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Sample records for assessment methods vi

  1. Application of the Rietveld method to assess chromium(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2007-03-15

    The Rietveld method allows the quantification of crystalline phases and amorphous material identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and other diffraction methods. The method assists in determining the speciation of contaminants in solid matrices both qualitatively and quantitatively in a statistically defensible approach, as it does not focus on a microscale. Rietveld was applied to chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a cementitious waste containing hexavalent chromium. Calcium aluminum chromium oxide hydrates (CACs) were the crystalline phases identified by XRPD that bind Cr(6+) in COPR according to their chemical formula. Rietveld quantification, combined with mass balances on Cr(6+), showed that CACs may bind Cr(6+) in variable percentages, ranging from 25% to 85%. Analysis of duplicate samples showed that material variability is the predominant factor of uncertainty in evaluating the role of CACs in Cr(6+) speciation, provided that a consistent quantification strategy is pursued. The choice of strategy was performed on the basis of the pertinent literature, preliminary analyses of the equipment and the software settings, and mass balances. The correlation between the average CAC-bound Cr(6+) concentration and the total Cr(6+) for five samples (R(2)=0.94), extracted from different zones and soil borings, suggests that CACs are a primary sink for Cr(6+) in COPR.

  2. Individual and Group Extension Methods: Perspectives from Vi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of group and individual extension methods in delivering agroforestry technologies at Vi-Agroforestry project, Masaka district. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) tools including semi-structured questionnaires were administrated to 90 randomly selected farmers who had ...

  3. Study of reduction of chromium (VI by calcium polysulfide using spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batukhan Tatykaev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  the results of the study on reduction  of  Cr2O72-   to   Cr3 +  by aqueous solution of calcium polysulfide  using spectrophotometric method. Concentrations  of Cr (VI were determined on the basis of the absorption spectrum at the wavelength range 350 - 372 nm. The change of the concentration of Cr (VI during on reduction by calcium polysulfide has been shown.  The influence of pH on the rate of reducing of Cr (VI to Cr (III was considered: the rate of reducing of hexavalent chromium decreases with increasing pH. The data obtained show that recycling Cr (VI in industrial scale potentially effective at  the pH = 5.

  4. Validation of the Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ormaechea, Inés; González, Inmaculada; Duplá, María; Andres, Eva; Pueyo, Victoria

    2014-10-01

    Visual cognitive integrative functions need to be evaluated by a behavioral assessment, which requires an experienced evaluator. The Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire was designed to evaluate these functions, both in general pediatric population or in children with high risk of visual cognitive problems, through primary caregivers' answers. We aimed to validate the PreViAs questionnaire by comparing caregiver reports with results from a comprehensive clinical protocol. A total of 220 infants (visual development, as determined by the clinical protocol. Their primary caregivers completed the PreViAs questionnaire, which consists of 30 questions related to one or more visual domains: visual attention, visual communication, visual-motor coordination, and visual processing. Questionnaire answers were compared with results of behavioral assessments performed by three pediatric ophthalmologists. Results of the clinical protocol classified 128 infants as having normal visual maturation, and 92 as having abnormal visual maturation. The specificity of PreViAs questionnaire was >80%, and sensitivity was 64%-79%. More than 80% of the infants were correctly classified, and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.9 for all domains. The PreViAs questionnaire is useful to detect abnormal visual maturation in infants from birth to 24months of age. It improves the anamnesis process in infants at risk of visual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: utility in assessment of rapid changes in the cutaneous microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul M.; O'Doherty, Jim; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Anderson, Chris D.; Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2010-02-01

    This report outlines results from an independent study assessing the clinical potential of an emerging, contemporary imaging technology. Tissue Viability (TiVi) imaging is an easily implemented, non-invasive, and portable technique which maps the blood circulation in the surface dermal layer. However, its routine clinical implementation awaits the development of the necessary standardised protocols. Thus the pilot study examines the efficacy of a novel TiVi imaging device within a localised skin blood flow occlusion protocol. The test was administered to the upper volar forearm of 19 healthy subjects (10:9 Female:Male) for 5 different time periods ranging from 5 to 25 seconds. Dermal areas corresponding to 100 × 100 pixels (2.89 cm2) were monitored for 60 seconds prior to, during and after each occlusal test. Our results support the relevance of a TiVi occlusion protocol for physiological assessment of the skin microcirculation.

  6. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    , and identified chromium(VI) release from one earring. In the present study, we used the DPC spot test to assess chromium(VI) release in a much larger sample of jewellery items (n=848), 160 (19%) of which had previously be shown to contain chromium when analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (2)....

  7. Application of plasma electrolysis method for simultaneous phenol and Cr(VI) wastewater degradation using Na2SO4 electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harianti, Aulia Rahmi; Saksono, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Phenol and Cr (VI) are two types of wastewater known as dangerous and difficult to degrade. Through this study, phenol and Cr (VI) metal wastewater were degraded simultaneously using plasma electrolysis method by reactive species, •OH and H•. The variation of anode depth and position of plasma formation as independent variables correlated with yield of hydroxyl radical, percentage of phenol and Cr (VI) degradation, and specific energy. Within 30 minutes, phenol was degraded to 98.4% and Cr (VI) was degraded to 93.35% with 171.05 kJ/mmol in specific energy, and 174.53 ppm in COD. The optimum condition was obtained in anodic plasma and 1.5 cm in anode depth. The highest degradation percentage of phenol and Cr (VI) were 99.79% and 97.33% achieved during 180 minutes of plasma electrolysis process.

  8. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Sun, Yuping; Wang, Jianji; Fan, Maohong

    2009-04-27

    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-reagent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in acidic medium. H(2)O(2) and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 microg mL(-1), and the detection limit was 0.16 microg mL(-1). The sample throughput was 80 h(-1), and the total volume of only 145 microL was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  9. The application of tree bark as bio-indicator for the assessment of Cr(VI) in air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa)]. E-mail: MandiwanaKL@tut.ac.za; Resane, Tabby [School of Geosciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Panichev, Nikolay [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa); Ngobeni, Prince [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X31, Rosslyn 0200 (South Africa)

    2006-09-21

    The impact of a chromium smelter on pollution was evaluated by determining Cr(VI) in topsoil, grass and tree bark by electhrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). It was found that bark reflected the levels of air pollution better than soil and grass due to its high accumulative ability of Cr(VI). The tree bark was contaminated with Cr(VI) by a factor of 9 than in soil. It is therefore suggested that the bark be used as an indicator of air pollution for long-term exposure. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the bark was always a fraction of the total concentration of Cr and ranges between 1.6 and 3%. The method used in the preparation of samples was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  10. The application of tree bark as bio-indicator for the assessment of Cr(VI) in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L; Resane, Tabby; Panichev, Nikolay; Ngobeni, Prince

    2006-09-21

    The impact of a chromium smelter on pollution was evaluated by determining Cr(VI) in topsoil, grass and tree bark by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). It was found that bark reflected the levels of air pollution better than soil and grass due to its high accumulative ability of Cr(VI). The tree bark was contaminated with Cr(VI) by a factor of 9 than in soil. It is therefore suggested that the bark be used as an indicator of air pollution for long-term exposure. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the bark was always a fraction of the total concentration of Cr and ranges between 1.6 and 3%. The method used in the preparation of samples was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  11. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Walter E.

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  12. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jing, E-mail: fanjing@henannu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun Yuping; Wang Jianji [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Fan Maohong [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2009-04-27

    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-regent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in acidic medium. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, and the detection limit was 0.16 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The sample throughput was 80 h{sup -1}, and the total volume of only 145 {mu}L was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  13. Methods for assessing geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  14. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  16. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  17. Modifications to EPA Method 3060A to Improve Extraction of Cr(VI) from Chromium Ore Processing Residue-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Bern, Carleton R.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Foster, Andrea L.; Morrison, Jean M.; Benzel, William M.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that EPA Method 3060A does not adequately extract Cr(VI) from chromium ore processing residue (COPR). We modified various parameters of EPA 3060A toward understanding the transformation of COPR minerals in the alkaline extraction and improving extraction of Cr(VI) from NIST SRM 2701, a standard COPR-contaminated soil. Aluminum and Si were the major elements dissolved from NIST 2701, and their concentrations in solution were correlated with Cr(VI). The extraction fluid leached additional Al and Si from the method-prescribed borosilicate glass vessels which appeared to suppress the release of Cr(VI). Use of polytetrafluoroethylene vessels and intensive grinding of NIST 2701 increased the amount of Cr(VI) extracted. These modifications, combined with an increased extraction fluid to sample ratio of ≥900 mL g–1 and 48-h extraction time resulted in a maximum release of 1274 ± 7 mg kg–1 Cr(VI). This is greater than the NIST 2701 certified value of 551 ± 35 mg kg–1 but less than 3050 mg kg–1 Cr(VI) previously estimated by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Some of the increased Cr(VI) may have resulted from oxidation of Cr(III) released from brownmillerite which rapidly transformed during the extractions. Layered-double hydroxides remained stable during extractions and represent a potential residence for unextracted Cr(VI).

  18. Modifications to EPA Method 3060A to Improve Extraction of Cr(VI) from Chromium Ore Processing Residue-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T; Bern, Carleton R; Wolf, Ruth E; Foster, Andrea L; Morrison, Jean M; Benzel, William M

    2017-10-03

    It has been shown that EPA Method 3060A does not adequately extract Cr(VI) from chromium ore processing residue (COPR). We modified various parameters of EPA 3060A toward understanding the transformation of COPR minerals in the alkaline extraction and improving extraction of Cr(VI) from NIST SRM 2701, a standard COPR-contaminated soil. Aluminum and Si were the major elements dissolved from NIST 2701, and their concentrations in solution were correlated with Cr(VI). The extraction fluid leached additional Al and Si from the method-prescribed borosilicate glass vessels which appeared to suppress the release of Cr(VI). Use of polytetrafluoroethylene vessels and intensive grinding of NIST 2701 increased the amount of Cr(VI) extracted. These modifications, combined with an increased extraction fluid to sample ratio of ≥900 mL g(-1) and 48-h extraction time resulted in a maximum release of 1274 ± 7 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI). This is greater than the NIST 2701 certified value of 551 ± 35 mg kg(-1) but less than 3050 mg kg(-1) Cr(VI) previously estimated by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Some of the increased Cr(VI) may have resulted from oxidation of Cr(III) released from brownmillerite which rapidly transformed during the extractions. Layered-double hydroxides remained stable during extractions and represent a potential residence for unextracted Cr(VI).

  19. Degradation of phenol and Cr (VI) wastewater with contact glow discharge electrolysis method and the addition of Fe2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Raden Ridzki Aditya; Saksono, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Phenol and Cr (VI) are an organic waste and dangerous heavy metals which generated from a wide variety of industrial processes such as textiles, paints, dyes, and others. For that reason, we need effective waste treatment technologies, one of them is Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE). This method produce reactive species such as radical hidroxyl so as to be able to degradate phenol and Cr(VI) wastewater effectively. This research aims to obtain the effect of Fe 2+ and air bubbles in degradation of phenol and Cr (VI) waste simultaneously. Waste degradation is measured its absorbance with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. In the conditions of 600 Volt voltage, Na2SO4 0.02 M, anode depth of 1.5 cm, the addition of Fe2+ 40 ppm and the addition of air bubbles for 30 minutes was obtained a percentage degradation of phenol 99.47%, Cr (VI) 76.75% and specific energy of 344.473 kJ / mmol.

  20. Emotions: Methods of Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, Marcello; Mehu, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are brief episodes during which several functional components are synchronized in response to an eliciting event. Emotions can be assessed by measuring responses in each of these components: subjective feeling, physiology, expression, and motivation. In this article we review the most advanced methods that can be used to assess emotions in each of the four components: self-report measures and questionnaires, measures of physiological activation, instruments for the analysis of nonver...

  1. Use case scenarios - space based receiver assessment : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment Workshop VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This workshop presentation discusses space based receiver applications, NASA developed receivers, the TriG receiver, on-orbit assessment parameters, the TriG GNSS-RO antenna gain pattern, the GNSS-RO antenna beam Earth grazing coverage area, assessme...

  2. Evaluation of the Airborne CASI/TASI Ts-VI Space Method for Estimating Near-Surface Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution airborne data with little sub-pixel heterogeneity were used to evaluate the suitability of the temperature/vegetation (Ts/VI space method developed from satellite observations, and were explored to improve the performance of the Ts/VI space method for estimating soil moisture (SM. An evaluation of the airborne ΔTs/Fr space (incorporated with air temperature revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI saturation and disturbed pixels were hindering the appropriate construction of the space. The non-disturbed ΔTs/Fr space, which was modified by adjusting the NDVI saturation and eliminating the disturbed pixels, was clearly correlated with the measured SM. The SM estimations of the non-disturbed ΔTs/Fr  space using the evaporative fraction (EF and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI were validated by using the SM measured at a depth of 4 cm, which was determined according to the land surface types. The validation results show that the EF approach provides superior estimates with a lower RMSE (0.023 m3·m−3 value and a higher correlation coefficient (0.68 than the TVDI. The application of the airborne ΔTs/Fr  space shows that the two modifications proposed in this study strengthen the link between the ΔTs/Fr space and SM, which is important for improving the precision of the remote sensing Ts/VI space method for monitoring SM.

  3. Oxidation of indometacin by ferrate (VI): kinetics, degradation pathways, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlei; Wang, Yahui; Liu, Guoguang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Fengliang; Ma, Jingshuai; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Haijin; Lv, Wenying

    2017-04-01

    The oxidation of indometacin (IDM) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was investigated to determine the reaction kinetics, transformation products, and changes in toxicity. The reaction between IDM and Fe(VI) followed first-order kinetics with respect to each reactant. The apparent second-order rate constants (k app ) decreased from 9.35 to 6.52 M -1  s -1 , as the pH of the solution increased from 7.0 to 10.0. The pH dependence of k app might be well explained by considering the species-specific rate constants of the reactions of IDM with Fe(VI). Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that the oxidation products were primarily derived from the hydrolysis of amide linkages, the addition of hydroxyl groups, and electrophilic oxidation. The toxicity of the oxidation products was evaluated using the Microtox test, which indicated that transformation products exhibited less toxicity to the Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis calculated by the ecological structure activity relationship (ECOSAR) revealed that all of the identified products exhibited lower acute and chronic toxicity than the parent pharmaceutical for fish, daphnid, and green algae. Furthermore, Fe(VI) was effective in the degradation IDM in water containing carbonate ions or fulvic acid (FA), and in lake water samples; however, higher Fe(VI) dosages would be required to completely remove IDM in lake water in contrast to deionized water.

  4. Integration of discards in the roundnose grenadier stock assessment in ICES division Vb, subaera VI, VII

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Lionel; Lorance, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We present a series of exploratory stock assessments for roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) from estimates of catch data based on information and assumption of discards and landing statistics. It is a common practice to consider landings data as a substitute of catch data to perform stock assessments. When a significant portion of the catch is discarded, this assumption is likely to be misleading as assessment methods will provide underestimated stock size.

  5. Free energy of conformational transition paths in biomolecules: The string method and its application to myosin VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Karplus, Martin; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A set of techniques developed under the umbrella of the string method is used in combination with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conformation change between the prepowerstroke (PPS) and rigor (R) structures of the converter domain of myosin VI. The challenges specific to the application of these techniques to such a large and complex biomolecule are addressed in detail. These challenges include (i) identifying a proper set of collective variables to apply the string method, (ii) finding a suitable initial string, (iii) obtaining converged profiles of the free energy along the transition path, (iv) validating and interpreting the free energy profiles, and (v) computing the mean first passage time of the transition. A detailed description of the PPS↔R transition in the converter domain of myosin VI is obtained, including the transition path, the free energy along the path, and the rates of interconversion. The methodology developed here is expected to be useful more generally in studies of conformational transitions in complex biomolecules. PMID:21361558

  6. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  7. A Rapid and Direct Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Molybdenum(VI using Gallacetophenone Phenylhydrazone with Application to Alloy Steel Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venkataramana Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and fairly selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of molybdenum(VI using gallacetophenone phenylhydrazone (GPPH as an analytical reagent. The GPPH forms an orange red species of molybdenum(VI at a pH range of 3.0-4.0 and the complex is soluble in 20% ethanol. The Mo(VI-GPPH complex shows maximum absorbance at 375 nm with molar absorptivity and Sandellʼs sensitivity being 1.539x104 L/mol cm and 1.5x10-3 μg cm-2 respectively. The system obeys Beerʼs law in the range of 1.0-6.0 μg/mL. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation. The composition of the Mo(VI-GPPH complex is established as 1:2 by slope analysis method. The instability constant of the complex calculated from Edmond and Birnbaumʼs method is 6.785x10-8 at room temperature. The interfering effect of various cations and anions has also been studied. The method has been applied for the determination of Mo(VI in alloy steel samples.

  8. Development and validation of mathematical methods for the evaluation of spectroscopic data of uranyl (VI) hxdrolysis; Entwicklung und Validierung mathematischer Methoden zur Auswertung spektroskopischer Daten der Uranyl(VI)-Hydrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobot, Bjoern

    2016-08-18

    The availability of metals in the biosphere is determined by the chemical state. Spectroscopic methods are appropriate for the analysis of speciation - the problem is the data processing. In the frame of the thesis the use of the software PARAFAC was used to analyze the excitation spectra of uranyl (VI) hydrolysis. It was shown that modern mathematical tools are essential for the data processing. The range of applicability covers deprotonation processes up to complex biochemical processes.

  9. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  10. Chromium (VI) adsorption from wastewater using porous magnetite nanoparticles prepared from titanium residue by a novel solid-phase reduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Genkuan; Wang, Xinlong; Huang, Penghui; Zhong, Benhe; Zhang, Zhiye; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xiushan

    2017-12-31

    Porous magnetite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by reduction of titanium residue with pyrite under nitrogen protection, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of porous magnetite nanoparticles with single spinel structure. The SEM image demonstrated that porous magnetite nanoparticles displayed spherical shape with the average diameter of ~51nm. The surface area of porous magnetite nanoparticles with high magnetic moment (78emu·g(-1)) was 11.1m(2)g(-1). The experimental results revealed that equilibrium adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) was well described by Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 14.49mgg(-1) at 298.15K, and kinetic data was found to fit well with pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption rate for Cr(VI) was controlled by both boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. Thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption processes of Cr(VI) were endothermic and spontaneous. In addition, the adsorption of Cr(VI) on porous magnetite nanoparticles was classified as chemisorption adsorption, which depended on electrostatic attraction accompanied with reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Porous magnetite nanoparticles were readily regenerated and used repeatedly for Cr(VI) adsorption at least five cycles. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that porous magnetite nanoparticles have a promising application for Cr(VI) adsorption from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  12. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  13. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  14. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  15. Finite element method for neutron transport - VI. Upper and lower bounds for local characteristics of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Technical Services and Planning Directorate); Splawski, B.A. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the finite element method also shares with Monte Carlo the capability to bracket local characteristics of a solution, such as the reaction rate for a small locality. The bracketing bounds for the Monte Carlo method have a statistical error, whereas these bounds are rigorous for the finite element method. The latter bounds for a locality of a system are obtained by a bi-variational method with the aid of an associated system. For cell problems very tight bounds can be computed, but in deep-penetration problems for shields there are some difficulties to be overcome. Reasons are advanced for the difficulties.

  16. Preparation and characterization of magnetic Fe3O 4/CNT nanoparticles by RPO method to enhance the efficient removal of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Runhua; Chai, Liyuan; Li, Qinzhu; Shi, Yan; Wang, Yangyang; Mohammad, Ali

    2013-10-01

    This work described a novel method for the synthesis of high-ferromagnetism nanoparticles (Fe3O4/CNTs) to efficiently remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The Fe3O4/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by in situ reduction with post-oxidation method by using cheap and environmentally friendly precursor under mild condition. Magnetic hysteresis loops revealed that Fe3O4/CNTs had superior saturation magnetization (152 emu/g), enabling the highly efficient recovery of Fe3O4/CNTs from aqueous solution by magnetic separation at low magnetic field gradients. FTIR, Raman, XPS, and TEM observations were employed to characterize the physical-chemical properties of Fe3O4/CNTs, demonstrating that CNTs were successfully coated with iron oxide matrix. The adsorption equilibrium of Cr(VI) on Fe3O4/CNTs was reached within 30 min. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm were chosen to analyze the equilibrium data. The results indicated that Langmuir model can well describe the equilibrium data with the maximum adsorption capacity of 47.98 mg/g at room temperature and 83.54 mg/g at 353 K. The adsorption capacity of Fe3O4/CNTs for Cr(VI) was greatly improved as compared to raw CNTs and other similar adsorbents reported. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best description of Cr(VI) adsorption on Fe3O4/CNTs. Most importantly, possible synthesis mechanism and Cr(VI) removal mechanism were explored. The results suggest that large amounts of Cr(VI) were adsorbed on Fe3O4/CNTs surface by substituting the surface position of -OH and then reducing it to Cr(OH)3 and Cr2O3.

  17. Evaluating color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods through visual search and sample-to-match: SaMSEM and ViSDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Liedtke, Joschua T.; Farup, Ivar; Laeng, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient people might be confronted with minor difficulties when navigating through daily life, for example when reading websites or media, navigating with maps, retrieving information from public transport schedules and others. Color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods have been proposed to better understand problems of color deficient individuals and to improve color displays for their use. However, it remains unclear whether these color prosthetic" methods really work and how well they improve the performance of color deficient individuals. We introduce here two methods to evaluate color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods based on behavioral experiments that are widely used in the field of psychology. Firstly, we propose a Sample-to-Match Simulation Evaluation Method (SaMSEM); secondly, we propose a Visual Search Daltonization Evaluation Method (ViSDEM). Both methods can be used to validate and allow the generalization of the simulation and daltonization methods related to color deficiency. We showed that both the response times (RT) and the accuracy of SaMSEM can be used as an indicator of the success of color deficiency simulation methods and that performance in the ViSDEM can be used as an indicator for the efficacy of color deficiency daltonization methods. In future work, we will include comparison and analysis of different color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods with the help of SaMSEM and ViSDEM.

  18. Optimized and validated spectrophotometric method for the determination of uranium(VI) via complexation with meloxicam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfullah [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)], E-mail: lutfullah786@gmail.com; Alam, Mohd Noor; Rahman, Nafisur; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2008-06-30

    An optimized and validated spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of uranyl ion in the presence of other metal ions. The method is based on the chelation of uranyl ion with meloxicam via {beta}-diketone moiety to produce a yellow colored complex, which absorbs maximally at 398 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-60 {mu}g/mL with apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 5.02 x 10{sup 4} L/mol/cm and 0.1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/0.001 absorbance unit, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of uranyl ion in synthetic mixture and soil samples. Results of analysis were statistically compared with those obtained by Currah's spectrophotometric method showing acceptable recovery and precision.

  19. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  2. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  3. Matrix effect in F₂-isoprostanes quantification by HPLC-MS/MS: a validated method for analysis of iPF₂α-III and iPF₂α-VI in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, Teresa; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-08-15

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has become the method of choice for analysis in biological matrices, because of its high specificity and sensitivity. However, it should be taken into account that the presence of matrix components coeluting with analytes might interfere with the ionization process and affect the accuracy and precision of the assay. For this reason, the presence of a "matrix effect" should always be evaluated during method development, above all in complex matrix such as urine. In the present work, a HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of urinary iPF2α-III and iPF2α-VI. A careful assessment of matrix effect and an accurate validation were carried out, in order to verify the reliability of quantitative data obtained. Ion suppression, due to the matrix components, was reduced through optimization of both chromatographic method and sample extraction procedure. Urine samples were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) and the extracts injected into the HPLC-MS/MS system, equipped with a TurboIonSpray ionization source operated in negative ion mode (ESI(-)). Stable isotope-labeled analogues (iPF2α-III-d4 and iPF2α-VI-d4) were used as internal standards, and quantification was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring the following mass transitions: m/z 353.4→193.2 for iPF2α-III, m/z 357.2→197.0 for iPF2α-III-d4, m/z 353.4→115.1 for iPF2α-VI, and m/z 357.4→115.1 for iPF2α-VI-d4. The validated assay, applied to the analysis of urinary samples coming from healthy and overweight subjects, resulted suitable for an accurate quantification of iPF2α-III and iPF2α-VI in human urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitization of CdS nanoparticles onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) fabricated by chemical bath deposition method for effective removal of Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyong523@gmail.com

    2013-09-16

    RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide)–CdS composites were successfully synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method onto soda lime glass substrate at low temperature (70 °C). Their structural, optical and morphological properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, Field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It is clearly seen that spherically shaped CdS nanoparticles with an average diameter 30 nm are uniformly coated over the entire graphene sheet. Further, synthesized CdS nanoparticles and RGO–CdS nanocomposites were investigated for the reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light. The photocatalytic results show that photodegradation rate of RGO–CdS composites is two times higher than that of CdS nanoparticles toward reduction of Cr(VI). The improved photocatalytic performance by combining RGO with CdS nanoparticles, is attributed to its increased specific surface area (47.44 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), efficient transportation of photoelectrons and improved absorbance of CdS nanoparticles. Therefore, it was found that RGO in RGO–CdS composites makes a significant impact on photocatalytic activity toward reduction of Cr(VI), making an excellent candidate for water refiner. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Chemical bath deposition was used to deposit CdS nanoparticles over graphene sheets. • RGO/CdS shows effective photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light. • High photocurrent of RGO/CdS proved reduction in recombination due to graphene. • High specific surface area (47.44 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) of RGO/CdS improves Cr(VI) adsorption.

  5. Alcohol consumption in midlife and cognitive performance assessed 13 years later in the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available Associations between alcohol consumption and cognitive function are discordant and data focusing on midlife exposure are scarce.To estimate the association between midlife alcohol consumption and cognitive performance assessed 13 y later while accounting for comorbidities and diet.3,088 French middle-aged adults included in the SU.VI.MAX (1994 study with available neuropsychological evaluation 13 y later. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from repeated 24h dietary records collected in 1994-1996. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests. A composite score was built as the mean of the standardized individual test scores (mean=50, SD=10. ANCOVA were performed to estimate mean differences in cognitive performance and 95% confidence intervals (CI.In women, abstainers displayed lower cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate alcohol drinkers (1 to 2 drinks/day (mean difference= -1.77; 95% CI: -3.29, -0.25. In men, heavy drinkers (>3 drinks/day had higher cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate (1 to 3 drinks/day (mean difference=1.05; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.99. However, a lower composite cognitive score was detected in male drinkers consuming ≥ 90 g/d (≈8 drinks/d. A higher proportion of alcohol intake from beer was also associated with lower cognitive scores. These associations remained significant after adjustment for diet, comorbidities and sociodemographic factors.In men, heavy but not extreme drinking was associated with higher global cognitive scores. Given the known harmful effects of alcohol even in low doses regarding risk of cancer, the study does not provide a basis for modifying current public health messages.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00272428.

  6. A New Method to Define the VI-Ts Diagram Using Subpixel Vegetation and Soil Information: A Case Study over a Semiarid Agricultural Region in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Qinxue; Matsushita, Bunkei; Fukushima, Takehiko; Ouyang, Zhu; Watanabe, Masataka

    2008-10-07

    The VI-Ts diagram determined by the scatter points of the vegetation index (VI) and surface temperature (Ts) has been widely applied in land surface studies. In the VI-Ts diagram, dry point is defined as a pixel with maximum Ts and minimum VI, while wet point is defined as a pixel with minimum Ts and maximum VI. If both dry and wet points can be obtained simultaneously, a triangular VI-Ts diagram can be readily defined. However, traditional methods cannot define an ideal VI-Ts diagram if there are no full ranges of land surface moisture and VI, such as during rainy season or in a period with a narrow VI range. In this study, a new method was proposed to define the VI-Ts diagram based on the subpixel vegetation and soil information, which was independent of the full ranges of land surface moisture and VI. In this method, a simple approach was firstly proposed to decompose Ts of a given pixel into two components, the surface temperatures of soil (T soil ) and vegetation (T veg ), by means of Ts and VI information of neighboring pixels. The minimum T veg and maximum T soil were then used to determine the wet and dry points respectively within a given sampling window. This method was tested over a 30 km × 30 km semiarid agricultural area in the North China Plain through 2003 using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The wet and dry points obtained from our proposed method and from a traditional method were compared with those obtained from ground data within the sampling window with the 30 km × 30 km size. Results show that T soil and T veg can be obtained with acceptable accuracies, and that our proposed method can define reasonable VI-Ts diagrams over a semiarid agricultural region throughout the whole year, even for both cases of rainy season and narrow range of VI.

  7. A New Method to Define the VI-Ts Diagram Using Subpixel Vegetation and Soil Information: A Case Study over a Semiarid Agricultural Region in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The VI-Ts diagram determined by the scatter points of the vegetation index (VI and surface temperature (Ts has been widely applied in land surface studies. In the VI-Ts diagram, dry point is defined as a pixel with maximum Ts and minimum VI, while wet point is defined as a pixel with minimum Ts and maximum VI. If both dry and wet points can be obtained simultaneously, a triangular VI-Ts diagram can be readily defined. However, traditional methods cannot define an ideal VI-Ts diagram if there are no full ranges of land surface moisture and VI, such as during rainy season or in a period with a narrow VI range. In this study, a new method was proposed to define the VI-Ts diagram based on the subpixel vegetation and soil information, which was independent of the full ranges of land surface moisture and VI. In this method, a simple approach was firstly proposed to decompose Ts of a given pixel into two components, the surface temperatures of soil (Tsoil and vegetation (Tveg, by means of Ts and VI information of neighboring pixels. The minimum Tveg and maximum Tsoil were then used to determine the wet and dry points respectively within a given sampling window. This method was tested over a 30 km × 30 km semiarid agricultural area in the North China Plain through 2003 using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. The wet and dry points obtained from our proposed method and from a traditional method were compared with those obtained from ground data within the sampling window with the 30 km × 30 km size. Results show that Tsoil and Tveg can be obtained with acceptable accuracies, and that our proposed method can define reasonable VI-Ts diagrams over a semiarid agricultural region throughout the whole year, even for both cases of rainy season and narrow range of VI.

  8. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights

  9. CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinjuan; Pan, Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Lv, Tian; Sun, Zhuo

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} films are synthesized by microwave-assisted deposition method. • The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film is investigated. • A high Cr(VI) reduction rate of 93% is achieved under white LED light irradiation. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO{sub 2} films were successfully synthesized using one-step microwave assisted chemical bath deposition method, which allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and TiO{sub 2} films. The photocatalytic performance of the films fabricated using CdS precursor solutions with different concentrations in the reduction of Cr(VI) under white light emitting diode (LED) light irradiation was investigated. The results show that the CdS sensitization can enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} film with a maximum reduction rate of 93% for 240 min under white LED light irradiation as compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} film (31%) due to the increase of light absorption and the reduction of recombination of the injected electrons from CdS to TiO{sub 2}.

  10. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  11. Advanced methods of fatigue assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Radaj, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The book in hand presents advanced methods of brittle fracture and fatigue assessment. The Neuber concept of fictitious notch rounding is enhanced with regard to theory and application. The stress intensity factor concept for cracks is extended to pointed and rounded corner notches as well as to locally elastic-plastic material behaviour. The averaged strain energy density within a circular sector volume around the notch tip is shown to be suitable for strength-assessments. Finally, the various implications of cyclic plasticity on fatigue crack growth are explained with emphasis being laid on the DJ-integral approach.   This book continues the expositions of the authors’ well known reference work in German language ‘Ermüdungsfestigkeit – Grundlagen für Ingenieure’ (Fatigue strength – fundamentals for engineers).

