended drug effects. METHODS: We reviewed the statistical, economical and medical literature on the development, comparison and use of methods adjusting for confounding. RESULTS:

  10. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  11. GEANT4 simulation of the neutron background of the C$_6$D$_6$ set-up for capture studies at n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Žugec, P.; Bosnar, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D.G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L.S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martìnez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2014-05-09

    The neutron sensitivity of the C$_6$D$_6$ detector setup used at n_TOF for capture measurements has been studied by means of detailed GEANT4 simulations. A realistic software replica of the entire n_TOF experimental hall, including the neutron beam line, sample, detector supports and the walls of the experimental area has been implemented in the simulations. The simulations have been analyzed in the same manner as experimental data, in particular by applying the Pulse Height Weighting Technique. The simulations have been validated against a measurement of the neutron background performed with a $^\\mathrm{nat}$C sample, showing an excellent agreement above 1 keV. At lower energies, an additional component in the measured $^\\mathrm{nat}$C yield has been discovered, which prevents the use of $^\\mathrm{nat}$C data for neutron background estimates at neutron energies below a few hundred eV. The origin and time structure of the neutron background have been derived from the simulations. Examples of the neutron backg...

  12. Hydrogen Mixing Studies (HMS) assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.L.; Wilson, T.L.; Travis, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents some calculations performed to assess the Hydrogen Mixing Studies (HMS) code. Results are presented first for some analytical test problems, including laminar flow and mass diffusion. The von Karman vortex street problem and the Sandia FLAME Facility and Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment facility test problems are then discussed. For the analytical problems, the code gave results that agree exceptionally well with the analytical solutions. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. The last assessment problem involves modeling the experiment T31.5. The experiment was carried out in the HDR containment building, which is a large, multi-compartment facility (11 300 m 3 free volume in 72 compartments). In the experiment, a steam-water mixture was first injected into the containment to simulate a large-break blowdown of a pressure vessel, and then superheated steam was injected that was followed by a release of helium-hydrogen light gas. The calculated results (pressure, temperature, and gas concentrations) agree reasonably well with the experimental data

  13. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  14. Risk factors for asthma and allergy associated with urban migration: background and methodology of a cross-sectional study in Afro-Ecuadorian school children in Northeastern Ecuador (Esmeraldas-SCAALA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Renato T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergic diseases are becoming increasingly frequent in children in urban centres of Latin America although the prevalence of allergic disease is still low in rural areas. Understanding better why the prevalence of asthma is greater in urban migrant populations and the role of risk factors such as life style and environmental exposures, may be key to understand what is behind this trend. Methods/design The Esmeraldas-SCAALA (Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America study consists of cross-sectional and nested case-control studies of school children in rural and urban areas of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. The cross-sectional study will investigate risk factors for atopy and allergic disease in rural and migrant urban Afro-Ecuadorian school children and the nested case-control study will examine environmental, biologic and social risk factors for asthma among asthma cases and non-asthmatic controls from the cross-sectional study. Data will be collected through standardised questionnaires, skin prick testing to relevant aeroallergen extracts, stool examinations for parasites, blood sampling (for measurement of IgE, interleukins and other immunological parameters, anthropometric measurements for assessment of nutritional status, exercise testing for assessment of exercise-induced bronchospasm and dust sampling for measurement of household endotoxin and allergen levels. Discussion The information will be used to identify the factors associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergies in migrant and urbanizing populations, to improve the understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma prevalence and to identify potentially modifiable factors to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risk of allergy in urban populations in Latin America.

  15. An assessment of the Mancuso study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissland, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    Two papers (Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale, Health Physics; 33:369 (1977); and Kneale, Stewart and Mancuso, Reanalysis of the data relating to the Hanford study of the cancer risks of radiation workers, IAEA International Symposium on the Late Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Vienna, March 1978) claim to demonstrate a significant excess of deaths among radiation workers at Hanford (USA) and attribute them to radiation-induced cancers. The work is important because it is essentially the only large scale study which has been reported of the effects of occupationally permitted levels of exposure to ionising radiation. However, both papers have been widely criticised on several substantial aspects. This report summarises some of the major points from these criticisms. The overall assessment is a rejection of the validity of the majority of the claims from the study. Other analyses of the same data indicate reasons for the incorrect conclusions drawn by Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale. From these analyses it is concluded that the only excess fatal malignancies at Hanford that may be associated with radiation are cancer of the pancreas and multiple myeloma. Even for these, further investigation is necessary since no attempt has been made to eliminate the possibility of the effects being due to other carcinogens. (author)

  16. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G E s and G M s ) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q 2 values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c) 2 , respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G E s and G M s at the higher of these Q 2 values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the γ background coming from the decay of π 0 mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to γ conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the background as proposed in this work was combined with the previous A4

  17. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  18. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McJeon, Haewon C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Marty J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jennie S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  19. The Assessment of Current Biogeographic Patterns of Coral Reef Fishes in the Red Sea by Incorporating Their Evolutionary and Ecological Background

    KAUST Repository

    Robitzch Sierra, Vanessa S. N.