  12. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  13. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Antoniou, I.; Dahlberg, J.A. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  14. Abatement of toxicity of effluents containing Cr(VI) by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Toxicity assessment by AMPHITOX assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Jonatan Y; Meichtry, J Martín; Litter, Marta I; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2015-12-01

    Toxicity of a Cr(VI) solution before and after treatment by TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) was performed with AMPHITOX bioassay. Changes in toxicity on Rhinella arenarum larvae for 10-d were monitored after exposure to an untreated Cr(VI) solution and to the same solution after HP treatment. The HP treatment of a 41.60 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) solution reduced to 37.5% the concentration of the metal ion. A 10-fold reduction in toxicity at acute exposure (72 h) and 150-fold reduction in toxicity after 240 h was found. Further, the LOEC value increased from 0.001% for the untreated solution to 0.153% after HP treatment. Moreover, the safe concentration in untreated solution corresponded to 0.0001% sample, and it was 0.01% after the treatment, i.e., 100 times higher. A saving of water of about 100,000 L per L of effluent would be possible through dilution to allow safer concentrations for discharge; the saving would reach the highest value (1,000,000 L per L) at 240 h. Sub-lethal effects were completely absent in larvae exposed to the treated solution. The AMPHITOX test allowed to detect chronic effects at low Cr concentrations, i.e. at environmentally relevant levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Assessment of transfusion practice: assessing nurses' knowledge in transfusion medicine at Mohamed VI Hematology and Oncology Center of Marrakesh, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlimi, F Z; Tazi, I; Sifsalam, M; Bouchtia, M; Mahmal, L

    2015-03-01

    Blood transfusion is a complex activity, involving many actors. It is a high-risk activity which could not be controlled without the use of specific methods. Health care workers beliefs and organizational factors are two major issues for the blood transfusion safety. In our medical center, transfusion medicine care practices were evaluated by testing the nursing staff with a list of questions. We carried out a cross-sectional study. The information was gathered by using an anonymous questionnaire. The latter was developed by foreign teams and adapted to the local context. Forty-two nurses have participated to study. Only 25% have appropriate knowledge and practice with no negative consequences for the patient safety. In our sample, poor knowledge and practice concerned mainly (1) pre-transfusion compatibility check when receiving blood units (30%); (2) delay in preservation of blood unit in the ward (65%); and (3) recognition of abnormal reactions after transfusion (40%). These results showed on which topics the teaching program should emphasize so as to improve the quality of blood transfusion in the medical centers according to legal obligations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1: Some differences between traditional and emerging trends in educational assessment .... and tested recipe but rather a matter of trial aJld error .... It is a mistake to think that the same assessment type can serve both formative and swnmative purposes. Alternative assessments can be used along with traditional ...

  17. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  18. Methods for assessing fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin L. Pope; Steve E. Lochmann; Michael K. Young

    2010-01-01

    Fisheries managers are likely to assess fish populations at some point during the fisheries management process. Managers that follow the fisheries management process (see Chapter 5) might find their knowledge base insufficient during the steps of problem identification or management action and must assess a population before appropriate actions can be taken. Managers...

  19. Immunohistochemical assessment of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in biopsy samples of the bovine uterine wall collected during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, A

    2000-01-01

    Uterine biopsies were collected at cycle days 1 (oestrous), 8, 15 and 19 in six cows. Unfixed cryostat sections were used to immunolocalise collagen types I, III, IV and VI by an indirect FITC method. Collagen I was sparsely found in the endometrium where it formed a fine meshwork of thin fibres directly below the surface epithelium, clearly visible only at cycle days 8 and 15. Collagen III formed the bulk of connective tissue fibres and was arranged in fine aggregates within the superficial endometrial stroma, while in the deeper areas it consisted of many thick fibre bundles. Collagen IV was found in basement membranes underlying all endometrial epithelia. Furthermore, it surrounded smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. A few single fibrils also stained positively within the endometrial stroma, more numerous at cycle days 1 and 19 as compared to days 8 and 15. Collagen VI formed a mesh of fine and pericellularly situated fibrils within the endometrial stroma. The contribution of the collagen types studied to the connective tissue of caruncles, blood vessels, lymph follicles, and myometrium is also reported. The results of the present study indicate that the connective tissue of the bovine uterine wall is composed of different collagen types, which exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern each. The day of cycle may influence amounts and organisation of collagen types I and IV as demonstrated here at the light-microscopical level. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. A new turn-on fluorimetric method for the rapid speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) species in tea samples with rhodamine-based fluorescent reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyol, Esra; Saçmacı, Şerife; Saçmacı, Mustafa; Ülgen, Ahmet

    2018-02-01

    A new fluorimetric method with rhodamine-based fluorescent agent was developed for the rapid speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) in tea, soil and water samples. The system, which utilizes a fluorescent reagent, was used for the first time after synthesis/characterization of 3‧,6‧-bis(diethylamino)-2-{[(1E)-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene] amino}spiro[isoindole-1,9‧-xanthen]-3(2H)-one (BDAS). The reagent responds instantaneously at room temperature in a 1:1 stoichiometric manner to the amount of Cr(III). The selectivity of this system for Cr(III) over other metal ions is remarkably high, and its sensitivity is below 0.01 mg L- 1 in aqueous solutions which enables a simplification without any pretreatment of the real sample. The method has a wide linear range of 0.1-10 mg L- 1 and a detection limit of 0.15 μg L- 1 for Cr(III) while the relative standard deviation was 0.1% for 0.1 mg L- 1 Cr(III) concentration. The results of detection and recovery experiments for Cr(III) in tea, soil and water were satisfactory, indicating that the method has better feasibility and application potential in the routine determination and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI). The results of analysis of the certified reference material (INCT-TL-1 tea sample and CWW-TM-D waste water) are in good agreement with the certified value.

  1. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  2. Studies of kinetic of Cr(VI) adsorption in chitosan magnetic particles by radiochemistry method; Estudo da cinetica de adsorcao de Cr(VI) em particulas magneticas de quitosana pelo metodo radioquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Levi S.; Yamaura, Mitiko; Camilo, Ruth L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lsrodri@ipen.br; Landgraf, Fernando J.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: landgraf@ipt.br

    2005-07-01

    There are a number of processes which are used for remove or recovery metals from waters and waste waters. However, such processes are expensive and sometimes ineffective, especially when metals are present in solution at very low concentrations. Alternative and more efficient processes than ones usually employed are being intensively investigated as sorption. Biosorption of metals is already sufficiently known and its mechanisms have been intensely studied. Therefore, the efficiency and the mechanism of Cr(VI) ions uptake in chitosan magnetic particles obtained by suspension crosslinking technique were studied. These particles were spherical in shape and had a high porosity degree, a low saturation magnetization and a low percentage of swelling. The Cr(VI) ions uptake onto chitosan magnetic particles followed a mechanism of second order, suggesting chemical adsorption. (author)

  3. ASSESSMENT METHODS OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit services are more and more needed within economic entities, because on one hand they are directly subordinated to the general manager, on the other hand there is an increase in credit to its recommendations, estimating that internal audit is more than just a simple compliance check based on an established referral system. Our research focuses on evaluating the impact of theory and practice in the application of internal audit process. The added value brought by internal audit function to the economic entity it is pretty difficult to establish and requires effective ways and criteria of measured. In this regard, we will try to present ways to analyze internal audit’s activity by reference to some performance indicators or other specific methods. We used as research techniques: literature review, applied research and constructive research.

  4. A sensitive method for electrochemical determination of molybdenum (VI in plant foodstuff samples using Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanocomposite modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Afkhami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE is constructed for rapid, accurate, simple, highly sensitive, and selective determination of Mo (VI using differential pulse voltammetry. The electrode was prepared using magnetic nickel zinc ferrite nanocomposite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, as the modifier in CPE (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/CPE. Mo (VI was determined after preconcentration at the surface of the modified electrode at -0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under the optimal conditions, the linear dynamic range and limit of detection were 0.005-1.00 and 0.003 µgmL-1, respectively. Ten successive measurements of 0.06 and 0.70 µg mL-1 of Mo (VI ions showed the relative standard deviation of 3.20 and 1.98 %, respectively. The reproducibility and stability of the electrode response were also studied. Investigation of the effects of different cations and anions on the determination of Mo (VI indicated that the electrode is highly selective. Furthermore, the present method was applied to the determination of Mo (VI in several plant foodstuff samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  6. Photoredox degradation of different water pollutants (MO, RhB, MB, and Cr(VI)) using Fe–N–S-tri-doped TiO{sub 2} nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xuyao; Zhou, Xiaosong, E-mail: zxs801213@163.com; Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Limei; Ma, Lin; Luo, Jin; Li, Mengjia; Zeng, Lihua

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} was synthesized through simple one-step hydrothermal method. • Photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes and Cr(VI) are investigated. • The synergistic effect is shown in coexistence of MB and Cr(VI). - Abstract: Fe–N–S-tri-doped TiO{sub 2} (FeNS-TiO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized samples were tested by the oxidation of methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB) and the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, and compared with N-dope P25 (N-P25) and the undoped TiO{sub 2}. Besides, the effects of the coexistence of MO, RhB, and MB on FeNS-TiO{sub 2}-mediated photocatalytic reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) were also studied. The results indicated FeNS-TiO{sub 2} displayed higher visible-light-activated photocatalytic activity than N-P25 and the undoped TiO{sub 2}. Otherwise, FeNS-TiO{sub 2} showed the coexistence of MB enhanced the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), whereas the coexistence of MO and RhB retarded the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) over FeNS-TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, a possible photocatalytic mechanism is discussed.

  7. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  8. Experimental Validation of a Risk Assessment Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, E.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    [Context and motivation] It is desirable that require- ment engineering methods are reliable, that is, that methods can be repeated with the same results. Risk assessments methods, however, often have low reliability when they identify risk mitigations for a sys- tem based on expert judgement.

  9. Influence of both the composition of impregnation solution and impregnation method on copper(II, chromium(VI and silver(I deposition on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a solution for impregnating activated carbon (AC for use in a gas filter was investigated. The solution components were tetraaminocop-per(II complex, chromium(VI, silver(l and carbonate ions. Two methods of impregnation were investigated: ion adsorption from aqueous solution in excess and the incipient wetness method. Copper, chromium and silver con-tents on AC Were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The largest copper contents (4.38 and 5.00 % (w/w for two AC samples were achieved at: c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.0 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3.75: 1; M(Cu i M(Ag = 62: 1 and M(Cu: M(CO3 = 2: 1, using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method with 2.4 mL of solution per 3 g AC. The contents of chromium and silver on the same AC samples Were 1.06 and 0.0098 % for the first and 1.14 and 0.009 % for the second AC. A larger Cr content (1.57 % was achieved from an impregnation solution in excess (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.25 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3: 1; without Ag. The largest Ag content (0.17 % was obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 0.8 mol/L; M(Cu: M(Cr = 3.75: 1<; M(Cu i M(Ag ( 80: 1 and M(Cu i M(CO3 = 1 i 1.32. Larger metal contents were obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method. Further work is needed on the determination of the influence of carbonate ions both on the solution stability and metal deposition on AC.

  10. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  11. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  12. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  13. Objective Data Assessment (ODA) Methods as Nutritional Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional screening and assessment should be a standard of care for all patients because nutritional management plays an important role in clinical practice. However, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malnutrition or undernutrition, although a large number of nutritional screening and assessment tools have been developed. Nutritional screening and assessment tools are classified into two categories, namely, subjective global assessment (SGA) and objective data assessment (ODA). SGA assesses nutritional status based on the features of medical history and physical examination. On the other hand, ODA consists of objective data provided from various analyses, such as anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), laboratory tests, and functional tests. This review highlights knowledge on the performance of ODA methods for the assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice. J. Med. Invest. 62: 119-122, August, 2015.

  14. Integrating methods for ecosystem service assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunford, Rob; Harrison, Paula; Smith, Alison; Dick, Jan; Barton, David N.; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Kelemen, Ezsther; Jacobs, Sander; Saarikoski, Heli; Turkelboom, Francis; Verheyden, Wim; Hauck, Jennifer; Antunes, Paula; Aszalós, Réka; Badea, Ovidu; Baró, Francesc; Berry, Pam; Carvalho, Laurence; Conte, Giulio; Czúcz, Bálint; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Howard, Dave; Giuca, Relu; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Grizetti, Bruna; Izakovicova, Zita; Kopperoinen, Leena; Langemeyer, Johannes; Luque, Sandra; Lapola, David M.; Martinez-Pastur, Guillermo; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Roy, S.B.; Niemelä, Jari; Norton, Lisa; Ochieng, John; Odee, David; Palomo, Ignacio; Pinho, Patricia; Priess, Joerg; Rusch, Graciella; Saarela, Sanna Riikka; Santos, Rui; Wal, van der Jan Tjalling; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vári, Ágnes; Woods, Helen; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2018-01-01

    The Ecosystem Services (ES) concept highlights the varied contributions the environment provides to humans and there are a wide range of methods/tools available to assess ES. However, in real-world decision contexts a single tool is rarely sufficient and methods must be combined to meet practitioner

  15. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  16. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  17. A new method for separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography based on anion exchange stationary phase of ionic liquid modified silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2015-12-01

    In this work, N-methylimidazolium-chloride ionic liquid functionalized silica was prepared and used as an anion-exchange stationary phase for separation of chromium species by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at 200 nm. The Cr(VI) as HCr2O7(-) and chelated Cr(III) with potassium hydrogen phthalate (PHP) as Cr(PHP)2 (-) was retained on the prepared column and separated using a mobile phase composed of 5% methanol in 25 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5. Several variables affecting the chelation/separation steps were modeled by response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken (BBD) design. The significance of the independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variances (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit. Under the optimized conditions, the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) anionic species were well separated with a single peak for each Cr species at retention times of 2.3 and 4.3 min, respectively. The relationship between the peak area and concentration was linear in the range of 0.025-30 for Cr(III) and 0.5-20 mg L(-1) for Cr(VI) with detection limits of 0.010 and 0.210 mg L(-1) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. The proposed method was validated by simultaneous separation and determination of the Cr species in tap and underground water samples without impose to any pretreatment.

  18. Assessing the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier using Cr isotope measurements and 2D reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Christoph; Zink, Sonja; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs

    2012-04-01

    In Thun, Switzerland, a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for Cr(VI) reduction by gray cast iron was installed in May 2008. The PRB is composed of a double array of vertical piles containing iron shavings and gravel. The aquifer in Thun is almost saturated with dissolved oxygen and the groundwater flow velocities are ca. 10-15m/day. Two years after PRB installation Cr(VI) concentrations still permanently exceed the Swiss threshold value for contaminated sites downstream of the barrier at selected localities. Groundwater δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) measurements were used to track Cr(VI) reduction induced by the PRB. δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) values of two samples downstream of the PRB showed a clear fractionation towards more positive values compared to four samples from the hotspot, which is clear evidence of Cr(VI) reduction induced by the PRB. Another downstream sample did not show a shift to more positive δ(53/52)Cr(SRM979) values. Because this latter location correlates with the highest downstream Cr(VI) concentration it is proposed that a part of the Cr(VI) plume is bypassing the barrier. Using a Rayleigh fractionation model a minimum present-day overall Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of ca. 15% was estimated. A series of 2D model simulations, including the fractionation of Cr isotopes, confirm that only a PRB bypass of parts of the Cr(VI) plume can lead to the observed values. Additionally, the simulations revealed that the proposed bypass occurs due to an insufficient permeability of the individual PRB piles. It is concluded that with this type of PRB a complete and long-lasting Cr(VI) reduction is extremely difficult to achieve for Cr(VI) contaminations located in nearly oxygen and calcium carbonate saturated aquifer in a regime of high groundwater velocities. Additional remediation action would limit the environmental impact and allow to reach target concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Overview on Production and Applications of Ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaiekhozani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection are essential processes in water and waste treatment. A chemical that can be applied for all the above mentioned purposes is ferrate(VI. Although there are many studies about ferrate(VI, no comprehensive review paper can be found about ferrate(VI from production to applications. The aim of this study was to review ferrate(VI production, measurement, stability and utilization in water and wastewater treatment. Evidence Acquisition In acidic conditions, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. New researches have provided the technology of using ferrate(VI for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, which can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Results Despite the existence of these technologies, there is no full-scale application of ferrate(VI in the water and wastewater industry which it is due to difficulties associated with I, the lack of adequate researches that have demonstrated its capabilities and advantages over the existing water and wastewater treatment methods; ii, the instability of ferrate(VI depending on its method of preparation, and iii, the relatively low yield of ferrate(VI. Conclusions To solve the above mentioned difficulties, fundamental study most be carried out to discover the novel methods of ferrate(VI production, focusing on increasing the product stability and the production yield.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF DISINFECTION METHOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The efficiencies of three disinfection methods namely boiling, water guard and pur purifier were assessed. ... Water is an indispensable resource for supporting life systems [2-. 4], while access to safe drinking water is a basic human right, which is essential for healthy life ...... developing country context: improving decisions.

  1. Methods for assessing Phytophthora ramorum chlamydospore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Eberhart; Elilzabeth Stamm; Jennifer Parke

    2013-01-01

    Germination of chlamydospores is difficult to accurately assess when chlamydospores are attached to remnants of supporting hyphae. We developed two approaches for closely observing and rigorously quantifying the frequency of chlamydospore germination in vitro. The plate marking and scanning method was useful for quantifying germination of large...

  2. Assessment of resampling methods for causality testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papana, A.; Kyrtsou, C.; Kugiumtzis, D.; Diks, C.

    2014-01-01

    Different resampling methods for the null hypothesis of non-causality are assessed. As test statistic the partial transfer entropy (PTE), an information and model-free measure, is used. Two resampling techniques,1) the time shifted surrogates and 2) the stationary bootstrap, are combined with the

  3. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State ...

  4. In vitro evaluation of bioremediation capacity of a commercial probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, for chromium (VI and lead (II toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoti Belapurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bioaccumulation of heavy metals including chromium (VI (Cr (VI and lead (II (Pb (II causes fatal toxicity in humans. Some naturally occurring bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas help in bioremediation of these heavy metals and some of the species of Bacillus are proven probiotics. However, no study has been conducted on Bacillus coagulans, which is a proven probiotic species of genus Bacillus. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to assess the potential of a proven probiotic, B. coagulans, marketed as “Sporlac-DS,” to survive in the presence of Cr (VI and Pb (II and its ability to reduce its concentration in vitro. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the organism for Cr (VI and Pb (II was determined followed by its biochemical and morphological characterization. Its antibiotic sensitivity and probiotic efficacy were assessed. Further, its bioremediation capacity was observed in vitro by determining the residual Cr (VI and Pb (II concentration after 72 h. Results: B. coagulans could tolerate up to 512 ppm concentration of Cr (VI and had an MIC of 128 ppm for Pb (II. After 72 h, the organism reduced 32 ppm Cr (VI and 64 ppm Pb (II by 93% and 89%, respectively. When B. coagulans was studied before and after growing on Cr (VI and Pb (II for 24 h, an increase was seen in sensitivity toward the tested antibiotics whereas no change was observed in morphological and biochemical characters. It also showed no change in their bile and acid tolerance, indicating that it retains its probiotic efficacy. Conclusion: The tested probiotic B. coagulans may have a potential role in bioremediation of Cr (VI and Pb (II, in vivo.

  5. Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M

    2009-02-01

    Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.

  6. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    of internal factors to the blend e.g. the particle size distribution. The relation between particle size distribution and the variation in drug content in blend and tablet samples is discussed. A central problem is to develop acceptance criteria for blends and tablet batches to decide whether the blend......In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials....... Some methods have a focus on exploratory analysis where the aim is to investigate the spatial distribution of drug content in the batch. Other methods presented focus on describing the overall (total) (in)homogeneity of the blend. The overall (in)homogeneity of the blend is relevant as it is closely...

  7. Assessment methods in human body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  8. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  9. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail: davydov-va@yandex.ru; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail: badikek@mail.ru; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail: vitalaa@yandex.ru; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: alex.mal.1986@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  10. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  11. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  12. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of permeable reactive barriers: effects of construction methods, reactive materials and groundwater constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Mark S H; Lo, Irene M C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the construction methods, materials of reactive media and groundwater constituents on the environmental impacts of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The PRB is assumed to be installed at a simulated site contaminated by either Cr(VI) alone or Cr(VI) and As(V). Results show that the trench-based construction method can reduce the environmental impacts of the remediation remarkably compared to the caisson-based method due to less construction material consumption by the funnel. Compared to using the zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and quartz sand mixture, the use of the Fe(0) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) mixture can reduce the environmental impacts. In the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater, the environmental impacts generated by the reactive media were significantly increased because of the higher usage of Fe(0). The environmental impacts are lower by using the Fe(0) and IOCS mixture in the groundwater with NOM, compared with using the Fe(0) and quartz sand mixture. Since IOCS can enhance the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) and As(V), the usage of the Fe(0) can be reduced, which in turn reduces the impacts induced by the reactive media.

  14. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  15. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  16. On some methods for assessing earthquake predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.; Peresan, A.

    2017-09-01

    A regional approach to the problem of assessing earthquake predictions inevitably faces a deficit of data. We point out some basic limits of assessment methods reported in the literature, considering the practical case of the performance of the CN pattern recognition method in the prediction of large Italian earthquakes. Along with the classical hypothesis testing, a new game approach, the so-called parimutuel gambling (PG) method, is examined. The PG, originally proposed for the evaluation of the probabilistic earthquake forecast, has been recently adapted for the case of 'alarm-based' CN prediction. The PG approach is a non-standard method; therefore it deserves careful examination and theoretical analysis. We show that the PG alarm-based version leads to an almost complete loss of information about predicted earthquakes (even for a large sample). As a result, any conclusions based on the alarm-based PG approach are not to be trusted. We also show that the original probabilistic PG approach does not necessarily identifies the genuine forecast correctly among competing seismicity rate models, even when applied to extensive data.

  17. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  18. Assessment of composite motif discovery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Jostein

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published. Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery – discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules. Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. Results We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved. To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise. Conclusion Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual

  19. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  20. A Simple Method to Assess Euhydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Capitán Jiménez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We are still lacking a practical, reliable method to assess acute hydration status. Purpose: To measure the time course of urine volume discarded in response to ingesting a standard volume of water at different levels of dehydration, in an attempt to develop a practical method to assess acute hydration status in humans. Methods: Nine healthy, physically active males, aged 23.5 ± 2.6 years old (mean ± standard deviation reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast of 10 hours or more. Participants exercised intermittently in an environmental chamber (average temperature and relative humidity = 32 ± 3° C and 65 ± 7%, respectively until dehydrated to 0, 1, 2 or 3% body mass (BM on different days; the order of treatments was randomized. Upon reaching the desired dehydration, they ingested a volume of water equivalent to 1.43% of their initial weight in 30 minutes. Urine was collected henceforth every 30 minutes for 5 hours. Results: Discarded urine volumes were larger for 0% BM (1236.8 ± 489.4 mL than the other conditions (375.3 ± 170.2 mL, 235.9 ± 66.0 mL, and 261.7 ± 51.8 mL for 1, 2, and 3% BM, respectively (p = 0.001, but there were no statistically significant differences among the latter three (p > 0.05. The cumulative volume differences between 0% BM and the rest of the treatments were already significant at time = 60 min (p < 0.05: average volumes at 60 min were: 8.57, 1.86, 1.04, and 1.31 mL*kg-1 for 0, 1, 2, and 3% BM, respectively. Conclusions: this method allows for a practical verification of an individual'¢â?¬â?¢s acute hydration status, giving him/her a volume equivalent to 1.43%BM and collecting urine for 60 minutes; if the individual discards less than 4.7 mL*kg-1 in that time, he/she is hypohydrated.

  1. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  2. Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  3. An Improved Image Contrast Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast is an important factor affecting the image quality. In order to overcome the problems of local band-limited contrast, a novel image contrast assessment method based on the property of HVS is proposed. Firstly, the image by low-pass filter is performed fast wavelet decomposition. Secondly, all levels of band-pass filtered image and its corresponding low-pass filtered image are obtained by processing wavelet coefficients. Thirdly, local band-limited contrast is calculated, and the local band-limited contrast entropy is calculated according to the definition of entropy, Finally, the contrast entropy of image is obtained by averaging the local band-limited contrast entropy weighed using CSF coefficient. The experiment results show that the best contrast image can be accurately identified in the sequence images obtained by adjusting the exposure time and stretching gray respectively, the assessment results accord with human visual characteristics and make up the lack of local band-limited contrast.

  4. Estudo comparativo da seletividade de um método cinético-catalítico: a determinação de Cr(VI pela oxidação da o-dianisidina pelo peróxido de hidrogênio Comparative study of the selectivity of a kinetic-catalytic method: the determination of Cr (VI by oxidation of the o-dianisidine by hidrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Reis

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Selectivity studies for the determination of Cr(VI using the catalytic oxidation of the o-dianisidine by hydrogen peroxide showed two distincts situations. In the first, when interferents were studied by a univariate procedure, Cr(III and Cu(II cause serious interferences even at the 2:1 proportion, relative to Cr(VI, while Fe(III interfered at the 15:1 ratio and EDTA at the 10:1 ratio. On the other hand, when a multivariate investigation was performed, Cr(III did not present any significant principal effects and its significant interaction effects were negative, in contrast to EDTA, that presented positive interaction effects although, like Cr(III, did not show significant interaction effects. In view of the interferent's action it become necessary to separate Cr(VI by extraction with methylisobutylketone in a chloridric acid medium before its determination in vegetals and in wastewater from a cellulose industry samples. Using this procedure, the method precision is ±0,5% at the 10 ng/mL Cr(VI concentration level. The detection and quantification limits, calculated by means of absorbance measurements of ten replicates of blank reagents were 1,1 and 3,2 ng/mL, respectively. The results obtained with real samples showed a relative standard deviation between 1,2% and 3,0% relative to their reference values.

  5. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, P.; Cataldi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent, agreed-upon terminology is prerequisite for geothermal resource assessment. Accordingly, we propose a logical, sequential subdivision of the "geothermal resource base", accepting its definition as all the thermal energy in the earth's crust under a given area, measured from mean annual temperature. That part of the resource base which is shallow enough to be tapped by production drilling is termed the "accessible resource base", and it in turn is divided into "useful" and "residual" components. The useful component (i.e. the thermal energy that could reasonably be extracted at costs competitive with other forms of energy at some specified future time) is termed the "geothermal resource". This in turn is divided into "economic" and "subeconomic" components, based on conditions existing at the time of assessment. In the format of a McKelvey diagram, this logic defines the vertical axis (degree of economic feasibility). The horizontal axis (degree of geologic assurance) contains "identified" and "undiscovered" components. "Reserve" is then designated as the identified economic resource. All categories should be expressed in units of thermal energy, with resource and reserve figures calculated at wellhead, prior to the inevitable large losses inherent in any practical thermal use or in conversion to electricity. Methods for assessing geothermal resources can be grouped into 4 classes: (a) surface thermal flux, (b) volume, (c) planar fracture and (d) magmatic heat budget. The volume method appears to be most useful because (1) it is applicable to virtually any geologic environment, (2) the required parameters can in Sprinciple be measured or estimated, (3) the inevitable errors are in part compensated and (4) the major uncertainties (recoverability and resupply) are amenable to resolution in the foreseeable future. The major weakness in all the methods rests in the estimation of how much of the accessible resource base can be extracted at some time in the

  6. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  7. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S., E-mail: yolanda@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Lidén, Carola, E-mail: carola.liden@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger, E-mail: ingero@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Released reducing/complexing leather-specific species can reduce released Cr(VI). • No co-released species enable the formation of Cr(VI) in solution. • The major Cr species released from leather in phosphate buffer was Cr(III) (>82%). • No Cr(VI) was released into artificial sweat. - Abstract: About 1–3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH < 6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5–8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB)

  8. Speciation Methods Used to Assess Potential Health Effects of Toxic Metals in Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing potential exposures to toxic metals or metalloids such as arsenic and chromium in environmental materials is important in protecting public health. The chemical form of an element in, or released from, a material is also important, since some forms, such as Cr(VI), are more toxic than others, for example, Cr(III). We have used a variety of procedures to assess potential exposures to hexavalent chromium in ash and burned soils from October 2007 southern California wildfires. Synthetic lung-fluid and de-ionized water extractions simulate release in the lungs and potential environmental releases due to rainfall. Extracts were analyzed for specific chromium and arsenic species using HPLC-ICP-MS methodology. Results indicate that the highly oxidizing environment in wildfires promotes some chromium conversion to Cr(VI), and that the caustic alkalinity of ash enhances Cr(VI) release and stability in lung fluids and rainfall.

  9. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  10. The novel measuring method for screening and assessing chromium content in clothes and shoes materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno-Kochan, R.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the bioindicative measuring method for screening and assessing the safety of textile and leather materials in relation to chemical threats. This method is based on toxicological assay in which Tetrahymena pyriformis, unicellular organism belonging to protozoans, is used as a test organism. For the realization of the research goal the sensitivity threshold of test organisms to chromium(VI) solutions was identified. The changes in cell development of test organisms in chromium solutions were registered by colorimetric measurements in the presence of alamarBlue® cell viability reagent. Empirical data enabled to fit logistic curves on the base of which the level of chromium toxicity was estimated. In the second step, harmfulness of aqueous extracts obtained from textile and leather samples containing chromium in relation to test organisms was evaluated. The performed research confirmed the high efficiency of the proposed method in screening and assessing chromium content in clothes and shoes materials and showed possibilities of using it in safety assessment of products with regard to chemical risks.

  11. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Denton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can

  12. A screening method for assessing cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, George V; Faust, John B; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-02-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating "cumulative impacts." As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA: "Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available." The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community's cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening tool to help Cal

  13. Assessment of nuclear power plant siting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Hobbs, B.F.; Pierce, B.L.; Meier, P.M.

    1979-11-01

    Several different methods have been developed for selecting sites for nuclear power plants. This report summarizes the basic assumptions and formal requirements of each method and evaluates conditions under which each is correctly applied to power plant siting problems. It also describes conditions under which different siting methods can produce different results. Included are criteria for evaluating the skill with which site-selection methods have been applied.

  14. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  15. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    Protostars and Planets series, the field of star and planet formation has progressed enormously. The advent of new space observatories like Spitzer and more recently Herschel have opened entirely new windows to study the interstellar medium, the birthplaces of new stars, and the properties of protoplanetary disks. Millimeter and radio observatories, in particular interferometers, allow us to investigate even the most deeply embedded and youngest protostars. Complementary to these observational achievements, novel multi-scale and multi-physics theoretical and numerical models have provided new insights into the physical and chemical processes that govern the birth of stars and their planetary systems. Sophisticated radiative transfer modeling is critical in order to better connect theories with observations. Since the last Protostars and Planets volume, more than 1000 new extrasolar planets have been identified and there are thousands more waiting to be verified. Such a large database allows for the first time a statistical assessment of the planetary properties as well as their evolution pathways. These investigations show the enormous diversity of the architecture of planetary systems and the properties of planets. High-contrast imaging at short and long wavelengths has resolved protoplanetary disks and associated planets, and transit spectroscopy is a new tool that allows us to study even the physical properties of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. The understanding of our own solar system has also progressed enormously since 2005. For instance, the sample-return Stardust mission has provided direct insight into the composition of comets and asteroids, and has demonstrated the importance of mixing processes in the early solar system. And much more is now known about the origin and role of short-lived nuclides at these stages of the solar system. For generations of astronomers, the Protostars and Planets volumes have served as an essential resource for our understanding of

  16. Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI]: a health survey and clinical examination of community inhabitants (Kanpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing in Kanpur, India. METHODS: The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI groundwater contamination (N = 186 were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI levels (N = 230. Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. RESULTS: Residents from communities with known Cr (VI contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1 and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44; skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48 and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57. Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females, lower MCVs (among 62.8% males and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Living in communities with Cr (VI groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up.

  17. Open risk assessment: methods and expertise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verloo, Didier; Meyvis, Tom; Smith, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    ... traditional dialogue and towards a more sustainable stakeholder and society interaction. The discussion centred on the needs of EFSA and of target audiences throughout the process, from risk assessment initiation through societal...

  18. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  19. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-09-15

    About 1-3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pHleather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. METHODS OF AVAILABLE POTASSIUM ASSESSMENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Thus, it is considered important to study methods of available K extraction for better understanding of the ... response to potassium, soil test methods should have a high correlation with crop performance. (Ekpete, 1972). Also ... The bulk samples were air-dried, ground and sieved to pass through 2 mm sieve. Sub samples of.

  1. An assessment of roadway capacity estimation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, M.M.; Botma, H.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report is an attempt to describe existing capacity estimation methods with their characteristic data demands and assumptions. After studying the methods, one should have a better idea about the capacity estimation problem which can be encountered in traffic engineering. Moreover, decisions to

  2. Assessment of procurement methods used for executing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional contract, cost reimbursement contract and measured term contracts, are the most commonly adopted procurement methods in Lagos state for maintenance works. Time duration, cost of project and quality level required, are the major factors influencing the choice of procurement methods. Others are risk allocation, ...

  3. "Young people, adult worries": RCT of an internet-based self-support method "Feel the ViBe" for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen-Nooijens, Karin A W L; Prins, Judith B; Vergeer, Marianne; Wong, Sylvie H Lo Fo; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2013-03-15

    Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high. Since almost all children of the current generation have access to the internet, an online intervention will make help better available for this target group. In 2011, an internet-based self-support method for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence was developed in the Netherlands: "Feel the ViBe". The intervention was developed in close collaboration with the target group. This article describes the protocol of the RCT to study the effectiveness of this intervention. This study is a randomized controlled trial using the method of minimization to randomize the participants in two parallel groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio, being an intervention group, having access to "Feel the ViBe" and usual care (UC), and a control group, having access to minimally enhanced usual care (mEUC) followed by access to the intervention after twelve weeks. Outcomes are measured with questionnaires on PTSD symptoms, mental health and sexual and reproductive health. Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) will be used to measure a direct effect of participating in the intervention. Data from a web evaluation questionnaire (WEQ), user statistics and qualitative analysis of online data will be used to support the findings. To compare results Cohen's d effect sizes will be used. A RCT and process evaluation will test effectiveness and provide information of how the effects can be explained, how the intervention meets the expectation of participants and which possible barriers and facilitators for

  4. Highly integrated flow assembly for automated dynamic extraction and determination of readily bioaccessible chromium(VI) in soils exploiting carbon nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, Maria; Miro, Manuel; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Segundo, Marcela A.; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [University of Porto, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    An automated dynamic leaching test integrated in a portable flow-based setup is herein proposed for reliable determination of readily bioaccessible Cr(VI) under worst-case scenarios in soils containing varying levels of contamination. The manifold is devised to accommodate bi-directional flow extraction followed by processing of extracts via either in-line clean-up/preconcentration using multi-walled carbon nanotubes or automatic dilution at will, along with Cr(VI) derivatization and flow-through spectrophotometric detection. The magnitude of readily mobilizable Cr(VI) pools was ascertained by resorting to water extraction as promulgated by current standard leaching tests. The role of carbon nanomaterials for the uptake of Cr(VI) in soil leachates and the configuration of the packed column integrated in the flow manifold were investigated in detail. The analytical performance of the proposed system for in vitro bioaccessibility tests was evaluated in chromium-enriched soils at environmentally relevant levels and in a standard reference soil material (SRM 2701) with a certified value of total hexavalent chromium. The automated method was proven to afford unbiased assessment of water-soluble Cr(VI) in soils as a result of the minimization of the chromium species transformation. By combination of the kinetic leaching profile and a first-order leaching model, the water-soluble Cr(VI) fraction in soils was determined in merely 6 h against >24 h taken in batchwise steady-state standard methods. (orig.)

  5. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  6. Assessment of nonequilibrium free energy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossins, Benjamin P; Foucher, Sebastien; Edge, Colin M; Essex, Jonathan W

    2009-04-23

    One of the factors preventing the general application of free energy methods in rational drug design remains the lack of sufficient computational resources. Many nonequilibrium (NE) free energy methods, however, are easily made embarrassingly parallel in comparison to equilibrium methods and may be conveniently run on desktop computers using distributed computing software. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of NE methods, but the general applicability of these approaches has not been determined. In this study, a subset including only those NE methods which are easily parallelised were considered for examination, with a view to their application to the prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. A number of test systems were examined, including harmonic oscillator (HO) systems and the calculation of relative free energies of hydration of water-methane. The latter system uses identical potentials to the protein ligand case and is therefore an appropriate model system on which methods may be tested. As well as investigating existing protocols, a replica exchange NE approach was developed, which was found to offer advantages over conventional methods. It was found that Rosenbluth-based approaches to optimizing the NE work values used in NE free energy estimates were not consistent in the improvements in accuracy achieved and that, given their computational cost, the simple approach of taking each work value in an unbiased way is to be preferred. Of the two free energy estimators examined, Bennett's acceptance ratio was the most consistent and is, therefore, to be preferred over the Jarzynski estimator. The recommended protocols may be run very efficiently within a distributed computing environment and are of similar accuracy and precision to equilibrium free energy methods.

  7. Tree sampling as a method to assess vapor intrusion potential at a site characterized by VOC-contaminated groundwater and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Samaranayake, V. A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the “sampler’ and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700–1600 m2, the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  8. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  9. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  10. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, Jozef; Ďureková, Dominika; Zgútová, Katarína

    2015-05-01

    Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  11. Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phiri, K.S.; Calis, J.C.J.; Kachala, D.; Borgstein, E.; Waluza, J.; Bates, I.; Brabin, B.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly used method of grading marrow iron remains highly subjective. AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in

  12. Chromium released from leather – I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1–3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test. PMID:25653094

  13. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  14. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  15. Validity and reliability of three methods of stiffness assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth C.Pruyn Mark L.Watsford Aron J.Murphy

    2016-01-01

    ... and reliability of 3 in vivo methods of stiffness assessment using 1 cohort of participants.Methods:To determine inter-day reliability,15 female netballers were assessed for stiffness twice within 1 week using unilateral hopping(vertical stiffness...

  16. ViFiLite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ViFiLite is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology in supporting data gathering for structural health monitoring as well as...

  17. Assessment of anthropometric methods in headset design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to assess consumer products for usability and comfort often involve expensive user trials. For external ear products such as headsets and bluetooth communication devices comfort is an issue leading to many concepts being rejected at the late stages of the product development...... process once prototypes are developed and tested. Current databases for anthropometric data e.g. Peoplesize Software [Peoplesize 2008] lack data regarding useful ear dimensions of the external ear area. This paper examines the incorporation of anthropometry in the design of external-ear devices, resulting...

  18. Skal vi have flere krondyr?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Vi kunne have væsentligt flere krondyr i den danske natur end vi har i øjeblikket. Den primære årsag er jagt. Det viser en ny undersøgelse fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet. Bestanden af krondyr er ganske vist steget meget siden 1970, men der er både plads og føde til mange...

  19. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  20. Extraction of chromium(VI) by salting-out with a homogeneous, mixed solvent of water and 2-propanol: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Sethsiri S; Nishimoto, Jun; Tabata, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    Chromium enters into the aquatic environment as a result of effluent discharge from steel works, electroplating, leather tanning industries and chemical industries. As the Cr(VI) is very harmful to living organisms, it should be quickly removed from the environment when it happens to be contaminated. Therefore, the aim of this laboratory research was to develop a rapid, simple and adaptable solvent extraction system to quantitatively remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters. Aqueous salt-solutions containing Cr(VI) as CrO4(2-) at ppm level (4-6 ppm) were prepared. Equal volumes (5 ml) of aqueous and organic (2-PrOH) phases were mixed in a 10 ml centrifuge tube for 15 min, centrifuged and separated. Concentrations of Cr(VI), in both the aqueous and organic phases, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of salt and acid concentrations, and phase-contact time on the extraction of Cr(VI) were investigated. In addition, the extraction of Cr(VI) was assessed in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) in 2-PrOH phase. Effects of some other metals, (Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)), on the extraction of Cr(VI) were also investigated. The Cr(VI) at ppm level was extracted quantitatively by salting-out the homogeneous system of water and 2-propanol(2-PrOH) using chloride salts, namely CaCl2 or NaCl, under acidic chloride media. The extracted chemical species of Cr(VI) was confirmed to be the CrO3Cl-. The ion-pair complex extracted into the organic phase was rationalized as the solvated ion-pair complex of [2-PrOH2+, CrO3Cl-]. The complex was no longer stable. It implied the reaction between extracted species. Studies revealed that salts and acid directly participated in the formation of the above complex. Use of extracting agents (TMAC) didn't show any significant effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) under high salting-out conditions. There is no significant interference effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) by the presence of other metals

  1. Assessment of heliostat control system methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, J; Chen, B

    1986-01-01

    Automatic control and communication between the major components in solar thermal central receiver systems is critically needed for the optimal and safe operation of these systems. This report assesses novel and cost-effective approaches to the control of the solar collector field and the communication with the central plant computer/control system. The authors state that radio frequency and carrier-current communication approaches have the greatest potential to improve cost-effectiveness relative to the current dedicated control wiring approaches. In addition, based on their analysis, the authors recommend distributed control, which is becoming an industry-wide control standard, for the individual concentrators within the collector field rather than the current central computer approach. The vastly improved cost and performance ofmicroprocessors and other solid-state electronics, which has continually and rapidly proceeded for more than five years, is the major reason for these conclusions.

  2. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esa-Pekka Takala; Irmeli Pehkonen; Mikael Forsman; Gert-Åke Hansson; Svend Erik Mathiassen; W Patrick Neumann; Gisela Sjøgaard; Kaj Bo Veiersted; Rolf H Westgaard; Jørgen Winkel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users...

  3. Methods for combining experts' probability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R A

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews statistical techniques for combining multiple probability distributions. The framework is that of a decision maker who consults several experts regarding some events. The experts express their opinions in the form of probability distributions. The decision maker must aggregate the experts' distributions into a single distribution that can be used for decision making. Two classes of aggregation methods are reviewed. When using a supra Bayesian procedure, the decision maker treats the expert opinions as data that may be combined with its own prior distribution via Bayes' rule. When using a linear opinion pool, the decision maker forms a linear combination of the expert opinions. The major feature that makes the aggregation of expert opinions difficult is the high correlation or dependence that typically occurs among these opinions. A theme of this paper is the need for training procedures that result in experts with relatively independent opinions or for aggregation methods that implicitly or explicitly model the dependence among the experts. Analyses are presented that show that m dependent experts are worth the same as k independent experts where k < or = m. In some cases, an exact value for k can be given; in other cases, lower and upper bounds can be placed on k.

  4. LNG safety assessment evaluation methods : task 3 letter report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods ...

  5. A review of assessment methods for river hydromorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beletti, B.; Rinaldi, M.; Buijse, A.D.; Gurnell, A.M.; Mosselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous hydromorphological assessment methods have been developed in different countries during recent decades, with notable differences in their aims, scales, and approaches. Although these methods are increasingly applied to support river management, the strengths and limitations have been

  6. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  7. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  8. Expression and distribution of type VI collagen in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, S; Magro, G; Colombatti, A

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the distribution of type VI collagen in 36 cases of routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded gynecomastia using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. Four samples of normal male mammary gland tissue were also included as controls. A protease predigestion was essential for the visualization of this extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein. In normal male breast, no immunoreaction for type VI collagen was detected in the stroma surrounding the ducts. Gynecomastia was classified into three histological types: florid (type I), fibrous (type II), and intermediate (type III). Type VI collagen was differentially expressed in the periductal stroma of all types. This collagen was markedly expressed at the early disease stage (type I) when the periductal stroma is highly cellular and vascular. Its expression decreased when periductal stroma undergoing fibrotic transformation (type III) and completely disappeared from the dense periductal stroma of fibrous stage (type II). These findings suggest that type VI collagen is involved in the ECM remodelling occurring in gynecomastia.

  9. In situ methods for assessing alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2012-02-01

    Lung mechanics are an important determinant of physiological and pathophysiological lung function. Recent light microscopy studies of the intact lung have furthered the understanding of lung mechanics but used methodologies that may have introduced artifacts. To address this concern, we employed a short working distance water immersion objective to capture confocal images of a fluorescently labeled alveolar field on the costal surface of the isolated, perfused rat lung. Surface tension held a saline drop between the objective tip and the lung surface, such that the lung surface was unconstrained. For comparison, we also imaged with O-ring and coverslip; with O-ring, coverslip, and vacuum pressure; and without perfusion. Under each condition, we ventilated the lung and imaged the same region at the endpoints of ventilation. We found use of a coverslip caused a minimal enlargement of the alveolar field; additional use of vacuum pressure caused no further dimensional change; and absence of perfusion did not affect alveolar field dimension. Inflation-induced expansion was unaltered by methodology. In response to inflation, percent expansion was the same as recorded by all four alternative methods.

  10. Methods for land use impact assessment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perminova, Tataina, E-mail: tatiana.perminova@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sirina, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.sirina@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Laratte, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.laratte@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Baranovskaya, Natalia, E-mail: natalya.baranovs@mail.ru [Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Rikhvanov, Leonid, E-mail: rikhvanov@tpu.ru [Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Many types of methods to assess land use impact have been developed. Nevertheless a systematic synthesis of all these approaches is necessary to highlight the most commonly used and most effective methods. Given the growing interest in this area of research, a review of the different methods of assessing land use impact (LUI) was performed using bibliometric analysis. One hundred eighty seven articles of agricultural and biological science, and environmental sciences were examined. According to our results, the most frequently used land use assessment methods are Life-Cycle Assessment, Material Flow Analysis/Input–Output Analysis, Environmental Impact Assessment and Ecological Footprint. Comparison of the methods allowed their specific features to be identified and to arrive at the conclusion that a combination of several methods is the best basis for a comprehensive analysis of land use impact assessment. - Highlights: • We identified the most frequently used methods in land use impact assessment. • A comparison of the methods based on several criteria was carried out. • Agricultural land use is by far the most common area of study within the methods. • Incentive driven methods, like LCA, arouse the most interest in this field.

  11. Predictive validity of the Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.; Boocock, M.; Coenen, P.; Heuvel, S. van den; Bosch, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Hand Arm Risk assessment Method (HARM) is a simplified risk assessment method for determining musculoskeletal symptoms to the arm, neck and/or shoulder posed by hand-arm tasks of the upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of HARM using data collected from a

  12. Qualitative Assessment of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Long, George; Owens, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to teaching method assessment using student focused qualitative studies and the theoretical framework of mental models is proposed. The methodology is considered specifically for the advantages it offers when applied to the assessment of inquiry-based teaching methods. The theoretical foundation of mental models is discussed, and…

  13. Assessment of medical students by OSPE method in pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The OSPE exam was conducted in the department of pathology during the second internal assessment of the students. This method was the compared with the conventional method of practical exam conducted during the first internal assessment of the same batch of students. The results showed that OSPE tests different ...

  14. Medical devices early assessment methods : Systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Van Til, Janine A.; Ijzerman, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to get an overview of current theory and practice in early assessments of medical devices, and to identify aims and uses of early assessment methods used in practice. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in September 2013, using computerized

  15. CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT USING STATISTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel POLÁK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capability assessment of the measurement device is one of the methods of process quality control. Only in case the measurement device is capable, the capability of the measurement and consequently production process can be assessed. This paper deals with assessment of the capability of the measuring device using indices Cg and Cgk.

  16. Disordered Speech Assessment Using Automatic Methods Based on Quantitative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sapienza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech quality assessment methods are necessary for evaluating and documenting treatment outcomes of patients suffering from degraded speech due to Parkinson's disease, stroke, or other disease processes. Subjective methods of speech quality assessment are more accurate and more robust than objective methods but are time-consuming and costly. We propose a novel objective measure of speech quality assessment that builds on traditional speech processing techniques such as dynamic time warping (DTW and the Itakura-Saito (IS distortion measure. Initial results show that our objective measure correlates well with the more expensive subjective methods.

  17. Simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jøns, O; Nielsen, B

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(iii) and chromium(vi) in a flow system based on chemiluminescence was developed. A Dionex cation-exchange guard column was used to separate chromium(iii) from chromium(vi), and chromium(vi) was reduced by potassium sulfite, whereupon both...

  18. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  19. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater and air by using UV, ferrate(VI) and UV/ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Salari, Malihe; Talaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Marzieh; Eskandari, Zeynab

    2016-12-15

    Formaldehyde removal from an air stream absorbed into a water stream in a packed bed continuously and then removed by employing a combination of UV and ferrate(VI) as a highly-powerful oxidant in a continuous stirred tank. In addition, the removal of formaldehyde from water was investigated in both batch and continuous modes. The results of the study performed on formaldehyde-contaminated water treatment can be used for both air and water treatment process design. The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of using UV and ferrate(VI) individually with that of using UV/ferrate(VI) simultaneously to remove formaldehyde from both air and water. Moreover, the effects of several factors such as pH, ferrate(VI) concentration and temperature on formaldehyde removal from water using ferrate(VI) method were evaluated. The results of the current study in batch condition showed that the best initial pH and ferrate(VI) concentration to obtain the highest formaldehyde removal are 2 and 1 mg/l, respectively. The results of this part of research also reveal that temperatures rise from 25 °C to 50 °C increases formaldehyde removal from 69% to 97%; however, further increase in temperature has an adverse effect on removal efficiency. The combination of UV and ferrate(VI) enhances formaldehyde removal efficiency to very close to 100% within 35 min. In continuous air stream treatment, maximum formaldehyde removal of 94% was obtained by using a packed bed scrubber with gas over liquid flow rates ratio of 1.28 m(3)/m(3). Although the results of this study shows that ferrate(VI) method for removal of formaldehyde can be considered as a promising alternative for both water and air treatment, further economic studies are required for this process to be commercialized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... method(s) in Work package 8 (WP8) of the OMNIITOX project. The selection methods and the other CRS methods are described in detail, a set of evaluation criteria are developed and the methods are evaluated against these criteria. This report (Deliverable 11B (D11B)) gives the results from task 7.1d, 7.1e...... by a characterisation method for the impact categories covering ecotoxicity and human toxicity. A selection method is therefore not a characterisation method like the “simple base method” and the “base method” that are going to be developed within WP8 but the purpose of a selection method is to focus the effort within...

  1. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Standard test method for uranium by Iron (II) reduction in phosphoric acid followed by chromium (VI) titration in the presence of vanadium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method, commonly referred to as the Modified Davies and Gray technique, covers the titration of uranium in product, fuel, and scrap materials after the material is dissolved. The test method is versatile and has been ruggedness tested. With appropriate sample preparation, this test method can give precise and unbiased uranium assays over a wide variety of material types (1, 2). Details of the titration procedure in the presence of plutonium with appropriate modifications are given in Test Method C1204. 1.2 Uranium levels titrated are usually 20 to 50 mg, but up to 200 mg uranium can be titrated using the reagent volumes stated in this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determ...

  3. Role of metal d states in II-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S.; Zunger, A.

    1988-05-15

    All-electron band-structure calculations and photoemission experiments on II-VI semiconductors both exhibit a metal d subband inside the main valence band. It has nevertheless been customary in pseudopotential and tight-binding approaches to neglect the metal d band by choosing Hamiltonian parameters which place this band inside the chemically inert atomic cores. Using all-electron self-consistent electronic-structure techniques (which treat the outermost d electrons on the same footing as other valence electrons) and comparing the results to those obtained by methods which remove the d band from the valence spectrum, we study their effects on valence properties. For II-VI semiconductors we find that p-d repulsion and hybridization (i) lower the band gaps, (ii) reduce the cohesive energy, (iii) increase the equilibrium lattice parameters, (iv) reduce the spin-orbit splitting, (v) alter the sign of the crystal-field splitting, (vi) increase the valence-band offset between common-anion II-VI semiconductors, and (vii) modify the charge distributions of various II-VI systems and their alloys. p-d repulsion is also shown to be responsible for the occurrence of deep Cu acceptor levels in II-VI semiconductors (compared with shallow acceptors of Zn in III-V), for the anomalously small band gaps in chalcopyrites, and for the negative exchange splitting in ferromagnetic MnTe.

  4. Manufacturing Methods and Technology (MANTECH) Program. Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Composites. Part VI. Acoustic Emission - A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Schallemissionsanalyse (SLA) (investigations on ’Fracture Toughness’ of Various GRP Laminates Using Acoustic Emission Analysis)." Kunststoff -Berater...Determination of the Damage Limit ot GFK Laminae - New Nondestructive liethods and Their Suitability as Production Control Processes)." Kunststoffe , KUNSA, i...Prufverfahren fur Verbundwerkstofte (Methods for Nondestructive Testing of Composite laterials)." Kunststoffe , KUNSA, 64(12):750-760. 1974. (in German

  5. Methods of Comprehensive Assessment for China’s Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijin; Song, Yankui

    2018-02-01

    In order to assess the sustainable development of China’s energy objectively and accurately, we need to establish a reasonable indicator system for energy sustainability and make a targeted comprehensive assessment with the scientific methods. This paper constructs a comprehensive indicator system for energy sustainability from five aspects of economy, society, environment, energy resources and energy technology based on the theory of sustainable development and the theory of symbiosis. On this basis, it establishes and discusses the assessment models and the general assessment methods for energy sustainability with the help of fuzzy mathematics. It is of some reference for promoting the sustainable development of China’s energy, economy and society.

  6. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  7. Characterization of Citrobacter sp. line 328 as a source of Vi for a Vi-CRM(197) glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Pisoni, Ivan; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan J; Martin, Laura B

    2012-11-26

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever with over 22 million cases and over 200,000 deaths reported annually. A vaccine is much needed for use in young children and the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH) is developing a conjugate vaccine which targets S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide. Here we describe a method suitable for industrial scale production of the Vi antigen based on expression by a Citrobacter line. We optimized the production of Vi by selecting a suitable Citrobacter strain (Citrobacter 328) that yields high and stable expression of Vi in chemically defined medium under industrial-scale fermentation conditions. Vi-CRM197 made using Vi from Citrobacter 328 elicited high anti-Vi antibody levels in mice and rabbits. Citrobacter 328 is a suitable strain for production of Vi for conjugate anti-Typhi vaccines. Being a BSL-1 organism, which grows in defined medium and stably produces high yields of Vi, it offers excellent potential for safe production of inexpensive vaccines for populations at risk of typhoid fever.

  8. Assessment of medical communication skills by computer: assessment method and student experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Donnison-Speijer, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication

  9. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  10. The professional portfolio: an evidence-based assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Schroeter, Kathryn; Carter, Shannon; Mower, Julie

    2009-12-01

    Competency assessment is critical for a myriad of disciplines, including medicine, law, education, and nursing. Many nurse managers and educators are responsible for nursing competency assessment, and assessment results are often used for annual reviews, promotions, and satisfying accrediting agencies' requirements. Credentialing bodies continually seek methods to measure and document the continuing competence of licensees or certificants. Many methods and frameworks for continued competency assessment exist. The portfolio process is one method to validate personal and professional accomplishments in an interactive, multidimensional manner. This article illustrates how portfolios can be used to assess competence. One specialty nursing certification board's process of creating an evidence-based portfolio for recertification or reactivation of a credential is used as an example. The theoretical background, development process, implementation, and future implications may serve as a template for other organizations in developing their own portfolio models. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Branka F; Gajić, Milan; Milinić, Nikola; Milovanović, Branislav; Filipović, Branislav R; Cvetković, Mirjana; Šibalić, Nela

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods: subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI).

  12. OPERATIONAL RISK IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: TAXONOMY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinoiu Ana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the classifications and the assessment methods for operational risk according to international regulations (ie. Basel 2, in the context of its importance as a managerial tool for international business. Considering the growin

  13. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  14. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  15. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  16. Visual art teachers and performance assessment methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the competencies of visual arts teachers in using performance assessment methods, and to ascertain the extent to which the knowledge, skills and experiences of teachers affect their competence in using assessment strategies in their classroom. The study employs a qualitative research design; ...

  17. Three methods for the assessment of communication skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.N.; van der Molen, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of students' communication skills after a course in problem-clarifying skills requires an assessment method different from the traditional written examination. In this article we describe the construction and evaluation of simulations, video tests and paper-and-pencil tests. The results

  18. A Closer Evaluation of Current Methods in Psychiatric Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The biopsychosocial model, the current method in psychiatric assessments, is reviewed and critiqued. The history and original intents leading to the conception of the biopsychosocial model are briefly discussed. Five inherent problems with the use of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatric assessments and training programs are presented. Two alternative approaches are discussed and promoted for clinical, educational, and research practices in medicine. PMID:19724745

  19. Design of the Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study: a randomized controlled trial of care management for PTSD among predominantly Latino patients in safety net health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Green, Bonnie L; Kaltman, Stacey; Wong, Eunice C; Han, Bing; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common problem in primary care. Although effective treatments are available, little is known about whether such treatments are effective within the context of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that serve as national "safety nets" for providing primary care for low income and underinsured patients. The Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the impact of a care management intervention for treating PTSD in FQHCs. To develop a PTSD management intervention appropriate for lower resource FQHCs and the predominantly Latino patients they serve, formative work was conducted through a collaborative effort between researchers and an FQHC practice-based research network. This article describes how FQHC stakeholders were convened to review, assess, and prioritize evidence-based strategies for addressing patient, clinician, and system-level barriers to care. This multi-component care management intervention incorporates diagnosis with feedback, patient education and activation; navigation and linkage to community resources; clinician education and medication guidance; and structured cross-disciplinary communication and continuity of care, all facilitated by care managers with FQHC experience. We also describe the evaluation design of this five-year RCT and the characteristics of the 404 English or Spanish speaking patients enrolled in the study and randomized to either the intervention or to usual care. Patients are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months to examine intervention effectiveness on PTSD, other mental health symptoms, health-related quality-of-life, health care service use; and perceived barriers to care and satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  2. Impact of the Spatial Domain Size on the Performance of the Ts-VI Triangle Method in Terrestrial Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of the spatial size of the study domain on the performance of the triangle method using progressively smaller domains and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations in the Heihe River basin located in the arid region of northwestern China. Data from 10 clear-sky days during the growing season from April to September 2009 were used. Results show that different dry/wet edges in the surface temperature-vegetation index space directly led to the deviation of evapotranspiration (ET estimates due to the variation of the spatial domain size. The slope and the intercept of the limiting edges are dependent on the range and the maximum of surface temperature over the spatial domain. The difference of the limiting edges between different domain sizes has little impact on the spatial pattern of ET estimates, with the Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from 0.94 to 1.0 for the 10 pairs of ET estimates at different domain scales. However, it has a larger impact on the degree of discrepancies in ET estimates between different domain sizes, with the maximum of 66 W∙m−2. The largest deviation of ET estimates between different domain sizes was found at the beginning of the growing season.

  3. Towards Empirical Evaluation of Automated Risk Assessment Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga; Labunets, Katsiaryna; Paci, Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Security risk assessment methods are numerous, and it might be confusing for organizations to select one. Researchers have conducted empirical studies with established methods in order to find factors that influence their effectiveness and ease of use. In this paper we evaluate the recent TREsPASS

  4. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M.; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J.

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged…

  5. Alternative methods for clinical nursing assessment and evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recommendations made in the article on nurse educators' perceptions of OSCE as a clinical evaluation method (Chabeli, 2001:84-91) are addressed in this article. The research question: What alternative methods of assessment and evaluation can be used to measure the comprehensive and holistic clinical nursing ...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  8. Assessment methods and management of hypersexuality and paraphilic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Schöttle, Daniel; Bradford, John; Briken, Peer

    2014-11-01

    The recent implementation of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition introduced some important changes in the conceptualization of hypersexuality and paraphilic disorders. The destigmatization of nonnormative sexual behaviors could be viewed as positive, However, other changes are more controversial. In order to stimulate new research approaches and provide mental healthcare providers with appropriate treatment regimes, validated assessment and treatment methods are needed. The purpose of this article is to review the studies published between January 2013 and July 2014 that aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of the currently applied assessment instruments and treatment approaches for hypersexuality and hypersexual disorders or paraphilias and paraphilic disorder. Currently existing instruments can validly assess hypersexual behaviors in different populations (e.g. college students, gay and bisexual men, and patients with neurodegenerative disorders) and cultural backgrounds (e.g. Germany, Spain, and USA). Concerning the assessment of paraphilias, it was shown that combining different assessment methods show a better performance in distinguishing between patients with paraphilias and control groups. In addition to psychotherapeutic treatment, pharmacological agents aiming at a reduction of serum testosterone levels are used for hypersexual behaviors as well as paraphilic disorders. Although the currently applied assessment and treatment methods seem to perform quite well, more research about the assessment and evidence-based treatment is needed. This would help to overcome the existing unresolved issues concerning the conceptualization of hypersexual and paraphilic disorders.

  9. On the Stark broadening of Cr VI spectral lines in astrophysical plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Simić, Z.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.

    2017-02-01

    Stark broadening parameters for Cr VI lines have been calculated using semiclassical perturbation method for conditions of interest for stellar plasma. Here are presented, as an example of obtained results, Stark broadening parameters for electron- and proton-impact broadening for Cr VI 4s 2S-4p 2P° λ = 1430 Å and Cr VI 4p 2P°-5s 2S λ = 611.8 Å multiplets. The obtained results are used to demonstrate the importance of Stark broadening of Cr VI in DO white dwarf atmospheres. Also the obtained results will enter in STARK-B database which is included in Virtual Atomic and Molecula Data Center - VAMDC.

  10. DYSLEXIA – AN OVERVIEW OF ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Witruk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will give an overview of the different methods of assessment and treatment currently used in the field of dyslexia with a special focus on genetic research. Based on the modification and extension of the multilevel model of Valtin (1989, modified by Witruk, 1993b, assessment and treatment methods will be discussed due to their primary objectives. These methods will be described regarding primary causes (biological risk factors, secondary causes (partial performance deficits, primary symptoms (reading and writing problems and secondary symptoms (emotional and behavioural disorders. Keywords: Multilevel model of dyslexia, genetics, magnocellular deficit, partial performance

  11. Importance of c-Type cytochromes for U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leang Ching

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to study the mechanism of U(VI reduction, the effect of deleting c-type cytochrome genes on the capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI with acetate serving as the electron donor was investigated. Results The ability of several c-type cytochrome deficient mutants to reduce U(VI was lower than that of the wild type strain. Elimination of two confirmed outer membrane cytochromes and two putative outer membrane cytochromes significantly decreased (ca. 50–60% the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI. Involvement in U(VI reduction did not appear to be a general property of outer membrane cytochromes, as elimination of two other confirmed outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, had very little impact on U(VI reduction. Among the periplasmic cytochromes, only MacA, proposed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane to the periplasm, appeared to play a significant role in U(VI reduction. A subpopulation of both wild type and U(VI reduction-impaired cells, 24–30%, accumulated amorphous uranium in the periplasm. Comparison of uranium-accumulating cells demonstrated a similar amount of periplasmic uranium accumulation in U(VI reduction-impaired and wild type G. sulfurreducens. Assessment of the ability of the various suspensions to reduce Fe(III revealed no correlation between the impact of cytochrome deletion on U(VI reduction and reduction of Fe(III hydroxide and chelated Fe(III. Conclusion This study indicates that c-type cytochromes are involved in U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The data provide new evidence for extracellular uranium reduction by G. sulfurreducens but do not rule out the possibility of periplasmic uranium reduction. Occurrence of U(VI reduction at the cell surface is supported by the significant impact of elimination of outer membrane cytochromes on U(VI reduction and the lack of correlation between periplasmic uranium accumulation and the capacity for uranium

  12. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  13. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2017-08-01

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  14. [Study on application of two risk assessment methods in coal dust occupational health risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zhang, Y L; Chen, Y Q

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of quantitative grading method (GBZ/T 229.1-2010) and occupational hazard risk index method in coal dust occupational health risk assessment. Methods: Taking 4 coal mines as the research object of risk assessment and making occupational health field testing and investigation. Based on two risk assessment methods, we analysed the health risk levels of 20 occupations which were exposed to coal dust in workplaces. Results: Coal dust working post had different risk levels in 4 coal mines, the post of higher risk level were mainly concentrated in the underground workplace of coal mine, especially the post of coal mining and tunneling system. The two risk assessment results showed that the risk levels of coal-mining machine drivers and tunneling machine drivers were the highest. The risk levels of coal dust working post used by two risk assessment methods had no significant difference (P>0.05) and were highly correlated (r=0.821, Prisk assessment methods were supported by the field investigation and literatures. Conclusion: The two risk assessment methods can be used in coal dust occupational health risk assessment.

  15. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  16. Meaningful assessment method for laparoscopic suturing training in augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botden, Sanne M B I; de Hingh, I H J T; Jakimowicz, J J

    2009-10-01

    To be an effective training tool, a laparoscopic simulator has to provide metrics that are meaningful and informative to the trainee. Time, path length and smoothness are often used parameters, but are not very informative on the quality of the performance. This study aims to validate a newly developed assessment method for laparoscopic suturing on the ProMIS augmented reality simulator, and compares it with scores of objective observers. Twenty-four participants practised their suturing skills on the augmented reality suturing module: experienced participants (n = 10), >50 clinical laparoscopic suturing experience; and novice participants (n = 14), without laparoscopic experience. The performances were recorded and assessed by two unrelated observers and compared with the assessment scores. The assessment score was a calculation of time spent in the correct area and quality (strength) of the knot. To test the accuracy of the individual assessment parameters, we compared these with each other. The experienced participants had significantly higher performance scores than the novice participants in the beginner-level mode (mean 95.73 vs. 60.89, standard deviation 2.63 vs. 17.09, p < 0.001, independent t-test). The performance scores of the assessment method (n = 43) correlated significantly with the scorings of the objective observers (Spearman's rho 0.672; p < 0.001). The parameter time spent in correct area had a calculated significant correlation with the strength of the knot (n = 229, Spearman's rho 0.257, p < 0.001), but this was clinically irrelevant. This assessment method is a valid tool for objectively assessing laparoscopic suturing skills. Although assessment parameters can correlate, to provide informative feedback it is important to combine meaningful measurements in the assessment of suturing skills.