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional environment of the Red Sea has lead to high rates of endemism and biodiversity. Located at the periphery of the world’s coral reefs distribution, its relatively young reefs offer an ideal opportunity to study biogeography

  20. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  1. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  2. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  3. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  4. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  5. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, as monotherapy or with background methotrexate, in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label, long-term extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Yuasa, Hirotoshi; Toyoizumi, Shigeyuki; Morishima, Yosuke; Hirose, Tomohiro; Zwillich, Samuel

    2016-01-28

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Here, tofacitinib safety and efficacy data from a long-term extension study in Japanese patients are presented. Study A3921041 was a multi-centre, open-label, long-term extension study that included Japanese patients who had participated in a prior Phase 2 or Phase 3 study of tofacitinib as monotherapy or with background methotrexate. Patients received tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID) or tofacitinib 10 mg BID. Dose adjustment of tofacitinib during treatment period, and concomitant usage of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including methotrexate after week 12 were permitted. Primary endpoints were adverse events, laboratory parameters and vital signs. Secondary efficacy endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS)28-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR))tofacitinib-treated patients, the incidence rate (patients with events per 100 patient-years) was 10.7 for serious adverse events, 3.3 for serious infections, 7.4 for herpes zoster (serious and non-serious) and 1.2 for malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). Mean changes from baseline (start of the index study) in laboratory parameters were consistent with those seen in previously reported studies of tofacitinib. ACR20/50/70 response rates, DAS-defined remission rates and HAQ-DI scores were sustained through to study completion. Tofacitinib (with or without background methotrexate) demonstrated a stable safety profile and sustained efficacy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The risk of herpes zoster appears to be higher in Japanese patients treated with tofacitinib than in the global population. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00661661 . Registered 7 February 2008.

  6. Evaluating background noise: Assessing off-site data from field surveys around the Italic sanctuary of S. Giovanni in Galdo, Molise, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waagen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of intensive sampling and off-site analyses to identify evidence of human activity in the past using the off-site data collected around the Italic sanctuary of S. Giovanni in Galdo, Molise, Italy. Rather than employing general and monocausal explanatory

  7. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...

  8. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  9. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  10. Capacitance–voltage and current–voltage characteristics for the study of high background doping and conduction mechanisms in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The cause of high background doping was confirmed and characterized. ► The current–voltage characteristics deviate from the thermionic emission. ► The recombination current is attributed to a hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV). ► The hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV) was confirmed by DLTS measurements. -- Abstract: The temperature dependence of capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current voltage (I–V) characteristics were used to study the cause of high background doping and the underlying current transport mechanisms in GaAsN Schottky diode grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In one hand, a nitrogen-related sigmoid increase of junction capacitance and ionized acceptor concentration was observed in the temperature range 70–100 K and was attributed to the thermal ionization of a nitrogen–hydrogen-related deep acceptor-state, with thermal activation energy of approximately 0.11 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) of GaAsN. This acceptor state is mainly responsible for the high background doping in unintentionally doped GaAsN grown by CBE. On the other hand, the I–V characteristics at different temperatures were found to deviate from the well known pure thermionic-emission mechanism. Based on their fitting at each temperature, the recombination current in the space charge region of GaAsN Schottky diode was mainly attributed to a hole trap, localized at 0.51 eV above the VBM. Given the accuracy of measurements, this result was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. Nevertheless, considering the Shockley–Read–Hall model of generation-recombination, the recombination activity of this defect was quantified and qualified to be weak compared with the markedly degradation of minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN material

  11. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Bibliometric Study to Assess Bioprinting Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Naveau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting as a tissue engineering tool is one of the most promising technologies for overcoming organ shortage. However, the spread of populist articles among on this technology could potentially lead public opinion to idealize its readiness. This bibliometric study aimed to trace the evolution of bioprinting literature over the past decade (i.e., 2000 to 2015 using the SCI-expanded database of Web of Science® (WoS, Thomson Reuters. The articles were analyzed by combining various bibliometric tools, such as science mapping and topic analysis, and a Technology Readiness Scale was adapted to assess the evolution of this emerging field. The number of analyzed publications was low (231, but the literature grew exceptionally fast. The “Engineering, Biomedical” was still the most represented WoS category. Some of the recent fronts were “hydrogels” and “stem cells”, while “in vitro” remained one of the most used keywords. The number of countries and journals involved in bioprinting literature grew substantially in one decade, also supporting the idea of an increasing community. Neither the United States’ leadership in bioprinting productivity nor the role of universities in publications were challenged. “Biofabrication” and “Biomaterials” journals were still the leaders of the bioprinting field. Bioprinting is a young but promising technology.