  17. Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvengita Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years. All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and

  18. Hvad bruger vi tiden til?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2016-01-01

    I denne artikel kaster vi et antropologisk blik på samtidsarkæologi ved at diskutere måder, hvorpå antropologiske analyser kan adressere tid, fortidige hændelser og historiske processer. Vi argumenterer for, at en radikal nutidsorientering er en afgørende kvalitet ved det antropologiske feltarbej...... komplicerer en ide om fortidige (gamle eller nyere) objekter som nogle, der kan udgraves......., hvis sigte det er løbende at generere sit materiale nu og her med henblik på at skabe nye forståelser, historier og forslag til mangeartede sammenhænge. En implikation af dette er, at uanset hvor ’historisk’ et antropologisk materiale end måtte være, må det altid ses som samtidigt og ufærdigt, hvilket...

  19. Companies Credit Risk Assessment Methods for Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Peškauskaitė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the banks have tightened lending requirements, companies look for alternative sources of external funding. One of such is bonds issue. Unfortunately, corporate bonds issue as a source of funding is rare in Lithuania. This occurs because companies face with a lack of information, investors fear to take on credit risk. Credit risk is defined as a borrower’s failure to meet its obligation. Investors, in order to avoid credit risk, have to assess the state of the companies. The goal of the article is to determine the most informative methods of credit risk assessment. The article summarizes corporate lending sources, analyzes corporate default causes and credit risk assessment methods. The study based on the SWOT analysis shows that investors before making an investment decision should evaluate both the business risk,using qualitative method CAMPARI, and the financial risk, using financial ratio analysis.

  20. Nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients: agreement between different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaella Maria Monteiro Sampaio; Francisco José Maia Pinto; Cláudia Machado Coelho Souza de Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the nutritional diagnosis by subjective global nutritional assessment (SGA) and that obtained by anthropometric measurements in patients admitted to a public hospital in the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: Assessment of nutritional status was conducted for all 50 patients who were hospitalized in the period from August to September 2008. Besides measurement of weight, height, arm circumference andtriceps skinfold thickness, SGA form was ap...

  1. Integrating methods for ecosystem service assessment and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Hattam, Caroline; Bohnke-Henrichs, Anne; Börger, Tobias; Burdon, Daryl; Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne; Jonathan P Atkins; Garrard, Samantha; Austen, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method approach was used to assess and value the ecosystem services derived from the Dogger Bank, an extensive shallow sandbank in the southern North Sea. Three parallel studies were undertaken that 1) identified and quantified, where possible, how indicators for ecosystem service provision may change according to two future scenarios, 2) assessed members of the public's willingness-to-pay for improvements to a small number of ecosystem services as a consequence of a hypothetical mana...

  2. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  3. Adherence to raloxifene therapy: assessment methods and relationship with efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, J; Naylor, K; Paggiosi, M A; Peel, N F; Eastell, R

    2013-11-01

    Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response. Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring. Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study. The two methods correlated significantly (p caps (95.7 vs. 85.0%, p caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy.

  4. Cr(VI Adsorption on Red Mud Modified by Lanthanum: Performance, Kinetics and Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Cui

    Full Text Available Water pollution caused by the highly toxic metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI creates significant human health and ecological risks. In this study, a novel adsorbent was used to treat Cr(VI-containing wastewater; the adsorbent was prepared using red mud (RM generated from the alumina production industry and the rare earth element lanthanum. This study explored adsorption performance, kinetics, and mechanisms. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics of the RM modified by lanthanum (La-RM, followed the pseudo-second-order model, with a rapid adsorption rate. Cr(VI adsorption was positively associated with the absorbent dose, pH, temperature, and initial Cr(VI concentration; coexisting anions had little impact. The maximum Cr(VI adsorption capacity was 17.35 mg/g. Cr(VI adsorption on La-RM was a mono-layer adsorption pattern, following the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters showed the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption of Cr(VI on La-RM occurred as a result of LaOCl formation on the RM surface, which in turn further reacted with Cr(VI in the wastewater. This study highlighted a method for converting industrial waste into a valuable material for wastewater treatment. The novel absorbent could be used as a potential adsorbent for treating Cr(VI-contaminating wastewater, due to its cost-effectiveness and high adsorption capability.

  5. Cr(VI) Adsorption on Red Mud Modified by Lanthanum: Performance, Kinetics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, You-Wei; Li, Jie; Du, Zhao-Fu; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution caused by the highly toxic metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) creates significant human health and ecological risks. In this study, a novel adsorbent was used to treat Cr(VI)-containing wastewater; the adsorbent was prepared using red mud (RM) generated from the alumina production industry and the rare earth element lanthanum. This study explored adsorption performance, kinetics, and mechanisms. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics of the RM modified by lanthanum (La-RM), followed the pseudo-second-order model, with a rapid adsorption rate. Cr(VI) adsorption was positively associated with the absorbent dose, pH, temperature, and initial Cr(VI) concentration; coexisting anions had little impact. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity was 17.35 mg/g. Cr(VI) adsorption on La-RM was a mono-layer adsorption pattern, following the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters showed the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on La-RM occurred as a result of LaOCl formation on the RM surface, which in turn further reacted with Cr(VI) in the wastewater. This study highlighted a method for converting industrial waste into a valuable material for wastewater treatment. The novel absorbent could be used as a potential adsorbent for treating Cr(VI)-contaminating wastewater, due to its cost-effectiveness and high adsorption capability. PMID:27658113

  6. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3...... database and the Danish Building- and Residence Register (BBR). In order to test the methods, a total noise impact assessment was made for the municipality of Middelfart (20,000 inhabitants). As the new method considers buildings barrier to noise diffusion, efforts were made to synthetically create a 3D...

  7. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  8. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  9. An Assessment of Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Sparse Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Solivan A; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Pipa, Daniel R; Maia, Joaquim M; Schneider, Fabio K

    2017-03-08

    Ultrasonic image reconstruction using inverse problems has recently appeared as an alternative to enhance ultrasound imaging over beamforming methods. This approach depends on the accuracy of the acquisition model used to represent transducers, reflectivity, and medium physics. Iterative methods, well known in general sparse signal reconstruction, are also suited for imaging. In this paper, a discrete acquisition model is assessed by solving a linear system of equations by an ℓ 1 -regularized least-squares minimization, where the solution sparsity may be adjusted as desired. The paper surveys 11 variants of four well-known algorithms for sparse reconstruction, and assesses their optimization parameters with the goal of finding the best approach for iterative ultrasound imaging. The strategy for the model evaluation consists of using two distinct datasets. We first generate data from a synthetic phantom that mimics real targets inside a professional ultrasound phantom device. This dataset is contaminated with Gaussian noise with an estimated SNR, and all methods are assessed by their resulting images and performances. The model and methods are then assessed with real data collected by a research ultrasound platform when scanning the same phantom device, and results are compared with beamforming. A distinct real dataset is finally used to further validate the proposed modeling. Although high computational effort is required by iterative methods, results show that the discrete model may lead to images closer to ground-truth than traditional beamforming. However, computing capabilities of current platforms need to evolve before frame rates currently delivered by ultrasound equipments are achievable.

  10. Personalised nutrition: the role of new dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-01

    Food records or diaries, dietary recalls and FFQ are methods traditionally used to measure dietary intake; however, advancing technologies and growing awareness in personalised health have heightened interest in the application of new technologies to assess dietary intake. Dietary intake data can be used in epidemiology, dietary interventions and in the delivery of personalised nutrition advice. Compared with traditional dietary assessment methods, new technologies have many advantages, including their ability to automatically process data and provide personalised dietary feedback advice. This review examines the new technologies presently under development for the assessment of dietary intakes, and their utilisation and efficacy for personalising dietary advice. New technology-based methods of dietary assessment can broadly be categorised into three key areas: online (web-based) methods, mobile methods and sensor technologies. Several studies have demonstrated that utilising new technologies to provide tailored advice can result in positive dietary changes and have a significant impact on selected nutrient and food group intakes. However, comparison across studies indicates that the magnitude of change is variable and may be influenced by several factors, including the frequency and type of feedback provided. Future work should establish the most effective combinations of these factors in facilitating dietary changes across different population groups.

  11. An overview of data integration methods for regional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locantore, Nicholas W; Tran, Liem T; O'Neill, Robert V; McKinnis, Peter W; Smith, Elizabeth R; O'Connell, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protections Agency's (U.S. EPA) Regional Vulnerability Assessment(ReVA) program has focused much of its research over the last five years on developing and evaluating integration methods for spatial data. An initial strategic priority was to use existing data from monitoring programs, model results, and other spatial data. Because most of these data were not collected with an intention of integrating into a regional assessment of conditions and vulnerabilities, issues exist that may preclude the use of some methods or require some sort of data preparation. Additionally, to support multi-criteria decision-making, methods need to be able to address a series of assessment questions that provide insights into where environmental risks are a priority. This paper provides an overview of twelve spatial integration methods that can be applied towards regional assessment, along with preliminary results as to how sensitive each method is to data issues that will likely be encountered with the use of existing data.

  12. Qualind: A method for assessing the accuracy of automated tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Robert H; Saly, George L; Le, Chap; Laurence, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    As audiology strives for cost containment, standardization, accuracy of tests, and accountability, greater use of automated tests is likely. Highly skilled audiologists employ quality control factors that contribute to test accuracy, but they are not formally included in test protocols, resulting in a wide range of accuracy, owing to the various skill and experience levels of clinicians. A method that incorporates validated quality indicators may increase accuracy and enhance access to accurate hearing tests. This report describes a quality assessment method that can be applied to any test that (1) requires behavioral or physiologic responses, (2) is associated with factors that correlate with accuracy, and (3) has an available independent measure of the dimension being assessed, including tests of sensory sensitivity, cognitive function, aptitude, academic achievement, and personality. In this report the method is applied to AMTAS, an automated method for diagnostic pure-tone audiometry.

  13. [Methods of ocular microcirculation assessment in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, T N; Chudin, A V; Ramazanova, K A

    2014-01-01

    The review discusses some of the most common methods of ocular microcirculation assessment in animals: fluorescent and indocyanine green angiography, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with various dyes, laser Doppler flowmetry and velocimetry, color and power Doppler imaging, and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler ultrasonography. Each method possesses certain advantages and disadvantages, thus, the choice between them depends on the purposes and objectives of the given experimental study.

  14. Sasse Modeling of First Cycle Neptunium (VI) Recovery Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2006-04-01

    A flowsheet has been proposed to separate neptunium from solutions in H-Canyon Tanks 16.4, 12.5, and 11.7 in the First Cycle solvent extraction banks, in which cerium(IV) (Ce(IV)) serves as an agent to oxidize neptunium to neptunium(VI) (Np(VI)). A SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) spreadsheet model indicates that the proposed flowsheet is a feasible method for separating neptunium and uranium from sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities. The proposed flowsheet calls for stripping the sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities into the 1AW stream and extracting and then stripping the neptunium and uranium into the 1BP stream. SASSE predicts that separation of thorium from the other actinides can be accomplished with actinide losses of 0.01% or less. It is assumed that other metal impurities such as iron, aluminum, and fission products will follow the thorium into 1AW. Due to an organic/aqueous distribution coefficient that is close to one, SASSE predicts that plutonium(VI) (Pu(VI)) is split between the A Bank and B Bank aqueous output streams, with 27% going to 1AW and 73% going to 1BP. An extrapolated distribution coefficient based on unvalidated Ce(IV) distribution measurements at a single nitrate concentration and a comparison with thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) distributions indicates that Ce(IV) could reflux in 1B Bank. If the Ce(IV) distribution coefficient is lower than would be predicted by this single point extrapolation, but still higher than the distribution coefficient for Th(IV), then Ce(IV) would follow Np(VI) and uranium(VI) (U(VI)) into 1BP. The SASSE model was validated using data from a 1964 oxidizing flowsheet for the recovery of Np(VI) in Second Cycle. For the proposed flowsheet to be effective in recovering neptunium, the addition of approximately 0.025 M ceric ammonium nitrate (Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6) to both the 1AF and 1AS streams is required to stabilize the neptunium in the +6

  15. Evaluation of methods for the assessment of attention while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer

    2017-03-21

    The ability to assess the current attentional state of the driver is important for many aspects of driving, not least in the field of partial automation for transfer of control between vehicle and driver. Knowledge about the driver's attentional state is also necessary for the assessment of the effects of additional tasks on attention. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different methods that can be used to assess attention, first theoretically, and then empirically in a controlled field study and in the laboratory. Six driving instructors participated in all experimental conditions of the study, delivering within-subjects data for all tested methods. Additional participants were recruited for some of the conditions. The test route consisted of 14km of motorway with low to moderate traffic, which was driven three times per participant per condition. The on-road conditions were: baseline, driving with eye tracking and self-paced visual occlusion, and driving while thinking aloud. The laboratory conditions were: Describing how attention should be distributed on a motorway, and thinking aloud while watching a video from the baseline drive. The results show that visual occlusion, especially in combination with eye tracking, was appropriate for assessing spare capacity. The think aloud protocol was appropriate to gain insight about the driver's actual mental representation of the situation at hand. Expert judgement in the laboratory was not reliable for the assessment of drivers' attentional distribution in traffic. Across all assessment techniques, it is evident that meaningful assessment of attention in a dynamic traffic situation can only be achieved when the infrastructure layout, surrounding road users, and intended manoeuvres are taken into account. This requires advanced instrumentation of the vehicle, and subsequent data reduction, analysis and interpretation are demanding. In conclusion, driver attention assessment in real traffic is a complex task, but

  16. Oxidation of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin by ferrate(VI): Products identification, and toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Yang@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Kookana, Rai S.; Williams, Mike [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Ying, Guang-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Du, Jun; Doan, Hai; Kumar, Anupama [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) has been known to react with emerging organic contaminants containing electron-rich organic moieties, such as phenols, anilines, olefins, reduced sulfur and deprotonated amines. Oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin (ENR), by Fe(VI) were investigated for their reaction products and toxicity changes as well as biodegradability of these products. Ten products were identified for both CIP and ENR reactions with Fe(VI) using a high-resolution accurate-mass Orbitrap mass analyzer. Structural changes to the CIP and ENR molecule included dealkylation, formation of alcohols and amides in piperazine ring and oxygen transfer to the double bond in quinolone structure. An enamine formation mechanism was tentatively proposed to facilitate the interpretation of CIP and ENR oxidation pathways. Toxicity evaluation using Microbial Assay for toxicity Risk Assessment (MARA) bioassay indicated that Fe(VI) oxidation products of CIP and ENR contributed negligible antibacterial potency and Fe(VI) oxidation treatment can remove the residual toxicity of CIP and ENR impacted source waters. The Fe(VI) oxidation treatment resulted in formation of relatively more biodegradable products (based on in silico assessment) than their corresponding parent compounds. The results showed that Fe(VI) has a good potential to degrade fluoroquinolone antibiotics and their antimicrobial potency in natural waters.

  17. Significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Objective Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Babkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is research and modification of the reference objective methods for image quality assessment. The ultimate goal is to obtain a modification of formal assessments that more closely corresponds to the subjective expert estimates (MOS.In considering the formal reference objective methods for image quality assessment we used the results of other authors, which offer results and comparative analyzes of the most effective algorithms. Based on these investigations we have chosen two of the most successful algorithm for which was made a further analysis in the MATLAB 7.8 R 2009 a (PQS and MSSSIM. The publication focuses on the features of the algorithms, which have great importance in practical implementation, but are insufficiently covered in the publications by other authors.In the implemented modification of the algorithm PQS boundary detector Kirsch was replaced by the boundary detector Canny. Further experiments were carried out according to the method of the ITU-R VT.500-13 (01/2012 using monochrome images treated with different types of filters (should be emphasized that an objective assessment of image quality PQS is applicable only to monochrome images. Images were obtained with a thermal imaging surveillance system. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of this modification.In the specialized literature in the field of formal to evaluation methods pictures, this type of modification was not mentioned.The method described in the publication can be applied to various practical implementations of digital image processing.Advisability and effectiveness of using the modified method of PQS to assess the structural differences between the images are shown in the article and this will be used in solving the problems of identification and automatic control.

  19. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, S; Nasiri, M; Mesbahi, A; Khani, M H

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  1. Mechanism for partial oxidation of Cyclohexene by Chromium (VI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media has been studied. The reaction products were analysed using classical method, IR and GC/MS analyses. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium are cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, cyclohex-2-en-1-one, ...

  2. Evaluation of Cr (VI) remediation potential of Eichornia sp in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Evaluation of Cr (VI) removal by indigenous chromium resistant bacterial strains alone and in combination with Eichornia sp. Methods: Three chromium resistant bacterial strains S-4 Ochrobactrum grignonense, SF-5 Bacillus sp. and S-6 Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonenses were isolated from industrial effluent.

  3. mechanism for partial oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media has been studied. The reaction products were analysed using classical method, IR and GC/MS analyses. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium are cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, cyclohex-2-en-1-one, ...

  4. Assessment of extension agents' use of communication methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State Agricultural ...

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Research Methods Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamarah; Smith, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    The Research Methods Skills Assessment (RMSA) was created to measure psychology majors' statistics knowledge and skills. The American Psychological Association's Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major in Psychology (APA, 2007, 2013) served as a framework for development. Results from a Rasch analysis with data from n = 330 undergraduates showed…

  6. Critical temperature: A quantitative method of assessing cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; M.W., Jr. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Critical temperature (Tc), defined as the highest temperature at which freezing injury to plant tissues can be detected, provides a biologically meaningful and statistically defined assessment of the relative cold tolerance of plant tissues. A method is described for calculating critical temperatures in laboratory freezing studies that use...

  7. Assessment method for buildings' Rehabilitation needs : Development and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vasconcelos de Paiva, J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment method of a building rehabilitation needs. It was considered that a building needs rehabilitation if it would not comply with the functional requirements defined in Portuguese legislation or determined by good practices of design and

  8. Validating the raster risk assessment method in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, E.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Palen, L.; Buscher, M.; Comes, T.; Hughes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Telecommunication services are essential to modern information systems, especially so for crisis management. Telecoms systems are complex and difficult to analyse. Current risk assessment methods are either not used because of their complexity, or lack rigorous argumentation to justify their results

  9. Safety Assessment Method of Flood Defences for Flow Sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, M.G.; Van den Ham, G.A.; Kok, M.

    2015-01-01

    Flow sliding of submerged slopes in front of dikes can affect the reliability of flood defences. The occurrence of flow sliding may result, sometimes with delay, in a failure mode and consequent flooding. The current safety assessment method for flow sliding does not consider the interaction between

  10. The development of the ecological index method for assessing veld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of a previous study were used for the development of the Ecological Index Method (EIM) of veld condition assessment in the karoo areas. The EIM makes use of a veld benchmark, which must be previously identified and characterised on each topographical unit in each Reasonably Homogenous Farming Area.

  11. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the environmental problems and methods of waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually the one produced by human activities in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or on local ...

  12. Assessment of reliability of Greulich and Pyle (gp) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Greulich and Pyle standards are the most widely used age estimation standards all over the world. The applicability of the Greulich and Pyle standards to populations which differ from their reference population is often questioned. This study aimed to assess the reliability of Greulich and Pyle (GP) method for ...

  13. Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…

  14. DRIFT-ARID: A method for assessing environmental water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental water requirement (EWR) assessment methods, for ascertaining how much water should be retained in rivers to sustain ecological functioning and desired levels of biodiversity, have mostly been developed for perennial rivers. Despite non-perennial rivers comprising about 30–50% of the world's freshwater ...

  15. Assessment of Digital Access Control Methods Used by Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Digital Access Control Methods Used by Selected Academic Libraries in South-West Nigeria. ... information professionals with the knowledge that would enable them establish an effective strategy to protect e-resources from such abuses as plagiarism, piracy and infringement of intellectual property rights.

  16. Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J Gaines; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    2009-03-01

    The assessment of personal exposure to air pollution is a critical component of epidemiological studies associating air pollution and health effects. This paper critically reviewed 157 studies over 29 years that utilized one of five categories of exposure methods (proximity, air dispersion, hybrid, human inhalation, and biomarkers). Proximity models were found to be a questionable technique as they assume that closer proximity equates to greater exposure. Inhalation models and biomarker estimates were the most effective in assessing personal exposure, but are often cost prohibitive for large study populations. This review suggests that: (i) factors such as uncertainty, validity, data availability, and transferability related to exposure assessment methods should be considered when selecting a model; and (ii) although an entirely discreet new class of approach is not necessary, significant progress could be made through the development of a 'hybrid' model utilizing the strengths of several existing methods. Future work should systematically evaluate the performance of hybrid models compared to other individual exposure assessment methods utilizing geospatial information technologies (e.g. geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) to more robustly refine estimates of ambient exposure and quantify the linkages and differences between outdoor, indoor and personal exposure estimates.

  17. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  18. A Structured Method for Direct Assessment of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    The purpose of this study was to develop a testing method for the assessment of various types of writing at the elementary school level that would meet acceptable standards for educational measurement instruments as well as standards of utility and feasibility within a given educational system. The study was conducted within the framework of an…

  19. Alternative methods for clinical nursing assessment and evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research question: What alternative methods of assessment and evaluation can be used to measure the comprehensive and holistic clinical nursing competency of learners in Gauteng Province is answered by an exploratory and descriptive research strategy. The perception of nurse educators (N=20) purposively ...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF WORK-SPACE AND WORK-METHOD DESIGNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries among its workforce. This research assessed work-space (WsD) and work-method designs (WmD), level of compliance with recommended standards (RSs) and effects on workers' wellbeing. Clearances for services in 55 supine ...

  1. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  2. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Forsman, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity...... difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be good or moderate. CONCLUSIONS: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational...

  3. Sample Size for Assessing Agreement between Two Methods of Measurement by Bland-Altman Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Jie; Zhong, Wei-Hua; Liu, Yu-Xiu; Miao, Hua-Zhang; Li, Yong-Chang; Ji, Mu-Huo

    2016-11-01

    The Bland-Altman method has been widely used for assessing agreement between two methods of measurement. However, it remains unsolved about sample size estimation. We propose a new method of sample size estimation for Bland-Altman agreement assessment. According to the Bland-Altman method, the conclusion on agreement is made based on the width of the confidence interval for LOAs (limits of agreement) in comparison to predefined clinical agreement limit. Under the theory of statistical inference, the formulae of sample size estimation are derived, which depended on the pre-determined level of α, β, the mean and the standard deviation of differences between two measurements, and the predefined limits. With this new method, the sample sizes are calculated under different parameter settings which occur frequently in method comparison studies, and Monte-Carlo simulation is used to obtain the corresponding powers. The results of Monte-Carlo simulation showed that the achieved powers could coincide with the pre-determined level of powers, thus validating the correctness of the method. The method of sample size estimation can be applied in the Bland-Altman method to assess agreement between two methods of measurement.

  4. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide by Oxidation of Graphite with Ferrate(VI) Compounds: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Luxa, Jan; Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Bystroň, Tomáš; Pumera, Martin

    2016-09-19

    It is well established that graphene oxide can be prepared by the oxidation of graphite using permanganate or chlorate in an acidic environment. Recently, however, the synthesis of graphene oxide using potassium ferrate(VI) ions has been reported. Herein, we critically replicate and evaluate this new ferrate(VI) oxidation method. In addition, we test the use of potassium ferrate(VI) for the synthesis of graphene oxide under various experimental routes. The synthesized materials are analyzed by a number of analytical methods in order to confirm or disprove the possibility of synthesizing graphene oxide by the ferrate(VI) oxidation route. Our results confirm the unsuitability of using ferrate(VI) for the oxidation of graphite on graphene oxide because of its high instability in an acidic environment and low oxidation power in neutral and alkaline environments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  6. TENCompetence Assessment Model and Related Tools for Non Traditional Methods of Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, Milen; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Stefanov, Krassen; Schoonenboom, Judith; Miao, Yongwu

    2008-01-01

    Petrov, M., Aleksieva-Petrova, A., Stefanov, K., Schoonenboom, J., & Miao, Y. (2008). TENCompetence Assessment Model and Related Tools for Non Traditional Methods of Assessment. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds). Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong

  7. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between continuous measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard; Vedsted, Peter

    continuous measures and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Different methods are illustrated using actual data from the `Delay in diagnosis of cancer in general practice´ project in Aarhus, Denmark. Subjects and Methods: We use weighted kappa-statistic, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC......Background: Clinical research often involves study of agreement amongst observers. Agreement can be measured in different ways, and one can obtain quite different values depending on which method one uses. Objective: We review the approaches that have been discussed to assess the agreement between......), concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman limits of agreement and percentage of agreement to assess the agreement between patient reported delay and doctor reported delay in diagnosis of cancer in general practice. Key messages: The correct statistical approach is not obvious. Many studies give the product...

  8. Application of Method of Multicriteria Alternatives for Land Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Grigorev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the multicriteria alternatives method for the assessment of a real estate object taking into account the concept of a system of standards, rules and requirements in the field of valuation activities, considering international standards for valuation. The main means for work and costs associated with allotment and development of the built-up area are indicated. In the work, the assessment of four sites is carried out taking into account three parameters: the distance from the construction site to the center by car; cost of 1 ha of land of each of the plots; deterioration of the centralized heat supply networks. The results show that the method of multicriteria alternatives is objective and optimal when comparing land sites on the criteria with different units of measurements. The advantage of this method is the possibility to apply it to evaluation in different areas of the economy.

  9. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  10. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  11. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  12. A comparison of two methods of assessing low frequency noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patching, Richard [Patching Associates Acoustical Engineering Ltd (Canada)], email: rpatching@patchingassociates.com

    2011-07-01

    Noise levels are usually measured with varying weighting scales to better adjust to human hear sensibility and these scales are assumed to be inherently appropriate. But this can become a problem when assessing low frequency noise from industrial facilities, and for that matter, Alberta provincial regulations and Canadian federal regulations use different criteria. This paper compares the two methods, and their limits relative to low frequency noise assessment. Alberta noise assessment regulations are based on an absolute permissible sound level, incorporating the ambient noise and added noise from industrial facilities. The Health Canada approach uses a day-night sound level and the criterion for noise annoyance is expressed in terms of the percentage of people highly annoyed by this noise level. Both methods assess low frequency noise the same way, by differentiating the measured A and C-weighted noise levels. And both methods are hard to implement in the design stage of a project for lack of noise information from the manufacturers.

  13. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  14. Methods for the Assessment of Rural Social Infrastructure Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaznonienė Gintarė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the importance of different methods for assessment of social infrastructure (SI development needs in rural areas. Rural social infrastructure is a significant element of rural territories interpreted in different ways: as social and economic system, basic services for local community, social bridge for integrating different social groups into the society, important factor for satisfaction of rural people’s needs and acknowledgement of their human rights. Besides the mentioned importance of SI to rural areas and rural community, the lack of exploration of methods for analysis of the needs for developing rural social infrastructure has been noticed in the scientific literature. The research aim is therefore to analyse the methods for assessment of needs of rural social infrastructure. The research question has been set accordingly: how different methods for need analysis could be applied to social infrastructure planning and development? The research results show that need analysis is generally linked to various methods, but for the SI planning, development and implementation specifically, there are certain methods, the application of which depends on specifics of rural areas (as territory and features of local community.

  15. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit.METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v, totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at p<0.05.RESULTS: after the cleaning/disinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable.CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  16. Har vi brug for hovedregning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    Hvor ofte har vi brug for at regne noget i hoved? Har de fleste af os ikke altid et elektronisk hjælpemiddel ved hånden enten som en lille lommeregner eller telefonen? Selvom det umiddelbart kan synes unødvendigt at træne hovedregning, viser det sig, at netop træning af hovedregning støtter...... udvikling af hurtige regnestrategier, hvorfor det faktisk er en god ide at investere tid og energi i at træne netop dette....

  17. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microbial community at the Hanford site did not include S. barnesii it did have probes for detecting other Sulfurospirillum species (e.g., S. multivorans, S. halorespirans). For D. desulfuricans, again, redox active proteins such as dissimilatory nitrite reductase and dissimilary sulfite reductase are effectively oxidized by Cr(VI) thus inhibiting their reductive potential. More physiological and biochemical data are needed before a possible strategy can be designed and assessed.

  18. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees.

  19. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    In flood risk assessment the methods can be divided in two families: deterministic methods and probabilistic methods. In the French hydrologic community the probabilistic methods are historically preferred to the deterministic ones. Presently a French research project named EXTRAFLO (RiskNat Program of the French National Research Agency, https://extraflo.cemagref.fr) deals with the design values for extreme rainfall and floods. The object of this project is to carry out a comparison of the main methods used in France for estimating extreme values of rainfall and floods, to obtain a better grasp of their respective fields of application. In this framework we present the results of Task 7 of EXTRAFLO project. Focusing on French watersheds, we compare the main extreme flood estimation methods used in French background: (i) standard flood frequency analysis (Gumbel and GEV distribution), (ii) regional flood frequency analysis (regional Gumbel and GEV distribution), (iii) local and regional flood frequency analysis improved by historical information (Naulet et al., 2005), (iv) simplify probabilistic method based on rainfall information (i.e. Gradex method (CFGB, 1994), Agregee method (Margoum, 1992) and Speed method (Cayla, 1995)), (v) flood frequency analysis by continuous simulation approach and based on rainfall information (i.e. Schadex method (Paquet et al., 2013, Garavaglia et al., 2010), Shyreg method (Lavabre et al., 2003)) and (vi) multifractal approach. The main result of this comparative study is that probabilistic methods based on additional information (i.e. regional, historical and rainfall information) provide better estimations than the standard flood frequency analysis. Another interesting result is that, the differences between the various extreme flood quantile estimations of compared methods increase with return period, staying relatively moderate up to 100-years return levels. Results and discussions are here illustrated throughout with the example

  20. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs

  1. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Singh Senjam; Praveen Vashist; Noopur Gupta; Sumit Malhotra; Vasundhara Misra; Amit Bhardwaj; Vivek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's E chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was

  2. Synthesis of magnetite derivatives nanoparticles and their application for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Lotfi Ben; Oueslati, Mohamed Habid; Abualreish, Mustafa Jaipallah Abdelmageed

    2018-02-15

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of efficient wastewaters treatment technologies. Among the heavy metal ions, chromium holds a distinct position due to its high toxic nature to biological systems. This study aims to assess magnetite derivatives nanoparticles for the removal of Cr(VI) species. Crystalline magnetite-rich (Magn) and pure maghemite (Magh) nanoparticles were produced by the polyol method and by subsequent heat treatment of Magn, respectively. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of nanosized single phase cubic spinels with a cell parameter of 8.3710(2)Å for Magn and 8.3401(2)Å for Magh, consistent with those of a magnetite-rich ferrite and maghemite, respectively. TEM analysis showed that the two nanoferrites possessed comparable mean particle size of ∼15nm. Magn and Magh showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and reasonable saturation magnetizations at 300K of 69 and 67emu.g -1 , respectively. The Curie temperature of both nanoferrites exceeded 350°C allowing the materials to work in severe conditions. Room temperature, batch adsorption experiments of Cr(VI) onto maghemite nanoparticles were carried out at pH 2.0. Adsorption efficiency increased rapidly was the increase of the nanoparticles dose. For a 20mg.L -1 Cr(VI) solution a 100% removal was found with ∼3g.L -1 dose. Additionally, for a given dose (4.0g.L -1 ), the adsorption rate measured as a function of time for different Cr(VI) concentrations was very rapid; ∼90% of removable Cr(VI) species was achieved within 10min. The high rate of Cr(VI) uptake takes advantages of the high active surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Magh nanoparticles followed a pseudo-second order kinetics indicating a chemisorption process. Further, the Langmuir isotherm model was found to best describe the equilibrium data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.5mg.g -1 for an adsorbent dosage of 4.0g.L -1

  3. Comparison of different methods of body assessing in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Preising Aptekmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Aptekmann K.P., Mendes-Junior A.F., Passos C.B., Secchin M.C. & Galeas M.A.V. [Comparison of different methods of body assessing in cats.] Comparação dos diferentes métodos de avaliação corporal em felinos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:215-218, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES, Alto Universitário, s/n, Caixa Postal 16, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: kapreising@yahoo.com.br Obesity or overweight are usually not difficult to recognize in cats, but the correct diagnosis is necessary, requiring some methods of quantification. There is no ideal method for determination of obesity in cats. This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing body condition. A total of 50 domiciled cats were used and body condition score (BCS, body weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF and waist circumference (WC were determined for each cat. Through the Spearman correlation test, considering a level of significance of 5%, it was found all methods of body assessing correlate to each other. However, morphometric measurements were not considered useful for the diagnosis of obesity in cats. Feline BMI was adapted from human and can be used as an easy and less subjective method than ECC. It is proposed that further studies are conducted in an attempt to use WC measurement as a parameter indicative of metabolic syndrome in cats.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Cr(VI) reducing Cellulomonas spp. from subsurface soils: Implications for long-term chromate reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Viamajala; W. Smith; R. Sani; W. Apel; J. Petersen; A. Neal; F. Roberto; D. Newby; B. Peyton

    2007-02-01

    Microbial enrichments from Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated US Department of Energy Hanford Site sediments produced Cr(VI) reducing consortia when grown in the presence of Cr(VI) with acetate, D-xylose or glycerol as a carbon and energy source. Eight of the nine isolates from the consortia were Gram positive and four of these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence homology and membrane fatty acid composition as belonging to the genus Cellulomonas. Two strains, ES6 and WS01, were further examined for their ability to reduce Cr(VI) under growth and non-growth conditions. During fermentative growth on D-xylose, ES6 and WS01 decreased aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations from 0.04 mM Cr(VI) to below the detection limit (0.002 mM Cr(VI)) in less than three days and retained their ability to reduce Cr(VI) even after four months of incubation. Washed ES6 and WS01 cells also reduced Cr(VI) under non-growth conditions for over four months, both with and without the presence of an exogenous electron donor. K-edge XANES spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The ability to reduce Cr(VI) after growth had stopped and in the absence of an external electron donor, suggests that stimulation of these types of organisms may lead to effective long-term, in situ passive reactive barriers for Cr(VI) removal. Our results indicate that Cr(VI) reduction by indigenous Cellulomonas spp. may be a potential method of in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sediment and groundwater.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Cr(VI) reducing Cellulomonas spp. from subsurface soils: implications for long-term chromate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Smith, William A; Sani, Rajesh K; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N; Neal, Andrew L; Roberto, F F; Newby, D T; Peyton, Brent M

    2007-02-01

    Microbial enrichments from Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated US Department of Energy Hanford Site sediments produced Cr(VI) reducing consortia when grown in the presence of Cr(VI) with acetate, D-xylose or glycerol as a carbon and energy source. Eight of the nine isolates from the consortia were Gram positive and four of these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence homology and membrane fatty acid composition as belonging to the genus Cellulomonas. Two strains, ES6 and WS01, were further examined for their ability to reduce Cr(VI) under growth and non-growth conditions. During fermentative growth on D-xylose, ES6 and WS01 decreased aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations from 0.04 mM Cr(VI) to below the detection limit (0.002 mM Cr(VI)) in less than three days and retained their ability to reduce Cr(VI) even after four months of incubation. Washed ES6 and WS01 cells also reduced Cr(VI) under non-growth conditions for over four months, both with and without the presence of an exogenous electron donor. K-edge XANES spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The ability to reduce Cr(VI) after growth had stopped and in the absence of an external electron donor, suggests that stimulation of these types of organisms may lead to effective long-term, in situ passive reactive barriers for Cr(VI) removal. Our results indicate that Cr(VI) reduction by indigenous Cellulomonas spp. may be a potential method of in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sediment and groundwater.

  6. Assessment of medical communication skills by computer: assessment method and student experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, R L; Mollema, E D; Hoos, A M; de Haes, J C J M; Donnison-Speijer, J D

    2004-08-01

    A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication problems covered in 1 assessment, highly standardised assessment and rating procedures, and large group assessments without complex organisation. The Academic Medical Centre (AMC) at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Aims To describe the development of the AMC Communication Test (ACT); to describe our experiences with the examination and rating procedures; to present test score descriptives, and to present the students' opinions of ACT. The ACT presents films on history taking, breaking bad news and shared decision making. Each film is accompanied by 3 types of short essay questions derived from our assessment model: "knows", "knows why/when" and "knows how". Evaluation questions about ACT were integrated into the assessment. Participants A total of 210 third year medical undergraduates were assessed. This study reports on the 110 (53%) students who completed all evaluation questions. Marking 210 examinations took about 17 days. The test score matched a normal distribution and showed a good level of discrimination of the students. About 75% passed the examination. Some support for the validity of our assessment model was found in the students' differential performance on the 3 types of questions. The ACT was well received. Student evaluations confirmed our efforts to develop realistic films that related well to the communication training programme. The ACT is a useful assessment method which complements interpersonal assessment methods for the evaluation of the medical communication skills of undergraduates.

  7. Numerical methods for assessment of the ship's pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaru, A.; Acomi, N.

    2016-08-01

    The maritime transportation sector constitutes a source of atmospheric pollution. To avoid or minimize ships pollutant emissions the first step is to assess them. Two methods of estimation of the ships’ emissions are proposed in this paper. These methods prove their utility for shipboard and shore based management personnel from the practical perspective. The methods were demonstrated for a product tanker vessel where a permanent monitoring system for the pollutant emissions has previously been fitted. The values of the polluting agents from the exhaust gas were determined for the ship from the shipyard delivery and were used as starting point. Based on these values, the paper aimed at numerical assessing of ship's emissions in order to determine the ways for avoiding environmental pollution: the analytical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, by using computation program MathCAD, and the graphical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, using variation diagrams of the parameters, where the results of the on board measurements were introduced, following the application of pertinent correction factors. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process linked to the reduction of ship's pollutant emissions.

  8. The Analysis of Ease of Doing Business Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Samoška

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the ease of doing business assessment models. Analysed models describe conditions for doing busi­ness in a certain country that is being ranked and evaluated. However obvious need for improvement in methodology accrues while analysing five most known models in a comparative way. Different data aggregation principles differ the results (quantative and qualitive methods of aggregation despite the factors that are evaluated in both models and are quite similar. After analysing all five methods we state critics about them and insights for possible improvement.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from...... and proper detection of power production changes is demonstrated in cases of icing, power derating, operation under noise reduction mode, and incorrect controller input signal. Finally, overviews are illustrated for parks subjected to icing and operating under limited rotational speed. The comparison between...... multiple adjacent turbines contributes further to the correct evaluation of the park overall performance....

  10. A system boundary identification method for life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a product, process, or service. The scientific scope and boundary definition are important to ensure the accuracy of LCA results. Defining the boundary in LCA is difficult and there are no commonly...... of processes considered, and the gradient of the fitting curve trends to zero gradually. According to the threshold rules, a relatively accurate system boundary could be obtained.It is found from this research that the system boundary curve describes the growth of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results...... accepted scientific methods yet. The objective of this research is to present a comprehensive discussion of system boundaries in LCA and to develop an appropriate boundary delimitation method.A product system is partitioned into the primary system and interrelated subsystems. The hierarchical relationship...

  11. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  12. Dogmas in the assessment of usability evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work...... on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined...

  13. STUDENTS PERCEPTION ON METHODS OF ANATOMY TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Jaiswal; Sameer Sathe; Vivekanand Gajbhiye; Rashmi Sathe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: An opinion regarding curriculum, teaching methodology & assessment techniques in anatomy was taken from the first year MBBS students at People’s College of Medical Science & Research Centre, Bhopal with specially designed questionnaire. Materials and Method: Input from the students were collected from the 129 MBBS students of 2013-14 batch who completed first year MBBS. It was done by using a specially designed questionnaire comprising of points relating to the curriculum, te...

  14. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haitao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  15. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  16. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  17. A highly selective chemiluminescent probe for the detection of chromium(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Sun, Yonghua; Li, Chongying; Yang, Chao

    2017-11-07

    In present work, rhodamine B hydrazide and rhodamine 6G hydrazide were synthesized and the chemiluminescence performance has been investigated. Based on the chemiluminescence of rhodamine 6G hydrazide‑chromium(VI), a selective and sensitive method for the direct detection of chromium(VI) was developed. The chemiluminescence intensity was linearly related to the concentration of chromium(VI) in the range of 2.60×10(-8)-8.00×10(-6)mol/L with a correlation coefficient of r=0.998 and a detection limit of 1.4×10(-8)mol/L (S/N=3). The results indicated rhodamine 6G hydrazide was an excellent chemiluminescent probe for chromium(VI) without reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III). A possible mechanism of CL emission was also suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of assessment methods of cardiac vagal modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vagner Clayton de; Santana, Kelen Rabelo; Silva, Bruno Moreira; Ramos, Plínio Santos; Lovisi, Júlio César Moraes; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de; Ricardo, Djalma Rabelo

    2011-12-01

    Several methods have been used to assess cardiac vagal modulation, but there are gaps regarding the association and accuracy of these methods. To investigate the association between three valid, reproducible and commonly methods used to assess cardiac vagal modulation and compare their accuracies. Thirty healthy men (23 ± 4 years) and 15 men with coronary artery disease (61 ± 10 years) were evaluated in counterbalanced design by Heart Rate Variability (HRV; variables: the time domain = pNN50, SDNN and RMSSD, the frequency domain HF = ms² and HF n.u.), Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) and 4-second Exercise Test (T4s). Thirty healthy men (23 ± 4 years) and 15 men with coronary artery disease (61 ± 10 years) were evaluated in counterbalanced order by Heart Rate Variability (HRV; variables: the time domain = pNN50, SDNN and RMSSD, the frequency domain HF = ms² and HF n.u.), Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) and 4-second Exercise Test (T4s). Healthy subjects had higher vagal modulation by the three methods (p RSA, but there was no correlation between the T4s and the other two methods. In the group with coronary artery disease, there was a correlation between the results of HRV (pNN50, SDNN, RMSSD, HF ms² and HF n.u.) and RSA. In addition, there was a correlation between the RSA and T4s. Finally, the T4s and RSA methods presented more accurate effect size and better accuracy (p RSA generated partially redundant results in healthy subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease, while the T4s generated results that were complementary to HRV and RSA in healthy subjects. In addition, RSA and T4s methods were more accurate when discriminating cardiac vagal modulation between healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease, when compared to HRV.

  19. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  20. Vi tror ikke noget, vi undersøger det

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Winther Johannsen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    I diskussionerne om, hvad der kan betegnes som god viden i forhold til udvikling af pædagogisk ud-vikling og kvalitet, er yderpunkterne kridtet op. Begreber som ”evidensbaseret” og ”datainformeret” synes at udfordre det pædagogiske felts egen forståelse af faglighed og pædagogisk kvalitet. I proj...... tager afsæt i det konkrete projekt og samarbejdet med døgntilbuddene. Vi viser, at arbejdet med datainformeret metode på denne måde ikke er en udradering af pædagogisk faglighed knyttet til fagprofessionel dømmekraft – snarere tværtimod...

  1. Diffuse optical methods for assessing breast cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    In his talk, "Diffuse Optical Methods for Assessing Breast Cancer Chemotherapy," SPIE Fellow Bruce Tromberg (Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic) describes a method combining frequency domain photon migration, essentially a method of tracking photon motion in tissue, with a NIR spectroscopy technique using 850nm LEDs. The result is a scatter corrected absorption spectra. The technique takes advantage of elevated blood and water levels and decreased lipid levels in the presence of tumors to provide a more accurate mapping of the breast, allowing more effective treatment. Tromberg's team recently completed their first full mapping of the breast and have taken the instrument from a standalone unit to a portable one suitable for travel. In addition to providing feedback to enhance breast cancer treatment, Tromberg expects that this technique will be applicable in treating other forms of cancer as well.

  2. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  3. Comparative assessment of regionalisation methods of monitored atmospheric deposition loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Binder, Maja; Schirmer, Mario; Grimm-Strele, Jost; Walther, Wolfgang

    The objective of this investigation is to assess the suitability of well-known regionalisation methods of data from existing deposition monitoring networks for use in water resources management. For this purpose a comparison of the applicability and accuracy of various regionalisation methods was made. A crucial point is the data demand of the various methods. In this investigation the deterministic and geostatistical methods inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK) as well as the chemical transport models METRAS-MUSCAT, EMEP, EDACS and EUTREND have been characterised and evaluated. The methods IDW and OK have been applied to the investigation areas—the German Federal States of Lower Saxony and Saxony. An evaluation of these methods was carried out with a cross-validation procedure. The result was in most cases a higher accuracy for the OK method. The EDK method has been investigated in order to find suitable drift variables from the parameters precipitation amount, altitude and wind direction. With help of a correlation analysis a suitable drift variable could not be found. After the application of OK, verification was carried out by a comparison of the estimated data set with an independently determined data set. The result was a relatively smaller deviation of the estimated data set. The investigation considers data from routine monitoring networks as well as networks for special applications and has been carried out on the basis of monitoring networks of the two states. The investigated database was wet and bulk deposition of the substances NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Na +, Pb 2+, and Cd 2+ in Lower Saxony and SO 42- in Saxony. From this, a consistent database of bulk deposition data was built. From all applied methods OK proved to cope best with the data deficiencies that were found.

  4. Method of the Material Stress Assessment Using the Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Seredin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a number of geological and engineering problems require knowledge of the stress state of the structural member material. Non-destructive testing methods are used to evaluate the stress state of materials. They are based on such criteria as sound pressure, temperature, ultrasound wave’s characteristics etc., as well as methods evaluating the stress state of the material after destruction. Development of methods of this group is caused by insufficient reliability of theoretical modelling not providing in some case stability of engineering facilities in practice. To avoid the emergencies, it is important to obtain the information on the actual load (stress at which the structure destruction occurred. These methods are especially important as a tool for experts identifying the cause of the accidents at engineering facilities. Additionally, this information will provide a correction of calculation models improving the safe exploitation of facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method of materials stress state assessment using an infrared thermography data. Experimental studies showed that there exists a relationship between the temperature on the surface of material displacement and the normal stress affecting the area of failure. The temperature on the surface of material increases with an increase in normal stress in a fracture area. On a basis of the revealed relationship, a method of determination of the material stress state using the infrared thermography data was worked out.

  5. Revisiting Psychoacoustic Methods for the Assessment of Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral methods have been critical in the study of auditory perception and discrimination in fishes. In this chapter, we review some of the common methods used in fish psychoacoustics. We discuss associative methods, such as operant, avoidance, and classical conditioning, and their use in constructing audiograms, measuring frequency selectivity, and auditory stream segregation. We also discuss the measurement of innate behavioral responses, such as the acoustic startle response (ASR), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and phonotaxis, and their use in the assessment of fish hearing to determine auditory thresholds and in the testing of mechanisms for sound source localization. For each psychoacoustic method, we provide examples of their use and discuss the parameters and situations where such methods can be best utilized. In the case of the ASR, we show how this method can be used to construct and compare audiograms between two species of larval fishes, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We also discuss considerations for experimental design with respect to stimulus presentation and threshold criteria and how these techniques can be used in future studies to investigate auditory perception in fishes.

  6. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  7. Geomorphometry-based method of landform assessment for geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability primarily induces the variations in the intensity and frequency of surface processes and consequently, principal changes in the landscape. As a result, abiotic heterogeneity may be threatened and the key elements of the natural diversity even decay. The concept of geodiversity was created recently and has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world. However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage. Moreover, little progress has been made concerning its assessment and geovisualisation. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools currently provide wide possibilities for the Earth's surface studies. Very often, the main limitation in that analysis is acquisition of geodata in appropriate resolution. The main objective of this study was to develop a proceeding algorithm for the landform geodiversity assessment using geomorphometric parameters. Furthermore, final maps were compared to those resulting from thematic layers method. The study area consists of two peculiar valleys, characterized by diverse landscape units and complex geological setting: Sucha Woda in Polish part of Tatra Mts. and Wrzosowka in Sudetes Mts. Both valleys are located in the National Park areas. The basis for the assessment is a proper selection of geomorphometric parameters with reference to the definition of geodiversity. Seven factor maps were prepared for each valley: General Curvature, Topographic Openness, Potential Incoming Solar Radiation, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, Convergence Index and Relative Heights. After the data integration and performing the necessary geoinformation analysis, the next step with a certain degree of subjectivity is score classification of the input maps using an expert system and geostatistical analysis. The crucial point to generate the final maps of geodiversity by multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) with GIS-based Weighted Sum technique is to assign appropriate weights for each factor map by

  8. Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.

  9. Mens vi venter på finansloven ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning.......Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning....

  10. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  11. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  12. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    implement a scoping process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes. The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence. From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in

  13. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes.The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence.From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in comparison with other

  14. Characterization of Product and Potential Mechanism of Cr(VI) Reduction by Anaerobic Activated Sludge in a Sequencing Batch Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Yao; Liu, Guangfei; Tian, Tian; Qiao, Sen; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-05-10

    Bioremediation of Cr(VI) and nitrate is considered as a promising and cost-effective alternative to chemical and physical methods. However, organo-Cr(III) complexes in effluent generally causes environmental concerns due to second-pollution. Here, Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization efficiencies of anaerobic activated sludge were investigated. Anaerobic activated sludge showed strong reduction ability of Cr(VI) and possessed a great potential of Cr(III) immobilization. Almost 100.0 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) could be completely reduced and immobilized by anaerobic activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor in 24 h. And most generated Cr(III) was accumulated outside of sludge cells. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) could bind to Cr(VI) and form EPS-Cr(VI) interaction to reduce the toxic effect of Cr(VI) and promote the Cr(VI) reduction. Protein-like and humic-like substances were responsible for binding with Cr(VI), meanwhile the process was a thermodynamically favorable binding reaction. Then Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) by membrane-associated chromate reductase of sludge. Eventually, the generated Cr(III) might exist as poly-nuclear Cr(III) complexes adhered to sludge surfaces.

  15. A six-step method for systematic performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The risk associated with storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must be quantified in order to judge the suitability of the system. Performance-assessment analyses can be used to evaluate the suitability of a HLW storage system to estimate the response of the system to nominal and disturbed conditions. The Site Characterization Plan for the potential HLW repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, specifies that performance-assessment analyses will be used in support of the license application. These analyses address the estimated behavior of all components and subsystem of the repository in order to predict the performance of the total system. Performance-assessment analyses are usually considered to be numerical or analytical exercises. The comprehensive treatment of such complex problems requires a systematic approach. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) has developed a methodology to ensure that all aspects of the problem are addressed during the course of the analyses. This methodology includes six steps: (1) scenario screening; (2) probability estimation; (3) conceptual model identification; (4) parameter estimation; (5) calculations; and (6) interpretation. The steps are iterative and may be addressed sequentially or in parallel. This paper discusses the six-step method as used in conjunction with a recent total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analysis.

  16. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKS), Juniperus procera sawdust (JPS) and papaya peels (PP) were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of Cr(VI). The study employed a batch method to investigate the efficiency of the adsorbents. Parameters that influence adsorption ...

  17. ViTexOCR; a script to extract text overlays from digital video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ViTexOCR script presents a new method for extracting navigation data from videos with text overlays using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Over the...

  18. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reer, B.; Dang, V. N

    2007-05-15

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  19. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  20. Antioxidant activity of wine assessed by different in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in antioxidant compounds could help in counteracting the effects of reactive oxygen species, reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases. The moderate consumption of wine, especially red wine, has been associated with the reduction in mortalities from cardiovascular diseases. One of the possible reasons for the protective effect of wine can be identified in the high content of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids, which have significant antioxidant activity. Even though several in vitro tests have been developed for the measure of the antioxidant property, no method has showed a satisfactory correlation with the in vivo situation. On these bases, the aim of this study was the application and comparison of different in vitro methods to assess the antioxidant activity of red, rosé and white wines. The methods were: 1 Folin-Cocalteau's assay for the quantification of total polyphenol content; 2 the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC spectrophotometric assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples; 3 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for separation of phenolic substances and assessment of the associated antioxidant activity; 4 electrochemical detection by using a biosensor. Although all the approaches show some limitations, this battery of tests offers a more reliable body of data on the antioxidant activity of vine derivatives.

  1. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  2. Assessment by psychophysical methods for design courses of optical discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weige; Zheng, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaotong; Jiang, Lingying; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2017-08-01

    In the teaching of design courses, the process of students to complete the designs is considered more important than the final results, and usually there are no standard answers for these designs. Thus, the research on the process evaluation method in design courses is of great significance. Taking the assessments of two design courses in optical discipline as examples, the psychophysical experimental methods are introduced into the process evaluation of the design courses, i.e. the process evaluation given by each student to others in forms of classification, sorting or grading are adopted as one trial of a psychophysical experiment, which generate many experimental data of mutual evaluation. Based on these data, evaluation results are measured scientifically using the statistical method. Furthermore, through correlation analysis and regression analysis of these data, the relationship among various aspects of different process can be studied. It is easier for students to understand and accept their assessment results, and more helpful for teachers to analyze the influencing factors in their teaching process.

  3. A Solution Quality Assessment Method for Swarm Intelligence Optimization Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gai-Ge; Zou, Kuansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, swarm intelligence optimization has become an important optimization tool and wildly used in many fields of application. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation is rather weak. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved. One problem is how to quantify the performance of algorithm in finite time, that is, how to evaluate the solution quality got by algorithm for practical problems. It greatly limits the application in practical problems. A solution quality assessment method for intelligent optimization is proposed in this paper. It is an experimental analysis method based on the analysis of search space and characteristic of algorithm itself. Instead of “value performance,” the “ordinal performance” is used as evaluation criteria in this method. The feasible solutions were clustered according to distance to divide solution samples into several parts. Then, solution space and “good enough” set can be decomposed based on the clustering results. Last, using relative knowledge of statistics, the evaluation result can be got. To validate the proposed method, some intelligent algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFS) were taken to solve traveling salesman problem. Computational results indicate the feasibility of proposed method. PMID:25013845

  4. Assessing Education Needs at Tertiary Level: The Focus Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mirela Samfira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the focus group method in assessing the education needs of teachers and students in veterinary medicine. It is the first stage of a wider research aiming at developing problem-based teaching and learning methodologies in the field of veterinary medicine. The materials used consisted of literature documents on focus group as a research method in social sciences. The authors studied the literature available in the field and synthesised its main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is the first of this kind in Romania. Results show that there is no agreement yet on the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The research limitation is that there is almost no Romanian literature on focus group as a method. The usefulness of the paper is obvious: it allows other researchers in the field of education see the benefits of using such a research method. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that there has been no such research so far in Romanian higher education. Based on the results of the focus groups organised, the authors will design and implement a problem-based learning methodology for the students in veterinary medicine.

  5. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  6. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  7. Image cytometer method for automated assessment of human spermatozoa concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, D L; Kjaerulff, S; Hansen, C

    2013-01-01

    to investigator bias. Here we show that image cytometry can be used to accurately measure the sperm concentration of human semen samples with great ease and reproducibility. The impact of several factors (pipetting, mixing, round cell content, sperm concentration), which can influence the read-out as well...... as inter-operator and -cytometer variation on two different image cytometers (NC-3000 and SP-100) were evaluated. Furthermore, 725 semen samples were assessed both by manual assessment (WHO recommended method) and by image cytometry and tight correlations between the measured concentrations were shown....... Moreover, by evaluation of repeated measurements it appeared that image cytometry produced more consistent and accurate measurements than manual counting of human spermatozoa concentration. In conclusion, image cytometry provides an appealing substitute of manual counting by providing reliable, robust...

  8. Young People, Adult Worries: Randomized Controlled Trial and Feasibility Study of the Internet-Based Self-Support Method "Feel the ViBe" for Adolescents and Young Adults Exposed to Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen-Nooijens, Karin; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Prins, Judith; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2017-06-12

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are of special interest in a group of children exposed to family violence (FV). Past-year prevalence of exposure to FV is known to be highest in AYAs and has severe consequences. Peer support is an effective approach to behavior change and the Internet is considered suitable as a mode of delivery. The study aimed to evaluate both effectiveness and feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and feasibility study of the Internet-based self-support method "Feel the ViBe" (FtV) using mixed-methods approach to fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of a new intervention. AYAs aged 12-25 years and exposed to FV were randomized in an intervention group (access to FtV + usual care) and a control group (minimally enhanced usual care) after they self-registered themselves. From June 2012 to July 2014, participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Depression (DEP) and Anxiety (ANX) subscales of the Symptom CheckList-90-R (SCL-90) every 6 weeks. The Web Evaluation Questionnaire was completed after 12 weeks. Quantitative usage data were collected using Google analytics and content management system (CMS) logs and data files. A univariate analysis of variance (UNIANOVA) and mixed model analysis (intention-to-treat [ITT], complete case) were used to compare groups. Pre-post t tests were used to find within-group effects. Feasibility measures structurally address the findings. The CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials of Electronic and Mobile HEalth Applications and onLine TeleHealth (CONSORT-EHEALTH) checklist was closely followed. In total, 31 out of 46 participants in the intervention group and 26 out of 47 participants in the control group started FtV. Seventeen participants (intervention: n=8, control: n=9) completed all questionnaires. Mixed model analysis showed significant differences between groups on the SCL-90 DEP (P=.04) and ANX (P=.049) subscales between 6 and 12 weeks after participation started

  9. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  10. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Collagen VI-related myopathy Collagen VI-related myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  12. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from ...

  13. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Branka F; Gajić, Milan; Milinić, Nikola; Milovanović, Branislav; Filipović, Branislav R; Cvetković, Mirjana; Sibalić, Nela

    2010-04-28

    To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods: subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI). The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients, aged 18-84 years (average life span 55.57 +/- 12.84), with different gastrointestinal pathology, admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical and Hospital Center "Bezanijska Kosa" during a period of 180 d. All the patients, after being informed in detail about the study and signing a written consent, underwent nutritional status analysis, which included two different nutritional indices: SGA and NRI, anthropometric parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and biochemical markers, within 24 h of admission. In our sample of 299 hospitalized patients, global malnutrition prevalence upon admission varied from 45.7% as assessed by the SGA to 63.9% by NRI. Two applied methods required different parameters for an adequate approach: glucose level (5.68 +/- 1.06 mmol/L vs 4.83 +/- 1.14 mmol/L, F = 10.63, P = 0.001); body mass index (26.03 +/- 4.53 kg/m(2) vs 18.17 +/- 1.52 kg/m(2), F = 58.36, P DFA) delineated the following parameters as important for prediction of nutritional status according to SGA assessment: concentration of albumins, level of proteins, SGA score and body weight. The DFA extracted MAMC, glucose level and NRI scores were variables of importance for the prediction of whether admitted patients would be classified as well or malnourished. SGA showed higher sensitivity to predictor factors. Assessment of nutritional status requires a multidimensional approach, which includes different clinical indices and various nutritional parameters.

  14. Dynamic Assessment in Iranian EFL Classrooms: A Post- method Enquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardrood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the emerging paradigm shift in English language teaching and assessment, there has been a renewal of interest in dynamic assessment (DA to be used as an alternative to the traditional static testing in language classrooms. However, to date, DA practice has been mostly limited to clinical treatments of children with learning disabilities, and it has not been widely incorporated into the EFL contexts. In order to find out the reasons behind the slow trend of DA practice, this research adopted a framework, based on the post method pedagogical principles and recommendations, to delve into the prospect of methodological realization of DA approaches in Iranian EFL classrooms. To this end, two instruments, a questionnaire and an interview were developed to explore the practicality of DA through seeking 51 Iranian EFL teachers' perception of DA practice in their classrooms. The results indicated that most of the teachers were negative about the practice of DA in their classrooms and believed that a full-fledged implementation of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms is too demanding. The feasibility of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms, where teachers are deprived of DA training, guideline, and technological resources, is questioned seriously due to the factors such as time-constrained nature of DA procedures, large number of students in EFL classrooms, the common practice of static tests as the mainstream, and overreliance on the teachers' teaching and assessment abilities. The paper suggests the framework of inquiry in this study, which was derived from the post method pedagogy, to be utilized as a blueprint for a critical appraisal of any alternative method or theory which is introduced into ELT contexts.

  15. Sorption of environmentally relevant radionuclides (U(VI), Np(V)) and lanthanides (Nd(III)) on feldspar and mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Constanze

    2015-11-05

    obtained sorption curves exhibit a similar characteristic for orthoclase and muscovite. As expected Nd(III) shows the highest amount of sorption followed by U(VI) and finally Np(V). With spectroscopic investigations of the aquatic U(VI) solution in presence of Ca{sup 2+}, the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex could be identified. Furthermore, with spectroscopic methods the U(VI) surface species onto orthoclase could be characterized, of which a novel uranium-carbonate surface species was observed. Based on the results of batch experiments and spectroscopic methods new SCM parameters for the sorption of U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III) onto orthoclase and for Np(V) and Nd(III) onto muscovite could be derived. SCM parameters for U(VI) sorption onto muscovite confirmed earlier investigations. The obtained SCM parameters increase the amount of data available for sorption processes onto feldspar and mica. With this the relevance of feldspars for the sorption of actinides and lanthanides could be shown. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of interactions of actinides and lanthanides, in particular U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III), with mineral phases ubiquitous in the environment. This in turn adds confidence to long-term safety assessments essential for the protection of humans and the environment from the hazards of radioactive waste.

  16. The application of statistical methods to assess economic assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dianov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration and evaluation of machinery, equipment and special equipment, methodological aspects of the use of standards for assessment of buildings and structures in current prices, the valuation of residential, specialized houses, office premises, assessment and reassessment of existing and inactive military assets, the application of statistical methods to obtain the relevant cost estimates.The objective of the scientific article is to consider possible application of statistical tools in the valuation of the assets, composing the core group of elements of national wealth – the fixed assets. Firstly, capital tangible assets constitute the basis of material base of a new value creation, products and non-financial services. The gain, accumulated of tangible assets of a capital nature is a part of the gross domestic product, and from its volume and specific weight in the composition of GDP we can judge the scope of reproductive processes in the country.Based on the methodological materials of the state statistics bodies of the Russian Federation, regulations of the theory of statistics, which describe the methods of statistical analysis such as the index, average values, regression, the methodical approach is structured in the application of statistical tools to obtain value estimates of property, plant and equipment with significant accumulated depreciation. Until now, the use of statistical methodology in the practice of economic assessment of assets is only fragmentary. This applies to both Federal Legislation (Federal law № 135 «On valuation activities in the Russian Federation» dated 16.07.1998 in edition 05.07.2016 and the methodological documents and regulations of the estimated activities, in particular, the valuation activities’ standards. A particular problem is the use of a digital database of Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service, as to the specific fixed assets the comparison should be carried

  17. Clinical assessment of rosacea severity: oriental score vs. quantitative assessment method with imaging and biomedical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Ahn, J W; Ha, S; Kwon, S H; Lee, O; Oh, C

    2017-05-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting facial skin. Currently, no accurate and objective method is available for assessing the severity of rosacea. Most studies use the National Rosacea Society Standard (NRSS) grading method, which lacks objectivity and yields varying results. Eighteen patients with rosacea were included. Clinical severity was assessed on the basis of the NRSS grade, Investigators' Global Assessment, Patients' Global Assessment, and Dermatology Quality of Life Index. A skin color analysis system was used to measure the facial area showing erythema, and biophysical parameters of facial skin (transepidermal water loss and skin surface hydration) were examined. To find statistical significant in classification severity of the rosacea, statistical analysis was performed with all parameters. A significant correlation (P rosacea of different levels of severity (mild, moderate, severe; P rosacea, in addition to biophysical parameter assessment. The combination of these two analytical methods enabled objective and quantitative evaluation of the severity of rosacea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Research Spotlight: New method to assess coral reef health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs around the world are becoming stressed due to rising temperatures, ocean acidification, overfishing, and other factors. Measuring community level rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and biogenic calcification is essential to assessing the health of coral reef ecosystems because the balance between these processes determines the potential for reef growth and the export of carbon. Measurements of biological productivity have typically been made by tracing changes in dissolved oxygen in seawater as it passes over a reef. However, this is a labor-intensive and difficult method, requiring repeated measurements. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046179, 2011)

  19. Investigation of U(VI) adsorption in quartz-chlorite mineral mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M; Shang, Jianying; Jeon, Choong; Liu, Juan; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-07-15

    A batch and cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy investigation of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz-chlorite mixtures with variable mass ratios have been performed under field-relevant uranium concentrations (5×10(-7) M and 5×10(-6) M) in pH 8.1 synthetic groundwater. The U(VI) adsorption Kd values steadily increased as the mass fraction of chlorite increased, indicating preferential sorption to chlorite. For all mineral mixtures, U(VI) adsorption Kd values were lower than that calculated from the assumption of component additivity possibly caused by surface modifications stemming from chlorite dissolution; The largest deviation occurred when the mass fractions of the two minerals were equal. U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite displayed characteristic individual luminescence spectra that were not affected by mineral mixing. The spectra of U(VI) adsorbed within the mixtures could be simulated by one surface U(VI) species on quartz and two on chlorite. The luminescence intensity decreased in a nonlinear manner as the adsorbed U(VI) concentration increased with increasing chlorite mass fraction-likely due to ill-defined luminescence quenching by both structural Fe/Cr in chlorite, and trace amounts of solubilized and reprecipitated Fe/Cr in the aqueous phase. However, the fractional spectral intensities of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite followed the same trend of fractional adsorbed U(VI) concentration in each mineral phase with approximate linear correlations, offering a method to estimate of U(VI) concentration distribution between the mineral components with luminescence spectroscopy.