  13. Experimental and computational study of the effect of 1 atm background gas on nanoparticle generation in femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wu, Chengping; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2018-03-01

    Laser ablation of metal targets is actively used for generation of chemically clean nanoparticles for a broad range of practical applications. The processes involved in the nanoparticle formation at all relevant spatial and temporal scales are still not fully understood, making the precise control of the size and shape of the nanoparticles challenging. In this paper, a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and experiments is applied to investigate femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum targets in vacuum and in 1 atm argon background gas. The results of the simulations reveal a strong effect of the background gas environment on the initial plume expansion and evolution of the nanoparticle size distribution. The suppression of the generation of small/medium-size Al clusters and formation of a dense layer at the front of the expanding ablation plume, observed during the first nanosecond of the plume expansion in a simulation performed in the gas environment, have important implications on the characteristics of the nanoparticles deposited on a substrate and characterized in the experiments. The nanoparticles deposited in the gas environment are found to be more round-shaped and less flattened as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The nanoparticle size distributions exhibit power-law dependences with similar values of exponents obtained from fitting experimental and simulated data. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the gas environment may be effectively used to control size and shape of nanoparticles generated by laser ablation.

  14. A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: background factors and self-reported health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Wingren, Gun

    2014-05-01

    To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems. A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models. 14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying. Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

  15. Variation in the effects of family background and birth region on adult obesity: results of a prospective cohort study of a Great Depression-era American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Tumin, Dmitry

    2015-06-05

    Studies have identified prenatal and early childhood conditions as important contributors to weight status in later life. To date, however, few studies have considered how weight status in adulthood is shaped by regional variation in early-life conditions, rather than the characteristics of the individual or their family. Furthermore, gender and life course differences in the salience of early life conditions to weight status remain unclear. This study investigates whether the effect of family background and birth region on adult obesity status varies by gender and over the life course. We used data from a population-based cohort of 6,453 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-2008. Early life conditions were measured retrospectively at and after the baseline. Obesity was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Logistic models were used to estimate the net effects of family background and birth region on adulthood obesity risk after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and health behaviors measured in adulthood. Four economic and demographic data sets were used to further test the birthplace effect. At ages 50-61, mother's education and birth region were associated with women's obesity risk, but not men's. Each year's increase in mother's education significantly reduces the odds of being obese by 6% (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97) among women, and this pattern persisted at ages 66-77. Women born in the Mountain region were least likely to be obese in late-middle age and late-life. Measures of per capita income and infant mortality rate in the birth region were also associated with the odds of obesity among women. Women's obesity status in adulthood is influenced by early childhood conditions, including regional conditions, while adulthood health risk factors may be more important for men's obesity risk. Biological and social mechanisms may account for the gender difference.

  16. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  17. Beaufort Sea extreme wave studies assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, M. A; Maes, Marc A; Muir, Lynette R

    1986-01-01

    .... A systematic assessment of their respective methodologies indicated factors which would help to undo some of the conservatism in the Seaconsult estimates and warrant a slight increase in the Hydrotechnology...

  18. Assessing English proficiency for university study

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  20. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  1. Self-assessment and students' study strategies in a community of clinical practice: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Al-Takroni, H.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of

  2. Background, design and conceptual model of the cluster randomized multiple-component workplace study: FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain - "FRIDOM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FRIDOM (FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain WHP program among health care workers. A job group characterized by having high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, high sickness presenteeism - and absenteeism. Methods FRIDOM aimed to reduce neck and shoulder pain. Secondary aims were to decrease sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism and lifestyle-diseases such as other musculoskeletal disorders as well as metabolic-, and cardiovascular disorders – and to maintain participation to regular physical exercise training, after a one year intervention period. The entire concept was tailored to a population of female health care workers. This was done through a multi-component intervention including 1 intelligent physical exercise training (IPET, dietary advice and weight loss (DAW and cognitive behavioural training (CBT. Discussion The FRIDOM program has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of the pain reducing effect of a multi component WHP among a female group of employees with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and in a long term perspective evaluate the effects on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism as well as risk of life-style diseases. Trial registration NCT02843269 , 06.27.2016 - retrospectively registered.

  3. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  4. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  5. A case study by life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  6. Adolescents Background - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within any 24-hour period in the life of a teenager, eating may be a positive or a negative experience. It may involve a quick snack or a grazing process. Eating for teens may be a group decision, an interaction, or an independent endeavor.