  20. Peningkatan Hasil Belajar IPS dengan Pemanfaatan Media Peta di Kelas VI Sdn 02 Sungai Betung

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Ajustus Indra; Abdussamad; Halidjah, Siti

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the Media Map To Improve Student Results In Social Learning Class VI River Elementary School No.02 Betong, Bengkayang. This study aims to determine the effect of utilization Media Guide to Class VI student learning outcomes SDN No.02 Betong River, The method used in this research is descriptive method. Based on the results of the implementation of the action learning social studies using the media map in the cycle always increase. In the first cycle level student learning outcomes ...

  1. Radionuclide methods in the assessment of left ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, J.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    The recent introduction of newer scintillation cameras, convenient radiopharmaceuticals and innovative data-processing systems has hastened the use of radionuclide methods in the evaluation of cardiac function. This review familiarizes the primary internist with physics and instrumentation required in understanding cardiovascular nuclear images. Basic principles underlying the gated cardiac blood-pool scan and the first-pass study are described. Authoritative references are given to readers seeking more complete information. The major emphasis of the review, however, is on the clinical applications of these techniques. The role of these noninvasive methods in myocardial infarction, diagnosis and prognosis of ischemic heart disease, assessment of cardiomyopathies, study of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis and left atrial myxoma is discussed. Finally, mention is made of newer applications: evaluation of nitroglycerin action on viable but ischemic myocardium and determination of the hemodynamic effects of propranolol in patients with coronary-artery disease.

  2. Assessment of walking speed by a goniometer-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, E; Barone, V; Fioretti, S

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative gait analysis is essential to evaluate the kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic gait patterns. These patterns are strongly related to the individual spatio-temporal parameters that characterize each subject. In particular, gait speed is one of the most important spatio-temporal gait parameters: it influences kinematic, kinetic parameters, and muscle activity too. The aim of the present study is to propose a new method to assess stride speed using only 1-degree-of-freedom electrogoniometers positioned on hip and knee joints. The model validation is performed comparing the model results with those automatically obtained from another gait analysis system: GAITRite. The results underline the model reliability. These results show that essential spatio-temporal gait parameters, and in particular the speed of each stride, can be determined during normal walking using only two 1-dof electrogoniometers. The method is easy-to-use and does not interfere with regular walking patterns.

  3. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  4. Novel Method for Border Irregularity Assessment in Dermoscopic Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the most important lesion features predicting malignancy is border irregularity. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. Method. In this research, we present a new approach for the detection of border irregularities, as one of the major parameters in a widely used diagnostic algorithm the ABCD rule of dermoscopy. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, borderline calculation, and irregularities detection. The challenge lies in determining the exact borderline. For solving this problem we have implemented a new method based on lesion rotation and borderline division. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 350 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed computational approach captured most of the irregularities and provides reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Compared to the state of the art, we obtained improved classification results. Conclusions. The current study suggests that computer-aided system is a practical tool for dermoscopic image assessment and could be recommended for both research and clinical applications. The proposed algorithm can be applied in different fields of medical image analysis including, for example, CT and MRI images.

  5. Preventing blood transfusion failures: FMEA, an effective assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Zhila; Hasoumi, Mojtaba; Behzadi, Faranak; Mohamadi, Efat; Jafary, Mohamadreza; Saeedi, Morteza

    2017-06-30

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used to assess the risk of failures and harms to patients during the medical process and to identify the associated clinical issues. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of blood transfusion process in a teaching general hospital, using FMEA as the method. A structured FMEA was recruited in our study performed in 2014, and corrective actions were implemented and re-evaluated after 6 months. Sixteen 2-h sessions were held to perform FMEA in the blood transfusion process, including five steps: establishing the context, selecting team members, analysis of the processes, hazard analysis, and developing a risk reduction protocol for blood transfusion. Failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs) were identified. The overall RPN scores ranged from 5 to 100 among which, four failure modes were associated with RPNs over 75. The data analysis indicated that failures with the highest RPNs were: labelling (RPN: 100), transfusion of blood or the component (RPN: 100), patient identification (RPN: 80) and sampling (RPN: 75). The results demonstrated that mis-transfusion of blood or blood component is the most important error, which can lead to serious morbidity or mortality. Provision of training to the personnel on blood transfusion, knowledge raising on hazards and appropriate preventative measures, as well as developing standard safety guidelines are essential, and must be implemented during all steps of blood and blood component transfusion.

  6. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Działak Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME, which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM. As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  7. Viscoelastic methods of blood clotting assessment – a multidisciplinary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eBenes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastic methods made available the bed-side assessment of blood clotting. Unlike standard laboratory tests, the results are based on the whole blood coagulation, are available in real time and in much faster turnaround time. In combination with our new knowledge about pathophysiology of the trauma induced coagulopathy the goal oriented treatment protocols have been recently proposed for the initial management of bleeding in trauma victims. Besides, the utility of viscoelastic monitoring devices has been proved even outside this setting in cardiosurgical patients or those undergoing liver transplantation. Many other situations were described in literature showing potential use of bed-side analysis of coagulation for the management of bleeding or critically ill patients. In the near future, we may expect further improvement of current bed-side diagnostic tools enabling not only the assessment of secondary hemostasis but also platelet aggregation. More sensitive assays for new anticoagulants are underway. Aim of this review is to offer the reader a multidisciplinary overview on the topic of viscoelastic methods and their potential use in anesthesiology and critical care.

  8. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  9. Methods for Performing Survival Curve Quality-of-Life Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Ding, Eric; Fischer, Irene D; Hagen, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Many medical decisions involve an implied choice between alternative survival curves, typically with differing quality of life. Common preference assessment methods neglect this structure, creating some risk of distortions. Survival curve quality-of-life assessments (SQLA) were developed from Gompertz survival curves fitting the general population's survival. An algorithm was developed to generate relative discount rate-utility (DRU) functions from a standard survival curve and health state and an equally attractive alternative curve and state. A least means squared distance algorithm was developed to describe how nearly 3 or more DRU functions intersect. These techniques were implemented in a program called X-Trade and tested. SQLA scenarios can portray realistic treatment choices. A side effect scenario portrays one prototypical choice, to extend life while experiencing some loss, such as an amputation. A risky treatment scenario portrays procedures with an initial mortality risk. A time trade scenario mimics conventional time tradeoffs. Each SQLA scenario yields DRU functions with distinctive shapes, such as sigmoid curves or vertical lines. One SQLA can imply a discount rate or utility if the other value is known and both values are temporally stable. Two SQLA exercises imply a unique discount rate and utility if the inferred DRU functions intersect. Three or more SQLA results can quantify uncertainty or inconsistency in discount rate and utility estimates. Pilot studies suggested that many subjects could learn to interpret survival curves and do SQLA. SQLA confuse some people. Compared with SQLA, standard gambles quantify very low utilities more easily, and time tradeoffs are simpler for high utilities. When discount rates approach zero, time tradeoffs are as informative and easier to do than SQLA. SQLA may complement conventional utility assessment methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: from overlay methods to statistical methods in the Lombardy Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is among the most important freshwater resources. Worldwide, aquifers are experiencing an increasing threat of pollution from urbanization, industrial development, agricultural activities and mining enterprise. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions to protect groundwater from these anthropogenic sources are widely required. The most efficient tool, which helps supporting land use planning, while protecting groundwater from contamination, is represented by groundwater vulnerability assessment. Over the years, several methods assessing groundwater vulnerability have been developed: overlay and index methods, statistical and process-based methods. All methods are means to synthesize complex hydrogeological information into a unique document, which is a groundwater vulnerability map, useable by planners, decision and policy makers, geoscientists and the public. Although it is not possible to identify an approach which could be the best one for all situations, the final product should always be scientific defensible, meaningful and reliable. Nevertheless, various methods may produce very different results at any given site. Thus, reasons for similarities and differences need to be deeply investigated. This study demonstrates the reliability and flexibility of a spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination at a regional scale. The Lombardy Plain case study is particularly interesting for its long history of groundwater monitoring (quality and quantity, availability of hydrogeological data, and combined presence of various anthropogenic sources of contamination. Recent updates of the regional water protection plan have raised the necessity of realizing more flexible, reliable and accurate groundwater vulnerability maps. A comparison of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through different approaches and developed in a time span of several years has demonstrated the relevance of the

  11. Cr(VI) reduction at rutile-catalyzed cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Ding, Hongrui; Yan, Yunhua; Wang, Changqiu; Zen, Cuiping; Wang, Xin [The Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jin, Song [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Cathodic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and simultaneous power generation were successfully achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) containing a novel rutile-coated cathode. The selected rutile was previously characterized to be sensitive to visible light and capable of both non-photo- and photocatalysis. In the MFCs containing rutile-coated cathode, Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced in the cathode chamber in presence and absence of light irradiation; and the rate of Cr(VI) reduction under light irradiation was substantially higher than that in the dark. Under light irradiation, 97% of Cr(VI) (initial concentration 26 mg/L) was reduced within 26 h, which was 1.6 x faster than that in the dark controls in which only background non-photocatalysis occurred. The maximal potential generated under light irradiation was 0.80 vs. 0.55 V in the dark controls. These results indicate that photocatalysis at the rutile-coated cathode in the MFCs might have lowered the cathodic overpotential, and enhanced electron transfer from the cathode to Cr(VI) for its reduction. In addition, photoexcited electrons generated during the cathode photocatalysis might also have contributed to the higher Cr(VI) reduction rates when under light irradiation. This work assessed natural rutile as a novel cathodic catalyst for MFCs in power generation; particularly it extended the practical merits of conventional MFCs to cathodic reduction of environmental contaminants such as Cr(VI). (author)

  12. A comparative assessment of statistical methods for extreme weather analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Matthias; Laaha, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather exposure assessment is of major importance for scientists and practitioners alike. We compare different extreme value approaches and fitting methods with respect to their value for assessing extreme precipitation and temperature impacts. Based on an Austrian data set from 25 meteorological stations representing diverse meteorological conditions, we assess the added value of partial duration series over the standardly used annual maxima series in order to give recommendations for performing extreme value statistics of meteorological hazards. Results show the merits of the robust L-moment estimation, which yielded better results than maximum likelihood estimation in 62 % of all cases. At the same time, results question the general assumption of the threshold excess approach (employing partial duration series, PDS) being superior to the block maxima approach (employing annual maxima series, AMS) due to information gain. For low return periods (non-extreme events) the PDS approach tends to overestimate return levels as compared to the AMS approach, whereas an opposite behavior was found for high return levels (extreme events). In extreme cases, an inappropriate threshold was shown to lead to considerable biases that may outperform the possible gain of information from including additional extreme events by far. This effect was neither visible from the square-root criterion, nor from standardly used graphical diagnosis (mean residual life plot), but from a direct comparison of AMS and PDS in synoptic quantile plots. We therefore recommend performing AMS and PDS approaches simultaneously in order to select the best suited approach. This will make the analyses more robust, in cases where threshold selection and dependency introduces biases to the PDS approach, but also in cases where the AMS contains non-extreme events that may introduce similar biases. For assessing the performance of extreme events we recommend conditional performance measures that focus

  13. Thermography as a quantitative imaging method for assessing postoperative inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J; Matzen, LH; Vaeth, M; Schou, S; Wenzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in skin temperature between the operated and control side of the face after mandibular third molar surgery using thermography. Methods 127 patients had 1 mandibular third molar removed. Before the surgery, standardized thermograms were taken of both sides of the patient's face using a Flir ThermaCam™ E320 (Precisions Teknik AB, Halmstad, Sweden). The imaging procedure was repeated 2 days and 7 days after surgery. A region of interest including the third molar region was marked on each image. The mean temperature within each region of interest was calculated. The difference between sides and over time were assessed using paired t-tests. Results No significant difference was found between the operated side and the control side either before or 7 days after surgery (p > 0.3). The temperature of the operated side (mean: 32.39 °C, range: 28.9–35.3 °C) was higher than that of the control side (mean: 32.06 °C, range: 28.5–35.0 °C) 2 days after surgery [0.33 °C, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.44 °C, p 0.1). After 2 days, the operated side was not significantly different from the temperature pre-operatively (p = 0.12), whereas the control side had a lower temperature (0.57 °C, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86 °C, p Thermography seems useful for quantitative assessment of inflammation between the intervention side and the control side after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. However, thermography cannot be used to assess absolute temperature changes due to normal variations in skin temperature over time. PMID:22752326

  14. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. Integr

  15. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  16. A reliability assessment method using system dynamics and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyung, Min Kang; Moosung, Jae [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sangman, Kwak [Systemix, Inc, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    An advanced method for assessing dynamic safety of nuclear power plants is introduced and applied. A commercial software, VENtana SIMulation environment, VENSIM, is used to develop a dynamics model for an example system. In this study the 18-month refuel cycle is simulated for the dynamic analysis. The failure rate when the plant is a zero power like maintenance, test, and refueling processes, which are not properly modeled in conventional method using event/fault trees, is higher than that of the full power. This also means the human failure rate during both standby and shutdown operation is higher than that of normal operations. Various time steps are applied for the different failure cases. The simulation results show that the common cause failure is much affected by the time step process. The results also include the dynamic simulation for the standby-running and shutdown-running cases. The graphical presentation has been easily modeled by a unique graphic designed method incorporated in the VENSIM. The diagrams well understood by operators or system analysts are constructed and evaluated quantitatively using system dynamics. (authors)

  17. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  18. Methods of assessing the database queries’ results relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Krisilov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the volume of stored and processed information imposes special requirements to methods and tools for information search and processing. One of the indicators characterizing the quality of information retrieval is the query results relevance. This article purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the relevance of query results. The query results’ relevance evaluation is important for the correct information retrieval. The presented method identifies and evaluates the query results for the three types of found object compliance to the request. For objects that do not completely correspond to the required specification, it is proposed to calculate the diversity factor between the found object and the query, as in some cases it is impossible to find an object that would at least partially satisfy the requirements. The presented method uses fuzzy sets to describe objects and queries to databases in order to facilitate objects’ searching and grouping by temporal characteristics, as well as allows to evaluate quantitatively the query results’ relevance for the correct information retrieval assessing.

  19. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  20. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana; Carolina Ando Matsuno; Marta Wey Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB), responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI). A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética...

  1. Determination of chromium (VI) in primary and secondary fertilizer and their respective precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Fiedler, Francesca; Adam, Christian; Vogel, Christian; Senz, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium species (Cr(VI)) are often carcinogenic, of high acute toxicity, highly mobile, and thus pose a severe risk to health and environment. Fertilizers usually contain significant amounts of chromium. Therefore, a reliable analysis of chromium and the fraction of Cr(VI) are crucial for safe use of fertilizers. This problem is expected to increase in the future, since more and more recycled fertilizers emerge due to increasing fertilizer demand and respective supply risks. However, existing analytical methods have been developed for conventional fertilizers and have to be tested whether they are suitable for the new materials. Thus, we performed a wet-chemical extraction for Cr(VI) on several matrices as well as respective quality control experiments including spiking with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds. We found the Cr(VI) amounts to be below 2 mg/kg except for a thermally post-treated sewage sludge ash (SSA) that showed 12.3 mg/kg. The presence of organic matter e.g. in sludge or precipitated struvite caused a reduction of spiked Cr(VI) and thus no satisfying recovery for quality control. Cr(VI) reduction was also observed for SSA, presumably due to the presence of Fe(II) compounds. Even though the tested procedure can be hampered in some recycled fertilizer matrices, it might be adapted to be applicable also for these complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  3. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  4. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  5. a Quality Assessment Method for 3d Road Polygon Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Shi, W.; Wan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  6. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  7. Assessment of metal artifact reduction methods in pelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdoli, Mehrsima [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Mehranian, Abolfazl [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Ailianou, Angeliki; Becker, Minerva [Division of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Metal artifact reduction (MAR) produces images with improved quality potentially leading to confident and reliable clinical diagnosis and therapy planning. In this work, the authors evaluate the performance of five MAR techniques for the assessment of computed tomography images of patients with hip prostheses. Methods: Five MAR algorithms were evaluated using simulation and clinical studies. The algorithms included one-dimensional linear interpolation (LI) of the corrupted projection bins in the sinogram, two-dimensional interpolation (2D), a normalized metal artifact reduction (NMAR) technique, a metal deletion technique, and a maximum a posteriori completion (MAPC) approach. The algorithms were applied to ten simulated datasets as well as 30 clinical studies of patients with metallic hip implants. Qualitative evaluations were performed by two blinded experienced radiologists who ranked overall artifact severity and pelvic organ recognition for each algorithm by assigning scores from zero to five (zero indicating totally obscured organs with no structures identifiable and five indicating recognition with high confidence). Results: Simulation studies revealed that 2D, NMAR, and MAPC techniques performed almost equally well in all regions. LI falls behind the other approaches in terms of reducing dark streaking artifacts as well as preserving unaffected regions (p < 0.05). Visual assessment of clinical datasets revealed the superiority of NMAR and MAPC in the evaluated pelvic organs and in terms of overall image quality. Conclusions: Overall, all methods, except LI, performed equally well in artifact-free regions. Considering both clinical and simulation studies, 2D, NMAR, and MAPC seem to outperform the other techniques.

  8. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  9. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI using diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChandraSekhar Reddy Gadikota

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Uranium (VI forms a yellow coloured water soluble complex with diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH reagent in acidic buffer of pH 3.25 with ?max at 364 nm. The molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity are 1.63 X 10 4 L.mol -1.cm-1 and 0.00307692 µg/cm 2, respectively. The Beer’s law validity range is 1.19–14.28 µg/mL. Uranium (VI forms (M:L 1:1 complex with DMIH and stability constant of the complex is 4.928 X 106 .The derivative spectrophotometric determination of U (VI was carried out by measuring peak height method. The developed derivative spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of uranium (VI in rock and synthetic samples. The effect of various diverse ions was also studied.

  10. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. © 2014

  11. Comparability and repeatability of different methods of corneal astigmatism assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira TB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tiago B Ferreira, Filomena J Ribeiro Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital da Luz, Lisbon, Portugal Purpose: To assess the comparability and repeatability of keratometric and astigmatism values measured by four techniques: Orbscan IIz® (Bausch and Lomb, Lenstar LS 900® (Haag-Streit, Cassini® (i-Optics, and Total Cassini (anterior + posterior surface, in healthy volunteers.Patients and methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers (30 eyes were assessed by the four techniques. In each eye, three consecutive measures were performed by the same operator. Keratometric and astigmatism values were recorded. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess comparability and repeatability. Agreement between measurement techniques was evaluated with Bland–Altman plots.Results: Comparability was high between all measurement techniques for minimum keratometry (K1, maximum keratometry (K2, astigmatism magnitude, and astigmatism axis, with ICC >0.900, except for astigmatism magnitude measured by Cassini compared to Lenstar (ICC =0.798 and Orbscan compared to Lenstar (ICC =0.810. However, there were some differences in the median values of K1 and K2 between measurement techniques, and the Bland–Altman plots showed a wide data spread for all variables, except for astigmatism magnitude measured by Cassini and Total Cassini. For J0 and J45, comparability was only high for J0 between Cassini and Orbscan. Repeatability was also high for all measurement techniques except for K2 (ICC =0.814 and J45 (ICC =0.621 measured by Cassini.Conclusion: All measurement techniques showed high comparability regarding K1, K2, and astigmatism axis. Although posterior corneal surface is known to influence these measurements, comparability was high between Cassini and Total Cassini regarding astigmatism magnitude and axis. However, the wide data spread suggests that none of these devices should be used interchangeably. Keywords: astigmatism, keratometry, topography

  12. Assessing semantic similarity of texts - Methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna; Zerkova, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches. Algorithms and measures are used for assessing texts at syntactical and semantic level. An important text-mining method and similarity measure is latent semantic analysis (LSA). It provides for reducing the dimensionality of the document vector space and better capturing the text semantics. The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented.

  13. GeneViTo: Visualizing gene-product functional and structural features in genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promponas Vasilis J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of increasing amounts of sequence data from completely sequenced genomes boosts the development of new computational methods for automated genome annotation and comparative genomics. Therefore, there is a need for tools that facilitate the visualization of raw data and results produced by bioinformatics analysis, providing new means for interactive genome exploration. Visual inspection can be used as a basis to assess the quality of various analysis algorithms and to aid in-depth genomic studies. Results GeneViTo is a JAVA-based computer application that serves as a workbench for genome-wide analysis through visual interaction. The application deals with various experimental information concerning both DNA and protein sequences (derived from public sequence databases or proprietary data sources and meta-data obtained by various prediction algorithms, classification schemes or user-defined features. Interaction with a Graphical User Interface (GUI allows easy extraction of genomic and proteomic data referring to the sequence itself, sequence features, or general structural and functional features. Emphasis is laid on the potential comparison between annotation and prediction data in order to offer a supplement to the provided information, especially in cases of "poor" annotation, or an evaluation of available predictions. Moreover, desired information can be output in high quality JPEG image files for further elaboration and scientific use. A compilation of properly formatted GeneViTo input data for demonstration is available to interested readers for two completely sequenced prokaryotes, Chlamydia trachomatis and Methanococcus jannaschii. Conclusions GeneViTo offers an inspectional view of genomic functional elements, concerning data stemming both from database annotation and analysis tools for an overall analysis of existing genomes. The application is compatible with Linux or Windows ME-2000-XP operating

  14. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8-16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from -0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  15. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  16. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  17. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  18. Improved methods of creep-fatigue life assessment of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The improvement of life assessment methods contributes to a reduction of efforts at design and an effective long term operation of high temperature components, reduces technical risk and increases high economical advantages. Creep-fatigue at multi-stage loading, covering cold start, warm start and hot start cycles in typical loading sequences e.g. for medium loaded power plants, was investigated here. At hold times creep and stress relaxation, respectively, lead to an acceleration of crack initiation. Creep fatigue life time can be calculated by a modified damage accumulation rule, which considers the fatigue fraction rule for fatigue damage and the life fraction rule for creep damage. Mean stress effects, internal stress and interaction effects of creep and fatigue are considered. Along with the generation of advanced creep data, fatigue data and creep fatigue data as well scatter band analyses are necessary in order to generate design curves and lower bound properties inclusive. Besides, in order to improve lifing methods the enhancement of modelling activities for deformation and life time are important. For verification purposes, complex experiments at variable creep conditions as well as at creep fatigue interaction under multi-stage loading are of interest. Generally, the development of methods to transfer uniaxial material properties to multiaxial loading situations is a current challenge. For specific design purposes, a constitutive material model is introduced which is implemented as an user subroutine for Finite Element applications due to start-up and shut-down phases of components. Identification of material parameters have been performed by Neural Networks. (orig.)

  19. A comparison of data-driven groundwater vulnerability assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Ballabio, Cristiano; Masetti, Marco; Robinson, Gilpin R; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Increasing availability of geo-environmental data has promoted the use of statistical methods to assess groundwater vulnerability. Nitrate is a widespread anthropogenic contaminant in groundwater and its occurrence can be used to identify aquifer settings vulnerable to contamination. In this study, multivariate Weights of Evidence (WofE) and Logistic Regression (LR) methods, where the response variable is binary, were used to evaluate the role and importance of a number of explanatory variables associated with nitrate sources and occurrence in groundwater in the Milan District (central part of the Po Plain, Italy). The results of these models have been used to map the spatial variation of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate in the region, and we compare the similarities and differences of their spatial patterns and associated explanatory variables. We modify the standard WofE method used in previous groundwater vulnerability studies to a form analogous to that used in LR; this provides a framework to compare the results of both models and reduces the effect of sampling bias on the results of the standard WofE model. In addition, a nonlinear Generalized Additive Model has been used to extend the LR analysis. Both approaches improved discrimination of the standard WofE and LR models, as measured by the c-statistic. Groundwater vulnerability probability outputs, based on rank-order classification of the respective model results, were similar in spatial patterns and identified similar strong explanatory variables associated with nitrate source (population density as a proxy for sewage systems and septic sources) and nitrate occurrence (groundwater depth). © 2013, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. An assessment of spacecraft target mode selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J. F.; Aglietti, G. S.; Remedia, M.; Kiley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Coupled Loads Analyses (CLAs), using finite element models (FEMs) of the spacecraft and launch vehicle to simulate critical flight events, are performed in order to determine the dynamic loadings that will be experienced by spacecraft during launch. A validation process is carried out on the spacecraft FEM beforehand to ensure that the dynamics of the analytical model sufficiently represent the behavior of the physical hardware. One aspect of concern is the containment of the FEM correlation and update effort to focus on the vibration modes which are most likely to be excited under test and CLA conditions. This study therefore provides new insight into the prioritization of spacecraft FEM modes for correlation to base-shake vibration test data. The work involved example application to large, unique, scientific spacecraft, with modern FEMs comprising over a million degrees of freedom. This comprehensive investigation explores: the modes inherently important to the spacecraft structures, irrespective of excitation; the particular 'critical modes' which produce peak responses to CLA level excitation; an assessment of several traditional target mode selection methods in terms of ability to predict these 'critical modes'; and an indication of the level of correlation these FEM modes achieve compared to corresponding test data. Findings indicate that, although the traditional methods of target mode selection have merit and are able to identify many of the modes of significance to the spacecraft, there are 'critical modes' which may be missed by conventional application of these methods. The use of different thresholds to select potential target modes from these parameters would enable identification of many of these missed modes. Ultimately, some consideration of the expected excitations is required to predict all modes likely to contribute to the response of the spacecraft in operation.

  1. Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds

  2. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Khamis, Mustafa; Manassra, Adnan; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite) or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI) removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques. PMID:24222757

  3. Removal of Cr(VI from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques.

  4. Derfor elsker og hader vi positiv psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog.......Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog....

  5. Kan vi forebygge en kompliceret sorgreaktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter er i en sårbar situation og risikerer selv at blive syge. Som sundhedsprofessionelle har vi mulighed for at støtte pårørende i palliative forløb, og vi vil i denne artikel beskrive mulige prædiktorer for kompliceret sorg og depression hos den pårørende efter...

  6. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til? Link: http://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/hvad-skal-vi-med-trump-satire...

  7. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  8. An Assessment of Mean Areal Precipitation Methods on Simulated Stream Flow: A SWAT Model Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Zeiger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mean areal precipitation (MAP estimates are essential input forcings for hydrologic models. However, the selection of the most accurate method to estimate MAP can be daunting because there are numerous methods to choose from (e.g., proximate gauge, direct weighted average, surface-fitting, and remotely sensed methods. Multiple methods (n = 19 were used to estimate MAP with precipitation data from 11 distributed monitoring sites, and 4 remotely sensed data sets. Each method was validated against the hydrologic model simulated stream flow using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. SWAT was validated using a split-site method and the observed stream flow data from five nested-scale gauging sites in a mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Cross-validation results showed the error associated with surface-fitting and remotely sensed methods ranging from −4.5 to −5.1%, and −9.8 to −14.7%, respectively. Split-site validation results showed the percent bias (PBIAS values that ranged from −4.5 to −160%. Second order polynomial functions especially overestimated precipitation and subsequent stream flow simulations (PBIAS = −160 in the headwaters. The results indicated that using an inverse-distance weighted, linear polynomial interpolation or multiquadric function method to estimate MAP may improve SWAT model simulations. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of spatially distributed observed hydroclimate data for precipitation and subsequent steam flow estimations. The MAP methods demonstrated in the current work can be used to reduce hydrologic model uncertainty caused by watershed physiographic differences.

  9. Assessment Methods in Statistical Education An International Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bidgood, Penelope; Jolliffe, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    This book is a collaboration from leading figures in statistical education and is designed primarily for academic audiences involved in teaching statistics and mathematics. The book is divided in four sections: (1) Assessment using real-world problems, (2) Assessment statistical thinking, (3) Individual assessment (4) Successful assessment strategies.

  10. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  11. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  12. On the computational assessment of white matter hyperintensity progression: difficulties in method selection and bias field correction performance on images with significant white matter pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Wang, Xin; Doubal, Fergus; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Centre for Clinical Brian Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ghandour, Dina T. [University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Subtle inhomogeneities in the scanner's magnetic fields (B{sub 0} and B{sub 1}) alter the intensity levels of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affecting the volumetric assessment of WMH changes. Here, we investigate the influence that (1) correcting the images for the B{sub 1} inhomogeneities (i.e. bias field correction (BFC)) and (2) selection of the WMH change assessment method can have on longitudinal analyses of WMH progression and discuss possible solutions. We used brain structural MRI from 46 mild stroke patients scanned at stroke onset and 3 years later. We tested three BFC approaches: FSL-FAST, N4 and exponentially entropy-driven homomorphic unsharp masking (E{sup 2}D-HUM) and analysed their effect on the measured WMH change. Separately, we tested two methods to assess WMH changes: measuring WMH volumes independently at both time points semi-automatically (MCMxxxVI) and subtracting intensity-normalised FLAIR images at both time points following image gamma correction. We then combined the BFC with the computational method that performed best across the whole sample to assess WMH changes. Analysis of the difference in the variance-to-mean intensity ratio in normal tissue between BFC and uncorrected images and visual inspection showed that all BFC methods altered the WMH appearance and distribution, but FSL-FAST in general performed more consistently across the sample and MRI modalities. The WMH volume change over 3 years obtained with MCMxxxVI with vs. without FSL-FAST BFC did not significantly differ (medians(IQR)(with BFC) = 3.2(6.3) vs. 2.9(7.4)ml (without BFC), p = 0.5), but both differed significantly from the WMH volume change obtained from subtracting post-processed FLAIR images (without BFC)(7.6(8.2)ml, p < 0.001). This latter method considerably inflated the WMH volume change as subtle WMH at baseline that became more intense at follow-up were counted as increase in the volumetric change. Measurement of WMH volume change remains

  13. Novel Method to Assess the Risk of Dam Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinli Yang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new flexible, rapid and affordable risk assessment procedure was developed and verified for dams based on case studies in Scotland (UK and the region of Baden (Germany. A database of six different sustainable flood retention basin (SFRB types with varying flood control potential has been developed. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of current and former large drinking water reservoirs which could contribute to flood management control. In comparison, purpose-built and relatively small SFRB, which are predominantly used for flood control, dominate the landscape in Baden. Moreover, 13 out of 149 SFRB have recently been upgraded, and 11 new SFRB have been built since 2006. Both the estimated hazard and risk are small in comparison to those found in the flood infrastructure in Scotland. The study assesses a rapid screening tool developed to estimate the Dam Condition and the corresponding Dam Failure Hazard and Dam Failure Risk. Most SFRB in Baden have a relatively poor Dam Condition, high Dam Failure Hazard but low Dam Failure Risk compared to those in Scotland. Findings show that Baden is more advanced in flood defence management as well as adaptation to climate change.Deutscher Titel: Neue Methode zur Beurteilung des Risikos eines DammbruchesZusammenfassung: Eine neue, flexible, schnelle und preisgünstige Methode zur Risokobeurteilung von Dämmen wurde entwickelt und getestet, die auf Fallbeispielen in Schottland (Vereinigtes Königreich und der Region Baden (Deutschland basiert. Eine Datenbank von sechs verschiedenen Typen nachhaltiger Hochwasserrückhaltebecken (NHRB mit unterschiedlichem Hochwasserrückhaltevermögen wurde entwickelt. Eine relativ hohe Anzahl von gegenwärtigen und ehemaligen großen Trinkwassertalsperren, die zur Hochwasserschutzkontolle verwandt werden könnten, befinden sich in Schottland. Zweckmäßig gebaute und relativ kleine NHRB, die hauptsächlich für den Hochwasserschutz verwendet werden, dominieren

  14. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  15. CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE HEXADECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE MODIFIED NATURAL ZEOLITE FOR CHROMIUM(VI DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Riza Putra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple voltammetric technique for quantification of chromium(VI is presented in this work. The technique is based on linear sweep voltammetric reduction Cr(VI on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite carbon paste electrode. Selected HDTMABr concentration for natural zeolite modification is obtained 200 mM. Working electrode for chromium(VI detection is made by graphite, paraffin oil and HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite. The effect of supporting electrolyte matrix, pH and also scan rate is also investigated. The calibration curve for chromium(VI detection using the proposed method shows linearity from 0.2 to 1.0 mM with sensitivity, detection and quantification limit, and precision was 0.4294 mM, 3.63 x 10-4 mM, 1.197 x 10-3 mM, 4.49%, respectively.

  16. Study on the DNA-protein crosslinks induced by chromium (VI) in SPC-A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqun; Ding, Jianjun; Lu, Xiongbing; You, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of chromium (VI) on DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) of SPC-A1 cells. Methods: We exposed SPC-A1 cells were cultured in 1640 medium and treated with the SPC-A1 cells in vitro to different concentrations of Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) for 2h, the KC1-SDS precipitation assay were used to measure the DNA-protein cross-linking effect. Results: All the different concentrations of Cr(VI) could cause the increase of DPC coefficient in SPC-A1 cells. But this effect was not significant (P>0.05) at low concentrations; while in high concentration Cr(VI) induced SPC-A1 cells could produce DNA-protein cross-linking effect significantly (PDNA-protein crosslink.

  17. Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Timber Element Using SBRA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Wood as a building material has a significant perspective in the context of nonrenewable energy sources and production of greenhouse gas emissions. The subject of this paper is to verify the carrying capacity of the timber element using the probabilistic method Simulation Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA). The simulation is performed for one million cycles. Key factors decreasing the strength of wooden material at the time include the duration of the loads, and combinations thereof. Inconsiderable factor affecting the strength of wood is also the humidity. Continuous beam with three fields (length 15 m, glued laminated timber, and strength class GL 36 according to the DIN EN 1194) is placed in an environment with a thermal-humidity regime of the 2nd class according to the EC 5. Average life of carrying timber structure is estimated to be 50 years. The simulation results show that there is no risk of failure of wood during the first year. The probability of failure is common in the 10 years of its life. Then, wooden element already meets only a reduced level of reliability.

  18. Gingival Biotype Assessment in a Healthy Periodontium: Transgingival Probing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, R G Shiva; Rana, Anju; Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-05-01

    Gingival biotype is the thickness of the gingiva in the faciopalatal dimension. It has a significant impact on the outcome of the restorative, regenerative and implant therapy. It has been suggested that a direct co-relation exists with the susceptibility of gingival recession followed by any surgical procedure. So, the study was aimed to assess gingival biotype in different age groups of males and females using transgingival probing method. Gingival thickness (GT) was evaluated in 336 patients including males and females of different age groups. The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Final data collected was then used for statistical analysis. A significant difference was found between males and females with males showing thick biotype. Out of the total samples 76.9% of males showed thick biotype compared to 13.3 % of females which was statistically significant. This was probably one of the few attempts to correlate gingival biotype with different age groups in males and females. A clear thick gingiva was found in more than two-third of the male subjects whereas majority of female subjects showed thin biotype. Also, it was seen that in females, the gingival biotype varies with age unlike in male.

  19. Evaluating simplified methods for liquefaction assessment for loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, Indranil; Rossetto, Tiziana; Giovinazzi, Sonia

    2017-06-01

    Currently, some catastrophe models used by the insurance industry account for liquefaction by applying a simple factor to shaking-induced losses. The factor is based only on local liquefaction susceptibility and this highlights the need for a more sophisticated approach to incorporating the effects of liquefaction in loss models. This study compares 11 unique models, each based on one of three principal simplified liquefaction assessment methods: liquefaction potential index (LPI) calculated from shear-wave velocity, the HAZUS software method and a method created specifically to make use of USGS remote sensing data. Data from the September 2010 Darfield and February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes in New Zealand are used to compare observed liquefaction occurrences to forecasts from these models using binary classification performance measures. The analysis shows that the best-performing model is the LPI calculated using known shear-wave velocity profiles, which correctly forecasts 78 % of sites where liquefaction occurred and 80 % of sites where liquefaction did not occur, when the threshold is set at 7. However, these data may not always be available to insurers. The next best model is also based on LPI but uses shear-wave velocity profiles simulated from the combination of USGS VS30 data and empirical functions that relate VS30 to average shear-wave velocities at shallower depths. This model correctly forecasts 58 % of sites where liquefaction occurred and 84 % of sites where liquefaction did not occur, when the threshold is set at 4. These scores increase to 78 and 86 %, respectively, when forecasts are based on liquefaction probabilities that are empirically related to the same values of LPI. This model is potentially more useful for insurance since the input data are publicly available. HAZUS models, which are commonly used in studies where no local model is available, perform poorly and incorrectly forecast 87 % of sites where liquefaction occurred, even at

  20. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    -soil masses) resulting in sliding mechanisms have been investigated in this study. The reliability indices values drawn from the HDRM method have been compared with conventional approaches as neural networks: the efficiency of HDRM is shown in the case studied. References Chowdhury R., Rao B.N. and Prasad A.M. 2009. High-dimensional model representation for structural reliability analysis. Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng, 25: 301-337. Chowdhury R. and Rao B. 2010. Probabilistic Stability Assessment of Slopes Using High Dimensional Model Representation. Computers and Geotechnics, 37: 876-884.

  1. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  2. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  3. Additive surface complexation modeling of uranium(VI) adsorption onto quartz-sand dominated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Wan, Jiamin

    2014-06-17

    Many aquifers contaminated by U(VI)-containing acidic plumes are composed predominantly of quartz-sand sediments. The F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (USA) is an example. To predict U(VI) mobility and natural attenuation, we conducted U(VI) adsorption experiments using the F-Area plume sediments and reference quartz, goethite, and kaolinite. The sediments are composed of ∼96% quartz-sand and 3-4% fine fractions of kaolinite and goethite. We developed a new humic acid adsorption method for determining the relative surface area abundances of goethite and kaolinite in the fine fractions. This method is expected to be applicable to many other binary mineral pairs, and allows successful application of the component additivity (CA) approach based surface complexation modeling (SCM) at the SRS F-Area and other similar aquifers. Our experimental results indicate that quartz has stronger U(VI) adsorption ability per unit surface area than goethite and kaolinite at pH ≤ 4.0. Our modeling results indicate that the binary (goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM under-predicts U(VI) adsorption to the quartz-sand dominated sediments at pH ≤ 4.0. The new ternary (quartz/goethite/kaolinite) CA-SCM provides excellent predictions. The contributions of quartz-sand, kaolinite, and goethite to U(VI) adsorption and the potential influences of dissolved Al, Si, and Fe are also discussed.

  4. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  5. Determination of Cr(III, Cr(VI and total chromium in atmospheric aerosol samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrambone M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the optimization and validation of an analytical method based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of soluble Cr from atmospheric particulate matter (PM and subsequent determination of Cr(III and Cr(VI by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CAdSV by using diethylenetriammino pentaacetic acid (DTPA as complexing agent in the presence of nitrate. We evaluated the influence of various filter materials and of extracting conditions and validated the method on both reference material and real PM10 samples. The accuracy of total extractable Cr determination was checked by parallel ICP-OES measurements. The determination of total chromium was performed by ED-XRF. Results of field campaigns carried out in two industrial areas (North Italy and Tunis and at a peri-urban site near Rome are reported. At the peri-urban site, the total Cr concentration in PM10 ranged from 2 to 5 ng/m3, with a soluble fraction of 5-13%, and Cr(VI concentration was always below the detection limits (50 pg/m3. In the industrial area of Northern Italy, total Cr concentration ranged between 6 and 11 ng/m3, the soluble fraction was about 11-28% and detectable amounts of Cr(VI were found, with a Cr(VI/Cr(III ratio ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. A further increase of Cr(VI concentration was evidenced at the industrial site of Tunis, where the total Cr concentration ranged from 6 to 26 ng/m3, with a soluble fraction accounting for about 8-44% and a Cr(VI/Cr(III ranging from 1.6 to 3.6. The results of size-segregated samples, collected in Northen Italy by a 10-stage cascade impactor, indicate a relevant fine fraction of Cr(VI, with Cr(VI/Cr(III ratios increasing with the decrease of particle size.

  6. Fluorescent silver nanoclusters for ultrasensitive determination of chromium(VI) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian Rong; Zeng, Ai Lian; Luo, Hong Qun, E-mail: luohq@swu.edu.cn; Li, Nian Bing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters were first applied to Cr(VI) detection. • The proposed method is simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly. • The sensor shows a wide linear range, low detection limit, and good selectivity. • The system can also be used for the indirect assay of total chromium and Cr(III). • The analyses in real water samples are satisfactory. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and sensitive Cr(VI) sensor is proposed based on fluorescent polyethyleneimine-stabilized Ag nanoclusters, which allows the determination over a wide concentration range of 0.1 nM–3.0 μM and with a detection limit as low as 0.04 nΜ and a good selectivity. The quenching mechanism was discussed in terms of the absorption and fluorescence spectra, suggesting that Cr(VI) is connected to Ag nanoclusters by hydrogen bond between the oxygen atom at the vertex of tetrahedron structure of Cr(VI) and the amino nitrogen of polyethyleneimine that surrounded Ag nanoclusters and electron transfer from Ag nanoclusters to highly electron-deficient Cr(VI) results in fluorescence quenching. Despite the failure to quench the fluorescence efficiently, Cr(III) can also be measured using the proposed Ag nanoclusters by being oxidized to Cr(VI) in alkaline solution (pH ∼9) containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Therefore, our approach could be used to detect Cr(VI), Cr(III) and the total chromium level in aqueous solution. In addition, Cr(VI) analysis in real water samples were satisfactory, indicating this method could be practically promising for chromium measurements.

  7. Informal caregivers and detection of delirium in postacute care: a correlational study of the confusion assessment method (CAM), confusion assessment method-family assessment method (CAM-FAM) and DSM-IV criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Nina M; Spencer, Gale

    2016-09-01

    Delirium is a common, serious and potentially life-threatening syndrome affecting older adults. This syndrome continues to be under-recognised and under treated by healthcare professionals across all care settings. Older adults who develop delirium have poorer outcomes, higher mortality and higher care costs. The purposes of this study were to correlate the confusion assessment method-family assessment method and confusion assessment method in the detection of delirium in postacute care, to correlate the confusion assessment method-family assessment method and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria in detection of delirium in postacute care, to determine the prevalence of delirium in postacute care elders and to describe the relationship of level of cognitive impairment and delirium in the postacute care setting. Implications for Practice Delirium is disturbing for patients and caregivers. Frequently . family members want to provide information about their loved one. The use of the CAM-FAM and CAM can give a more definitive determination of baseline status. Frequent observations using both instruments may lead to better recognition of delirium and implementation of interventions to prevent lasting sequelae. Descriptive studies determined the strengths of relationship between the confusion assessment method, confusion assessment method-family assessment method, Mini-Cog and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria in detection of delirium in the postacute care setting. Prevalence of delirium in this study was 35%. The confusion assessment method-family assessment method highly correlates with the confusion assessment method and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria for detecting delirium in older adults in the postacute care setting. Persons with cognitive impairment are more likely to develop delirium. Family members recognise symptoms of delirium when

  8. Adversarial safety analysis: borrowing the methods of security vulnerability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security share numerous attributes. The author, who heads the (Security) Vulnerability Assessment Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, therefore argues that techniques used to optimize security might be useful for optimizing safety. There are three main ways to attempt to improve security-security surveys, risk assessment (or "design basis threat"), and vulnerability assessments. The latter is usually the most effective. Vulnerability assessment techniques used to improve security can be applied to safety analysis--even though safety is not ordinarily viewed as having malicious adversaries (other than hazards involving deliberate sabotage). Thinking like a malicious adversary can nevertheless have benefits in identifying safety vulnerabilities. The attributes of an effective safety vulnerability assessment are discussed, and recommendations are offered for how such an adversarial assessment might work. A safety vulnerability assessment can potentially provide new insights, a fresh and vivid perspective on safety hazards, and increased safety awareness.

  9. A narrative review of research impact assessment models and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally

    2015-03-18

    Research funding agencies continue to grapple with assessing research impact. Theoretical frameworks are useful tools for describing and understanding research impact. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to synthesize evidence that describes processes and conceptual models for assessing policy and practice impacts of public health research. The review involved keyword searches of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, and Google Scholar in July/August 2013. Review search terms included 'research impact', 'policy and practice', 'intervention research', 'translational research', 'health promotion', and 'public health'. The review included theoretical and opinion pieces, case studies, descriptive studies, frameworks and systematic reviews describing processes, and conceptual models for assessing research impact. The review was conducted in two phases: initially, abstracts were retrieved and assessed against the review criteria followed by the retrieval and assessment of full papers against review criteria. Thirty one primary studies and one systematic review met the review criteria, with 88% of studies published since 2006. Studies comprised assessments of the impacts of a wide range of health-related research, including basic and biomedical research, clinical trials, health service research, as well as public health research. Six studies had an explicit focus on assessing impacts of health promotion or public health research and one had a specific focus on intervention research impact assessment. A total of 16 different impact assessment models were identified, with the 'payback model' the most frequently used conceptual framework. Typically, impacts were assessed across multiple dimensions using mixed methodologies, including publication and citation analysis, interviews with principal investigators, peer assessment, case studies, and document analysis. The vast majority of studies relied on principal investigator

  10. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  11. Speciation of Cr(VI) in environmental samples in the vicinity of the ferrochrome smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedumedi, Hilda N. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Mandiwana, Khakhathi L., E-mail: MandiwanaKL@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Ngobeni, Prince; Panichev, Nikolay [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-12-30

    The impact of ferrochrome smelter on the contamination of its environment with toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), was assessed by analyzing smelter dusts, soil, grass and tree barks. For the separation of Cr(VI) from Cr(III), solid samples were treated with 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and filtered through hydrophilic PDVF 0.45 {mu}m filter prior to the determination of Cr(VI) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Ferrochrome smelter dust was found to contain significant levels of Cr(VI), viz. 43.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} (cyclone dust), 2710 {mu}g g{sup -1} (fine dust), and 7800 {mu}g g{sup -1} (slimes dust) which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk concentration (20 {mu}g g{sup -1}). The concentration of Cr(VI) in environmental samples of grass (3.4 {+-} 0.2), soil (7.7 {+-} 0.2), and tree bark (11.8 {+-} 1.2) collected in the vicinity of the chrome smelter were higher as compared with the same kind of samples collected from uncontaminated area. The results of the investigation show that ferrochrome smelter is a source of environmental pollution with contamination factors of Cr(VI) ranging between 10 and 50.

  12. Assessing competencies of trainee sport psychologists: An examination of the 'Structured Case Presentation' assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R.I.; Pijpers, J.R.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is virtually no literature on how to assess competencies of applied sport psychologists. We assessed casework of applied sport psychology students and compared written case report assessment (WCRA) with structured case presentation assessment (SCPA) on reliability and acceptability

  13. Comparative Assessment of Statistical Downscaling Methods for Precipitation in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goly, A.; Teegavarapu, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Several statistical downscaling models have been developed in the past couple of decades to assess the hydrologic impacts of climate change by projecting the station-scale hydrological variables from large-scale atmospheric variables simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCMs in general are capable in capturing the large-scale circulation patterns and correctly model smoothly varying fields such as surface pressure, but it is extremely unlikely that these models properly reproduce non-smooth fields such as precipitation. This paper presents and compares different statistical downscaling methods involving Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Positive Coefficient Regression (PCR), Stepwise Regression (SWR) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for estimation of rainfall in the state of Florida, USA, which is considered to be a climatically sensitive region. The explanatory variables/predictors used in the current study are mean sea-level pressure, air temperature, geo-potential height, specific humidity, U-wind and V-wind. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering techniques are used to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset and identify the circulation patterns on precipitation in different clusters. Downscaled precipitation data obtained from widely used Bias-Correction Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD) downscaling technique is compared along with the other downscaling methods. The performance of the models is evaluated using various performance measures and it was found that the SVM model performed better than all the other models in reproducing most monthly rainfall statistics at 18 locations. Output from the third generation Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM3) GCM for A1B scenario was used for future precipitation projection. For the projection period 2001-2010, MLR was used and evaluated as a substitute to the traditional spatial interpolation linking the variables at the GCM grid to NCEP grid scale. It has been found that the

  14. Direct Survival Analysis: a new stock assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrandis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new stock assessment method, Direct Survival Analysis, is proposed and described. The parameter estimation of the Weibull survival model proposed by Ferrandis (2007 is obtained using trawl survey data. This estimation is used to establish a baseline survival function, which is in turn used to estimate the specific survival functions in the different cohorts considered through an adaptation of the separable model of the fishing mortality rates introduced by Pope and Shepherd (1982. It is thus possible to test hypotheses on the evolution of survival during the period studied and to identify trends in recruitment. A link is established between the preceding analysis of trawl survey data and the commercial catch-at-age data that are generally obtained to evaluate the population using analytical models. The estimated baseline survival, with the proposed versions of the stock and catch equations and the adaptation of the Separable Model, may be applied to commercial catch-at-age data. This makes it possible to estimate the survival corresponding to the landing data, the initial size of the cohort and finally, an effective age of first capture, in order to complete the parameter model estimation and consequently the estimation of the whole survival and mortality, along with the reference parameters that are useful for management purposes. Alternatively, this estimation of an effective age of first capture may be obtained by adapting the demographic structure of trawl survey data to that of the commercial fleet through suitable selectivity models of the commercial gears. The complete model provides the evaluation of the stock at any age. The coherence (and hence the mutual “calibration” between the two kinds of information may be analysed and compared with results obtained by other methods, such as virtual population analysis (VPA, in order to improve the diagnosis of the state of exploitation of the population. The model may be

  15. Assessment of methods for mapping snow cover from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, Karl; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of snow is critical for understanding Earth’s water and energy cycles. Maps of snow from MODIS have seen growing use in investigations of climate, hydrology, and glaciology, but the lack of rigorous validation of different snow mapping methods compromises these studies. We examine three widely used MODIS snow products: the “binary” (i.e., snow yes/no) global snow maps that were among the initial MODIS standard products; a more recent standard MODIS fractional snow product; and another fractional snow product, MODSCAG, based on spectral mixture analysis. We compare them to maps of snow obtained from Landsat ETM+ data, whose 30 m spatial resolution provides nearly 300 samples within a 500 m MODIS nadir pixel. The assessment uses 172 images spanning a range of snow and vegetation conditions, including the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Upper Rio Grande, California’s Sierra Nevada, and the Nepal Himalaya. MOD10A1 binary and fractional fail to retrieve snow in the transitional periods during accumulation and melt while MODSCAG consistently maintains its retrieval ability during these periods. Averaged over all regions, the RMSE for MOD10A1 fractional is 0.23, whereas the MODSCAG RMSE is 0.10. MODSCAG performs the most consistently through accumulation, mid-winter and melt, with median differences ranging from -0.16 to 0.04 while differences for MOD10A1 fractional range from -0.34 to 0.35. MODSCAG maintains its performance over all land cover classes and throughout a larger range of land surface properties. Characterizing snow cover by spectral mixing is more accurate than empirical methods based on the normalized difference snow index, both for identifying where snow is and is not and for estimating the fractional snow cover within a sensor’s instantaneous field-of-view. Determining the fractional value is particularly important during spring and summer melt in mountainous terrain, where large variations in snow, vegetation and soil occur over

  16. An assessment of user-driven innovation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Alexia; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    This publication serves to test a number of methods that have been presented in the ‘method-graph’, which was created in connection with Project InnoDoors. The primary function of the test will be to further improve the ‘method-graph’ by refining and advancing some of the user-driven methods that...

  17. Comparative Study of Three Transect Methods to Assess Coral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different transect methods were compared at two different sites in Kenya, on their efficiency to estimate hard coral cover, genus richness and Shannon diversity index. For a modified line transect method (LTM), the line intercept method (LIT) and a linear point intercept (LPI) method the relative efficiency of the three ...

  18. an assessment of existing common traditional methods of water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloth filtration method: the bacterial count in the water samples tested was reduced by 0.6 -4.2% using this method (Table 2). DISCUSSION: This study has shown boiling as the most efficient of the five methods tested. Though a very effective methods of destroying bacteria, viruses, spores, cercaria, amoeba cyst, worms and ...

  19. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Imran; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ochiai, R Leon; Habib, Mohammad Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Nizami, S Qamaruddin; Acosta, Camilo J; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-08-03

    Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid fever. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in three low socioeconomic urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan between 2002 and 2007. Subsamples were followed up for assessment of immune response and adverse events after vaccination. The study participants were similar in a wide variety of socio-demographic and economic characteristics at baseline. A total of 27,231 individuals of the total target population of 51,965 in 120 clusters either received a ViCPS vaccine (13,238 [52% coverage]) or the control Hepatitis A vaccine (13,993 [53%]). Typhoid fever was diagnosed in 30 ViCPS vaccine recipients and 49 Hepatitis A vaccine recipients with an adjusted total protective effectiveness of 31% (95%CI: -28%, 63%). The adjusted total vaccine protective effectiveness was -38% (95%CI: -192%, 35%) for children aged 2-5 years and 57% (95%CI: 6%, 81%) for children 5-16 years old. The ViCPS vaccine did not confer statistically significant protection to children in the study areas, and there was a decline in antibody response 2 years post-vaccination. However, the ViCPS vaccine showed significant total protection in children 5-16 years of age, which is consistent with other studies of ViCPS vaccine conducted in India, Nepal, China and South Africa. These findings suggest that ViCPS vaccination of school-aged children will protect the children of urban, typhoid endemic areas against typhoid fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and application of a statistical quality assessment method for dense-graded mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the development of the statistical quality assessment method and the procedure for mapping the measures obtained from the quality assessment method to a composite pay factor. The application to dense-graded mixes is demonstrated...

  1. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Joye

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1, (b the dot probe paradigm (Study 2 and (c a cognitively effortful task (Study 3. These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban environments (cfr., attentional dimension. The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  2. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  3. Line bisection as an early method to assess homonymous hemianopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Georg; Bucher, Leandra

    2008-02-01

    Horizontal line bisection task is a common clinical task well known to most neuropsychologists. Typically, patients with visuospatial neglect show a reliable ipsilesional deviation in the bisection of long lines. Less well known in the English literature is the typical line bisection error observed in hemianopic patients who show the opposite deviation. In fact, this contralesional deviation in bisection was well known in the old German scientific literature. In 1894, more than 110 years ago, the German physician Dr. D. Axenfeld published a short case report about line bisection as a "simple method to diagnose hemianopia". His paper is one (if not the first) historical report, describing the "typical hemianopic line bisection error". At the time of its publication, it was a very popular paper in the German scientific community frequently cited by subsequent researchers. Between 1900 and 1920, Axenfeld's observation motivated several further studies using bisection by well-known researchers such as Best, Liepmann, Wilbrand, Poppelreuter and Fuchs. Surprisingly, most of today's clinical and cognitive studies use experimental modifications of line bisection in neglect patients and healthy subjects, often without realizing that this task was originally devised for the assessment of hemianopic patients. Consequently, the hemianopic line bisection error was "neglected" for many decades until its recent "rediscovery". The present paper has three aims. First, Axenfeld's classical report is translated. Second, interpretations arising from early bisection studies (around 1900-1930) in hemianopic patients are summarized and framed within contemporary science. Finally, we attempt to explain why this formerly well-known clinical phenomenon was forgotten later for nearly a century.

  4. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  5. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro Orozco, A.M., E-mail: mferro@cidca.org.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Contreras, E.M.; Zaritzky, N.E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, UNLP. 47 y 1 (B1900AJJ) - La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q{sub Cr}) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey {approx} lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  6. Risk assessment of power systems models, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Risk Assessment of Power Systems addresses the regulations and functions of risk assessment with regard to its relevance in system planning, maintenance, and asset management. Brimming with practical examples, this edition introduces the latest risk information on renewable resources, the smart grid, voltage stability assessment, and fuzzy risk evaluation. It is a comprehensive reference of a highly pertinent topic for engineers, managers, and upper-level students who seek examples of risk theory applications in the workplace.

  7. Long-term integrating samplers for indoor air and sub slab soil gas at VI sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion (VI) site assessments are plagued by substantial spatial and temporal variability that makes exposure and risk assessment difficult. Most risk-based decision making for volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure in the indoor environment is based on health benchmark...

  8. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2017-03-14

    The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n

  9. Identification of assessment methods of benefits and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Roth, Eva

    This note relates to tasks 4.1of the KnowSeas project and is a guidance-note to give directions towards the assessment of benefit and costs related to fisheries and advice on the further objectives related to this assessment....

  10. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…

  11. Assessment of School Merit with Multiple Regression: Methods and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Regression-based adjustment of student outcomes for the assessment of the merit of schools is considered. First, the basics of causal modeling and multiple regression are briefly reviewed. Then, two common regression-based adjustment procedures are described, pointing out that the validity of the final assessments depends on: (1) the degree to…

  12. Applications of Ferrate(VI) to Wastewater Reclamation and Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, J.; Kim, I.

    2010-12-01

    The estimated amount of water resources is about 63 billion cubic meters in Korea. However, due to the lack of precipitation during the dry season, natural flows are not enough for the water supply. In addition, since the lack of water affects water quality, environmental problems are occurred in natural and social systems. In this study, we investigated the application feasibility of ferrate(VI) systems to water and wastewater treatment. And we'd like to suggest an alternative solution for conservation and efficient reuse of the limited water resources. In the research area of environmental applications, a primary interest has been focused to the power of ferrate(VI) systems in the decomposition of pollutants in wastewater and industrial effluents due to its potential use as a strong, relatively non-toxic, and oxidizing agent for diverse environmental contaminants. Also ferrate(VI) has additional advantages as a very efficient coagulant and a sorbent of pollutants. We have analysed and compared several ferrate(VI) manufacturing processes, especially focused on the electro chemical methods(Fig. 1). And we have investigated the applications of the manufactured ferrate(VI) in our own laboratory and the commercial ferrate(VI) to decomposition of persistent organic pollutants in water. Under optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of 2-chlorophenol and benzothiophene were above 90%(Fig. 2). The ferrate system(VI) is promising and can be one of the most efficient alternatives among the advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) for degradation of persistent organic pollutants, and is an innovative technology for the wastewater reclamation, water reusing systems, and water treatment systems. Fig 1. Comparison of Electro-Chemical Ferrate(VI) manufacturing Processes Fig 2. Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol and Bezothiophene by Ferrate. (Experimental Conditions : 2-CP = 3ppm, BT = 5ppm, NaClO4 = 0.05M)

  13. Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehan Elassal; Mona Elsheikh; Abdel Gawad Abu Zeid

    2014-01-01

    .... Subjects and methods: 80 COPD patients were assessed using SCID for establishing psychiatric diagnosis, Beck depression inventory for assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms, Hamilton anxiety scale...

  14. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-11-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release at 0.5 ppm without interference from other pure metals, alloys, or leather. A market survey using the test showed no chromium(VI) release from work tools (0/100). However, chromium(VI) release from metal screws (7/60), one earring (1/50), leather shoes (4/100) and leather gloves (6/11) was observed. We found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from leather and metal articles. The spot test has the potential to become a valuable screening tool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterizing toxic Cr(VI) contamination in chromite mine overburden dump and its bacterial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Das, N N; Thatoi, H N; Pandey, B D

    2013-09-15

    Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) dumps of Sukinda, India, has been characterized by different physico-chemical methods. The Cr(VI) was found to be associated with goethite matrix at a contamination level of 500 mg Cr(VI)kg(-1) of COB. Bacillus sp. isolated from the overburden sample exhibiting high tolerance to the hexavalent chromium, was used for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the overburden. The process was optimized while varying the parameters such as pH (2-9), pulp density (10-60%) and temperature (25-40 °C). Optimal reduction of more than 98% of Cr(VI) in the COB sample was achieved in 16 h at pH∼7.0 and 60% pulp density with the Bacillus sp. (4.05 × 10(7)cells mL(-1)) in absence of media. The exponential rate equation yielded rate constant value of 2.14 × 10(-1)h(-1) at 60% pulp density. The mode of bio-reduction of Cr(VI) in the overburden sample was established by FT-IR, XRD, EPMA and SEM-EDS studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioprospecting of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) for bioremediation of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution and synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhar, R B; Selvi, S Kalaignana; Vinod, V T P; Kosuri, Tanuja; Raju, D; Karuna, R

    2015-10-01

    An ecofriendly green chemistry method using a natural biopolymer, Gum Kondagogu (GK) for the removal of U (VI) from aqueous, simulated nuclear effluents was studied. The adsorption characteristic of GK towards U (VI) from aqueous solution was studied at varied pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial U (VI) concentration and temperature using UV-Visible spectroscopy and ICP-MS. Maximum adsorption was seen at pH 4, 0.1% GK with 60 min contact time at room temperature. The GK- U (VI) composite was characterized by FT-IR, zeta potential, TEM and SEM-EDAX. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be 487 mg of U (VI) g(-1) of GK. The adsorption capacity and (%) of U (VI) was found to be 490 ± 5.4 mg g(-1) and 98.5%. Moreover adsorption of U (VI) by GK was not influenced by other cations present in the simulated effluents. The adsorbed U (VI) was efficiently stripped from composite using 1 M HCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sorption of U(VI) on goethite: Effects of pH, ionic strength, phosphate, carbonate and fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhijun [Radiochemistry Lab, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: guozhj@lzu.edu.cn; Li Yan; Wu Wangsuo [Radiochemistry Lab, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-06-15

    U(VI) sorption on goethite was investigated as functions of pH, solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V), ionic strength and U(VI) concentration by a batch experimental method. Effects of phosphate, carbonate and fulvic acid (FA) on U(VI) sorption were examined. It was found that the sorption of U(VI) increases from 0% to 100% over the pH range of 2.5-4.5 and keeps constant in the high pH range. The sorption of U(VI) on goethite is insensitive to ionic strength. Different surface complexes in the framework of double-layer model were examined for fitting the sorption of U(VI) on goethite. A model with two mononuclear inner-sphere surface complexes, {identical_to}SOUO{sub 2}{sup +} and {identical_to}SOUO{sub 2}OH, was found capable of reproducing the pH sorption edges, the sorption isotherms and the sorption data with variable m/V in this study. The proposed model can also interpret the pH sorption edge collected at P{sub CO{sub 2}}=10{sup -3.58}atm without considering any ternary surface complexes of carbonate. Moreover, it was found that the presence of phosphate at relatively high concentration (6x10{sup -4} mol/L) promotes U(VI) sorption. The presence of FA of 20 mg/L has little effect on the sorption of U(VI) on goethite.

  18. Analytic methods in assessment of optic nerve cupping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, L F; Kuběna, T; Gaudino, R N

    2014-06-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a systems-based analysis of the methods used to evaluate optic nerve cupping, identify potential flaws in these systems, and propose alternatives better to assess this anatomic quantity. Estimation of optic nerve cupping requires an analytic understanding of both the psychophysical as well as the mathematical bases inherent in this measure. When the (decimal-based) cup-to-disc ratio is used to quantitate optic nerve cupping, a one-dimensional, linear estimate is produced, which in turn is derived from two- or three-dimensional, non-linear physical quantities of area or volume, respectively. When extrapolating from volume, to area, to linear measures, due to the psychophysical constraints which limit this task, such a data-compressed estimate of optic nerve cupping may neither accurately reflect, nor correctly represent, the true amount of cupping actually present in the optic nerve head. This type of one-dimensional metric (when comparing calculations from two- or three-dimensional measures over a range of optic nerve cupping), appears to introduce errors which, while most pronounced earlier on in the disease progression, often overestimate the amount of relative cupping (percent cupping) present in a pathological process like glaucoma. The same systemic errors can also lead to overestimation of the progression in cupping, especially in optic nerves with low cup-to disc values. To provide clinically meaningful estimates of optic nerve cupping, the practitioner needs to be aware of psychophysical and mathematical limitations inherent in using a linear cup-to-disc ratio to estimate the amount of cupping observed in a physical structure like the optic disc. The resultant flaws introduced by observer extrapolation from three, to two, to one dimensions (volume, area, and linear); transposition from non-linear to linear quantities; and optical illusions, caused by factors like disc topology, morphology, and ametropia, can all

  19. Historical overview of diet assessment and food consumption surveys in Spain: assessment methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; López-Pardo Martínez, Mercedes; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The food consumption assessment methods are used in nutrition and health population surveys and are the basis for the development of guidelines, nutritional recommendations and health plans, The study of these issues is one of the major tasks of the research and health policy in developed countries. Major advances nationally in this area have been made since 1940, both in the reliability of the data and in the standardization of studies, which is a necessary condition to compare changes over time. In this article the history and application of different dietary surveys, dietary history and food frequency records are analyzed. Besides information from surveys conducted at a national level, the main data currently available for public health planning in nutrition comes from nutritional analysis of household budget surveys and food balance sheets, based on data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. The Design and Implementation of an Assessment Method Combining Formative and Summative Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Jensen, Sofie Birch; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The two key purposes of assessment, formative and summative, are often in a contradictory position. The summative assessment of learning will normally prevent the formative assessment for learning to be realised (Butler, 1988), meaning that the learning potential of the assessment will often...... be minimal. It is therefore a central challenge to find ways to combine the dual use of assessment....