  7. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  8. Shift manager workload assessment - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)

  9. Association Between Educational Level and Risk of Cancer in HIV-infected Individuals and the Background Population: Population-based Cohort Study 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-11-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of cancer. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of socioeconomic position on risk and prognosis of cancer in HIV infection. Population-based cohort-study, including HIV-infected individuals diagnosed (without intravenous drug abuse or hepatitis C infection) (n = 3205), and a background population cohort matched by age, gender, and country of birth (n = 22 435) were analyzed. Educational level (low or high) and cancer events were identified in Danish national registers. Cumulative incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1.1 [95% CI, .9-1.2]), tobacco- and alcohol-related (2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.4] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]), and other (1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.8] vs 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.0]). Educational level was not associated with infection-related or ill-defined cancers. One-year-survival was not associated with educational level, but HIV-infected individuals with low educational level had lower 5-year-survival following infection-related and ill-defined cancers. Education is associated with risk and prognosis of some cancers in HIV infection, and diverges from what is observed in the background population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  11. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Janke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches

  12. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C.; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  13. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) was established in Cracow in 1955. The post-war excitement of engaging in scientific activity, can certainly be credited to the talent, experience and unusual personality of Professor Henryk Niewodniczanski, the founder and first Director of the INP. In the 60's the INP research activity was concentrated around the Russian U120 Cyclotron, built in 1958 which provided deuteron beams up to 14.5 MeV and of alpha particles up to 29 MeV. A small 48 cm pole-piece cyclotron with was in-house constructed, and used for PIXE analyses and RBA material studies. In 1960's, the nuclear spectroscopy group began building several types of magnetic beta ray spectrometers to study excited levels of neutron-deficient isotopes provided by the 660 MeV cyclotron of the JINR. In parallel, studies of spin polarization of n and p emitted in the deuteron stripping reaction were performed. Studies of condensed matter using pulsed neutron beams from the IBR30 and Kjeller (Norway) reactors had also began. The NMR signal was first observed in Poland by physicists from the Jagiellonian University, and a well equipped NMR Laboratory was also created at the INP. A small theoretical physics department was established to support experimental research. Applied physics, based on the research performed in the INP was also developed. Following the interest in fast neutron radiotherapy, initiated by the Gray Laboratory in Hammersmith, a beam of fast neutrons was produced on a Be target by 13.5 MeV deuterons from the U120 and applied for cancer therapy, in a collaborative effort with the Centre of Oncology in Cracow. Over a period of 10 years, some 500 patients were treated, in selected types of salivary gland cancer and post-mastectomy recurrences. In the late 60's a technology of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was developed at the INP, based on specially activated LiF. The method was patented and TLDs, manufactured at the INP, are nowadays applied by in over 30

  14. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  15. Background factors of reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 10,837 subjects in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Minatsuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, its risk factors are still a subject of controversy. This is probably due to inadequate distinction between reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD, and is also due to inadequate evaluation of adjacent stomach. Our aim is therefore to define background factors of RE and NERD independently, based on the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy. METHODS: We analyzed 10,837 healthy Japanese subjects (6,332 men and 4,505 women, aged 20-87 years who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. RE was diagnosed as the presence of mucosal break, and NERD was diagnosed as the presence of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation in RE-free subjects. Using GERD-free subjects as control, background factors for RE and NERD were separately analyzed using logistic regression to evaluate standardized coefficients (SC, odds ratio (OR, and p-value. RESULTS: Of the 10,837 study subjects, we diagnosed 733 (6.8% as RE and 1,722 (15.9% as NERD. For RE, male gender (SC = 0.557, OR = 1.75, HP non-infection (SC = 0.552, OR = 1.74, higher pepsinogen I/II ratio (SC = 0.496, OR = 1.64, higher BMI (SC = 0.464, OR = 1.60, alcohol drinking (SC = 0.161, OR = 1.17, older age (SC = 0.148, OR = 1.16, and smoking (SC = 0.129, OR = 1.14 are positively correlated factors. For NERD, HP infection (SC = 0.106, OR = 1.11, female gender (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, younger age (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, higher pepsinogen I/II ratio (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, smoking (SC = 0.080, OR = 1.08, higher BMI (SC = 0.078, OR = 1.08, and alcohol drinking (SC = 0.076, OR = 1.08 are positively correlated factors. Prevalence of RE in subjects with chronic HP infection and successful HP eradication denotes significant difference (2.3% and 8.8%; p<0.0001, whereas that of NERD shows no difference (18.2% and 20.8%; p = 0.064. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly associated factors of NERD are considerably

  16. LiteBIRD: a small satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic background radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.

  17. Are Principal Background and School Processes Related to Teacher Job Satisfaction? A Multilevel Study Using Schools and Staffing Survey 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Leslie, Jeffrey M.; Spybrook, Jessaca K.; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples for public school teachers and principals, the authors inquired into whether principal background and school processes are related to teacher job satisfaction. Employing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), the authors were a