  1. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    is suitable for all purposes. The selection and use of methods has often been based on tradition rather than on a critical evaluation, because actors are generally not aware of methods outside of their own realm of experience.   Aims   The aim of this project was to systematically and critically evaluate.......ttl.fi/workloadexposuremethods The site also includes a tool to sort the methods according to the items used in the evaluation so that the user can select and compare methods for his/her purposes.   Acknowledgments. This study was financially supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers (Project 411040 - 70107)        ...... in the electronic databases and other sources identified 29 observational methods. The methods were evaluated for the aspects related to their reliability and usability for different purposes. The results of evaluation will be found in internet with a tool that helps the user to search for most suitable method...

  2. Comparative assessment of life cycle assessment methods used for personal computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Marissa A; Higgs, Tim G; Cullen, Michael J; Stewart, Scott; Brady, Todd A

    2010-10-01

    This article begins with a summary of findings from commonly cited life cycle assessments (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products. While differing conclusions regarding environmental impact are expected across product segments (mobile phones, personal computers, servers, etc.) significant variation and conflicting conclusions are observed even within product segments such as the desktop Personal Computer (PC). This lack of consistent conclusions and accurate data limits the effectiveness of LCA to influence policy and product design decisions. From 1997 to 2010, the majority of published studies focused on the PC concluded that the use phase contributes most to the life cycle energy demand of PC products with a handful of studies suggesting that manufacturing phase of the PC has the largest impact. The purpose of this article is to critically review these studies in order to analyze sources of uncertainty, including factors that extend beyond data quality to the models and assumptions used. These findings suggest existing methods to combine process-based LCA data with product price data and remaining value adjustments are not reliable in conducting life cycle assessments for PC products. Recommendations are provided to assist future LCA work.

  3. The higher vocational colleges’ exploration of “Tour Guide Service Skills” curriculum assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Gao, Jin Yue

    There are many problems in assessment methods of the higher vocational education curricula. In the exploration of assessment methods ofTour Guide Service Skills, our school proposes the theory that the assessment methods should take the competency assessment as the orientation, and take the improvement of the students' multi-faceted capacities as the principle. Besides, assessment methods should be diversified and gradually developed, combining the traditional standardized tests and hierarchical tests, assessing and grading at different stages, and breaking the pattern that a test determines the results.

  4. Vi overser hjertepatienter med ondt i livet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted-Rasmussen, Morten; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen......Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen...

  5. FIFRA Peer Review: Proposed Risk Assessment Methods Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    From September 11-14, 2012, EPA participated in a Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) meeting on a proposed pollinator risk assessment framework for determining the potential risks of pesticides to honey bees.

  6. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Touzani, Samir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Custodio, Claudine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jump, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.

  7. A novel method of assessing clinical reasoning in surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meterissian, Sarkis H

    2006-06-01

    At present, surgical educators can readily assess knowledge with multiple-choice examinations, and inanimate models can be used to assess technical skills. Clinical judgment and reasoning are indispensable skills used by expert surgeons to solve ill-defined problems encountered in the emergency department, clinic, and operating room. The Script Concordance Test, a new tool of clinical reasoning assessment, can test the elaborated networks of knowledge that experienced surgeons develop over the years. It allows for multiple different approaches to the same problem and could be developed as both a formative and summative assessment tool in general surgery residency programs. This article explores the theoretical and practical aspects of the Script Concordance Test.

  8. Method of assessment quality protective and decorative coating concrete cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technique of assessing the quality of the painted surface of cement concrete. The technique is based on acceptance sampling quality and is to determine the average and standard deviation (SD of quantitative assessments of various quality parameters and calculating the real defect level (percentage of defective surface of the total area for each indicator. The formulas for calculating the defect level. The critical fraction nonconforming surface area coverage for individual properties.

  9. Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Harris, Robert S.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Beal, Kathryn; Seledtsov, Igor; Molodtsov, Vladimir; Raney, Brian J.; Clawson, Hiram; Kim, Jaebum; Kemena, Carsten; Chang, Jia-Ming; Erb, Ionas; Poliakov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assess...

  10. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  11. Assessment of subnetwork detection methods for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Biaobin; Gribskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Subnetwork detection is often used with differential expression analysis to identify modules or pathways associated with a disease or condition. Many computational methods are available for subnetwork analysis. Here, we compare the results of eight methods: simulated annealing-based jActiveModules, greedy search-based jActiveModules, DEGAS, BioNet, NetBox, ClustEx, OptDis, and NetWalker. These methods represent distinctly different computational strategies and are among the most widely used. Each of these methods was used to analyze gene expression data consisting of paired tumor and normal samples from 50 breast cancer patients. While the number of genes/proteins and protein interactions detected by the eight methods vary widely, a core set of 60 genes and 50 interactions was found to be shared by the subnetworks identified by five or more of the methods. Within the core set, 12 genes were found to be known breast cancer genes.

  12. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  13. Risk assessment: method and case study for traffic projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Xin; Prevedouros, Panos D

    2017-01-01

    .... Although individual techniques in evaluating operations, safety, economic, and stakeholder objectives are available, a practical method that integrates all these risk factors and their uncertainties...

  14. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    , a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...

  15. An assessment of existing common traditional methods of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical water purification methods include boiling, filtration, irradiation and the use of chemicals while traditional water purification methods in use are boiling, filtration, sedimentation, long storage and solar radiation. Waterborne diseases are m ore common in the rural communities where potable water supply coverage ...

  16. Objective assessment of the Thiessen polygon method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods for estimating the minimum and maximum rainfall depths in all places and countries, ... The goal of the present paper is to resolve some of the disagreements on the application of the Thiessen polygon method as far as the conditions in the RVC are concerned, ..... On the computer evaluation of Thiessen weights.

  17. assessment of pests control methods and its perceived effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-31

    May 31, 2006 ... Perceived Effect of Pests Control Methods on Agricultural Output in Kwara State, Nigeria 43 ... control method. According to Bueno (2011) who reported that biological control is the management and regular release of beneficial anthropods or ..... http://www.fertilizer.org/en/doc_library/Knowledge%20R.

  18. an assessment of existing common traditional methods of water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical water purification methods include boiling, filtration, irradiation and the use of chemicals while traditional water purification methods in use ... on each of the water samples before and after the purification process. Water samples contamination with ... alternative technologies (1). Therefore building on traditionally ...

  19. Assessment of gene order computing methods for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Benqiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational genomics of Alzheimer disease (AD, the most common form of senile dementia, is a nascent field in AD research. The field includes AD gene clustering by computing gene order which generates higher quality gene clustering patterns than most other clustering methods. However, there are few available gene order computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Further, their performance in gene order computation using AD microarray data is not known. We thus set forth to evaluate the performances of current gene order computing methods with different distance formulas, and to identify additional features associated with gene order computation. Methods Using different distance formulas- Pearson distance and Euclidean distance, the squared Euclidean distance, and other conditions, gene orders were calculated by ACO and GA (including standard GA and improved GA methods, respectively. The qualities of the gene orders were compared, and new features from the calculated gene orders were identified. Results Compared to the GA methods tested in this study, ACO fits the AD microarray data the best when calculating gene order. In addition, the following features were revealed: different distance formulas generated a different quality of gene order, and the commonly used Pearson distance was not the best distance formula when used with both GA and ACO methods for AD microarray data. Conclusion Compared with Pearson distance and Euclidean distance, the squared Euclidean distance generated the best quality gene order computed by GA and ACO methods.

  20. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    particular habitat where we sampled (rugged montane rain forest) pitfall trapping has no advantage over searching methods with respect to ease of operation, low cost or efficiency. However, despite its inefficiency, pitfall trapping cannot be left out of sampling protocols because the method sampled some species that were ...

  1. Assessing Vowel Centralization in Dysarthria: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Annalise R.; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Lansford, Kaitlin L.; Liss, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The strength of the relationship between vowel centralization measures and perceptual ratings of dysarthria severity has varied considerably across reports. This article evaluates methods of acoustic-perceptual analysis to determine whether procedural changes can strengthen the association between these measures. Method: Sixty-one…

  2. assessment of pests control methods and its perceived effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-31

    May 31, 2006 ... questionnaire was used to collect the data for the study. Descriptive statistics .... DD Force which is a very popular brand of organophosphates ... 100.0. Source: Field Survey 2016. Table 2:Awareness and Usage of different Types of Pest. Control Methods. Method. Yes. No. Farmers Awareness. Chemical.

  3. Comparative Study of Three Transect Methods to Assess Coral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variety of survey methods have been applied by ecologists to monitor coral reef sessile benthic communities in an effort to develop high quality conservation and management strategies. Each of these methods has different advantages and limitations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most efficient line transect ...

  4. USING OF MULTI-CRITERIAL EVALUATION METHODS TO ASSESS POSITION OF THE OBJECT IN THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ižaríková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evaluation of the firm's position. Recognition of market position among competitors but also among customers is important for the development of the company. A comparison can be made by using multicriterial methods. The ranking of companies is based on different methods (method of simple order, weighted order sum method, point methods, standardized variable method. Compliance order will be assessed by the rank correlation coefficients. Acquired assessment of market state allows us to design a strategic.

  5. Does wave VI of BAEP pertain to the prognosis of coma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, A; Wedekind, C; Klug, N

    2001-12-01

    The significance of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) wave VI for the outcome of comatose patients was assessed and compared to the prognostic impact of median nerve evoked somatosensory potential (MSEP) recording. One hundred sixteen patients in a comatose state due to traumatic brain injury (n = 57) and to intracerebral hemorrhage or tumours (n = 59) were investigated prospectively. Outcome was assessed 3 months after the onset of coma using Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Standard BAEP and MSEP recordings were obtained within 24 h after coma onset. The frequency of findings was correlated with outcome by means of non-parametric statistical analysis. Additionally, 27 healthy volunteers were studied to confirm the constant presence of wave VI in normal BAEP. In healthy controls, wave VI was present in 53/54 ears stimulated. Outcome correlation analysis revealed a significantly (p bears prognostic information in comatose patients.

  6. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    , an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over......In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...... threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results...

  7. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...... an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...... threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results...

  8. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients: Do the assessment methods measure the same outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Maal, Thomas J; Prahl, Charlotte; Tan, Robin A; Mulder, Frans J; Schwirtz, Roderic M F; de Vet, Henrica C W; Bergé, Stefaan J; Don Griot, J P W

    2017-08-01

    For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. The data and ratings from an earlier study using the Asher-McDade aesthetic index on 3D photographs and the outcomes of 3D facial distance mapping were compared to a 2D aesthetic assessment, the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, and to SymNose, a computerized 2D asymmetry assessment technique. The reliability and correlation between the four assessment techniques were tested using a sample of 79 patients. The 3D asymmetry assessment had the highest reliability and could be performed by just one observer (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.99). The 2D asymmetry assessment of the nose was highly reliable when performed by just one observer (ICC: 0.89). However, for the 2D asymmetry assessment of the lip more observers were needed. For the 2D aesthetic assessments 3 observers were needed. The 3D aesthetic assessment had the lowest single-observer reliability (ICC: 0.38-0.56) of all four techniques. The agreement between the different assessment methods is poor to very poor. The highest correlation (R: 0.48) was found between 2D and 3D aesthetic assessments. Remarkably, the lowest correlations were found between 2D and 3D asymmetry assessments (0.08-0.17). Different assessment methods are not in agreement and seem to measure different nasolabial aspects. More research is needed to establish exactly what each assessment technique measures and which measurements or outcomes are relevant for the patients. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Assessment Methods in the Higher Education Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka SMUTNÁ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is maximized when it is based on the management and sharing of knowledge within a culture of continuous learning, innovation and improvement. The methodology embodies the principle of self-evaluation or self-assessment. The higher education institutions would learn from feedback by reviewing impact of strategies and actions, trends in results and by comparing through benchmarking. The focus of this paper is the implementation of EFQM excellence model in the higher education (HE sector. This paper describes the specific issues in implementing the model in HE institutions, with a particular focus on the choice of self-assessment methodology. The early signs are that EFQM excellence model self-assessment can help to produce a more customer-oriented culture in HE institutions, providing that the lessons learned from the wider public sector are put into practice.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment methods for cancer and noncancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    Human health risk assessments have evolved from the more qualitative approaches to more quantitative approaches in the past decade. This has been facilitated by the improvement in computer hardware and software capability and novel computational approaches being slowly recognized by regulatory agencies. These events have helped reduce the reliance on experimental animals as well as better utilization of published animal toxicology data in deriving quantitative toxicity indices that may be useful for risk management purposes. This chapter briefly describes some of the approaches as described in the guidance documents from several of the regulatory agencies as it pertains to hazard identification and dose-response assessment of a chemical. These approaches are contrasted with more novel computational approaches that provide a better grasp of the uncertainty often associated with chemical risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining different methods improves assessment of competence in colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Preisler, Louise

    2017-01-01

    under direct observation by an expert rater and by automatic computerized analysis of operator movements and scope movements, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha) for subjective assessment, time to cecum, analysis of operator movement and analysis of scope movements were calculated. Composite...... score calculations were used to explore different combinations of the measures. RESULTS: Twenty physicians were included in the study. The reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were 0.92, 0.57, 0.87 and 0.55 for the subjective score assessed under direct observation, time to cecum, distance between operator...

  12. Comparative assessment of bioanalytical method validation guidelines for pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Naveen; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur; Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Taneja, Isha; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2016-07-15

    The concepts, importance, and application of bioanalytical method validation have been discussed for a long time and validation of bioanalytical methods is widely accepted as pivotal before they are taken into routine use. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines issued in 2001 have been referred for every guideline released ever since; may it be European Medical Agency (EMA) Europe, National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Brazil, Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare (MHLW) Japan or any other guideline in reference to bioanalytical method validation. After 12 years, USFDA released its new draft guideline for comments in 2013, which covers the latest parameters or topics encountered in bioanalytical method validation and approached towards the harmonization of bioanalytical method validation across the globe. Even though the regulatory agencies have general agreement, significant variations exist in acceptance criteria and methodology. The present review highlights the variations, similarities and comparison between bioanalytical method validation guidelines issued by major regulatory authorities worldwide. Additionally, other evaluation parameters such as matrix effect, incurred sample reanalysis including other stability aspects have been discussed to provide an ease of access for designing a bioanalytical method and its validation complying with the majority of drug authority guidelines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami; Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari; Farzad Izadi; Saeed Talebian Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG) are objective methods to provide physio...

  14. A hybrid method for assessment of soil pollutants spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, D. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Shichkin, A. V.; Buevich, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    The authors propose a hybrid method to predict the distribution of topsoil pollutants (Cu and Cr). The method combines artificial neural networks and kriging. Corresponding computer models were built and tested on real data on example of subarctic regions of Russia. The network structure selection was based on the minimization of the Root-mean-square error between real and predicted concentrations. The constructed models show that the prognostic accuracy of the artificial neural network is higher than in case of the geostatistical (kriging) and deterministic methods. The conclusion is that hybridization of models (artificial neural network and kriging) provides the improvement of the total predictive accuracy.

  15. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) USING IMMOBILIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... water and air. It affects the growth of flora and fauna which in turn affect human health negatively. Chromium could also bio-accumulate in plants and animals and this becomes ... The sorption kinetic models of Cr (VI) onto the biosorbents were examined with ... bulk density, moisture and ash contents.

  16. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for FTA staff to make oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an... proposed Circular would incorporate lessons learned from triennial reviews, discretionary Title VI... Implementation Plan for Limited English Proficient (LEP) persons now contains a summary of the DOT LEP guidance...

  17. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    OpenAIRE

    D. Karyadi

    1995-01-01

    The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  18. Resúmenes Presentaciones Orales VI ECAP

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Arana, Editor Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones orales del VI Ecuentro Científico de la Amazonía Peruana, desarrollado el 27 y 28 de cotubre de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  19. Vi har selv designet naturens love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    ForskerZonenNaturlovene er universelt gyldige i de flestes øjne. De gælder altid, uanset hvad vi tænker. Men dette billede står ikke uimodsagt i videnskabsfilosofien, og der er meget, der tyder på, at det ikke er specielt empirisk korrekt...

  20. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... enforcement of Title VI disparate impact regulations, it did not undermine the validity of those regulations... streamlined this process. We have modified the definition of ``disparate impact'' for clarity. We decline to... process reengineering. In response, FTA will review the public engagement plan and its implementation when...

  2. Hvem er vi? Hvem er de?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Kommentaren tager afsæt i initiativer i de pædagogiske faglige foreninger i Europa EERA) og i Norden (NERA) og argumenterer for at det er forpligtelse for os som nordiske og europæiske pædagogiske forskere at gå op imod de stadigt mere ekskluderende vi-konstruktioner, som er blevet formuleret i for...

  3. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface

  4. Nutritional risk assessment: perspectives, methods, and data challenges : workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suitor, Carol West; Yaktine, Ann L; Oria, Maria

    2007-01-01

    ... Assessment Consortium; the U.S. Department of Agriculture; and the International Life Sciences Institute. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standar...

  5. A review of carbon dynamics and assessment methods in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the inherent spatial heterogeneity of the landscape and stand density in order to ensure development of accurate C estimation methodologies when developing C models. Ultimately, developing widely applicable biomass models for southern Africa will require detailed assessments, ...

  6. Methods used to assess drug prescribing and dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of drugs, observations to assess drug sellers/dispensers roles and consumers behaviour, interviews with the drug sellers and nonprofessional providers themselves, use of simulated client approach and use of the patients care indicators such as generic prescribing/dispensing, number of drugs selected from the essential ...

  7. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  8. Methods for uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.A.; Heijungs, R.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) calculates the environmental impact of a product over its entire life cycle. Uncertainty analysis is an important aspect in LCA, and is usually performed using Monte Carlo sampling. In this study, Monte Carlo sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, quasi Monte Carlo sampling,

  9. Assessment of single extraction methods for the prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the bioavailability of metals, their biological uptake and eco-toxicological effect on soil biota can be understood better in terms of their biogeochemical forms, the study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, ...

  10. Out of This World Genetics: A Fun, Simple Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Julie M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a science activity in genetics that explains concepts such as dominant and recessive traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, Punnett squares, and Mendel's Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment. Uses the activity as an assessment tool to measure students' fundamental understanding. (YDS)

  11. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS...

  12. Outcomes assessment in cancer: measures, methods, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Snyder, Claire; Gotay, Carolyn C

    2005-01-01

    ... on individuals and populations. The findings and recommendations of the working group's 35 internationally recognized members are reported in Outcomes Assessment in Cancer, lucidly written and accessible to both researchers and policy makers in academia, government, and industry. This volume provides the most penetrating yet practical discussion to date of alte...

  13. Hazard assessment of hydraulic fracturing chemicals using an indexing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Liu, Tianyi; Hager, James; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-11-14

    The rapid expansion of unconventional natural gas production has triggered considerable public concerns, particularly regarding environmental and human health (EHH) risks posed by various chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. There is a need to assess the potential EHH hazards of additives used in real-world HF operations. In this study, HF additive and fracturing fluid data was acquired, and EHH hazards were assessed using an indexing approach. The indexing system analyzed chemical toxicological data of different ingredients contained within additives and produced an aggregated EHH safety index for each additive, along with an indicator describing the completeness of the chemical toxicological data. The results show that commonly used additives are generally associated with medium-level EHH hazards. In each additive category, ingredients of high EHH concern were identified, and the high hazard designation was primarily attributed to ingredients' high aquatic toxicity and carcinogenic effects. Among all assessed additive categories, iron control agents were identified as the greatest EHH hazards. Lack of information, such as undisclosed ingredients and chemical toxicological data gaps, has resulted in different levels of assessment uncertainties. In particular, friction reducers show the highest data incompleteness with regards to EHH hazards. This study reveals the potential EHH hazards associated with chemicals used in current HF field operations and can provide decision makers with valuable information to facilitate sustainable and responsible unconventional gas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed.

  15. Virtual phantom magnetic resonance imaging (ViP MRI) on a clinical MRI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Bordelois, Alejandro; Gambarota, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    system. One of the major advantages of ViP MRI over previous approaches is that the generation and transmission of RF signals can be achieved with a self-contained apparatus. As such, the ViP MRI technique is transposable to different platforms (preclinical and clinical) of different vendors. It is also shown here that ViP MRI could be used to generate signals whose characteristics cannot be reproduced by physical objects. This could be exploited to assess MRI system properties, such as the vendor distortion correction field. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    method is used in medical surveillance or to evaluate effectiveness of industrial hygiene or engineering controls in preventing irritation effects from chemical exposure, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the irritation measurements are important factors in interpreting the results...

  17. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Role of 5-thio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-capped gold nanoparticles in the sensing of chromium(vi): remover and sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Jhen; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2011-07-07

    This study describes a simple, rapid method for sensing Cr(vi) using 5-thio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modified gold nanoparticles (TNBA-AuNPs) as a remover for Cr(iii) and as a sensor for Cr(vi). We discovered that TNBA-AuNPs were dispersed in the presence of Cr(vi), whereas Cr(iii) induced the aggregation of TNBA-AuNPs. Due to this phenomenon, TNBA-AuNPs can be used as a sorbent material for the removal of >90% Cr(iii), without removing Cr(vi). After centrifuging a solution containing Cr(iii), Cr(vi), and TNBA-AuNPs, Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) were separately present in the precipitate and supernatant. In other words, TNBA-AuNPs are capable of separating a mixture of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi). The addition of ascorbic acid to the supernatant resulted in a reduction of Cr(vi) to Cr(iii), driving the aggregation of TNBA-AuNPs. The selectivity of this approach is more than 1000-fold for Cr(vi) over other metal ions. The minimum detectable concentration of Cr(vi) was 1 μM using this approach. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry provided an alternative for the quantification of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) after a mixture of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) had been separated by TNBA-AuNPs. The applicability of this approach was validated through the analysis of Cr(vi) in environmental water samples.

  19. A Bayesian method for assessing multiscalespecies-habitat relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    ContextScientists face several theoretical and methodological challenges in appropriately describing fundamental wildlife-habitat relationships in models. The spatial scales of habitat relationships are often unknown, and are expected to follow a multi-scale hierarchy. Typical frequentist or information theoretic approaches often suffer under collinearity in multi-scale studies, fail to converge when models are complex or represent an intractable computational burden when candidate model sets are large.ObjectivesOur objective was to implement an automated, Bayesian method for inference on the spatial scales of habitat variables that best predict animal abundance.MethodsWe introduce Bayesian latent indicator scale selection (BLISS), a Bayesian method to select spatial scales of predictors using latent scale indicator variables that are estimated with reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. BLISS does not suffer from collinearity, and substantially reduces computation time of studies. We present a simulation study to validate our method and apply our method to a case-study of land cover predictors for ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) abundance in Nebraska, USA.ResultsOur method returns accurate descriptions of the explanatory power of multiple spatial scales, and unbiased and precise parameter estimates under commonly encountered data limitations including spatial scale autocorrelation, effect size, and sample size. BLISS outperforms commonly used model selection methods including stepwise and AIC, and reduces runtime by 90%.ConclusionsGiven the pervasiveness of scale-dependency in ecology, and the implications of mismatches between the scales of analyses and ecological processes, identifying the spatial scales over which species are integrating habitat information is an important step in understanding species-habitat relationships. BLISS is a widely applicable method for identifying important spatial scales, propagating scale uncertainty, and

  20. Efficient Optimization Methods for Communication Network Planning and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kiese, Moritz

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we develop efficient mathematical planning methods to design communication networks. First, we examine future technologies for optical backbone networks. As new, more intelligent nodes cause higher dynamics in the transport networks, fast planning methods are required. To this end, we develop a heuristic planning algorithm. The evaluation of the cost-efficiency of new, adapative transmission techniques comprises the second topic of this section. In the second part of this work, ...

  1. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  2. Quantitative assessment of susceptibility weighted imaging processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) phase processing methods and parameter selection, thereby improving understanding of potential artifacts, as well as facilitating choice of methodology in clinical settings. Materials and Methods Two major phase processing methods, Homodyne-filtering and phase unwrapping-high pass (HP) filtering, were investigated with various phase unwrapping approaches, filter sizes, and filter types. Magnitude and phase images were acquired from a healthy subject and brain injury patients on a 3T clinical Siemens MRI system. Results were evaluated based on image contrast to noise ratio and presence of processing artifacts. Results When using a relatively small filter size (32 pixels for the matrix size 512 × 512 pixels), all Homodyne-filtering methods were subject to phase errors leading to 2% to 3% masked brain area in lower and middle axial slices. All phase unwrapping-filtering/smoothing approaches demonstrated fewer phase errors and artifacts compared to the Homodyne-filtering approaches. For performing phase unwrapping, Fourier-based methods, although less accurate, were 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the PRELUDE, Goldstein and Quality-guide methods. Conclusion Although Homodyne-filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping followed by HP filtering approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios. PMID:24923594

  3. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  4. Silent Reading Fluency Using Underlining: Evidence for an Alternative Method of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing silent reading fluency in classroom environments is challenging. This article reports on a method of assessing silent reading using underlining, an approach that solves many problems other silent reading fluency assessment measures face. This method computationally monitors readers' silent reading fluency by the speed they underline…

  5. Measurement properties of clinical assessment methods for classifying generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Schmedling, Karoline; Rombaut, Lies

    2017-01-01

    methods. For BS-self, the validity showed unknown evidence compared with test assessment methods. In conclusion, following recommended uniformity of testing procedures, the recommendation for clinical use in adults is BS with cut-point of 5 of 9 including historical information, while in children it is BS......The purpose was to perform a systematic review of clinical assessment methods for classifying Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH), evaluate their clinimetric properties, and perform the best evidence synthesis of these methods. Four test assessment methods (Beighton Score [BS], Carter...... test assessment methods lack satisfactory information on both reliability and validity. For the questionnaire assessment methods, 5PQ was the most frequently used, and reliability showed conflicting evidence, while the validity had limited positive to conflicting evidence compared with test assessment...

  6. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Singh Senjam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI due to uncorrected refractive error (URE and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Results: Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96% individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation. VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1. URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4% of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0. The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P < 0.001 and OR = 1.5; P < 0.02. Lack of felt need was the most common reported barrier (31.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  7. Occupational psychosocial risk factors: methods and assessment tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. Charria O

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review’s aim is to analyze the basic conditions required for the assessment of occupational psychosocial risk factors within organizational contexts. Methodology: the review incorporates the main concepts that have been used to identify the causes of occupational stress, emphasizing the Demand – Control and the Effort – Reward – Imbalance models. Results: the authors show some methodologies and instruments that have exhibited high reliability for identifying psychosocial factors in different organizational contexts in different countries. Likewise, they highlight the case of Colombia; a country which, despite having few validated instruments, shows significant advance in this regard after the birth of resolution 2646 of 2008 and the construction of the battery of instruments for the assessment of Psychosocial Risk Factors by the Ministry of the Social Protection in 2010.

  8. PISA method for assessment of mitral regurgitation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başpinar, Osman; Karaaslan, Sevim; Oran, Bülent

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and significance of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method in children with rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-one children (mean age 12.3+/-3.1 years), with chronic MR, were evaluated by semiquantitative and quantitative Doppler, quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography and the PISA methods. Also, we compared the effective regurgitant orifice area, regurgitation volume and systolic left ventricular functions in mild-moderate and severe MR. There were no statistically significant differences in the regurgitant orifice area and regurgitant volume values obtained by the PISA method and the quantitative Doppler (p>0.05) but they were different from the same values obtained by two dimensional echocardiography (pPISA and left ventricular end-diastolic diameters, the ratio of the jet/left atrial area, grading with color Doppler imaging (r=0.763, r=0.745, r=0.618; pPISA method as like as the Doppler method.

  9. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  10. Method and system for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta (Inventor); Xu, Hong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The DEFT methodology, system and computer readable medium extends the applicability of the PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) methodology to computer-based systems, by allowing DFT (Dynamic Fault Tree) nodes as pivot nodes in the Event Tree (ET) model. DEFT includes a mathematical model and solution algorithm, supports all common PRA analysis functions and cutsets. Additional capabilities enabled by the DFT include modularization, phased mission analysis, sequence dependencies, and imperfect coverage.

  11. The Methods Behind 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Informatics Needs and Capacity of Local Health Departments (LHDs) survey is the most recent comprehensive source of quantitative data on LHD informatics. Conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO), this is the third nationally representative quantitative study of LHD informatics since 2009. The previous 2 comprehensive quantitative assessments were conducted by NACCHO in 2009-2010 and 2011. Given that public health informatics is rapidly evolving...

  12. A theoretical method for assessing disruptive computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingbo; Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of disruptive computer viruses in the situation that every node in a network has its own virus-related attributes, a heterogeneous epidemic model is proposed. A criterion for the global stability of the virus-free equilibrium and a criterion for the existence of a unique viral equilibrium are given, respectively. Furthermore, extensive simulation experiments are conducted, and some interesting phenomena are found from the experimental results. On this basis, some policies of suppressing disruptive viruses are recommended.

  13. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface adhesion in composite bonded structures. To this end, peel tests were performed with nine different types of adhesives and at two environmental temperatures, room temperature and +80°C. The results we...

  14. Learning potential: a new method for assessing cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Tàrraga, Lluís

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, it has been claimed that learning potential (also called cognitive plasticity or rehabilitation potential) may be a good predictor of the course of cognitive impairment and the process of dementia. The basic objective of this research program is to test the extent to which the "Battery of Learning Potential for Assessing Dementia" (BEPAD) discriminates healthy people from those diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Two hundred people: 100 healthy elders (51 women, 49 men, mean age: 73.13), 50 diagnosed with MCI (30 women, 20 men, mean age: 74.89), and 50 diagnosed with mild AD (36 women, 14 men, mean age: 75.07). Learning potential was assessed through dynamic assessment (or testing-the-limits), using experimental test-training-post-test, a form of evaluation closely related to functional or stress testing in medicine. In several previous studies the BEPAD was developed, with four tasks: visuo-spatial, verbal recall (including delayed verbal recall), executive control and verbal fluency. For all of these tasks, training procedures were developed, converting them into learning potential tests. All "dynamic" or learning scores (post-test) discriminate better healthy, MCI and AD subjects than all static or pre-test scores. A total of 89% of cases are correctly classified by the BEPAD: 95.7% of the healthy subjects, 90.6% of AD patients, and 71.1% of the MCI individuals were correctly classified.

  15. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters.

  16. Characteristics of ovulation method acceptors: a cross-cultural assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, H; Labbok, M; Barker, D

    1988-01-01

    Five programs of instruction in the ovulation method (OM) in diverse geographic and cultural settings are described, and characteristics of approximately 200 consecutive OM acceptors in each program are examined. Major findings include: the religious background and family size of acceptors are variable, as is the level of previous contraceptive use. Acceptors are drawn from a wide range of socioeconomic and religious backgrounds; however, family planning intention was similarly distributed in all five countries. In sum, the ovulation method is accepted by persons from a variety of backgrounds within and between cultural setting.

  17. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into an expression vector ... recombinant protein can be used to detect specific anti-Vi antibody produced by typhoid patients. Overall, the His-Vi ... E-mail: khchua@um.edu.my. Tel.:603-. 79676607.

  18. Bioreduction of Cr (VI) by potent novel chromate resistant alkaliphilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Cr (VI) resistant alkaliphilic bacteria from sediment and water samples collected from Wadi Natrun hypersaline Soda lakes (located in northern Egypt), resulted in isolation of several alkaliphilic bacterial strains that can tolerate up to 2.94 g/l of Cr (VI) in alkaline medium. However, with increasing Cr (VI) ...

  19. Comparison of two disease assessment methods for assessing Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Jeger, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Two disease severity scales for Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) assessment were compared. CLS was assessed in two experimental fields in the Netherlands in 1999 using two scales: a single leaf severity assessment, as used in the IPS-system (Integriertes Pflanzenschutzsystem) in Germany, referred to as

  20. Methods to assess landscape-scale risk of bark beetle infestation to support forest management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. L. Shore; A. Fall; W. G. Riel; J. Hughes; M. Eng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to provide practitioners with suggestions on how to select appropriate methods for risk assessment of bark beetle infestations at the landscape scale in order to support their particular management decisions and to motivate researchers to refine novel risk assessment methods. Methods developed to assist and inform management decisions for...